WGU OBCI Strategy Change And Organizational Behavioral Concepts – Exam Bank

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WGU OBCI Strategy Change And Organizational Behavioral Concepts – Exam Bank

 

 

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Sample Questions 

 

Chapter 01

Test Bank

  1. There is only one best way to manage people, teams, or organizations. A particular management practice that worked today will work tomorrow. This is called the contingency approach.

FALSE

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.

Topic: Contingency Theory

Feedback: There is no single best way to manage people, teams, or organizations. An important part of your success is your ability to know which tools to use and under what circumstances. This is described as a contingency approach to managing people and is the foundation of contemporary OB.

  1. Common sense focuses on the past, and because of this, it is strong in responding to the unexpected.

FALSE

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.

Topic: Contingency Theory

Feedback: Common sense is especially weak in responding to the unknown or unexpected. And because it focuses on the past, common sense lacks vision for the future.

  1. When major league baseball officials failed to notice they had created conditions that encouraged players to use steroids, this was an example of “motivated blindness.”

TRUE

AACSB: Knowledge Application

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-03 Describe the ways in which you can apply OB knowledge to effectively solve problems.

Topic: Ethical Behavior

Feedback: In Table 1.2 the example of “motivated blindness” is: Baseball officials failed to notice they’d created conditions that encouraged steroid use.

  1. OB includes topics such as managing your peers and your bosses, as well as managing your subordinates.

TRUE

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.

Topic: Organizational Behavior (OB)

Feedback: Organizational behavior includes knowing about managing yourself, as well as others, up, down, and sideways.

  1. Soft skills are job specific; they are useful only in certain jobs.

FALSE

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.

Topic: Conceptual Skills

Feedback: Soft skills are not job specific. They are portable skills, more or less relevant in every job, at every level, and throughout your career.

  1. Problem solving is a systematic process for closing the gap between an actual and a desired outcome.

FALSE

AACSB: Knowledge Application

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.

Topic: Outcomes

Feedback: A problem is a difference or gap between an actual and a desired state or outcome. Problems arise when our goals (desired outcomes) are not being met (actual situation). In turn, problem solving is a systematic process for closing these gaps.

  1. John is spending 12 hours a day at work and is exhausted. He decides that he will work no more than 8 hours—no matter what. This is a good example of the Three-step Problem-Solving Approach.

TRUE

AACSB: Knowledge Application

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Analyze

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-03 Describe the ways in which you can apply OB knowledge to effectively solve problems.

Topic: Organizational Behavior (OB)

Feedback: The Three-Step Problem-Solving Approach notes that you should (1) define the problem in terms of desired outcomes, (2) identify potential causes using OB concepts and theories, and (3) make recommendations or take action. In this case, John has noted a problem (but not necessarily the outcomes he wants) and has completely skipped step 2.

  1. Unethical behavior erodes trust, but has no effect on cooperation in organizations.

FALSE

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Teamwork

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.

Topic: Ethical Behavior

Feedback: Unethical behavior reduces cooperation, loyalty, and contributions, which of course hurts the performance of individuals, teams, and organizations.

  1. American Airlines pilots created widespread slowdowns in flights to pressure their company in negotiations with their union. This was illegal.

FALSE

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Ethics

AACSB: Knowledge Application

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.

Topic: Ethical Behavior

Feedback: In 2012, American Airlines pilots created widespread slowdowns in flights to pressure the company in negotiations with their union, a notable instance of how widespread unethical behavior has resulted in virtually no legal consequences.

  1. Research shows that sustainable businesses are led by CEOs who take a people-centered, inclusive approach.

TRUE

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Ethics

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.

Topic: Ethics

Feedback: Research shows that sustainable businesses are led by CEOs who take a people-centered, inclusive approach rather than a controlling, target-driven one. They are people who listen and who foster cultures in which employees are not scared to point out problems, and in which staff feel they have a personal responsibility to enact corporate values, be they health and safety concerns or putting the client’s interests first.

  1. According to research, the most common predictor of cheating in school is peer behavior.

TRUE

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Ethics

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.

Topic: Ethical Behavior

Feedback: A study of graduate students, including MBAs, in the United States and Canada found that peer behavior was by far the strongest predictor of why students cheated, followed by severity of potential penalties, and certainty of being reported.

  1. A decision is a gap between an actual and a desired situation.

FALSE

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-03 Describe the ways in which you can apply OB knowledge to effectively solve problems.

Topic: Decision Making

Feedback: A problem is a difference or gap between an actual and a desired situation.

  1. OB concepts and theories can be classified into three broad categories: person factors, group characteristics, and environmental characteristics.

FALSE

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-04 Explain how OB can help you organize a problem in order to achieve a solution effectively.

Topic: Organizational Behavior (OB)

Feedback: OB concepts and theories can be classified into two broad categories: person factors and environmental characteristics.

  1. The interactional perspective states that behavior is a function of interdependent person and environmental factors.

TRUE

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-04 Explain how OB can help you organize a problem in order to achieve a solution effectively.

Topic: Organizational Behavior (OB)

Feedback: Notably, the interactional perspective states that behavior is a function of interdependent person and environmental factors.

  1. The “organizing framework” for understanding and applying OB is based on the systems approach.

TRUE

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-05 Classify OB knowledge and tools for problem solving with the support of the Organizing Framework.

Topic: Organizational Behavior (OB)

Feedback: To assemble our framework, we use the systems approach as our foundation.

  1. Maria is having an argument with her father. He believes that focusing on her computer skills is the most important of Maria’s college experience. Maria disagrees, arguing that ______ is/are the more critical.
  2. overall technical expertise
  3. self-awareness
  4. C. problem-solving skills
  5. an ethical perspective
  6. business knowledge

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.

Topic: Conceptual Skills

Feedback: Regardless of your area of study, the greatest benefit of your education is developing problem-solving and critical-thinking skills.

  1. ______ is the interdisciplinary field dedicated to understanding and managing people at work.
  2. Management theory
  3. Management dynamics
  4. C. Organizational behavior
  5. Organizational dynamics
  6. Organizational theory

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.

Topic: Organizational Behavior (OB)

Feedback: The term organizational behavior (OB) describes an interdisciplinary field dedicated to understanding and managing people at work.

  1. Which of the following fields is not a field from which OB draws?
  2. Political Science
  3. B. Accounting
  4. Statistics
  5. Economics
  6. Vocational Counseling

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.

Topic: Organizational Behavior (OB)

Feedback: OB draws on research and practice from many disciplines to deal with how people behave at work, including: anthropology, economics, ethics, management, organizational theory, political science, psychology, sociology, statistics, and vocational counseling.

  1. OB is important in all facets of school and work because
  2. hard skills are a critical factor to your success.
  3. this indicates that you have common sense.
  4. this technical knowledge is in great demand.
  5. a career in OB will ensure a high salary.
  6. E. it helps us to understand and manage people.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.

Topic: Organizational Behavior (OB)

Feedback: Organizational behavior includes knowing about managing yourself, as well as others, up, down, and sideways.

  1. Javier is dealing with several employees who are chronically late. He unilaterally decides to dock everyone’s daily pay 5 percent if they are more than 10 minutes late. Javier will have better results using
  2. A. the contingency approach.
  3. the “one-best-way” approach.
  4. the environmental theory.
  5. ethical decision making.
  6. the human capital theory.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.

Topic: Contingency Theory

Feedback: A contingency approach calls for using OB concepts and tools as situationally appropriate, instead of trying to rely on “one best way.”

  1. The contingency approach suggests that
  2. there is one best way to manage.
  3. OB theories apply to all situations.
  4. a manager needs to learn a set of hard-and-fast rules.
  5. D. the best answer depends on the situation.
  6. management practices from the past can be applied to today’s situations.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.

Topic: Contingency Theory

Feedback: A contingency approach calls for using OB concepts and tools as situationally appropriate, instead of trying to rely on “one best way.” This means there is no single best way to manage people, teams, and organizations.

  1. Which of the following statements is false?
  2. A. The contingency approach is just common sense.
  3. Common sense excels in well-known scenarios with predictable outcomes.
  4. Common sense requires less effort than finding the real problem.
  5. Common sense can be overly subjective.
  6. Common sense is weak in unexpected situations.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.

Topic: Contingency Theory

Feedback: At first glance the contingency approach may look like simple common sense. But it’s different. It attempts to overcome the limits of common sense with how it does not settle for traditional options if another solution may be more practical and effective. Similarly, understanding the systems approach to issues provides more insight than common sense alone. The goal of OB is to give you more than common sense and instead enhance your understanding of situations at work and guide your behaviors.

  1. Problem solving and critical thinking are ______ because they use logic and reasoning to develop and evaluate options.
  2. technical skills
  3. B. soft skills
  4. common sense
  5. hard skills
  6. personal attributes

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.

Topic: Conceptual Skills

Feedback: Soft skills relate to human interactions and include both interpersonal skills and personal attributes. They include problem solving, critical thinking, active listening and judgment and decision making.

  1. Which of the following is not one of the top four skills desired by employers?
  2. A. Teamwork
  3. Critical thinking
  4. Problem solving
  5. Judgment and decision making
  6. Active listening

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.

Topic: Conceptual Skills

Feedback: According to Table 1.1, the top four skills most desired by employers are critical thinking, problem solving, judgment and decision making, and active listening.

  1. Justin and Edwardo were hired by the same network support firm. One year later, Edwardo receives a promotion to team leader. Justin believes he has stronger technical skills and asks his supervisor why he did not get the promotion. The supervisor says that Edwardo has better people skills. Having ____ can enable a person’s promotion.
  2. A. soft skills.
  3. hard skills.
  4. technical skills.
  5. team skills.
  6. the right degree.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.

Topic: Conceptual Skills

Feedback: For most jobs you are selected for your technical skills, your ability to do the given job (i.e., hard skills). What it takes to get promoted is your perceived ability to get things done through others and manage people. Figure 1.1 illustrates how technical or job-specific skills decline in importance as you move to levels of higher responsibility, while the need for personal skills increases.

  1. Soft skills are ______; they are more or less relevant in every job, at every level, and throughout your career.
  2. A. portable
  3. inflexible
  4. rigid
  5. narrowly applied
  6. hard-and-fast

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.

Topic: Conceptual Skills

Feedback: According to Table 1.1, the four skills most desired by employers are critical thinking; problem solving; judgment and decision making; and active listening. All are soft skills, the skills you need to interact with, influence, and perform with others.

  1. “When you know yourself, you are comfortable with your strengths and not crippled by your shortcomings….” This is
  2. a soft skill.
  3. B. self-awareness.
  4. common sense.
  5. hindsight.
  6. objectivity.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.

Topic: Self-Awareness

Feedback: Soft skills are the skills you need to interact with, influence, and perform with others. Soft skills relate to our human interactions and include both interpersonal skills and personal attributes.

  1. Regarding the relative importance of personal and technical skills,
  2. they remain equal and this does not change throughout careers.
  3. technical skills are more important regardless of job level.
  4. personal skills are more important regardless of job level.
  5. technical skills become more important as job level increases.
  6. E. personal skills become more important as job level increases.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.

Topic: Knowledge and Skill

Feedback: Figure 1.1 illustrates how technical skills decline in importance as you move to levels of higher responsibility, while the need for personal skills increases.

  1. Pop’s Ice Cream Store sales were down 15 percent this summer. The owner, Pop, says that in his experience rainy summers mean lower ice cream sales. Jonathan, his assistant, notices the staff at Pop’s appear uninterested and slow to serve customers. He would like to replace at least one of them with a younger college student for the rest of the summer. Jonathan is using a(n) ______ perspective.
  2. experience
  3. management theory
  4. hindsight
  5. D. contingency
  6. common sense

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.

Topic: Contingency Theory

Feedback: Common sense is often based on experience or logic, both of which have limits, and it suffers three major weaknesses you need to be aware of—over-reliance on hindsight, lack of rigor, and lack of objectivity. An important part of your success is your ability to know which tools to use and under what circumstances. This is described as a contingency approach to managing people.

  1. At work, Jenna always volunteers to help others on their projects. But, she really resents the extra work and constantly complains to her friends that she is doing everyone else’s job. Jenna is not _____; she needs to be more self-aware of what she takes on.
  2. A. authentic
  3. objective
  4. fake
  5. credible
  6. a leader

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.

Topic: Self-Awareness

Feedback: Self-awareness gives you the capacity to learn from your mistakes as well as your successes—to find out what works for you. You need to know yourself in order to be authentic—real and not fake.

  1. Kamal argues that 9 AM is a bad time to sign up for a small discussion group because he will be too tired from the previous night’s activities. He prefers to sign up for a large lecture class at that time. Raoul disagrees, noting that this small discussion group is something they both wanted to do and will require their attention, while they may not focus in the lecture class. Kamal says that this is not a commonsense approach. What weakness does Kamal exhibit?
  2. lack of rigor
  3. lack of self-awareness
  4. lack of authenticity
  5. D. over-reliance on hindsight
  6. lack of objectivity

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.

Topic: Self-Awareness

Feedback: Commonsense is often based on experience or logic, both of which have limits. In this case, Kamal is relying on hindsight, believing that what worked before should work again. Kamal is not considering how much he wanted to join the discussion group and how high his interest level is.

  1. _________, with which you can build goodwill, include personality, teamwork and leadership.
  2. Interpersonal skills
  3. Commonsense skills
  4. Hard skills
  5. Technical expertise
  6. E. Personal attributes

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.

Topic: Social Capital

Feedback: Personal attributes with which we build goodwill and trust and demonstrate integrity include attitudes, personality, teamwork, and leadership.

  1. Joe expresses concern with Rita, an intern scheduled to work on his team for three weeks. José, Joe’s manager, quickly decides to move Rita to another team. Which key problem-solving step has Jose skipped?
  2. A. define the problem
  3. take action
  4. find a solution
  5. defuse the situation
  6. implement changes

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-03 Describe the ways in which you can apply OB knowledge to effectively solve problems.

Topic: Decision Making

Feedback: The three steps in our applied approach to problem solving begin with defining the problem. José doesn’t know WHY Joe is unhappy. Instead, he jumps right to taking action.

  1. In some business situations, you will make recommendations to solve a problem. Which of the following actions can help improve the quality of your recommendations?
  2. Check with Human Resources to be sure that you are following protocol.
  3. Make sure that your suggestions don’t upset any team members.
  4. C. Make sure that your recommendations address the causes of the problem.
  5. Make sure you offer a quick fix for the problem.
  6. Ask your superior to present the recommendations.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-03 Describe the ways in which you can apply OB knowledge to effectively solve problems.

