Vanders Human Physiology The Mechanisms of Body Function 12th Edition By Widmaier – Test Bank

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Vanders Human Physiology The Mechanisms of Body Function 12th Edition By Widmaier – Test Bank

 

Chapter 02

Chemical Composition of the Body

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. In an atom, the number of
    A.Protons always equals the number of neutrons
    B. Of protons always equals the number of electrons
    C. Of neutrons always equals the number of electrons
    D. Both protons always equals the number of neutrons and of protons always equals the number of electrons are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. An atom’s identity is directly determined by
    A. The number of electrons it has
    B.  The number of neutrons it has
    C.  The number of protons it has
    D.  The number of bonds it can form
    E.  Its atomic weight

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Carbon-12 and carbon-14 are isotopes. They differ in the number of
    A.Protons
    B. Neutrons
    C. Electrons
    D. Chemical bonds they can form
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. A covalent bond between two atoms is
    A. Formed when each atom shares one of its inner-orbit electrons with the other atom
    B.  Formed when each atom shares one of its outer-orbit electrons with the other atom
    C.  The strongest of the chemical bonds
    D.  Formed when each atom shares one of its inner-orbit electrons with the other atom and the strongest of the chemical bonds
    E.  Formed when each atom shares one of its outer-orbit electrons with the other atom and the strongest of the chemical bonds

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Ions are
    A.Electrically neutral
    B. Electrically charged
    C. Formed by the gain or loss of protons from the nucleus
    D. Electrically charged and formed by the gain or loss of protons from the nucleus
    E. None of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. When magnesium loses electrons to become an ion it forms
    A.A covalent bond
    B. A cation
    C. An anion
    D. A new element

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. If a sports beverage advertises that it replaces the body’s electrolytes, it will replace
    A.Sugars that were broken down for energy
    B. Ionic forms of mineral elements
    C. Lipids that form the membranes of cells
    D. Oxygen and gases used by metabolism
    E. Vitamins

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Of the major ions in the body, the only one that carries a negative charge is
    A.Chloride
    B. Sodium
    C. Potassium
    D. Hydrogen
    E. Calcium

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Free radicals
    A.React rapidly with other atoms
    B. Include hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide
    C. Contain two electrons in the outermost orbital
    D. React rapidly with other atoms and include hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. If a free radical reacts with another molecule the free radical will
    A.Remove electrons from the other molecule
    B. Form an unbreakable bond with the other molecule
    C. Remove protons from the other molecule
    D. Stabilize the other molecule
    E. None of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Electrolytes
    A.Are ions
    B. Conduct electricity when dissolved in water
    C. Are found in pure water
    D. Both are ions and conduct electricity when dissolved in water are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Which of the following is not true of a polar chemical bond?
    A.It is covalent
    B. It is ionized
    C. It has opposite electrical charge at each end
    D. It has no net electrical charge
    E. None of the choices are false

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. A polar molecule
    A.Contains a significant proportion of polar bonds relative to nonpolar bonds
    B. May contain ionized groups
    C. Can form hydrogen bonds with other polar molecules
    D. Contains a significant proportion of polar bonds relative to nonpolar bonds and may contain ionized groups are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Hydrolysis
    A.Involves removal of water molecules from larger molecules
    B. Involves breaking of covalent bonds within water molecules and transfer of the resulting ions to other molecules
    C. Results in the breakdown of large molecules in the body
    D. Both involves removal of water molecules from larger molecules and involves breaking of covalent bonds within water molecules and transfer of the resulting ions to other molecules are correct
    E. Both involves breaking of covalent bonds within water molecules and transfer of the resulting ions to other molecules and results in the breakdown of large molecules in the body are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Consider the adage familiar to anyone who has observed oil spills in the ocean or has made a salad dressing: “Oil and water do not mix.” Which of the following helps explain this observation?
    A. Oil is hydrophobic
    B.  Oil is nonpolar
    C.  Oil is composed largely of carbon and hydrogen
    D.  Water is hydrophilic
    E.  All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. Molecules that have properties of both polar and nonpolar molecules are called
    A.Hydrophobic
    B. Hydrophilic
    C. Amphipathic
    D. All of the choices are correct
    E. None of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Compounds A, B and C have molecular weights of 10, 50 and 100 respectively. If 5 grams of each compound were put into 1 liter of water, which compound will have the greatest molar concentration?
    A.Compound A
    B. Compound B
    C. Compound C
    D. All will have the same molar concentration