Topic: Decision Making

Feedback: If you map recommendations onto the causes of the problem, you can be more confident that as you remedy the causes, you will solve or at least ease the underlying problem.

  1. ______ highlight the fact that choosing among available options is not always a choice between right and wrong.
  2. Organizational theories
  3. B. Ethical dilemmas
  4. Ethical lapses
  5. Management theories
  6. Ill-conceived goals

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Ethics

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.

Topic: Ethical Behavior

Feedback: Ethical dilemmas are situations with two choices, neither of which resolves the situation in an ethically acceptable manner.

  1. Suzette is a bank manager charged with determining which employees are downsized. Her only guidelines are to keep those employees who contribute the most to the overall organization. When the list of employees downsized is presented, none of her personal friends are on it. This might be viewed as ______ behavior.
  2. rational
  3. unbiased
  4. C. unethical
  5. illegal
  6. organizational

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Ethics

AACSB: Knowledge Application

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.

Topic: Ethics

Feedback: Some researchers would contend that instead of ill intent, cognitive biases and organizational practices “blind managers to unethical behavior, whether it is their own or that of others.” Suzette’s behavior may be partially unconscious, and partially a desire to protect her friends, whom she may consider to be excellent employees. With lack of distinct direction from above, she makes her own choices.

  1. Simone wants to become a partner in her Atlanta law firm. She knows that if she bills the most revenue, it will help her get her partnership. This _____ can lead to unethical behavior.
  2. overvalued outcome
  3. motivated blindness
  4. C. ill-conceived goal
  5. indirect blindness
  6. slippery slope

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Ethics

AACSB: Knowledge Application

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.

Topic: Ethical Behavior

Feedback: When we set goals and incentives to promote a desired behavior, they can encourage a negative one. In this case, Simone might unconciously pad her bills.

  1. Which of the following statements is true?
  2. Ill-conceived goals occur when we set goals and incentives to promote a desired behavior, and that behavior is achieved.
  3. The slippery slope refers to seeing the ethical actions of others as an example to follow.
  4. C. Motivated blindness occurs when we overlook the unethical behavior of another because it’s in our interest to remain ignorant.
  5. If the outcome is good, then the behavior must be ethical.
  6. Direct blindness occurs when we hold others less accountable for unethical behavior because it’s carried out through third parties.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Ethics

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.

Topic: Ethical Behavior

Feedback: To address motivated blindness, which occurs when we overlook the unethical behavior of another because it’s in our interest to remain ignorant, we need to root out conflicts of interest.

  1. _____ is knowing who you are and what you want.
  2. Self-esteem
  3. Self-efficacy
  4. C. Self-awareness
  5. Self-disclosure
  6. self-assessment

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.

Topic: Self-Awareness

Feedback: To have a successful career, you need to know who you are and what you want. Bossidy and Charan said it best in their book, Execution: “When you know yourself, you are comfortable with your strengths and not crippled by your shortcomings. . . . Self-awareness gives you the capacity to learn from your mistakes as well as your successes. It enables you to keep growing.”

  1. Ethics is primarily concerned with
  2. A. right and wrong.
  3. legal and illegal.
  4. moral and immoral.
  5. religious and nonreligious.
  6. public and nonpublic.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Ethics

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.

Topic: Ethics

Feedback: Ethics is concerned with behavior—right versus wrong, good versus bad, and the many shades of gray in between.

  1. Sustainable businesses tend to be run by CEOs who are
  2. intelligent.
  3. controlling.
  4. target-driven.
  5. D. people-centered.
  6. egotistical.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Ethics

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.

Topic: Ethics

Feedback: Research shows that sustainable businesses are led by CEOs who take a people-centered, inclusive approach rather than a controlling, target-driven one.

  1. In an ethical dilemma,
  2. A. there are two choices, neither of which resolves the situation in an ethically acceptable manner.
  3. there are two choices, either of which resolves the situation in an ethically acceptable manner.
  4. there are two choices, one of which resolves the situation in an ethically acceptable manner.
  5. there is only one choice.
  6. there are no choices.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Ethics

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.

Topic: Ethics

Feedback: Ethical dilemmas involve situations with two choices, neither of which resolves the situation in an ethically acceptable manner.

  1. Ronald works for a small biotech firm. When the firm presents the results of its clinical trials to the FDA, Ronald realizes that the results are not accurate. He reports this to the FDA. Ronald is a(n)
  2. ethicist.
  3. B.
  4. traitor.
  5. mole.
  6. deviant.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Ethics

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.

Topic: Ethics

Feedback: Whistleblowing is revealing a behavior that troubles you to management or to the authorities.

  1. _______ are goals and incentives set to promote a desired behavior, but instead encourage a negative one.
  2. A. Ill-conceived goals
  3. Motivated blindness
  4. Indirect blindness
  5. The slippery slope
  6. Overvaluing outcomes

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Ethics

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.

Topic: Ethical Behavior

Feedback: Table 1.2 states that ill-conceived goals occur when we set goals and incentives to promote a desired behavior, but they encourage a negative one.

  1. Pascal is a customer-service representative who handles phone inquiries. He has a goal of handling 12 calls per hour. When he gets a customer with a complex situation, he tends to become short with that person to keep the call short. This is an example of
  2. A. ill-conceived goals.
  3. motivated blindness.
  4. indirect blindness.
  5. the slippery slope.
  6. overvaluing outcomes.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Ethics

AACSB: Knowledge Application

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.

Topic: Ethical Behavior

Feedback: The effect of setting goals and incentives to promote a desired behavior, but instead these goals encourage negative ones, is described as ill-conceived goals in Table 1.2. Pascal’s goal of handling 12 calls per hour encourages his negative behavior toward customers with complex situations.

  1. Ilsa is part of a team working on a project. Vanessa’s role on the team is to update and present status reports to management. Ilsa knows that Vanessa’s reports do not show the delays that have occurred, but she doesn’t say anything because she does not want upper management more involved. Which of the following is Ilsa is exhibiting?
  2. ill-conceived goals
  3. B. motivated blindness
  4. indirect blindness
  5. the slippery slope
  6. overvaluing outcomes

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Ethics

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.

Topic: Ethical Behavior

Feedback: According to Table 1.2, motivated blindness is when we overlook the unethical behavior of another when it is in our interest to remain ignorant.

  1. Harriet saw Josephine cheating on a test in their OB class. However, she did not report this because Josephine is on her team in the class and she feared that Josephine might be kicked out of the class and that this would hurt her team’s chances of doing well on their project. Harriet is experiencing
  2. ill-conceived goals.

B.motivated blindness.

  1. indirect blindness.
  2. the slippery slope.
  3. overvaluing outcomes.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Ethics

AACSB: Knowledge Application

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.

Topic: Ethical Behavior

Feedback: According to Table 1.2, motivated blindness is when we overlook the unethical behavior of another when it is in our interest to remain ignorant. Harriet believes it is in her best interest for Josephine to remain on her team, and therefore, she overlooks Josephine’s unethical behavior.

  1. _____ is(are) when we hold others less accountable for unethical behavior that is carried out through third parties.
  2. Ill-conceived goals
  3. Motivated blindness
  4. C. Indirect blindness
  5. The slippery slope
  6. Overvaluing outcomes

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Ethics

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.

Topic: Ethical Behavior

Feedback: Table 1.2 states that indirect blindness occurs when we hold others less accountable for unethical behavior when it’s carried out through third parties.

  1. Javier asked Maria for general advice on homework. Then he asked her to let him see specific problems. Now he wants to copy her assignment, claiming he has no time and the content is too difficult. This is an example of
  2. ill-conceived goals.
  3. motivated blindness.
  4. indirect blindness.
  5. D. the slippery slope.
  6. overvaluing outcomes.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Ethics

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.

Topic: Ethical Behavior

Feedback: When we are less able to see others’ unethical behavior when it develops gradually, this is called the slippery slope (see Table 1.2).

  1. Because the auditors of XYX Company accepted a client firm’s questionable financial statements when the infractions have occurred over time, James believes that they are
  2. setting ill-conceived goals.
  3. exhibiting motivated blindness.
  4. showing indirect blindness.
  5. D. on a slippery slope.
  6. overvaluing outcomes.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Ethics

AACSB: Knowledge Application

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.

Topic: Ethical Behavior

Feedback: Table 1.2 states the slippery slope occurs when we are less able to see others’ unethical behavior when it develops gradually (e.g., auditors may be more likely to accept a client firm’s questionable financial statements if the infractions have accrued over time).

  1. _____ is when we give a pass to unethical behavior if the outcome is good.
  2. Ill-conceived goals
  3. Motivated blindness
  4. Indirect blindness
  5. The slippery slope
  6. E. Overvaluing outcomes

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Ethics

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.

Topic: Ethical Behavior

Feedback: Table 1.2 states that overvaluing outcomes is when we give a pass to unethical behavior if the outcome is good.

  1. ______ is the remedy for ill-conceived goals.
  2. Rooting out conflicts of interest
  3. When handing off work, asking if the assignment might invite unethical behavior
  4. Rewarding solid decision processes, not just good outcomes,
  5. Being alert for even trivial ethical infractions and addressing them immediately
  6. E. Brainstorming unintended consequences

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Ethics

AACSB: Knowledge Application

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.

Topic: Ethical Behavior

Feedback: Table 1.2 states that the remedy for ill-conceived goals is to brainstorm unintended consequences when devising goals and incentives and consider alternative goals that may be more important to reward.

  1. The remedy for motivated blindness is
  2. A. to root out conflicts of interest.
  3. when handing off work, to ask if the assignment might invite unethical behavior.
  4. to reward solid decision processes, not just good outcomes.
  5. to be alert for even trivial ethical infractions and address them immediately.
  6. to brainstorm unintended consequences.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Ethics

AACSB: Knowledge Application

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.

Topic: Ethical Behavior

Feedback: Table 1.2 states that the remedy for motivated blindness is to root out conflicts of interest. Simply being aware of them doesn’t necessarily reduce their negative effect on decision making.

  1. Green Care Landscaping Company minimizes attention to a price increase by selling lawn care treatments to a subsidiary, Keep It Up, Inc. Keep It Up then increases the price of the specific treatments. The manager of Keep It Up wants to notify customers that they are a subsidiary of Green Care Landscaping and that the increase has come from the parent company. This is an example of a remedy for
  2. ill-conceived goals.
  3. B. indirect blindness.
  4. the slipper slope.
  5. overvaluing outcomes.
  6. motivated blindness.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Ethics

AACSB: Knowledge Application

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.

Topic: Ethical Behavior

Feedback: Table 1.2 states that the remedy for indirect blindness when handing off or outsourcing work is to ask whether the assignment might invite unethical behavior and take ownership of these implications.

  1. Extreme examples of unethical and illegal conduct are the exception in the business community. Which of the following statements about this behavior is false?
  2. Very few unethical acts are also illegal.
  3. Most unethical acts are not punished in any way.
  4. Even if illegal, few of these acts are prosecuted.
  5. D. You can rely on the legal system to manage or assure ethical conduct at work.
  6. Unethical behavior negatively affects the offending employee, coworkers, and the employer.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Ethics

AACSB: Knowledge Application

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.

Topic: Ethical Behavior

Feedback: Very few unethical acts are also illegal, most are not punished in any way, and even if illegal, few are prosecuted. This means you should not rely on the legal system to manage or assure ethical conduct at work.

  1. Why are ethics considered so important when studying organizational behavior?
  2. Unethical behavior makes it easy to influence others and conduct business.
  3. Unethical behavior can ensure loyalty, which helps the performance of individuals and teams.
  4. C. You will be confronted with ethical challenges at all levels of organizations and throughout your career.
  5. Unethical acts are not illegal and can benefit the company.
  6. Some unethical acts are necessary to work around unfair governmental regulations.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Ethics

AACSB: Knowledge Application

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.

Topic: Ethical Behavior

Feedback: Ethics gets priority because many OB topics—reward systems, decision making, leader behavior and organizational culture—have a direct and substantial influence on the ethical conduct of individuals and organizations.

  1. Bettina wants to make the Dean’s List this semester. She is doing well in all of her courses except Accounting. This presents a(n) _____ for Bettina.
  2. ethical dilemma
  3. desired outcome
  4. systematic approach
  5. goal
  6. E. problem

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-03 Describe the ways in which you can apply OB knowledge to effectively solve problems.

Topic: Self-Awareness

Feedback: A problem is a difference or gap between an actual and a desired situation.

  1. A problem is
  2. a decision that needs to be made.
  3. B. a gap between an actual and a desired situation.
  4. always due to environmental factors.
  5. a situation that managers rarely face.
  6. something to be ignored until it becomes serious.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-05 Classify OB knowledge and tools for problem solving with the support of the Organizing Framework.

Topic: Decision Making

Feedback: A problem is a difference or gap between an actual and a desired situation.

  1. ______ is the first step on the three-step journey (or approach) of the Organizing Framework.
  2. Identifying the OB concepts
  3. B. Defining the problem
  4. Making recommendations
  5. Taking action
  6. Delegating the problem

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-05 Classify OB knowledge and tools for problem solving with the support of the Organizing Framework.

Topic: Decision Making

Feedback: Our applied approach to problem solving proposes three activities or steps: Step 1: Define the problem. Step 2: Identify the OB concepts or theories to use to solve the problem. Step 3: Make recommendations and (if appropriate) take action.

  1. Person factors and ______ are the two broad categories of OB concepts and theories.
  2. the three levels at work
  3. ethical factors
  4. C. situation factors
  5. problem solving
  6. system processes

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-04 Explain how OB can help you organize a problem in order to achieve a solution effectively.

Topic: Person-Environment Fit

Feedback: OB concepts and theories can be classified into two broad categories: person factors and situation factors.

  1. Research has shown that
  2. person factors influence a person’s performance more than situation factors.
  3. situation factors influence a person’s performance more than person factors.
  4. person and situation factors influence a person’s performance equally.
  5. D. a person’s behavior and performance are a function of interdependent person and situation factors.
  6. neither person nor situation factors significantly influence behavior or performance.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-04 Explain how OB can help you organize a problem in order to achieve a solution effectively.