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The pH of a solution
    A. Is a measure of the concentration of H atoms in solution
    B.  Is a measure of the concentration of bound H+ ions in solution
    C.  Is a measure of the concentration of free H+ ions in solution
    D.  Increases as the acidity of the solution increases
    E.  Both is a measure of the concentration of free H+ ions in solution and increases as the acidity of the solution increases are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. Most of the body weight of an average young adult male is
    A.Water
    B. Protein
    C. Minerals
    D. Lipids
    E. Carbohydrates

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Organic molecules
    A.Always contain oxygen
    B. Always contain carbon
    C. Are always macromolecules
    D. Both always contain oxygen and always contain carbon are correct
    E. Both always contain carbon and are always macromolecules are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Carbohydrates are
    A.Composed of equal parts of C atoms and water molecules
    B. The major organic molecules of the body
    C. Nonpolar
    D. Composed of equal parts of C atoms and water molecules and the major organic molecules of the body
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. Glucose is a
    A.Monosaccharide
    B. Disaccharide
    C. Polysaccharide
    D. Glycoprotein
    E. Phospholipid

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Carbohydrates are stored in the liver and muscles in the form of
    A.Cellulose
    B. Starch
    C. Triacylglycerol
    D. Glycogen
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Relative to carbohydrates, lipids
    A.Contain fewer carbon atoms per molecule
    B. Contain fewer oxygen atoms per molecule
    C. Are more hydrophilic
    D. Are less abundant in the body

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. Which of the following lipids have regulatory roles in the body?
    A.Steroids
    B. Eicosanoids
    C. Triacylglycerols
    D. Both steroids and eicosanoids are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Proteins are
    A.Critically important for physiological processes
    B. Composed of fatty acids
    C. Composed of nucleic acids
    D. Macromolecules with subunits linked by polypeptide bonds
    E. Critically important for physiological processes and macromolecules with subunits linked by polypeptide bonds

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Protein conformation is
    A.Independent of the sequence of subunits forming the protein
    B. Dependent upon a combination of covalent and noncovalent bonds
    C. Affected by interactions with water molecules
    D. Independent of the sequence of subunits forming the protein and affected by interactions with water molecules
    E. Dependent upon a combination of covalent and noncovalent bonds and affected by interactions with water molecules

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. Which of the following correctly describes the strength of the chemical bonds important in protein conformation, from strongest to weakest?
    A.Covalent, ionic, hydrogen, van der Waals
    B. Ionic, covalent, hydrogen, van der Waals
    C. Van der Waals, hydrogen, ionic, covalent
    D. Covalent, hydrogen, ionic, van der Waals
    E. Covalent, ionic, van der Waals, hydrogen

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The covalent bond formed between two amino acids is called a(n)
    A.Glycosidic bond
    B. Peptide bond
    C. Phosphodiester bond
    D. Ester bond
    E. Hydrolytic bond

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Hydrogen bonding is very important in maintaining the structure of
    A.Lipids
    B. Nucleic acids
    C. Proteins
    D. Nucleic acids and proteins
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. Nucleic acids are
    A.Macromolecules
    B. Composed of nucleotides
    C. Distinguished from each other in part by the composition of the sugar they contain
    D. Macromolecules and composed of nucleotides
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Adenosine triphosphate is a(n)
    A.Carbohydrate
    B. Lipid
    C. Protein
    D. Nucleotide
    E. Amino acid

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The function of adenosine triphosphate is
    A. To transfer energy in a cell
    B.  Catalyze chemical reactions
    C.  Store large amounts of energy within the cell
    D.  Act as a template for synthesizing lipids
    E.  All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

True / False Questions

  1. An atom is electrically neutral.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The mass of an atom is the sum of its protons and electrons.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The atomic number of an element is given by the number of electrons in the atom.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. An atomic nucleus is electrically neutral.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Protons and neutrons have roughly the same mass.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. The atomic number of an element refers to the number of particles in its atomic nucleus.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Twelve grams of C contains the same number of atoms as one gram of H.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The four most common elements in the body are hydrogen, carbon, calcium and oxygen.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Important mineral elements in the body include Na, Ca and K.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Trace elements such as zinc and manganese are found in minute quantities in the body but do not serve any known function.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. The number of covalent bonds that can be formed by a given atom depends upon the number of electrons present in the outermost orbit.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Nitrogen atoms can form a maximum of four covalent bonds with other atoms.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The shape of a molecule may change as atoms rotate about their covalent bonds.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. All of the physiologically important atoms of the body readily form ions.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Water molecules can form covalent bonds with other water molecules.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. In a molecule of water, an oxygen atom forms a double bond with each of two hydrogen atoms.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The carboxyl ion is an anion.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. NaCl is a molecule formed by the covalent bonding of a sodium atom to a chlorine atom.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. All covalent bonds are polar.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. During hydrolysis, hydrogen atoms and hydroxyl groups are formed.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. In general, polar molecules will dissolve in polar solvents, while nonpolar molecules cannot.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Solutes that do not dissolve in water are called hydrophilic.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Molecules with both polar and nonpolar regions are called ambidextrous.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The molarity of a solution is a measure of the concentration of the solute.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. A solution with a pH of 8 is more acidic than one with a pH of 3.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. Organic chemistry is the study of oxygen-containing compounds.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Polysaccharides are polymers of sugar molecules.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Sucrose is called “blood sugar” because it is the most abundant carbohydrate in the blood.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Triacylglycerol is one subclass of lipid molecules.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Saturated fats contain carbon atoms linked by double bonds.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. Cholesterol is a phospholipid.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Glycoproteins are protein molecules with molecules of glycogen attached to the amino acid side chains.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The sequence of amino acids in a protein is known as the secondary structure.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Protein molecules may consist of more than one polypeptide chain.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Substitution of one amino acid for another in a given protein will inevitably alter the conformation of that protein to a significant degree.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. In DNA, thymine binds with adenine and cytosine binds with uracil.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

Fill in the Blank Questions
Use this table to answer the question:

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. What is the atomic mass of H?
    1

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. What is the atomic mass of Na?
    23

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. What is the total (net) charge of an atom of K?
    0

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. What is the gram atomic mass of C?
    12g

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

In the reaction R-COOH   R-COO + H+
COOH is the carboxyl group

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. COO is the ________  ________.
    carboxyl ion

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. H+ represents the ________  ________.
    hydrogen ion

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. R refers to the _____________________.
    remainder of the molecule

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The symbol  indicates that the process is (reversible/irreversible).
    reversible

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. A neutral solution has a pH of ____________.
    7.0

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

Chapter 04

Movement of Molecules Across Cell Membranes

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Which of the following statements regarding the structure and function of cell membranes is correct?
    A. The phospholipid bilayer is arranged so that the hydrophilic heads of the phospholipid molecule face the extra- and intracellular fluids
    B.  Some proteins integrated into the membrane serve as channels for the passage of nonpolar molecules through the membrane
    C.  Some proteins integrated into the membrane function as channels associated with transport of ions through the membrane
    D.  Both the phospholipid bilayer is arranged so that the hydrophilic heads of the phospholipid molecule face the extra- and intracellular fluids and some proteins integrated into the membrane function as channels associated with transport of ions through the membrane are correct
    E.  All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.01
Topic: Cells
 

  1. Diffusion
    A.Depends upon the random motion of molecules
    B. Results in net movement of molecules from regions of low concentration to regions of high concentration
    C. Is important for moving molecules over large distances in the body
    D. Requires energy in the form of ATP to be carried out
    E. Includes all of the choices

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. When a solute, X, is placed in compartment A of a two compartment container and allowed to diffuse to compartment B and attain diffusion equilibrium, then
    A.There will no longer be any movement of solutes between compartments
    B. Solutes will be moving in both directions equally
    C. Solutes will only continue to move from A to B
    D. Solutes will only continue to move from B to A
    E. Solutes will continue to move to the side with the higher concentration

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding the diffusion of nonpolar solutes across cell membranes is correct?
    A.At equilibrium for solute X, the flux of X across cell membranes is zero
    B. At equilibrium for solute X, the net flux of X across cell membranes is zero
    C. At equilibrium for solute X, the concentration of X inside the cell is equal to its concentration outside the cell
    D. Both at equilibrium for solute X, the flux of X across cell membranes is zero and at equilibrium for solute X, the concentration of X inside the cell is equal to its concentration outside the cell are correct
    E. Both at equilibrium for solute X, the net flux of X across cell membranes is zero and at equilibrium for solute X, the concentration of X inside the cell is equal to its concentration outside the cell are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 4.01
Topic: Cells
 

  1. The net flux of a penetrating solute into a cell will increase if the
    A.Permeability constant for that solute increases
    B. Temperature increases
    C. Concentration of that solute in the extracellular fluid increases
    D. Both permeability constant for that solute increases and concentration of that solute in the extracellular fluid increases are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.01
Topic: Cells
 

 

  1. Which of the following would decrease the rate of diffusion?
    A.Increasing the size of the diffusing solute
    B. Increasing the temperature
    C. Increasing the concentration gradient
    D. Increasing the surface area for diffusion
    E. All of the choices would increase the rate of diffusion