Topic: Person-Environment Fit

Feedback: Many observers believe that some people are by their nature better suited than others to perform well at work. In contrast, others believe that some people are clearly better in a given job or situation. Nobody is the best at everything. This common view is supported by research in psychology and OB. Notably, the interactional perspective states that behavior is a function of interdependent person and situation factors.

  1. “Different people may perceive similar situations in different ways and similar people may perceive different situations in the same way.” This represents the _____ perspective.
  2. A. interactional
  3. ethical
  4. problem-solving
  5. contingency
  6. individualistic

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-04 Explain how OB can help you organize a problem in order to achieve a solution effectively.

Topic: Person-Environment Fit

Feedback: The interactional perspective states that behavior is a function of interdependent person and environmental factors.

  1. People bring their abilities, goals, and experiences to each and every situation, which often changes the situation. Conversely, because situations have unique characteristics, such as opportunities and rewards, they change people. This dynamic reflects the interactional perspective, which explains that behavior is a function of
  2. A. interdependent person and situation factors.
  3. interdependent ethical and unethical factors.
  4. interdependent human and social factors.
  5. independent person and situation factors.
  6. independent human and social factors.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-04 Explain how OB can help you organize a problem in order to achieve a solution effectively.

Topic: Person-Environment Fit

Feedback: The interactional perspective states that behavior is a function of interdependent person and situation factors.

  1. Joe, a hard and productive worker, quit because he couldn’t get along with his coworkers. This would be diagnosed as a(n) ________ level problem.
  2. individual
  3. B. group
  4. organizational
  5. interactional
  6. situation

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Knowledge Application

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 01-04 Explain how OB can help you organize a problem in order to achieve a solution effectively.

Topic: Group Cohesion

Feedback: Some people quit because they can’t get along with their boss/leader or coworkers (a group/team level process).

  1. Sharon quit her job because she felt that her department’s reward system favored men. This would be diagnosed as a(n) _________ level problem.
  2. individual
  3. group
  4. C. organizational
  5. interactional
  6. situation

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Knowledge Application

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 01-04 Explain how OB can help you organize a problem in order to achieve a solution effectively.

Topic: Organizational Behavior (OB)

Feedback: A faulty reward system (an organizational-level process) that unfairly distributes raises, bonuses, and recognition is another common reason people quit.

  1. Alexa quit her job because she felt it was boring. This would be diagnosed as a(n) ______ level problem.
  2. A. individual
  3. group
  4. organizational
  5. interactional
  6. situation

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Knowledge Application

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 01-04 Explain how OB can help you organize a problem in order to achieve a solution effectively.

Topic: Organizational Behavior (OB)

Feedback: Some people quit because their job just doesn’t fulfill what they value, such as challenging and stimulating work (an individual-level input).

  1. Three months ago, XYZ Corporation changed the way the typing pool is organized from a self-managed team to a more traditional structure in which employees receive their assignments from a direct supervisor. Since then, three of the seven employees have left the organization. ______ is the OB perspective applied here.
  2. Individual
  3. B. Group
  4. Organizational
  5. Interactional
  6. Situation

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Knowledge Application

AACSB: Teamwork

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 01-04 Explain how OB can help you organize a problem in order to achieve a solution effectively.

Topic: Group Cohesion

Feedback: Group/team level considerations include: Have there been any changes or other causative factors in a work group, including the manager, which might make work less satisfactory? How does turnover in a specific group compare to other groups in the organization?

  1. Several people have quit the administrative support unit of the company recently. About that time, a new company moved into the area with a better health care plan and comparable wages. ______ is the most likely OB perspective to apply.
  2. Individual
  3. Group
  4. Organizational
  5. Iinteractional
  6. E. Situation

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Knowledge Application

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 01-04 Explain how OB can help you organize a problem in order to achieve a solution effectively.

Topic: Person-Environment Fit

Feedback: Situation characteristics include: Have there been changes in the situation (such as a sudden increase in employment opportunities at better wages)? Have the working conditions changed in any meaningful way?

  1. Recently, the Acme Explosives Company was sold to a new owner, Roadrunner Inc. The operations of the two organizations are going to be merged, with several of the manufacturing locations possibly to be eliminated. ______ is the most likely OB perspective to apply.
  2. Individual
  3. Group
  4. C. Organizational
  5. Interactional
  6. Situation

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Knowledge Application

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 01-04 Explain how OB can help you organize a problem in order to achieve a solution effectively.

Topic: Organizational Behavior (OB)

Feedback: Organizational-level considerations include: Has the organization changed ownership, or rewritten company policies, or is it enforcing policies differently?

  1. In the Organizing Framework,
  2. A. inputs lead to processes, which lead to outcomes.
  3. inputs lead directly to outcomes.
  4. outcomes never affect inputs.
  5. outcomes never affect processes.
  6. inputs are unrelated to processes.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-05 Classify OB knowledge and tools for problem solving with the support of the Organizing Framework.

Topic: Outcomes

Feedback: As shown in Figure 1.3, this is the case because inputs affect processes, and processes affect outcomes. Also, feedback loops exist from outcomes to inputs and processes.

  1. In the Organizing Framework, inputs (in part) consist of
  2. individual-level processes.
  3. group/team outcomes.
  4. C. situation characteristics.
  5. individual outcomes.
  6. organizational outcomes.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-05 Classify OB knowledge and tools for problem solving with the support of the Organizing Framework.

Topic: Person-Environment Fit

Feedback: Figure 1.3 identifies personal factors and situation characteristics as inputs. This framework implies that person factors and situation characteristics are the initial drivers of all outcomes that managers want to achieve.

  1. In the Integrative Framework, which of the following is an outcome?
  2. situation characteristics
  3. personal factors
  4. organizational processes
  5. D. organizational turnover
  6. awarding bonuses for good performance

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-05 Classify OB knowledge and tools for problem solving with the support of the Organizing Framework.

Topic: Outcomes

Feedback: This framework implies that person factors and situation characteristics are the initial drivers (inputs) of all outcomes that managers want to achieve. This is the case because inputs affect processes, and processes affect outcomes. And since events are dynamic and ongoing, many outcomes will in turn impact inputs and processes. See Figure 1.3. Organizational turnover is an outcome. The Life is Sweeter on Mars example in OB in Action box lists one outcome as: Mars posts a very low turnover rate (5%) which is a sign that employees are highly satisfied with their jobs.

  1. What kind of a response is a manager making when he or she chooses a satisfactory, but not ideal, solution?
  2. A. resolving
  3. solving
  4. dissolving
  5. ignoring
  6. avoiding

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-05 Classify OB knowledge and tools for problem solving with the support of the Organizing Framework.

Topic: Decision Making

Feedback: Resolving problems is arguably the most common form of response for managers and simply means choosing a satisfactory solution, one that works but is less than ideal.

  1. In solving a problem, a manager
  2. A. selects the optimal response.
  3. chooses a satisfactory solution.
  4. changes the situation in which the problem occurs.
  5. settles for less than ideal.
  6. eliminates the problem situation.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-05 Classify OB knowledge and tools for problem solving with the support of the Organizing Framework.

Topic: Decision Making

Feedback: Solving problems is the optimal or ideal response.

  1. Your have an apartment within walking distance of your office. Your company moves the office to the next town. You decide to take a position with another firm close to your apartment. This is an example of _____ the problem.
  2. resolving
  3. solving
  4. C. dissolving
  5. ignoring
  6. avoiding

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-05 Classify OB knowledge and tools for problem solving with the support of the Organizing Framework.

Topic: Decision Making

Feedback: Dissolving problems requires changing or eliminating the situation in which the problem occurs.

  1. Anne, a manager, hires the first person she interviews because she believes that person can do the job adequately. Anne is
  2. A. resolving the problem.
  3. solving the problem.
  4. dissolving the problem.
  5. ignoring the problem.
  6. avoiding the problem.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Knowledge Application

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 01-05 Classify OB knowledge and tools for problem solving with the support of the Organizing Framework.

Topic: Decision Making

Feedback: Resolving problems is arguably the most common form for managers and simply means choosing a satisfactory solution, one that works but is less than ideal.

  1. Halim hires a new employee who best meets the characteristics he is looking for in the ideal employee. He is
  2. resolving the problem.
  3. B. solving the problem.
  4. dissolving the problem.
  5. ignoring the problem.
  6. avoiding the problem.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Knowledge Application

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 01-05 Classify OB knowledge and tools for problem solving with the support of the Organizing Framework.

Topic: Decision Making

Feedback: Solving problems is the optimal or ideal response.

  1. Jonathan decides that rather than hire an employee to replace someone who left, he will eliminate the position. Jonathan is
  2. resolving the problem.
  3. solving the problem.
  4. C. dissolving the problem.
  5. ignoring the problem.
  6. avoiding the problem.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Knowledge Application

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 01-05 Classify OB knowledge and tools for problem solving with the support of the Organizing Framework.

Topic: Decision Making

Feedback: Dissolving problems requires changing or eliminating the situation in which the problem occurs.

  1. The first of the basic elements for selecting an effective solution is
  2. A. to determine the criteria for the decision.
  3. to generate alternatives.
  4. to consider the consequences.
  5. to decide who will make the decision.
  6. to make the decision.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-05 Classify OB knowledge and tools for problem solving with the support of the Organizing Framework.

Topic: Decision Making

Feedback: The first step is determining the selection criteria, for example, the effect on bottom-line profits, you and classmates or coworkers, reputation with customers or the community, your own values, and the ethical implications.

  1. Which of the following is not one of the basic elements of selecting an effective solution?
  2. determining the basic criteria for the decision
  3. B. selecting an OB concept or topic to apply
  4. deciding who will be involved in choosing the solution
  5. considering the consequences of each alternative
  6. agreeing on a method for decision making

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-05 Classify OB knowledge and tools for problem solving with the support of the Organizing Framework.

Topic: Decision Making

Feedback: Three common elements to selecting the most effective solution. (1) Selection criteria: Determine the basis (criteria) for the decision. (2) Consequences: Consider the consequences of each alternative, especially the trade-offs between the pros and the cons. (3) Choice process: Decide who will be involved in choosing the solution. If more than one person is involved, then you need to agree on the method.

  1. Discuss the statement, “The contingency approach is just common sense.” Is this true? Why or why not? Why is this important for managers?

At first glance the contingency perspective may look like simple common sense. But it’s different. It attempts to overcome the limits of common sense with how it does not settle for traditional options if another solution may be more practical and effective. Similarly, understanding the systems approach to issues provides more insight than common sense alone. The goal of OB is to give you more than common sense and instead enhance your understanding of situations at work and guide your behaviors.

Moreover, common sense has three main weaknesses that you need to consider and avoid. (1) Overreliance on hindsight. Common sense excels in well-known scenarios with predictable outcomes. But much of modern business involves uncertainty and adapting to change. In other words, common sense is especially weak in responding to the unknown or unexpected. And because it focuses on the past, common sense lacks vision for the future. (2) Lack of rigor. If we are comfortable with our common-sense response, we may not apply the effort required to find the real problem when considering inputs, which likely results in not choosing the optimal course of action or solution. If you lack rigor, then you are unlikely to measure the right predictors and outcomes. (3) Lack of objectivity. Common sense can be overly subjective and lack a basis in science. In such cases we are not always able to explain our reasoning to others, let alone apply it to new situations. One way that OB moves beyond the limitations of common sense is by its systematic and science-based approach to understanding people and how they behave at work. OB therefore can make you more attractive to potential employers and more effective once employed.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Blooms: Analyze

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.

Topic: Contingency Theory

  1. Explain the difference between hard and soft skills and why both are important. List what you think are your two strongest soft skills. Also briefly, and specifically, explain how they can or do benefit you at school and work. List what you think are your two strongest hard skills. Explain specifically how they can or do benefit you at work and school.

Hard skills are the technical expertise and knowledge to do a particular task or job function, such as financial analysis, accounting, or operations. Soft skills relate to our human interactions and include both interpersonal skills and personal attributes. For most jobs you are selected for your technical skills, your ability to do the given job. Often performance in the current job will be a primary consideration in being promoted. However, many employees may fail to realize that your perceived ability to get things done through others and manage people will be another important deciding factor. Figure 1.1 illustrates how technical or job-specific skills decline in importance as you move to levels of higher responsibility, while personal skills increase.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.

Topic: Knowledge and Skill

  1. Soft skills are not job specific. Rather, they are portable skills, more or less relevant in every job, at every level. They include personal attributes and interpersonal skills. Provide examples of two personal attributes and two interpersonal skills and describe how they help you at school or work.

Personal attributes address attitude, personality, teamwork, and leadership. These attributes help to build goodwill and trust and demonstrate integrity. For example, are you outgoing? Introverted? How do you handle conflict? Interpersonal skills include active listening, positive attitudes, and effective communication. These attributes help foster respectful interactions. For example, if you’re a member of a team and your project is off schedule, how would your respond? Would you be annoyed and put pressure on all members? Would you look to place blame? Would you try to build consensus on a workable solution?

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Knowledge Application

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.

Topic: Knowledge and Skill

  1. Assume that you worked for Quality Investments for four years. The owners of the firm—whom you respected—have been charged with insider trading. They deny the charge, but the firm is closing down and you need to find another job. How does the firm’s unethical behavior impact you personally? How can you explain the situation during an interview?

Criminal or not, unethical behavior negatively affects not only the offending manager but also his or her employees. Unethical behavior by your coworkers, including company executives, can make you look bad and tarnish your career.

First of all, you can look for a job at a sustainable business. These are companies led by those who listen, who foster cultures in which employees are not scared to point out problems and in which staff feel they have a personal responsibility to enact corporate values.

During an interview, you need to be upfront about the approach your company took. Did you feel that their goals were ill conceived? Did they experience motivated blindness? Indirect blindness? Did they overvalue outcomes? Was it a slippery slope situation?

Remember that while criminally minded people exist in the workplace, most people have good intentions, and you aren’t sure about your employers’ culpability.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Ethics

AACSB: Teamwork

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.

Topic: Ethical Behavior

  1. What is self-awareness? Why is self-awareness important in school or in the workplace? How can you develop self-awareness? Provide one example in which you learned from your mistakes.

To be successful in school and in your career, you need to know who you are and what you want. “When you know yourself, you are comfortable with your strengths and not crippled by your shortcomings…. Self-awareness gives you the capacity to learn from your mistakes as well as your successes.” You need to know yourself in order to be authentic. This is essential to influencing others.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.