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 4.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Equal concentrations of two solutes, A and B, are placed into the same beaker at the same time. Solute A reaches diffusion equilibrium faster than solute B. What is the most likely explanation for this observation?
    A.The temperature was greater for solute A than solute B
    B. The concentration gradient for A was greater than B
    C. Solute A is smaller than solute B
    D. Solute A traveled a shorter distance than solute B
    E. All of the choices are logical explanations

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 4.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. If it takes solute A 1 second to diffuse 1 millimeter, how long will it take solute A to diffuse 10 millimeters under the same conditions?
    A.1 second
    B. 10 seconds
    C. 50 seconds
    D. 100 seconds
    E. 1000 seconds

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 4.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. In general, polar molecules diffuse more rapidly through the lipid bilayer part of cell membranes than do nonpolar molecules. This statement is
    A.True
    B. False. Polar molecules diffuse through less rapidly because the bilayer is polar throughout its width
    C. False. Polar molecules diffuse through less rapidly because the bilayer is nonpolar throughout its width
    D. False. Nonpolar molecules diffuse through more rapidly because much of the bilayer is nonpolar
    E. False. The rate of diffusion of nonpolar and polar molecules through the bilayer is essentially the same as long as the molecules are the same size

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 4.01
Topic: Cells
 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding the movement of molecules across cell membranes is correct?
    A.The diffusion of molecules across a cell membrane occurs at a rate that is influenced by the surface area of the membrane and the magnitude of the concentration difference across it
    B. The net flux of molecules that cross cell membranes by diffusion is always from regions of lower concentration to regions of higher concentration
    C. Molecules that enter a cell by diffusion must directly permeate the lipid portion of the plasma membrane, whereas those that enter by facilitated diffusion utilize membrane-bound proteins
    D. Both the diffusion of molecules across a cell membrane occurs at a rate that is influenced by the surface area of the membrane and the magnitude of the concentration difference across it and the net flux of molecules that cross cell membranes by diffusion is always from regions of lower concentration to regions of higher concentration are correct
    E. Both the diffusion of molecules across a cell membrane occurs at a rate that is influenced by the surface area of the membrane and the magnitude of the concentration difference across it and molecules that enter a cell by diffusion must directly permeate the lipid portion of the plasma membrane, whereas those that enter by facilitated diffusion utilize membrane-bound proteins are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 4.01
Topic: Cells
 

 

  1. The permeability of the plasma membrane to mineral ions
    A.Is dependent upon channels formed by proteins
    B. Varies from one cell to another
    C. Is affected by differences in electrical charge on the two sides of the membrane
    D. Both is dependent upon channels formed by proteins and is affected by differences in electrical charge on the two sides of the membrane are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.01
Topic: Cells
 

  1. Ion channels in cell membranes
    A.Are nonspecific
    B. May open in response to a change in potential difference across the membrane
    C. May open in response to binding a ligand
    D. Both are nonspecific and may open in response to a change in potential difference across the membrane are correct
    E. Both may open in response to a change in potential difference across the membrane and may open in response to binding a ligand are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.01
Topic: Cells
 

  1. Mediated transport across cell membranes
    A.Refers to the movement of ions through protein channels
    B. Refers both to diffusion and to the active transport of molecules
    C. Is characterized by saturable carriers and a maximum velocity of transport
    D. Both refers to the movement of ions through protein channels and refers both to diffusion and to the active transport of molecules are correct
    E. Both refers both to diffusion and to the active transport of molecules and is characterized by saturable carriers and a maximum velocity of transport are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.02
Topic: Cells
 

 

  1. Carrier-mediated transport
    A.Involves a specific membrane protein that functions as a carrier molecule
    B. Always involves the movement of substances against a concentration gradient
    C. Always requires the direct expenditure of energy
    D. Both involves a specific membrane protein that functions as a carrier molecule and always involves the movement of substances against a concentration gradient are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.02
Topic: Cells
 

  1. Which of the following is a feature that distinguishes active transport from facilitated diffusion?
    A.Saturability
    B. Requirement for a carrier molecule
    C. Specificity
    D. Presence of a transport maximum
    E. Requirement for metabolic energy

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 4.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The mediated transport of a substance across a plasma membrane
    A.Depends upon the binding of that substance to a specific site on the membrane protein
    B. Depends upon movement of proteins from one side of the membrane to the other
    C. Always increases in direct proportion to the increasing concentration of the substance on one side of the membrane
    D. Both depends upon the binding of that substance to a specific site on the membrane protein and depends upon movement of proteins from one side of the membrane to the other are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.02
Topic: Cells
 

 