Topic: Self-Awareness

  1. Wanda is looking for a summer internship in her field of environmental science. On her résumé, she notes that she has taken several courses that she actually will not take until next semester. She also describes several volunteer leadership positions that she held. In reality, she worked as a “laborer” cleaning up the river and the local dunes.

Is Wanda behaving ethically? Define ethics and explain Wanda’s behavior.

Ethics is concerned with behavior—right versus wrong, good versus bad, and the many shades of gray in between. In terms of job hunting, an analysis of 2.6 million job applicant background checks by ADP Screening and Selection Services revealed that “44 percent of applicants lied about their work histories, 41 percent lied about their education, and 23 percent falsified credentials or licenses.”

Wanda hopes to get the position, thinking that she will be able to do it, and it’s only an internship….not a “real” job. She needs the experience to get a permanent job when she graduates. She may rationalize her lies, thinking that she “will” take the courses, and she did actually work on the volunteer projects. Besides, she thinks she could have done a lot more on the projects than just the grunt work she was assigned. Some people just don’t see their actions as unethical.

Wanda doesn’t realize that if she is “found out,” she risks not only the internship, but looking bad and tarnishing her future career.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Ethics

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.

Topic: Ethics

  1. You know that several of your classmates are cheating on tests and papers with students from another school. Because the schools are not part of an integrated system, the cheating is quite successful. The students are doing well, while not working hard at all. You are frustrated and angry and don’t know what to do.

Use the Three-Step Problem-Solving Approach to find a solution.

Here are the three steps in our applied approach to problem solving.

Step 1: Define the problem. Define problems in terms of desired outcomes. What do you want to happen? Do you want to level the playing field? Punish the cheaters? This is a problem for you personally.

Step 2: Identify potential causes using OB concepts and theories. Consider personal and individual factors.

Step 3: Make recommendations and (if appropriate) take action. Consider any individual or organization (in this case, institution) level processes that could be put in place to prevent this from happening in the future.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Ethics

AACSB: Knowledge Application

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 01-03 Describe the ways in which you can apply OB knowledge to effectively solve problems.

Topic: Decision Making

  1. Jaclyn works as a trainer at a gymnastics academy. This is a nationwide company with academies all over the country. They have more students accepted to the Junior Olympics and Olympics than any other group. But the corporate mission statement is to “foster a love of the sport and physical fitness at all levels.”

Jaclyn notices that some of the senior trainers push students beyond accepted limits and work them more hours than recommended. In fact, many seem to focus only on promising candidates, even to the point that inexperienced students are getting hurt.

When she mentions this to a colleague, she’s told that this is how things work. It’s important to “keep up their success rate.” How can Jaclyn evaluate and address this unethical behavior?

A few suggestions for handling unethical behavior are: (1) It’s business, treat it that way. Ethical issues are business issues, just like costs, revenues, and employee development. Therefore, collect data and present a convincing case against the unethical conduct just as you would to develop a new product or strategy. (2) Accept that confronting ethical concerns is part of your job. Whether it is explicit in your job description or not, ethics is everybody’s job. If you think something is questionable, then take action. (3) Challenge the rationale. Many issues occur despite actual policy against it. If this is the case, then ask: “If what you did is common practice or okay, then why do we have a policy forbidding it?” Alternatively, and no matter the rationale, you can ask: “Would you be willing to explain what you did and why in a meeting with our superiors or customers, or better still, during an interview on the evening news?” (4) Use your lack of seniority or status as an asset. While many employees unfortunately use their junior status to avoid confronting ethical issues, being junior can instead be an advantage. It enables you to raise issues by saying, “Because I’m new, I may have misunderstood something, but it seems to me that what you’ve done is out of bounds or could cause problems.” (5) Consider and explain long-term consequences. Of course many ethical issues are driven by temptations and benefits in the short term. It, therefore, can be helpful to frame and explain your views in terms of long-term consequences. (6) Solutions, not just complaints. When confronting an issue, you will likely be perceived as more helpful and taken more seriously if you provide an alternative course or solution. Doing so will also make it more difficult for the offender to disregard your complaint.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Ethics

AACSB: Knowledge Application

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.

Topic: Ethical Behavior

  1. Define and . Describe the Three-Step Approach to Problem Solving. Think of a current problem you are facing and describe it using the three-step approach.

A problem is a difference or gap between an actual and a desired situation. In turn, problem solving is a systematic process of closing these gaps. Our applied approach to problem solving proposes three activities or steps along the way: Step 1: Define the problem. Step 2: Identify the OB concepts or theories to use to solve the problem. Step 3: Make recommendations and (if appropriate) take action.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 01-03 Describe the ways in which you can apply OB knowledge to effectively solve problems.

Topic: Decision Making

  1. Cliff has a double major in business and technology. He is proactive and creative, but the only job he has been offered is in the credit department of a bank.

Research in psychology and OB supports the interactional perspective, noting that behavior is a function of interdependent person and situation factors. Given that Cliff needs a job, how would you evaluate this situation?

OB concepts and theories can be classified into two broad categories: person factors and situation characteristics. Person factors represent the infinite number of characteristics that give individuals their unique identities. Situation characteristics consist of all the elements outside of ourselves that influence what we do, how we do it, and the ultimate results of our actions.

For decades, researchers and managers have debated what influences behavior more—person or situation factors. Many observers believe that some people are by their nature better suited than others to perform well at work. Others believe that some people are clearly better in a given job or situation. No particular person would outperform every other person in every possible job. This common view is supported by research in psychology and OB. The interactional perspective states that behavior is a function of interdependent person and situation factors. It is important to note that neither people nor situations are static. People change, situations change, and the two change each other. The bottom-line implication for OB and your work life is that knowledge of one without the other is insufficient.

But, someone who is proactive and creative may be a great fit for a company in the high-tech sector that would benefit from risk-taking individuals, but may be a poor fit for a company that rewards routine and predictable behavior, such as a bank. On the other hand, the current economic climate will impact whether Cliff can wait for another opportunity, contemplate a move to a different environment or take the position with the knowledge that he won’t stay there long.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Blooms: Analyze

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-04 Explain how OB can help you organize a problem in order to achieve a solution effectively.

Topic: Person-Environment Fit

  1. Describe the interactional perspective in OB. How can managers use this perspective?

The interactional perspective states that behavior is a function of interdependent person and environmental factors. Environments present various types of rewards and opportunities that people achieve or realize with diverse knowledge, skills, abilities, and motivations. Different people may perceive similar situations in different ways and similar people may perceive different situations in the same way. It is important to note that neither people nor environments are static. People change, situations change, and the two change each other. The bottom-line implication for OB and your work life is that knowledge of one without the other is insufficient. You need to understand the interplay between both person and environmental characteristics to be an effective employee, and especially an effective manager. The person-environment continuum therefore provides a means for classifying OB concepts and theories into causes of behavior.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-04 Explain how OB can help you organize a problem in order to achieve a solution effectively.

Topic: Organizational Behavior (OB)

  1. What are the levels that OB uses to view the world? Give at least one example of each.

Another lens through which OB sees the world relies on organizational levels. OB distinguishes among three: individual, group, and organizational. As an example of how being sensitive to these levels helps in considering real-world problems, consider the many reasons why people quit their jobs: (1) Some people quit because their job just doesn’t fulfill what they value, such as challenging and stimulating work (an individual-level input). (2) Others quit because they can’t get along with their boss/leader or coworkers (a group/team level process). (3) A faulty reward system (an organizational-level process) that unfairly distributes raises, bonuses, and recognition is another common reason people quit.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Knowledge Application

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 01-04 Explain how OB can help you organize a problem in order to achieve a solution effectively.

Topic: Organizational Behavior (OB)

  1. Use a specific example to explain how you would use OB concepts to identify the right problem.

Nothing causes more harm than solving for the wrong problem. If you don’t define the problem accurately, then all subsequent problem-solving efforts are adversely affected. This happens because people end up focusing on a symptom or the wrong problem. Using the person-environment distinction allows you to consider unique individual factors as well as external factors that might be the source of the problem. The structural levels of individual, group, and organization will allow you to look at each level for possible reasons. Such considerations could include: (1) Person factors: Do the people who have quit share something in common? Is there anything in their personality that makes work difficult for them? Is the level of turnover greater than for your industry as a whole? (2) Environmental characteristics: Have there been changes in the environment (such as a sudden increase in employment opportunities at better wages)? Have the working conditions changed in any way? (3) Individual level: Can you identify any change in how the company treats employees or what it expects of them? (4) Group/team level: Have there been any changes or other causative factors in your work group, including your manager, that might make work less satisfactory? How does turnover in your group compare to other groups in the organization? (5) Organizational level: Has the organization changed ownership, or rewritten company policies, or is it enforcing policies differently?

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Knowledge Application

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 01-04 Explain how OB can help you organize a problem in order to achieve a solution effectively.

Topic: Organizational Behavior (OB)

  1. GBL Designs has suffered from lower profits for several years. As result, management cut back on bonuses and heath care coverage. Not surprisingly, there has been an increase in employee turnover. Unfortunately, it is the “better,” more highly qualified employees who are leaving. How can GBL analyze and address this problem?

Using the Three-Step Approach to Problem-Solving:

  1. Define the problem: If your organization’s most valuable and high-performing people quit, then a problem likely exists.
  2. Highlight the causes:

Potential Cause 1—Person factors often represent key causes of turnover. Concern about the stability of the company and lack of personal rewards (bonuses) might cause turnover.

Potential Cause 2—Situation factors frequently are causes of turnover. For example, people may be quitting because the company culture has been damaged by poor revenues and, therefore, a perceived lack of support exists.

Potential Cause 3—Organizational processes can also cause turnover. Perceived injustice is often a powerful driver of employee turnover; in this case, modifying the health care plan has impacted everyone—most especially those employees with families.

  1. Generate effective recommendations:

Potential Cause 1—Communication can help assure employees of the steps that company is taking to secure its future. The company can solicit employee recommendations for rewards other than bonuses (until stability is achieved).

Potential Cause 2—GBL can work to build a team spirit, so that employees can be part of re-establishing the company’s position.

Potential Cause 3—Assuming GBL made cuts to health care with minimal employee input, the company might review the options. Perhaps employees can choose from a series of plans that best meets their needs and budgets.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Blooms: Analyze

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 01-06 Use OB knowledge to help achieve professional and personal effectiveness.

Topic: Organizational Behavior (OB)

  1. Identify and explain the three applied approaches to selecting a solution. Think of a recent problem that you solved. Which solution worked for you?

First, decide how complete a response you are looking for. Do you want the problem to be resolved, solved, or dissolved? (1) Resolving problems is arguably the most common form for managers and simply means choosing a satisfactory solution, one that works, but is less than ideal. (2) Solving problems is the optimal or ideal response. (3) Dissolving problems requires changing or eliminating the situation in which the problem occurs.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-05 Classify OB knowledge and tools for problem solving with the support of the Organizing Framework.

Topic: Decision Making

  1. What are the basic elements for selecting an effective solution? Give examples of each.

After deciding whether to resolve, solve, or dissolve your identified problem, you then need to select the most effective solution. Three common elements to selecting the most effective solution are: (1) Selection criteria. Determine the basis (criteria) for the decision. (2) Consequences. Consider the consequences of each alternative. (3) Choice process. Decide who will be involved in choosing the solution. If more than one person is involved, then you need to agree on the method.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-05 Classify OB knowledge and tools for problem solving with the support of the Organizing Framework.

Topic: Decision Making

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Category     # of Questions

AACSB: Analytical Thinking                                                                                                                                                                             92

AACSB: Ethics                                                                                                                                                                                                   28

AACSB: Knowledge Application                                                                                                                                                                       28

AACSB: Reflective Thinking                                                                                                                                                                             1

AACSB: Teamwork                                                                                                                                                                                           3

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation                                                                                                                                                                    80

Blooms: Analyze                                                                                                                                                                                                 4

Blooms: Apply                                                                                                                                                                                                    30

Blooms: Remember                                                                                                                                                                                             32

Blooms: Understand                                                                                                                                                                                           30

Difficulty: 1 Easy                                                                                                                                                                                                33

Difficulty: 2 Medium                                                                                                                                                                                          44

Difficulty: 3 Hard                                                                                                                                                                                                19

Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.                         26

Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.            29

Learning Objective: 01-03 Describe the ways in which you can apply OB knowledge to effectively solve problems.                                       8

Learning Objective: 01-04 Explain how OB can help you organize a problem in order to achieve a solution effectively.                                  16

Learning Objective: 01-05 Classify OB knowledge and tools for problem solving with the support of the Organizing Framework.                16

Learning Objective: 01-06 Use OB knowledge to help achieve professional and personal effectiveness.                                                          1

Topic: Conceptual Skills                                                                                                                                                                                     6

Topic: Contingency Theory                                                                                                                                                                                 7

Topic: Decision Making                                                                                                                                                                                      17

Topic: Ethical Behavior                                                                                                                                                                                       22

Topic: Ethics                                                                                                                                                                                                       7

Topic: Group Cohesion                                                                                                                                                                                       2

Topic: Knowledge and Skill                                                                                                                                                                                3

Topic: Organizational Behavior (OB)                                                                                                                                                                 15

Topic: Outcomes                                                                                                                                                                                                 3

Topic: Person-Environment Fit                                                                                                                                                                           7

Topic: Self-Awareness                                                                                                                                                                                        6

Topic: Social Capital                                                                                                                                                                                           1

Chapter 02

Test Bank

 

  1. The first step in combating bullying is to document the event in writing, particularly if the bully is your boss.

TRUE

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Ethics

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 02-01 Summarize the role that values play in influencing your behavior.

Topic: Motivating Factors

Topic: Values

Feedback: The first step in combating bullying is to document the event in writing, particularly if the bully is your boss.

  1. The two basic dimensions of Schwartz’s value theory are self-enhancement/self-transcendence and ethical/unethical.

FALSE

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Ethics

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-01 Summarize the role that values play in influencing your behavior.

Topic: Values

Feedback: In Figure 2.2, Schwartz identifies two bipolar dimensions that summarize the relationships among all 10 values (i.e., self-enhancement/self-transcendence and openness to change/conservation).

  1. Personal attitudes affect behavior via intentions.

TRUE

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-02 Explain how personal attitudes affect workplace behavior and work-related outcomes.

 

Feedback: From an OB perspective, personal attitudes affect behavior via intentions.

  1. Based on Schwartz’s Value Theory, if you value achievement over universalism, you will spend your evening working hard on your term paper so that you can get a good grade, rather than volunteering at the soup kitchen.

TRUE

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Ethics

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 02-01 Summarize the role that values play in influencing your behavior.

Topic: Values

Feedback: Schwartz proposed that broad values motivate our behavior across any context. He categorized these values into two opposing or bipolar dimensions. The first dimension ranges from concern for the welfare of others (which Schwartz calls self-transcendence) to pursuit of one’s own interests (self-enhancement). The second dimension ranges from self-directed independence (which Schwartz calls openness to change) to conformity (conservation). So, if you value achievement (self-enhancement) over universalism (self-transcendence), you will spend your evening working on your paper.

  1. In Schwartz’s model, conformity and tradition are in the same wedge, but conformity is seen as less extreme than tradition.

TRUE

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Ethics

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-01 Summarize the role that values play in influencing your behavior.

Topic: Values

Feedback: Tradition and conformity share a single wedge, supporting the same broad motivational goal. Conformity is toward the center because it does not conflict with openness to change and self-enhancement quite as much as tradition, which is toward the periphery.

  1. According to the Ajzen model, someone’s intention to engage in a particular behavior is necessarily a strong predictor of that behavior.

FALSE

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-02 Explain how personal attitudes affect workplace behavior and work-related outcomes.

Topic: Organizational Behavior

Feedback: According to the Ajzen model, someone’s intention to engage in a given behavior is a strong predictor of that behavior.

  1. Johan believes that saving the earth is our most important responsibility. He will be strongly committed to an employer who issues hybrid cars to all sales people, emphasizes recycling, and supports volunteerism to clean up the local river.

TRUE

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-03 Explain why it is important for management to pay attention to workplace attitudes.

Topic: Organizational Commitment

Feedback: Organizational commitment exists to the degree that personal values generally match the values that undergird a company’s organizational culture.

  1. The components of engagement are urgency, being focused, intensity, and job satisfaction.

FALSE

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-03 Explain why it is important for management to pay attention to workplace attitudes.

Topic: Employee Engagement

Feedback: The components of employee engagement are four feelings: urgency, being focused, intensity, and enthusiasm.

  1. One of the top five drivers of employee engagement for organizations in North America is pay.

FALSE

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-03 Explain why it is important for management to pay attention to workplace attitudes.

Topic: Employee Engagement

Feedback: Aon Hewitt, the global engagement consulting firm, identified from 2012 data the top five engagement drivers for organizations in North America. The organization-level factors are career opportunities, managing performance, organizational reputation, communication, and recognition. North America leaves pay out of the top five drivers.

  1. The basic idea of POS is that people are willing to work hard and commit to their organizations when they believe that the organization truly cares about their best interests.

TRUE

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 02-03 Explain why it is important for management to pay attention to workplace attitudes.

Topic: Social Support

Feedback: The basic idea of POS (Perceived Organizational Support) is that people are willing to work hard and commit to their organizations when they believe that the company truly cares about their best interest.

  1. There is only one model of the causes of job satisfaction.

FALSE

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 02-04 Explain the types of workplace changes managers can make to improve job satisfaction.

Topic: Job Satisfaction

Feedback: OB has developed numerous concepts to improve our understanding of job satisfaction: need fulfillment, met expectations, value attainment, equity, and dispositional/genetic components.

  1. The idea that satisfaction results from the perception that a job allows for fulfillment of an individual’s important values is called “met expectations.”

FALSE

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-04 Explain the types of workplace changes managers can make to improve job satisfaction.

Topic: Job Satisfaction

Feedback: Met expectations represent the difference between what an individual expects to receive from a job, such as good pay and promotional opportunities, and what she or he actually receives. The idea of value attainment is that satisfaction results from the perception that a job allows for fulfillment of an individual’s important values.

  1. Managers should attempt to reduce the negative effects of stress by improving job satisfaction and by encouraging employees to take work home.

FALSE

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-05 List and explain the work-related outcomes associated with job satisfaction.

Topic: Job Satisfaction

Feedback: Managers should attempt to reduce the negative effects of stress by improving job satisfaction and by encouraging employees to detach from work during off-job time (i.e., stop thinking about work, and “don’t take it home with you”).

  1. Turnover is always bad for organizations.

FALSE

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-05 List and explain the work-related outcomes associated with job satisfaction.

Topic: Job Satisfaction

Feedback: Consider the pros and cons of turnover. Turnover can be a good thing when a low-performing person quits or is fired. In contrast, losing a good employee is bad because the organization loses valuable human and social capital, and it can be costly.

  1. Stress can have positive effects on certain OB-related outcomes. For instance, it is negatively related to absenteeism because people feel they have to work harder to meet management expectations.

FALSE

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-05 List and explain the work-related outcomes associated with job satisfaction.

Topic: Job Satisfaction

Feedback: Stress has negative effects on many different OB-related outcomes. For instance, it is positively related to absenteeism, turnover, coronary heart disease, and viral infections.

  1. Maria focuses on community volunteerism, while Anna focuses on getting a promotion at work. _____ are represented by Maria’s and Anna’s focuses.
  2. Personal attitudes
  3. Workplace attitudes
  4. C. Endpoints of one of the dimensions of values
  5. Cognitions
  6. Behaviors

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Ethics

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 02-01 Summarize the role that values play in influencing your behavior.

Topic: Values

Feedback: Figure 2.2, Values and Motives in Schwartz’s Theory, depicts self-enhancement and self-transcendence as the endpoints of one of the dimensions of values.

  1. Mark marches to the beat of his own drummer, while Simon plans on following in his father’s footsteps. Mark is open to change, while Simon embraces
  2. conformity.
  3. traditionalism.
  4. power.
  5. benevolence.
  6. E.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Ethics

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-01 Summarize the role that values play in influencing your behavior.

Topic: Values

Feedback: Figure 2.2, Values and Motives in Schwartz’s Theory, depicts openness to change and conservation as opposites.

  1. Schwartz’s model suggests that
  2. A. values may conflict with each other.
  3. values are important, but have no direct effect on motivation.
  4. values are unstable.
  5. we are always aware of our values and how they influence us.
  6. values are formed when we are in our early adulthood.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Ethics

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 02-01 Summarize the role that values play in influencing your behavior.

Topic: Values

Feedback: Schwartz proposes that values that are in opposing directions from the center of his model conflict with each other.

  1. Trevor is an overachiever. His brother calls him ambitious and power hungry. Trevor exemplifies the _______ dimension.
  2. self-transcendence
  3. B. self-enhancement
  4. self-awareness
  5. self-management
  6. self-leadership

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Ethics

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 02-01 Summarize the role that values play in influencing your behavior.

Topic: Values

Feedback: Self-enhancement is the pursuit of one’s own interests and relative success and dominance over others (power, achievement).

  1. _____ is defined by order, self-restriction, preservation of the past, and resistance to change.
  2. A. Conservation
  3. Security
  4. Conformity
  5. Traditionalism
  6. Stability

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Ethics

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 02-01 Summarize the role that values play in influencing your behavior.

Topic: Values

Feedback: Conservation is defined by order, self-restriction, preservation of the past, and resistance to change (i.e., security, conformity, tradition).

  1. The two basic dimensions of Schwartz’s model of values are
  2. A. self-enhancement/self-transcendence and openness to change/conservation.
  3. strengths/weaknesses and opportunities/threats.
  4. personal attitudes/work attitudes and cognitions/behaviors.
  5. commitment/engagement and satisfaction/dissatisfaction.
  6. involved/engaged and motivated/not motivated.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Ethics

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-01 Summarize the role that values play in influencing your behavior.

Topic: Values

Feedback: Figure 2.2 depicts self-enhancement/self-transcendence and openness to change/conservation as the two basic dimensions of values in Schwartz’s model.

  1. The self-transcendence part of Schwartz’s model is composed of
  2. self-direction and stimulation.
  3. security and conformity.
  4. power and achievement.
  5. D. universalism and benevolence.
  6. achievement and hedonism.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Ethics

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-01 Summarize the role that values play in influencing your behavior.

Topic: Values

Feedback: According to Figure 2.2, self-transcendence is composed of universalism and benevolence.

  1. Horatio loves extreme sports and works as white-water rafting instructor. This reflects the values in the ____________ dimension of Schwartz’s model.
  2. conservation
  3. self-enhancement
  4. C. openness to change
  5. self-transcendence
  6. hedonism

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Ethics

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-01 Summarize the role that values play in influencing your behavior.

Topic: Schwartz’s Value Theory

Feedback: Stimulation is in the openness to change part of Schwartz’s model.

  1. ______ is defined by restraint of actions, inclinations, and impulses likely to upset or harm others and violate social expectations or norms.
  2. Benevolence
  3. Security
  4. Tradition
  5. D. Conformity
  6. Universalism

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Ethics

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-01 Summarize the role that values play in influencing your behavior.

Topic: Values

Feedback: Conformity is define by restraint of actions, inclinations, and impulses likely to upset or harm others and violate social expectations or norms (politeness, obedient, self-discipline, honoring parents and elders).

  1. _________ are both elements of hedonism.
  2. Achievement and stimulation
  3. B. Self-enhancement and openness to change
  4. Self-transcendence and openness to change
  5. Stimulation and self-direction
  6. Stimulation and power

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Ethics

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 02-01 Summarize the role that values play in influencing your behavior.

Topic: Values

Feedback: Hedonism shares elements of both openness to change and self-enhancement.

  1. Samuel values his tradition and conformity. Not surprisingly, family time is very important to him. His employer, Stillman & Sons, expects him to work on holidays. Stillman & Sons and Samuel do not share the values of
  2. A.
  3. self-direction.
  4. self-transcendence.
  5. openess to change.
  6. self-enhancement.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Ethics

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 02-01 Summarize the role that values play in influencing your behavior.

Topic: Values

Feedback: See Figure 2.2. Samuel and his company do not appear to value conformity, tradition, and security (which comprise conservation) equally.

  1. Chris, a manager, knows that one of his employees values achievement and power. Chris should assign the employee to a job that includes
  2. high social value.
  3. high security.
  4. high self-direction.
  5. high conformity.
  6. E. high influence over others.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Ethics

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 02-01 Summarize the role that values play in influencing your behavior.

Topic: Values

Feedback: According to Figure 2.2, people who value achievement and power seek control or dominance over people and resources.

  1. Carla will graduate from her business program next month. She is happiest in jobs where she doesn’t know what will be waiting for her when she gets to work, and she excels at problem solving. Carla needs a career that involves
  2. security.
  3. benevolence.
  4. tradition.
  5. power.
  6. E.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Ethics

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 02-01 Summarize the role that values play in influencing your behavior.

Topic: Values

Feedback: Carla enjoys a varied routine and a challenge. According to Figure 2.2, Carla values stimulation. Stimulation is excitement, novelty, and challenge in life (daring, a varied life, an exciting life).

  1. Tanya believes that people should be kind to each other. She notices that Ellie is picking on a new employee, Michele. Tanya asks Ellie to stop bullying Michele, but Ellie’s behavior doesn’t change. Tanya confronts Ellie and a heated argument ensues, after which Tanya suggests that Ellie transfer to another department. In this case, Tanya’s ________ are different from her values.
  2. intentions
  3. abstract ideals
  4. C. personal beliefs
  5. personal goals
  6. cognitions

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-02 Explain how personal attitudes affect workplace behavior and work-related outcomes.

Topic: Workplace Attitudes

Feedback: Personal attitudes affect behavior at a different level than do values. While values represent global beliefs that influence behavior across all situations, personal attitudes relate only to behavior directed toward specific objects, persons, or situations.

  1. Values represent beliefs that influence behaviors _____________; attitudes relate to behavior __________.
  2. A. across all situations; toward specific targets
  3. toward specific targets; across all situations
  4. across all situations; toward people
  5. toward specific objects; toward specific people
  6. toward specific people; toward specific objects

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 02-02 Explain how personal attitudes affect workplace behavior and work-related outcomes.

Topic: Workplace Attitudes

Feedback: While values represent global beliefs that influence behavior across all situations, personal attitudes relate only to behavior directed toward specific objects, persons, or situations.

  1. The components of attitudes include
  2. values, beliefs, and emotions.
  3. B. affective, cognitive, and behavioral.
  4. personal and workplace.
  5. perceived and real.
  6. public and personal.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 02-02 Explain how personal attitudes affect workplace behavior and work-related outcomes.

Topic: Workplace Attitudes

Feedback: The three components of attitudes are affective, cognitive, and behavioral.

  1. Tony believes that cell phone use—even in restaurants—helps people manage their busy lives. Tony’s belief reflects the __________ component of his attitude.
  2. behavioral
  3. objective
  4. C. cognitive
  5. normative
  6. affective

AACSB: Knowledge Application

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 02-02 Explain how personal attitudes affect workplace behavior and work-related outcomes.

Topic: Workplace Attitudes

Feedback: The cognitive component of an attitude reflects the beliefs or ideas one has about an object or situation. All three components influence our behavior. You are unlikely to say anything to someone using a cell phone in a restaurant if you are not irritated by this behavior (affective), if you believe cell phone use helps people to manage their lives (cognitive), and if you have no intention of confronting this individual (behavioral).

  1. Sally doesn’t complain to a man smoking in the nonsmoking section of a restaurant because it doesn’t bother her. This lack of irritation reflects the ______ component of her attitude. She is neutral toward people smoking in restaurants.
  2. behavioral
  3. intellectual
  4. cognitive
  5. normative
  6. E. affective

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 02-02 Explain how personal attitudes affect workplace behavior and work-related outcomes.

Topic: Affective Component

Feedback: The affective component of an attitude contains the feelings or emotions one has about a given object or situation. You are unlikely to say anything to someone in this situation if you are not irritated by this behavior (affective).

  1. The president of American Systems announces that all employees will be going on a trip to San Francisco. Some employees like the idea and some don’t. According to the _________ component of attitudes, these evaluations reflect the feelings of the employees.
  2. behavioral
  3. B. affective
  4. cognitive
  5. normative
  6. intellectual

AACSB: Knowledge Application

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 02-02 Explain how personal attitudes affect workplace behavior and work-related outcomes.