  1. Which form of membrane transport is being described? The passage of molecules into cells without passing through the plasma membrane’s structural matrix.
    A.Diffusion
    B. Osmosis
    C. Facilitated diffusion
    D. Endocytosis
    E. Apoptosis

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 4.04
Topic: Cells
 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding the active transport of molecules across cell membranes is correct?
    A.Both primary and secondary active transport are dependent upon energy derived from ATP
    B. In secondary active-transport systems in which Na ions are bound to carriers, the actively transported solute always follows Na ions across the membrane
    C. In secondary active-transport systems in which Na ions are bound to carriers, the actively transported solute always moves across the membrane in the direction opposite of Na ion movement
    D. Both primary and secondary active transport are dependent upon energy derived from ATP and in secondary active-transport systems in which Na ions are bound to carriers, the actively transported solute always follows Na ions across the membrane are correct
    E. Both primary and secondary active transport are dependent upon energy derived from ATP and in secondary active-transport systems in which Na ions are bound to carriers, the actively transported solute always moves across the membrane in the direction opposite of Na ion movement are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 4.02
Topic: Cells
 

 

  1. Glucose enters most cells by
    A.Diffusion through the lipid bilayer
    B. Primary active transport
    C. Secondary active transport
    D. Diffusion through a protein channel
    E. Endocytosis

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.04
Topic: Cells
 

  1. Which of the following is not a difference between primary active transport and secondary active transport?
    A.Primary active transport uses energy derived from ATP whereas secondary active transport does not
    B. Primary active transport uses a carrier that is an ATPase whereas the latter does not
    C. Primary active transport uses a carrier that is phosphorylated whereas the latter does not
    D. Primary active transport uses a carrier whose binding affinity for the solute is modified by covalent modulation whereas the latter does not
    E. None of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 4.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding the active transport of solutes across cell membranes is correct?
    A.Primary active transporters are ATPases and secondary active transporters are not
    B. Secondary active transporters require binding of Na ion on the extracellular side of the membrane to transport other solutes either into or out of the cell
    C. Solutes transported across cell membranes by primary active transport include glucose, Na ion and Ca ion
    D. Both primary active transporters are ATPases and secondary active transporters are not and secondary active transporters require binding of Na ion on the extracellular side of the membrane to transport other solutes either into or out of the cell are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.02
Topic: Cells
 

 

  1. Which of the following statements about the Na, K pump is false?
    A. It transports Na+ out of cells and K+ into cells
    B.  It binds to and hydrolyzes ATP
    C.  It is constantly active in all cells
    D.  Its activity requires the expenditure of metabolic energy
    E.  It transports Na+ and K+ in a 1:1 ratio

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.02
Topic: Cells
 

  1. A cell is placed into a 1 millimolar solution of substance X and over time you witness the concentration of X inside the cell increase to 5 millimolar. The best explanation for this is:
    A. X is moving into the cell by simple diffusion
    B.  X is moving into the cell by diffusion through a protein channel
    C.  X is moving into the cell by facilitated diffusion
    D.  X is moving into the cell by primary active transport
    E.  It is not possible to tell which mechanism is responsible for the transport of X

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 4.02
Topic: Cells
 

  1. If the ATP-generating mechanisms in a cell are poisoned and the cell has depleted its ATP reserves,
    A.Primary active transport of molecules would cease immediately
    B. Secondary active transport of molecules would cease immediately
    C. Eventually there will be no potential difference across the membrane
    D. Both primary active transport of molecules would cease immediately and secondary active transport of molecules would cease immediately are correct
    E. Both primary active transport of molecules would cease immediately and eventually there will be no potential difference across the membrane are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 4.02
Topic: Cells
 

 

  1. “Osmosis” refers to the movement of ____________ across semipermeable membranes.
    A.Glucose
    B. Charged particles
    C. Lipid molecules
    D. Water
    E. Any substance

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. If pure water and a solution containing a nonpenetrating solute are separated by a membrane that is permeable only to water,
    A.Water will diffuse by osmosis until the water concentrations in the two compartments become equal
    B. Both water and the solute will diffuse across the membrane down their concentration gradients until a state of equilibrium is established
    C. Water will diffuse by osmosis until stopped by opposing hydrostatic pressure
    D. No movement will occur between the compartments
    E. None of the choices will occur

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 4.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. If all other conditions remain the same and the concentration of a nonpenetrating solute increases inside a cell,
    A.Water will tend to enter the cell because the interior has an increased osmolarity
    B. Water will tend to leave the cell because the interior has an increased osmolarity
    C. Water will tend to enter the cell because the interior has a decreased osmolarity
    D. Water will tend to leave the cell because the interior has a decreased osmolarity
    E. The nonpenetrating solute will diffuse across the membrane until its concentration is equal on both sides of the membrane