Topic: Affective Component

Feedback: The affective component of an attitude contains the feelings or emotions one has about a given object or situation.

  1. The head of ABC Company announces that the company is going to start a weekend project teaching self-defense techniques to underprivileged kids in the neighborhood. Thomas decides to register for the project, as he is a trained kickboxer. This action of Thomas reflects the __________ component of his attitude.
  2. A. behavioral
  3. affective
  4. cognitive
  5. normative
  6. intellectual

AACSB: Knowledge Application

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 02-02 Explain how personal attitudes affect workplace behavior and work-related outcomes.

Topic: Behavioral Component

Feedback: The behavioral component refers to how one intends or expects to act toward someone or something.

  1. Dawn is at the playground with her four-year-old daughter. The father of another child is yelling and cursing at him. Dawn decides to tell the father to stop the verbal abuse or leave the playground, or she will call the authorities. Dawn’s behavior reflects the _______ component of her attitude.
  2. intellectual
  3. affective
  4. cognitive
  5. D. behavioral
  6. value

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 02-02 Explain how personal attitudes affect workplace behavior and work-related outcomes.

Topic: Behavioral Component

Feedback: The behavioral component refers to how one intends or expects to act toward someone or something.

  1. _________ is the psychological discomfort a person experiences when simultaneously holding two or more conflicting cognitions.
  2. perceived stress
  3. counterproductive work behavior
  4. psychological dissonance
  5. D. cognitive dissonance
  6. affective discomfort

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 02-02 Explain how personal attitudes affect workplace behavior and work-related outcomes.

Topic: Cognitive Dissonance

Feedback: Cognitive dissonance represents the psychological discomfort a person experiences when simultaneously holding two or more conflicting cognitions (ideas, beliefs, values, or emotions).

  1. As a senior student representative on the ethics advisory board of your university, you feel strongly that cheating on college exams is unethical. You never cheated on any exam. However, this semester your best friend was desperate for your help, and you allowed him to take a quick “peek” at your answer sheet. Since then, you feel uncomfortable every time you think of the situation. Which of the following concepts best explains your psychological discomfort?
  2. job detachment
  3. B. cognitive dissonance
  4. emotional labor
  5. emotional dissonance
  6. affective detachment

 

AACSB: Knowledge Application

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 02-02 Explain how personal attitudes affect workplace behavior and work-related outcomes.

Topic: Cognitive Dissonance

Feedback: Cognitive dissonance represents the psychological discomfort a person experiences when simultaneously holding two or more conflicting cognitions (ideas, beliefs, values, or emotions).

  1. Jane hates the idea of child labor. She works for a company that claims that it doesn’t employ children. However, news reports accuse the company of employing young children overseas. ______ is the psychological discomfort that Jane is experiencing since she heard this news.
  2. A. Cognitive dissonance
  3. Emotional labor
  4. Behavioral intention
  5. Emotional dissonance
  6. Intelligence disunity

AACSB: Knowledge Application

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 02-02 Explain how personal attitudes affect workplace behavior and work-related outcomes.

Topic: Cognitive Dissonance

Feedback: Cognitive dissonance represents the psychological discomfort a person experiences when simultaneously holding two or more conflicting cognitions (ideas, beliefs, values, or emotions).

  1. ___________ are the key links between ___________ in Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior.
  2. Attitudes; intentions and planned behavior
  3. B. Intentions; attitudes and planned behavior
  4. Norms; intentions and planned behavior
  5. Intentions; norms and attitudes
  6. Perceived behaviors; intentions and planned behavior

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 02-02 Explain how personal attitudes affect workplace behavior and work-related outcomes.

Topic: Organizational Behavior

Feedback: Ajzen developed and refined a model focusing on intentions as the key link between attitudes and planned behavior. See Figure 2.3.

  1. Eleanor wants to be sure that the final team project in a senior capstone course is of top quality. Jerome, another team member, just wants to get it done quickly. Using Alzen’s model, what can Eleanor do to try and encourage Jerome to work hard?
  2. A. Create a positive attitude.
  3. Use emotional blackmail.
  4. Show behavioral intent.
  5. Express emotional dissonance.
  6. Enforce cognitive dissonance.

AACSB: Knowledge Application

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 02-02 Explain how personal attitudes affect workplace behavior and work-related outcomes.

Topic: Cognitive Dissonance

Feedback: Ajzen’s model can help Eleanor. She can create a positive attitude toward contributing high-quality work by telling Jerome that getting a good grade on the project will increase everyone’s chances of getting higher grades for the course and ultimately a better job upon graduation.

 

  1. Which of the following is not a key workplace attitude that managers should track?
  2. job satisfaction
  3. employee engagement
  4. perceived organizational support
  5. organizational commitment
  6. E. turnover

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-03 Explain why it is important for management to pay attention to workplace attitudes.

Feedback: Savvy managers will track four key workplace attitudes: organizational commitment, employee engagement, perceived organizational support, and job satisfaction. Turnover is an outcome, not an attitude.

 

  1. Low job satisfaction and low employee engagement can lead to
  2. lower employee turnover.
  3. B. low task performance.
  4. increased task performance.
  5. increased commitment.
  6. improved communication.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 02-03 Explain why it is important for management to pay attention to workplace attitudes.

 

Feedback: Low job satisfaction and low employee engagement imply lower task performance and higher employee turnover.

  1. ______ is the extent to which an individual identifies with an organization and commits to its goals.
  2. Perceived organizational support
  3. B. Organizational commitment
  4. Organizational satisfaction
  5. Job involvement
  6. Job satisfaction

 

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 02-03 Explain why it is important for management to pay attention to workplace attitudes.

Topic: Organizational Commitment

Feedback: Organizational commitment reflects the extent to which an individual identifies with an organization and commits to its goals.

  1. Lennie loves her job at Vail Corporation. She is even a community ambassador. Lennie exhibits all of the following qualities except
  2. A.
  3. urgency.
  4. focus.
  5. intensity.
  6. enthusiasm.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-03 Explain why it is important for management to pay attention to workplace attitudes.

Topic: Organizational Commitment

Feedback: Engaged employees “give their all” at work. They exhibit urgency, focus, intensity, and enthusiasm.

  1. Claire works for Content Consultants. She telecommutes and has great flexibility in her work schedule. In return, Content Consultants expects to have satisfied clients who hire them again. Claire receives consistently high evaluations. Despite that, the company now wants her to work out of the main office. Claire feels that Content Consultants has breached a(n)
  2. employee engagement.
  3. job involvement.
  4. organizational citizenship behavior.
  5. D. psychological contract.
  6. cognitive expectation.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 02-03 Explain why it is important for management to pay attention to workplace attitudes.

Topic: Psychological Contracts

Feedback: Psychological contracts represent individuals’ perceptions about the terms and conditions of a reciprocal exchange between them and their organization.

  1. Janice creates advertising slogans for the advertising firm that employs her. She works with beliefs, perceptions, and informal obligations about what she is entitled to receive in return for what she provides to the organization. A(n) ________ represents Janice’s beliefs.
  2. high level of emotional labor
  3. employment contract
  4. high normative commitment
  5. high affective commitment
  6. E. psychological contract

AACSB: Knowledge Application

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 02-03 Explain why it is important for management to pay attention to workplace attitudes.

Topic: Psychological Contracts

Feedback: Psychological contracts represent individuals’ perceptions about the terms and conditions of a reciprocal exchange between them and their organization.

  1. Research shows that when an organization breaches a psychological contract,
  2. employees are likely to be less committed and satisfied, but their performance and intentions to quit are not affected.
  3. employees are likely to be less committed and satisfied, without their performance being affect, but they are also more likely to quit.
  4. C. employees are likely to be less committed and satisfied and more likely to quit, and their performance is likely to be lower.
  5. employees are likely to be less committed and satisfied and have lower job performance, but are not more likely to quit.
  6. this has no effect on employee satisfaction, commitment, intentions to quit, or job performance.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 02-03 Explain why it is important for management to pay attention to workplace attitudes.

Topic: Psychological Contracts

Feedback: Research shows that an employer breach of the psychological contract is associated with lower organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and performance, and greater intentions to quit.

  1. ________ is the harnessing of organization members’ selves to their work roles.
  2. Employee involvement
  3. B. Employee engagement
  4. Organization commitment
  5. Job satisfaction
  6. Organizational citizenship behavior

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 02-03 Explain why it is important for management to pay attention to workplace attitudes.

Topic: Employee Engagement

Feedback: Kahn defined employee engagement as “the harnessing of organization members’ selves to their work roles; in engagement, people employ and express themselves physically, cognitively, and emotionally during role performance.”

  1. You value achievement and your employer rewards people for accomplishing goals, so you are very committed to the company. _____ fit is the consistency between personal and company values.
  2. A. Person-culture
  3. Person-behavioral
  4. Employee-employer
  5. Values-attitude fit
  6. Intrinsic-extrinsic

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-03 Explain why it is important for management to pay attention to workplace attitudes.

Topic: Organizational Commitment

Feedback: If you value achievement and your employer rewards people for accomplishing goals, you are more likely to be committed to the company. This consistency between personal and company values is called person-culture fit.

  1. Which of the following is not a factor in contributing to employee engagement?
  2. high levels of conscientiousness
  3. B. high levels of stress
  4. charismatic managers
  5. recognition
  6. motivating jobs

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-03 Explain why it is important for management to pay attention to workplace attitudes.

Topic: Employee Engagement

Feedback: Engagement is higher when employees are not confronted with a lot of stressors.

 

  1. Angela works for a company that does not provide good health benefits or career opportunities. Her _____ is most likely to be negative.
  2. OCB
  3. CWB
  4. C. POS
  5. TPB
  6. OB

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 02-03 Explain why it is important for management to pay attention to workplace attitudes.

Topic: Social Support

Feedback: Perceived organizational support (POS) reflects the extent to which employees believe their organization values their contributions and genuinely cares about their well-being.

  1. The idea of perceived organizational support is that if treated well, employees are motivated by
  2. A. the norm of reciprocity.
  3. cognitive dissonance.
  4. met expectations.
  5. the psychological contract.
  6. dispositional factors.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-03 Explain why it is important for management to pay attention to workplace attitudes.

Topic: Social Support

Feedback: The basic idea is that people are willing to work hard and commit to their organizations when they believe that the company “truly” cares about their best interest. Quite simply, we are motivated by the norm of reciprocity when someone treats us well. The norm of reciprocity obliges the return of favorable treatment.

  1. When Daniel’s daughter got seriously ill, his boss Kyle and fellow employees went to the HR department and arranged to donate some of their sick leave to him so he could spend more time with his family. Daniel is most likely to be experiencing
  2. job satisfaction.
  3. OCB
  4. C. POS
  5. engagement.
  6. value attainment.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Knowledge Application

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 02-03 Explain why it is important for management to pay attention to workplace attitudes.

Topic: Social Support

Feedback: Perceived organizational support (POS) reflects the extent to which employees believe their organization values their contributions and genuinely cares about their well-being. Daniel most likely feels he is genuinely cared about when his boss and fellow workers donate their sick time to him.

  1. Job satisfaction across the United States has gone up, according to a national survey conducted by the Society for Human Resource Management. The top three facets of satisfaction include
  2. feeling safe at work, having good relationships with coworkers, and substantial vacation time.
  3. solid health care, having good relationships with coworkers, and a clear career path.
  4. opportunities for advancement, good pay, and having a good relationship with an immediate supervisor.
  5. feeling safe at work, good pay, and good benefits.
  6. E. feeling safe at work, having good relationships with coworkers, and having a good relationship with an immediate supervisor.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 02-04 Explain the types of workplace changes managers can make to improve job satisfaction.

Topic: Job Satisfaction

Feedback: A national survey conducted by the Society for Human Resource Management assessed 43 facets of job satisfaction for 600 US employees. Results revealed that 86 percent were satisfied with their jobs in 2014, the highest level since 2004. The top three facets of satisfaction were feeling safe at work, having good relationships with coworkers, and having a good relationship with an immediate supervisor.

  1. In some cases, coworkers or friends remain satisfied in situations where others always seem dissatisfied. This is a reflection of the _____ model.
  2. need fulfillment
  3. B. dispositional/genetic
  4. value attainment
  5. equity
  6. met expectation

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 02-04 Explain the types of workplace changes managers can make to improve job satisfaction.

Topic: Job Satisfaction

Feedback: The dispositional/genetic model posits that job satisfaction is a function of both personal traits and genetic factors. The model implies that stable individual differences are at least as powerful as characteristics of the work environment in their impact on satisfaction.

  1. Which of the following is not one of the predominant models of the causes of job satisfaction?
  2. Value attainment
  3. Dispositional factors
  4. C. Cognitive dissonance
  5. Equity
  6. Met expectations

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-04 Explain the types of workplace changes managers can make to improve job satisfaction.

Topic: Job Satisfaction

Feedback: OB has developed numerous concepts to improve our understanding of job satisfaction, including need fulfillment, met expectations, value attainment, equity, and dispositional/genetic components.

  1. Waco Company monitors employees’ perceptions of fairness by quarterly surveys and occasional focus groups. Management is following the _____ model.
  2. met expectations
  3. need fulfillment
  4. C. equity
  5. value attainment
  6. dispositional components

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 02-04 Explain the types of workplace changes managers can make to improve job satisfaction.

Topic: Job Satisfaction

Feedback: The equity model proposes that management monitor employees’ perceptions of fairness and interact with them so they feel fairly treated.

  1. The idea underlying the __________ model is that satisfaction is tied to how fairly an individual is treated at work.
  2. met expectations
  3. need fulfillment
  4. C. equity
  5. value attainment
  6. dispositional components

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 02-04 Explain the types of workplace changes managers can make to improve job satisfaction.

Topic: Job Satisfaction

Feedback: The idea underlying the equity model is that satisfaction is tied to how fairly an individual is treated at work.

  1. Carlos works at Tyner Construction Company as an assistant project manager. His manager assured him that if his projects came in on time and under budget, he would be promoted within a year. At nine months, Carlo is promoted to project manager. This is an example of
  2. A. met expectations.
  3. need fulfillment.
  4. equity.
  5. value attainment.
  6. dispositional components.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 02-04 Explain the types of workplace changes managers can make to improve job satisfaction.

Topic: Job Satisfaction

Feedback: When expectations are greater than what is received, a person will be dissatisfied. On the other hand, he or she will be satisfied when outcomes are above and beyond expectations. Research strongly supports the conclusion that met expectations are significantly related to job satisfaction.