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 4.03
Topic: Cells
 

 

  1. If a cell is placed in a hypotonic solution, it
    A.Will swell
    B. Will shrink
    C. Will stay the same size
    D. May swell, shrink or stay the same size, depending upon the concentration of penetrating and nonpenetrating solutes in the solution

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 4.03
Topic: Cells
 

  1. If a cell is placed in a hyperosmotic solution, it
    A.Will swell
    B. Will shrink
    C. Will stay the same size
    D. May swell, shrink or stay the same size, depending upon the concentration of penetrating and nonpenetrating solutes in the solution

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 4.03
Topic: Cells
 

  1. If a cell is placed into an unknown solution and it shrinks, what can be concluded about the unknown solution?
    A.Its nonpenetrating solute concentration was greater than that of the cell
    B. Its nonpenetrating solute concentration was less than that of the cell
    C. Its nonpenetrating solute concentration was equal to that of the cell
    D. Any of the choices are possible

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Section 4.03
Topic: Cells
 

 

  1. The reason solutions for injection or infusion into people normally contain either 150 mM NaCl or 300 mM glucose is that these
    A.Solutes are necessary for metabolism
    B. Solutions are hypertonic to the blood and cells
    C. Solutions are hypoosmotic to the blood and cells
    D. Solutions are isotonic to the blood and cells
    E. Solutions contain penetrating solutes

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 4.03
Topic: Cells
 

  1. An example of a hypertonic solution is
    A. 200 mM NaCl
    B.  300 mM glucose
    C.  100 mM MgCl2
    D.  400 mM urea
    E.  None of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 4.03
Topic: Cells
 

  1. Which of the following solutions is not isotonic to human cells?
    A. 300 mM glucose
    B.  300 mM urea
    C.  100 mM MgCl2
    D.  300 mOsm NaCl

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 4.03
Topic: Cells
 

 

  1. Regarding the tonicity and osmolarity of solutions, which of the following statements is not true?
    A.The term “tonicity” refers to the effect that a solution has on the degree of stretch or shrinking of the cell membrane
    B. The term “osmolarity” refers to the osmotic properties of a solution, regardless of its tonicity
    C. Isotonic solutions are always isoosmotic
    D. Hypoosmotic solutions are always hypotonic
    E. Hypertonic solutions are always hyperosmotic

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 4.03
Topic: Cells
 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding endocytosis and exocytosis is correct?
    A.Endocytosis is a method by which large molecules may be brought into a cell
    B. Exocytosis is a method by which large molecules may be secreted from a cell
    C. Pinocytosis is a form of endocytosis; phagocytosis is a form of exocytosis
    D. Both endocytosis is a method by which large molecules may be brought into a cell and exocytosis is a method by which large molecules may be secreted from a cell are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.04
Topic: Cells
 

  1. Which form of endocytosis is nonspecific, in that it occurs by the formation of an invagination of the plasma membrane which then fills with interstitial fluid of the immediate area?
    A.Active transport
    B. Hyperosmotic vesicular entrapment
    C. Phagocytosis
    D. Pinocytosis
    E. Hydrosmosis

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.04
Topic: Cells
 

 

  1. Receptor mediated endocytosis requires
    A.A specific ligand and functional receptors for it on the external plasma membrane
    B. The molecular components necessary for the synthesis of clathrin proteins
    C. The ability of the cell to synthesize the proteins which compose the receptor protein
    D. The genes in chromosomal DNA for both receptor and clathrin proteins be present in the cell
    E. All of these choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.04
Topic: Cells
 

  1. The removal of cholesterol from the blood during times when its concentrations are high
    A.Is heavily dependent upon the activity of phagocytosis
    B. Requires that it be bound to circulating lipoproteins which attach to absorbtive cell membranes
    C. Is promoted by the increased production of lipoprotein receptors in the cholesterol absorbing cells
    D. Both requires that it be bound to circulating lipoproteins which attach to absorbtive cell membranes and is promoted by the increased production of lipoprotein receptors in the cholesterol absorbing cells are correct
    E. All of these choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 4.04
Topic: Cells
 

  1. Cholesterol levels in the blood are regulated via the activity of the liver utilizing the process known as _____, which can be regulated to increase uptake as the cell ______ the number of cholesterol+ lipoprotein receptors on its surface.
    A.Phagosomolysis, increases
    B. Endosomolysis, decreases
    C. Receptor mediated endocytosis, increases
    D. Potocytosis, decreases
    E. Pinocytosis, increases