  1. The _________ model suggests that managers should structure the work environment and rewards to match employees.
  2. met expectations
  3. need fulfillment
  4. equity
  5. D. value attainment
  6. dispositional components

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-04 Explain the types of workplace changes managers can make to improve job satisfaction.

Topic: Job Satisfaction

Feedback: The idea underlying value attainment is that satisfaction results from the perception that a job allows for fulfillment of an individual’s important values. Managers can thus enhance employee satisfaction by structuring the work environment and its associated rewards and recognition to reinforce employees’ values.

  1. ________ are physiological or psychological deficiencies that arouse behavior.
  2. Attitudes
  3. Values
  4. Cognitions
  5. D. Needs
  6. Expectations

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 02-04 Explain the types of workplace changes managers can make to improve job satisfaction.

Topic: Job Satisfaction

Feedback: Needs are physiological or psychological deficiencies that arouse behavior.

 

  1. Genevieve is a very religious person who does volunteer work for her church on weekends. When it came to selecting who would chair the United Fund drive for the department, her manager immediately thought of her and asked her to serve. The manager’s action reflects the __________ model of job satisfaction.
  2. dispositional components
  3. B. value attainment
  4. met expectations
  5. need fulfillment
  6. equity

AACSB: Knowledge Application

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 02-04 Explain the types of workplace changes managers can make to improve job satisfaction.

Topic: Job Satisfaction

Feedback: The value attainment model says that satisfaction results from the perception that a job allows for fulfillment of an individual’s important values.

  1. Luis has just learned that Brian, who has less experience and who does less work, receives a higher salary. Since learning this, Luis has been very unhappy and has started to look for another job. What model of job satisfaction best explains Luis’s reactions?
  2. dispositional components
  3. value attainment
  4. met expectations
  5. need fulfillment
  6. E. equity

AACSB: Knowledge Application

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 02-04 Explain the types of workplace changes managers can make to improve job satisfaction.

Topic: Equity Theory

Feedback: Equity theory builds on the notion that satisfaction ties to how fairly an individual is treated at work. Satisfaction results from one’s perception that work outcomes, relative to inputs, compare favorably with a significant other’s outcomes/inputs.

  1. ______ is one element that allows employees to balance their work lives and family lives.
  2. Flextime
  3. B. Telecommuting
  4. Stress management
  5. Job involvement
  6. Cognitive dissonance

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Technology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 02-04 Explain the types of workplace changes managers can make to improve job satisfaction.

Topic: Job Satisfaction

Feedback: Telecommuting allows employees to do all or some of their work from home, using advanced telecommunications technology and Internet tools to send work electronically from home to the office and vice versa.

  1. Jason is working at Sushow Motors. The position, as originally described, involved conducting research with customers. Instead, Jason is answering phones and filing. He’s very unhappy and thinks he should find another job. This thought process is
  2. A. withdrawal cognitions.
  3. employee review.
  4. perceived stress.
  5. organizational behavior.
  6. job dissatisfaction.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 02-05 List and explain the work-related outcomes associated with job satisfaction.

Topic: Job Satisfaction

Feedback: Although some people quit their jobs impulsively or in a fit of anger, most first go through a process of thinking about whether they should quit. Withdrawal cognitions capture this thought process by representing an individual’s overall thoughts and feelings about quitting.

  1. _________ is the psychological process that arouses our interest in doing something.
  2. Involvement
  3. Engagement
  4. C. Motivation
  5. Citizenship
  6. Commitment

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 02-05 List and explain the work-related outcomes associated with job satisfaction.

Topic: Motivating Factors

Feedback: Employee motivation represents a psychological process that arouses our interest in doing something, and it directs and guides our behavior.

  1. Mason is highly satisfied with his job. He receives consistently strong evaluations and volunteers to train new employees. Mason exhibits positive job performance and
  2. community involvement.
  3. B. organizational citizenship behaviors.
  4. genetic components.
  5. withdrawal cognitions.
  6. personal motivation.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 02-05 List and explain the work-related outcomes associated with job satisfaction.

Topic: Job Satisfaction

Feedback: Job satisfaction has a positive association with two constructive individual-level behavioral outcomes—job performance and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB).

  1. ______ is an individual’s overall thoughts and feelings about quitting.
  2. Withdrawal attitudes
  3. B. Withdrawal cognitions
  4. Withdrawal values
  5. Cognitive dissonance
  6. Psychological dissonance

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-05 List and explain the work-related outcomes associated with job satisfaction.

Topic: Job Satisfaction

Feedback: Withdrawal cognitions represent an individual’s overall thoughts and feelings about quitting.

  1. Kim lives and works in a small town, even though she prefers life in a bigger city. She is quite dissatisfied with her current job and is thinking of leaving the organization. She is worried, however, about her ability to find other employment that pays as well as her current job. Additionally, she is concerned about finding another organization that offers college tuition reimbursement. Based on this information, Kim is experiencing
  2. inequity.
  3. B. withdrawal cognitions.
  4. emotional detachment.
  5. affective dissonance.
  6. unmet expectations.

AACSB: Knowledge Application

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 02-05 List and explain the work-related outcomes associated with job satisfaction.

Topic: Job Satisfaction

Feedback: Withdrawal cognitions represent an individual’s overall thoughts and feelings about quitting.

  1. Elaine often volunteers to help others when they run into problems with their projects. She is very positive, always on time, and never calls in sick. Exhibiting ________ is likely to create positive impressions among Elaine’s colleagues and manager.
  2. TPB
  3. CWB
  4. C. OCB
  5. POS
  6. OB

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-05 List and explain the work-related outcomes associated with job satisfaction.

Topic: Job Satisfaction

Feedback: Exhibiting OCBs (organizational citizenship behavior) is likely to create positive impressions about you among your colleagues and manager. In turn, these impressions affect your ability to work with others, your manager’s evaluation of your performance, and ultimately your promotability.

  1. According to research, the relationship between job performance and job satisfaction is best summarized by which of the following statements?
  2. Higher levels of job satisfaction lead to higher job performance.
  3. Higher levels of job performance lead to higher job satisfaction.
  4. C. Both variables indirectly influence each other.
  5. These variables are both caused by personality factors.
  6. There is no relationship between job performance and job satisfaction.

AACSB: Knowledge Application

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 02-05 List and explain the work-related outcomes associated with job satisfaction.

Topic: Job Satisfaction

Feedback: Researchers now believe job satisfaction and job performance indirectly influence each other through a host of person factors and environmental characteristics contained in the Organizing Framework.

  1. Kiki is a manager of a small boutique gift store. She only has two employees, Tim and Sandra. Tim is a part-time student and is happy with the amount of work he has at the store. Sandra works full-time, but seems to be less interested and increasingly remote at work. Kiki asks Sandra if anything is wrong, and Sandra says she is bored and thinking of leaving.

Kiki knows that Sandra paints as a hobby and suggests that she might want to take over the store and window displays. Sandra is really excited about the opportunity. This is an example of a manager who is

  1. focusing on customer service.
  2. motivated to move up in the organization.
  3. addressing the employee’s stress levels.
  4. D. enhancing the employee’s job satisfaction.
  5. confronting an employee about her problems.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 02-05 List and explain the work-related outcomes associated with job satisfaction.

Topic: Job Satisfaction

Feedback: Kiki is trying to reduce employee turnover by enhancing employee job satisfaction.

  1. Discretionary individual behavior that promotes the effective functioning of the organization is called organizational citizenship behavior. ______ is an example of OCB.
  2. Expressing criticism of management decisions
  3. Focusing on your job and letting other people handle their projects
  4. Allowing new staff to learn about the company on their own
  5. D. Respecting the spirit as well as the letter of housekeeping rules
  6. Usually attending staff meetings on time

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 02-05 List and explain the work-related outcomes associated with job satisfaction.

Topic: Citizenship

Feedback: Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is defined as individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and that in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization. Examples include:

  • Constructive statements about the department.
  • Expression of personal interest in the work of others.
  • Suggestions for improvement.
  • The training of new people.
  • Respect for the spirit as well as the letter of housekeeping rules.
  • Care for organizational property.
  • Punctuality and attendance well beyond standard or enforceable levels.

 

  1. Counterproductive work behavior (CWB) harms other employees, the organization as a whole, and/or organizational stakeholders such as customers and shareholders. Which of the following is an example of CWB?
  2. constantly arriving late for meetings
  3. gossiping about a co-worker
  4. C. presenting poor financial results at the quarterly meeting
  5. checking social media at work
  6. putting lunch with a friend on your expense account

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 02-05 List and explain the work-related outcomes associated with job satisfaction.

Topic: Counterproductive Behavior

Feedback: Counterproductive work behavior (CWB) represents behavior that harms other employees, the organization as a whole, or organizational stakeholders such as customers and shareholders. Examples include:

  • Bullying
  • Theft
  • Gossiping
  • Backstabbing
  • Drug and alcohol abuse
  • Destruction of organizational property
  • Violence
  • Deliberately poor or incorrect work
  • Internet surfing for personal reasons
  • Excessive socializing
  • Tardiness
  • Sabotage
  • Sexual harassment

 

  1. Juliet often takes office supplies home for her personal use. This is an example of
  2. OCB.
  3. COW.
  4. C.
  5. POS.
  6. EEG.

AACSB: Knowledge Application

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 02-05 List and explain the work-related outcomes associated with job satisfaction.

Topic: Counterproductive Behavior

Feedback: Examples of CWBs include bullying, theft, gossiping, backstabbing, drug and alcohol abuse, destroying organizational property, violence, purposely doing bad or incorrect work, surfing the Internet for personal use, excessive socializing, tardiness, sabotage, and sexual harassment.

  1. As demonstrated by research, ___________ is positively related to organizational citizenship behavior.
  2. A. higher performance ratings and lower organizational costs
  3. higher performance ratings and higher turnover
  4. lower customer satisfaction and lower turnover
  5. higher absenteeism and turnover
  6. lower efficiency and higher customer satisfaction

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-05 List and explain the work-related outcomes associated with job satisfaction.

Topic: Citizenship

Feedback: OCBs are significantly related to both individual level consequences (e.g., performance appraisal ratings, intentions to quit, absenteeism, and turnover) and organizational-level outcomes (e.g., productivity, efficiency, lower costs, customer satisfaction, and unit-level satisfaction and turnover).

  1. Which of the following is not a suggestion for managers who want to reduce voluntary turnover?
  2. Foster employee engagement.
  3. Create effective orientation programs.
  4. C. Reward all employees equally.
  5. Hire people who “fit” the organization’s culture.
  6. Provide clear expectations of the job.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-05 List and explain the work-related outcomes associated with job satisfaction.

Topic: Job Satisfaction

Feedback: Managers can reduce voluntary turnover if they: (1) Hire people who “fit” within the organization’s culture; (2) Spend time fostering employee engagement; (3) Provide effective onboarding, which helps employees to integrate, assimilate, and transition to new jobs by making them familiar with corporate policies, procedures, culture, and politics by clarifying work-role expectations and responsibilities; (4) Recognize and reward high performers because they are more likely to quit than average performers.

  1. Letitia reports to work at Apex Inc. This is her first day. Human resources tells Letitia to report to a conference room so that she can review the company’s mission statement and policies, go over her job description, and learn about the technology systems in use. This type of experience is an ______ program.
  2. incoming
  3. B. onboarding
  4. involvement
  5. introductory
  6. engagement

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 02-05 List and explain the work-related outcomes associated with job satisfaction.

Topic: Job Satisfaction

Feedback: Onboarding programs help employees to integrate, assimilate, and transition to new jobs by making them familiar with corporate policies, procedures, culture, and politics by clarifying work-role expectations and responsibilities.

  1. Explain Schwartz’s model of values. Identify two of your own values. Are these values adjacent, farther apart or opposing? Describe a situation that you faced and how your resolution reflects these values.

Schwartz proposed that broad values motivate our behavior across any context. He categorized these values into two opposing or bipolar dimensions, as outlined in Table 2.1. The first dimension ranges from concern for the welfare of others (which Schwartz calls self-transcendence) to pursuit of one’s own interests (self-enhancement). The second dimension ranges from self-directed independence (which Schwartz calls openness to change) to conformity (conservation). Schwartz stressed that it is the relative importance we give to these two dimensions of opposing values that drives our behavior. For example, if you value achievement (self-enhancement) over universalism (self-transcendence), you will spend your evening studying hard to get an A in this class rather than attending a meeting about fighting climate change.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

AACSB: Ethics

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 02-01 Summarize the role that values play in influencing your behavior.

Topic: Values

  1. Monica leads a team of six people hired to implement a new onboarding technology at High Systems & Co. Everyone has their assignment, but Stephen (who is in charge of researching and updating company policies) who has been lax in submitting his information. This delay can jeopardize the due date.

 

Using Ajzen’s model of planned change, explain how Monica can better manage Stephen.

Ajzen developed and refined a model depicted in Figure 2.3 focusing on intentions as the key link between attitudes and planned behavior. Managers may be able to influence behavioral change by doing or saying things that affect the three determinants of employees’ intentions to exhibit a specific behavior: attitude toward the behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. In the workplace, one of the simplest levers managers can use to change behavior is information.

Monica can try to create a positive attitude toward contributing high-quality work. She can explain the importance of the project deadline to everyone, and how it can impact Stephen personally. She can ensure that all other team members are doing their job. And she can ask Stephen about any obstacles getting in the way of high-quality work and discuss solutions for overcoming them.

AACSB: Knowledge Application

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 02-02 Explain how personal attitudes affect workplace behavior and work-related outcomes.

Topic: Organizational Behavior

  1. Why is it important for managers to pay attention to workplace attitudes? In your personal experience, is there one attitude that is more important than others? Describe the attitude and provide an example.

Managers should track a limited number of workplace attitudes to gauge how the organization is doing. Savvy managers will track four key workplace attitudes: organizational commitment, employee engagement, perceived organizational support, and job satisfaction. That is because these attitudinal measures serve a dual purpose. First, they represent important outcomes that managers may be working to enhance directly. Second, they link to other significant outcomes that managers will want to improve where possible.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 02-03 Explain why it is important for management to pay attention to workplace attitudes.