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 4.04
Topic: Cells
 

 

  1. Once formed inside of the cell most endocytic vesicles will fuse with which organelle for sorting?
    A.Endoplasmic reticulum
    B. Golgi apparatus
    C. Endosome
    D. Nucleus
    E. Mitochondria

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.04
Topic: Cells
 

  1. At any given time it is possible to see endocytotic vesicles docked to intracellular organelles such as those which may receive their contents for modification, synthesis, packaging and then release. Which organelle would be most likely to be involved in this process as a destination for a transport vesicle formed for this purpose along the plasma membrane?
    A.Golgi apparatus
    B. Peroxisome
    C. Lysosome
    D. Mitochondrion
    E. Ribosome

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 4.04
Topic: Cells
 

 

  1. Which of the following statements about epithelial cells and epithelial transport is correct?
    A. Epithelial cells are polarized
    B.  Epithelial cells lining the small intestine have Na, K-ATPase pumps only in their basolateral membranes
    C.  The “active” component of active transport across epithelial cells occurs only from the lumen side into the cells
    D.  Both epithelial cells are polarized and epithelial cells lining the small intestine have Na, K-ATPase pumps only in their basolateral membranes are correct
    E.  Both epithelial cells are polarized and the “active” component of active transport across epithelial cells occurs only from the lumen side into the cells are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.05
Topic: Cells
 

  1. Potocytosis
    A.Involves simple diffusion of low molecular weight molecules across the plasma membrane, following a concentration gradient
    B. Is triggered by ligands which lead to the formation of caveolae delivering low molecular weight molecules directly to the cytosol
    C. Is the process which directly regulates and often limits receptor mediated endocytosis to remain within homeostatic parameters
    D. Involves active transport of high molecular weight lipoprotein complexes through the participation of clathrin in the formation of endosomal vesicles
    E. Both is triggered by ligands which lead to the formation of caveolae delivering low molecular weight molecules directly to the cytosol and is the process which directly regulates and often limits receptor mediated endocytosis to remain within homeostatic parameters are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.04
Topic: Cells
 

 

  1. Which of the following are possible combinations of mechanisms for transport of a particle against a concentration gradient across an epithelial cell?
    A.Passive diffusion from a lumen into the cell followed by facilitated diffusion from the cell into the blood
    B. Passive diffusion on the apical side into the cell followed by primary active transport on the basolateral side
    C. Secondary active transport on the mucosal side followed by facilitated diffusion on the serosal side
    D. Both passive diffusion from a lumen into the cell followed by facilitated diffusion from the cell into the blood and passive diffusion on the apical side into the cell followed by primary active transport on the basolateral side are correct
    E. Both passive diffusion on the apical side into the cell followed by primary active transport on the basolateral side and secondary active transport on the mucosal side followed by facilitated diffusion on the serosal side are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 4.05
Topic: Cells
 

  1. During the active transport of glucose across an epithelium, energy is used to
    A. Power the Na, K-ATPase pump
    B.  Power the Na-glucose cotransporter
    C.  Synthesize insulin, which is necessary for glucose reabsorption
    D.  Maintain the transport maximum for glucose
    E.  Power the facilitated diffusion of glucose across the basolateral membrane of the epithelial cell

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.05
Topic: Cells
 

 

True / False Questions

  1. The greater the concentration difference of a substance between two volumes separated by a permeable membrane, the lesser the magnitude of the net flux of the substance.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. At any given concentration difference, the rate of diffusion across a permeable surface will be greater for small molecules than for larger ones.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Molecules increase their rate of diffusion as temperature increases.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. In general, polar molecules diffuse more rapidly across cell membranes than do nonpolar molecules.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.01
Topic: Cells
 

  1. The component of the plasma membrane that acts as the selective barrier for diffusion is the integral proteins.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.01
Topic: Cells
 

  1. Although permeability to mineral ions does not vary much from one cell to another, different cells vary considerably in their permeability to nonpolar molecules.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Topic: Cells
 

 

  1. Specific proteins in the membranes mediate movement of lipid-soluble molecules into cells.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.01
Topic: Cells
 

  1. Integral membrane proteins can form channels through which ions such as Na+ and K+ can diffuse.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.01
Topic: Cells
 

  1. Mediated transport is required in order for glucose, amino acids and fatty acids to pass into cells because these substances cannot diffuse through plasma membranes.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.02
Topic: Cells
 

  1. In active transport, the affinity of any given binding site for the molecule to be transported changes as the site goes from facing one side of the membrane to facing the other side.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.02
Topic: Cells
 

 