Topic: Workplace Attitudes

  1. Peter works for HR Associates. He is asked to present a report on the importance of organizational commitment and explain how managers can increase employees’ organizational commitment. Create an outline for Peter’s presentation.
  2. Organizational commitment reflects the extent to which an individual identifies with an organization and commits to its goals.
  3. Organizational commitment exists to the degree that a person’s values generally match the values that undergird a company’s organizational culture.
  4. Three general best practices and approaches are:
  • Hire people whose personal values align with the organization’s values.
  • Make sure that management does not breach its psychological contracts.
  • Explicitly and conscientiously enhance the level of trust throughout the organization.

AACSB: Knowledge Application

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 02-03 Explain why it is important for management to pay attention to workplace attitudes.

Topic: Organizational Commitment

  1. PWCB is a large management consulting firm, created as a result of the merger of two smaller companies. The corporate culture was different in both of the original companies. Despite addressing this difference, turnover is higher than expected and productivity is lower than anticipated. What can management do to address employee engagement?

Employee engagement is defined as “the harnessing of organization members’ selves to their work roles; in engagement, people employ and express themselves physically, cognitively, and emotionally during role performance.” Gallup estimates that when an organization’s employees are highly engaged, it can achieve 12 percent higher customer satisfaction/loyalty, 18 percent more productivity, and 12 percent greater profitability. One way to increase employee engagement is to make sure that the inputs in the Organizing Framework are positively oriented. Organizations do this by measuring, tracking, and responding to surveys of employee engagement. Then, management can address some of the more significant issues.

AACSB: Knowledge Application

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-03 Explain why it is important for management to pay attention to workplace attitudes.

Topic: Employee Engagement

  1. What is “perceived organizational support”? How does it impact employees? How can managers foster POS? Can you describe a personal experience in which your POS was positive negative?

Perceived organizational support (POS) reflects the extent to which employees believe their organization values their contributions and genuinely cares about their well-being. People are willing to work hard and commit to their organizations when they believe that the company “truly” cares about their best interest. We are motivated by the norm of reciprocity when someone treats us well. POS can be increased by treating employees fairly, by avoiding political behavior, by providing job security, by giving people more autonomy, by reducing stressors in the work environment, and by eliminating abusive supervision.

AACSB: Knowledge Application

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 02-03 Explain why it is important for management to pay attention to workplace attitudes.

Topic: Social Support

  1. The energy industry is under pressure from increased government regulations and environmental agency scrutiny. As a result, Sampson Coal Co. has suffered financial setbacks and reduced benefits and hours. Sampson Coal Co. suffers from low productivity, a high absence rate, pilfering, and increased turnover.

 

Management sends out an employee satisfaction survey, but receives few responses (even though the survey is anonymous). What is the overall state of job satisfaction at Sampson?  What steps can  management take?

Job satisfaction essentially reflects the extent to which an individual likes his or her job. Formally defined, job satisfaction is an affective or emotional response toward various facets of one’s job. A person can be relatively satisfied with one aspect of her or his job and dissatisfied with one or more other aspects.

Because employees didn’t respond to the survey, management can start with “listening sessions” to enhance engagement. Then consider:

  1. How can you get a higher survey response? (A raffle? Free coffee?  Time to answer the survey at work?)
  2. Can you address the big picture concerns (for example, worry about the future of the coal industry), as well as company-specific concerns?
  3. Address the concerns in terms of (1) need fulfillment, (2) met expectations, and (3) equity.
  4. Management can also commit to sending updates on their plans to protect workers.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-04 Explain the types of workplace changes managers can make to improve job satisfaction.

Topic: Job Satisfaction

  1. Describe the need fulfillment models of job satisfaction. Discuss research support for these models.

Need fulfillment models propose that satisfaction is determined by the extent to which the characteristics of a job allow an individual to fulfill her or his needs. Needs are physiological or psychological deficiencies that arouse behavior. All of us have different needs, which means that managers need to learn about employees’ needs if they want to increase job satisfaction. Research generally supports the conclusion that need fulfillment is correlated with job satisfaction.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-04 Explain the types of workplace changes managers can make to improve job satisfaction.

Topic: Job Satisfaction

  1. Describe the met expectations models of job satisfaction. Provide a specific example of needs that are met and of those that are not met.

These models propose that satisfaction results from how well expectations are met. Met expectations represent the difference between what an individual expects to receive from a job, such as good pay and promotional opportunities, and what the individual actually receives. When expectations are greater than what is received, a person will be dissatisfied. In contrast, this model predicts that an individual will be satisfied when he or she attains outcomes above and beyond expectations. Research strongly supports the conclusion that met expectations are significantly related to job satisfaction.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-04 Explain the types of workplace changes managers can make to improve job satisfaction.

Topic: Job Satisfaction

  1. Bullying includes various behaviors. It can be acts of physical aggression, such as pushing, pinching, or cornering. It can be verbal taunts and threats, such as name calling, jokes at someone’s expense, and humiliation. It can be relational aggression, such as gossip, rumors, and social isolation. It can be cyber-aggression, such as posting negative or derogatory images, text messages, or e-mail.

Describe a situation of bullying that you have seen or experienced. What happened? How could you have dealt with this situation better?  What was the end result?

Bullying occurs when an individual experiences a number of negative behaviors repeatedly over a period of time.

 

Short-term effects of being bullied include increased anxiety, panic attacks, health-related symptoms, and counterproductive behavior along with decreased job satisfaction, self-esteem, attendance at work, and job performance. Long term, bullying can lead to employee turnover, depression, symptoms akin to post-traumatic stress disorder, and suicide.

 

If you are a target of bullying, you can:

  • Keep a record.
  • Plan your interactions.
  • Confront the bully.
  • Escalate the situation.
  • Stay calm, but take care of yourself.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-01 Summarize the role that values play in influencing your behavior.

  1. Wanderlust Tech Group creates new video games. The staff consists of young, tech-savvy college graduates. Over 80 percent of employees in this close-knit company are recognized “gamers.” They have fun together in and out of work.

 

Recently, management has noticed increased turnover and teams have missed several project deadlines. The company changed its hiring criteria about eight months ago to include values associated with self-transcendence and conservation.  Human Resources feels that these traits are consistent with the company’s vision and goals.

A recent employee attitude survey showed that younger employees prefer to work in autonomous teams in which they have more latitude over how the work gets done. While management likes the value of autonomy, it believes that teams need a team leader. The survey further showed that employees desire more recognition and more career paths. The company is relatively small and there are not many managerial positions that can be used for promotions. Results confirmed high levels of employee commitment and perceived organizational support.

Some of the more tenured employees have become disgruntled about the salaries paid to new hires. New hires are making only a few thousand dollars a year less than more experienced people. The company feels that it’s progressive policy about telecommuting allows employees to work from home and should allay any complaints about pay.

Using the 3-Step Problem-Solving Approach, describe how management can address these issues.

Wanderlust hires young graduates who love excitement, need stimulation and are self-directed. Of course, there is a normal amount of turnover in first jobs within a year or so. But that hasn’t been the case here in the past. Using the Organizing Framework:

Step 1. Define the problem: Is it attitudes toward work? Well-being/flourishing?

Step 2. Identify the causes: Consider changes in personal values and attitudes. What about the situation factors?

Step 3. Make recommendations: How can management change the attitudes and maintain staff?

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-04 Explain the types of workplace changes managers can make to improve job satisfaction.

Topic: Organizational Commitment

  1. Describe the dispositional/genetic models of job satisfaction. Discuss the research support for these models. Now, think about your own personal traits and genetic factors. What are your two strongest traits? How do these traits correlate to activities that you find satisfying?

This model posits that job satisfaction remains partly a function of both personal traits and genetic factors. Although few studies have tested these propositions in depth, a review of existing literature reveals a more nuanced understanding. Dispositional factors were significantly associated with only selected aspects of job satisfaction. Dispositions had stronger relationships with intrinsic aspects of a job (e.g., having autonomy) than with extrinsic aspects of work (e.g., receipt of rewards). Genetic factors also were found to significantly predict life satisfaction, well-being, and general job satisfaction. Overall, researchers estimate that 30 percent of an individual’s job satisfaction is associated with dispositional and genetic components.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 02-04 Explain the types of workplace changes managers can make to improve job satisfaction.

Topic: Job Satisfaction

  1. Viola works as a paralegal for a successful personal injury firm. The firm is now advertising on television, and she is asked to handle the research for three partners. Viola suggests that they hire an additional paralegal, but the partners want to wait until the next year. Viola is experiencing headaches on a daily basis. She can’t sleep at night, worrying about how she’s going to get her work down.

Viola is beginning to think that she needs to find a new job. The partners want to keep Viola with the firm. Analyze this situation and make recommendations to the partners.

Stress has negative effects on many different OB-related outcomes. For instance, stress is positively related to absenteeism, turnover, coronary heart disease, and viral infections. As expected, perceived stress has a strong, negative relationship to job satisfaction. Perceived stress also was found to be negatively associated with employee engagement. Managers should attempt to reduce the negative effects of stress by improving job satisfaction and by encouraging employees to detach from work during off-job time (i.e., stop thinking about work, and “don’t take it home with you”).

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 02-05 List and explain the work-related outcomes associated with job satisfaction.

Topic: Job Satisfaction

  1. Discuss what research has found about the relationship between job performance and job satisfaction.

This is more complicated than it might first appear. OB experts have identified at least eight ways in which these variables are related. The dominant theories are either that satisfaction causes performance or performance causes satisfaction. A team of researchers recently attempted to resolve this controversy, and made two key findings:

(1) Job satisfaction and performance were moderately related. This is an important finding because it supports the belief that employee job satisfaction is a key workplace attitude which managers should consider when attempting to increase employees’ job performance.

(2) The relationship is complex. It is not that one directly influences the other or vice versa. Rather, researchers now believe that both variables indirectly influence each other through a host of personal factors and environmental characteristics.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 02-05 List and explain the work-related outcomes associated with job satisfaction.

Topic: Job Satisfaction

  1. What is OCB? Why does it matter to managers? Now provide an example of how OCB applies to your life in college.

Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is defined as individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and that in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization. This definition highlights two key points: OCBs are voluntary; and OCBs help work groups and the organization to effectively achieve goals. OCBs have a moderately positive correlation with job satisfaction. Moreover, OCBs are significantly related to both individual-level consequences and organizational-level outcomes. These are important for two reasons. (1) Exhibiting OCBs is likely to create positive impressions among colleagues and managers. In turn, these impressions affect ability to work with others, manager evaluations of performance, and ultimately promotability. (2) The aggregate amount of employees’ OCBs affects important organizational outcomes.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 02-05 List and explain the work-related outcomes associated with job satisfaction.

Topic: Citizenship

  1. What is CWB? Why does this matter to managers? Now provide an example of how CWB applies to your life currently.

Counterproductive work behavior (CWB) has a strong, negative relationship with job satisfaction. This means that it is important for managers to find ways to reduce CWB. This can be done in three key ways: (1) Organizations can limit CWBs by hiring individuals who are less prone to engage in this type of behavior. (2) Organizations should ensure they are motivating desired behaviors and not CWBs, for example, by designing jobs that promote satisfaction and by preventing abusive supervision. (3) If an employee does engage in CWBs, the organization should respond quickly and appropriately, defining the specific behaviors that are unacceptable and the requirements for acceptable behavior.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 02-05 List and explain the work-related outcomes associated with job satisfaction.

Topic: Counterproductive Behavior

  1. Berto manages a staff of 10 at a local restaurant. Based on customer satisfaction surveys and YELP reviews, he knows that some of his staff are not providing adequate customer service. Berto lost his summer help and is already short-staffed. He is torn between finding enough qualified servers and meeting customer expectations.

Under what circumstances is organizational turnover good or bad?

Turnover: Consider the pros and cons of turnover. Turnover can be a good thing when a low-performing person quits or is fired. In contrast, losing a good employee is bad because the organization loses valuable human and social capital, and it can be costly. Job satisfaction has a moderately strong, negative relationship with turnover. Managers can reduce voluntary turnover if they: (1) Hire people who “fit” within the organization’s culture. (2) Spend time fostering employee engagement. (3) Provide effective onboarding. (4) Recognize and reward high performers because they are more likely to quit than average performers.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 02-05 List and explain the work-related outcomes associated with job satisfaction.

Topic: Job Satisfaction

Category                                                                                                                                                                             # of Questions

AACSB: Analytical Thinking                                                                                                                                                                       80

AACSB: Ethics                                                                                                                                                                                             18

AACSB: Knowledge Application                                                                                                                                                                 17

AACSB: Technology                                                                                                                                                                                    1

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation                                                                                                                                                              79

Blooms: Apply                                                                                                                                                                                              19

Blooms: Remember                                                                                                                                                                                       51

Blooms: Understand                                                                                                                                                                                     26

Difficulty: 1 Easy                                                                                                                                                                                          30

Difficulty: 2 Medium                                                                                                                                                                                    35

Difficulty: 3 Hard                                                                                                                                                                                          31

Learning Objective: 02-01 Summarize the role that values play in influencing your behavior.                                                                     19

Learning Objective: 02-02 Explain how personal attitudes affect workplace behavior and work-related outcomes.                                     16

Learning Objective: 02-03 Explain why it is important for management to pay attention to workplace attitudes.                                         21

Learning Objective: 02-04 Explain the types of workplace changes managers can make to improve job satisfaction.                                  18

Learning Objective: 02-05 List and explain the work-related outcomes associated with job satisfaction.                                                     22

Topic: Affective Component                                                                                                                                                                         2

Topic: Behavioral Component                                                                                                                                                                       2

Topic: Citizenship                                                                                                                                                                                         3

Topic: Cognitive Dissonance                                                                                                                                                                        4

Topic: Counterproductive Behavior                                                                                                                                                              3

Topic: Employee Engagement                                                                                                                                                                       5

Topic: Equity Theory                                                                                                                                                                                    1

Topic: Job Satisfaction                                                                                                                                                                                  31

Topic: Motivating Factors                                                                                                                                                                             2

Topic: Organizational Behavior                                                                                                                                                                     3

Topic: Organizational Commitment                                                                                                                                                               6

Topic: Psychological Contracts                                                                                                                                                                     3

Topic: Schwartz’s Value Theory                                                                                                                                                                   1

Topic: Social Support                                                                                                                                                                                    5

Topic: Values                                                                                                                                                                                                17

Topic: Workplace Attitudes                                                                                                                                                                           5

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