  1. The final equilibrium state reached by a molecule that enters a cell by facilitated diffusion is the same as that for a molecule that enters the cell by diffusion.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.02
Topic: Cells
 

  1. The Na, K pump is an enzyme that phosphorylates itself.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. In most of the cells in the body there is an electrical difference such that the inside of cells is positive with respect to the outside.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.01
Topic: Cells
 

  1. The concentration of calcium in the cytosol of cells is very much lower than the concentration of extracellular calcium.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.02
Topic: Cells
 

  1. Because of the active transport of Na+ and K+, the intracellular concentration of Na+ is lower than the extracellular concentration, whereas the reverse is true for K+.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.02
Topic: Cells
 

 

  1. The Na,K-ATPase carrier transports sodium ions out of cells and potassium ions into cells on a one-to-one basis.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.02
Topic: Cells
 

  1. Active transport, facilitated diffusion and osmosis all require the expenditure of metabolic energy.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.02
Topic: Cells
 

  1. Both primary and secondary active transport require the expenditure of metabolic energy.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.02
Topic: Cells
 

  1. Adding one mole of NaCl to one liter of water will lower the water concentration twice as much as adding one mole of glucose.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. Adding one gram of NaCl to one liter of water will lower the water concentration twice as much as adding one gram of glucose. (The molecular mass of NaCl is 58.5; that of glucose is 180.)
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The higher the osmolarity of a solution, the higher the concentration of water in it.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The intracellular concentration of water in the cells of the body is the same as the extracellular concentration of water.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.03
Topic: Cells
 

  1. If a cell were placed in a solution of 0.15 M NaCl, it would shrink.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.03
Topic: Cells
 

  1. In the body, Na ions behave as if they are nonpenetrating solutes because they are actively transported out of cells.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.03
Topic: Cells
 

 

  1. In the body, K ions behave as if they are penetrating solutes because they are actively transported into cells.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.03
Topic: Cells
 

  1. The fate of all endocytotic vesicles is digestion of their contents by lysosomal enzymes.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.04
Topic: Cells
 

  1. A portion of a cell’s plasma membrane is removed during endocytosis.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.04
Topic: Cells
 

  1. Endocytosis of any kind requires metabolic energy.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.04
Topic: Cells
 

  1. Receptor mediated endocytosis can be used as an elegant mechanism to that allows for the transport and introduction of a vesicle’s contents into another membrane-bound organelle or from one layer of epithelial cells to another.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.04
Topic: Cells
 

 

  1. Most cells can perform pinocytosis, but only a few kinds can perform phagocytosis.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.04
Topic: Cells
 

  1. Phagocytic leukocytes use the process to engulf foreign bacteria and destroy them within ribosomes.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.04
Topic: Cells
 

  1. Pinocytosis is a method by which molecules can leave cells whose membranes are impermeable to the molecules.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.04
Topic: Cells
 

  1. The clathrin protein so important to carrying out receptor mediated transport remains with an endosome as it moves deep within the cell and is degraded entirely along with the ingested internal contents.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.04
Topic: Cells
 

 

  1. The functions of the process known as potocytosis in homeostasis have been extensively studied and are very well known and understood beyond any speculation to include, cell signaling, trans-cellular transport and cholesterol homeostasis.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.04
Topic: Cells
 

  1. The luminal side of an epithelial cell is also known as the basolateral side.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.05
Topic: Cells
 

  1. The properties of the plasma membranes of epithelial cells lining hollow organs or tubes are similar, regardless of the orientation of the cells.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.05
Topic: Cells
 

  1. Most organic solutes cross epithelial membranes by simple diffusion on the lumen side followed by active transport across the blood side of the membrane.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.05
Topic: Cells
 

 

  1. Net movement of solute across an epithelium that is permeable to water is always accompanied by movement of water in the opposite direction.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.05
Topic: Cells
 

  1. The selectivity of ion channels is based upon these two physical properties of the ions.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 4.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

Chapter 13

Respiratory Physiology

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Functions of the respiratory system include each of the following except
    A. Exchange of carbon dioxide from the air with oxygen from the blood
    B.  Regulation of blood H+ concentration
    C.  Trapping of blood clots
    D.  Phonation
    E.  Defense against microbes

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.09
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. The pleural sac
    A. Protects lungs from infection
    B.  Prevents collapse of the lungs
    C.  Contains a large volume of surfactant
    D.  Supports the chest wall and keeps it from collapsing into lungs
    E.  Both prevents collapse of the lungs and supports the chest wall and keeps it from collapsing into lungs are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.01
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. The bronchi and bronchioles
    A.Are part of the anatomic dead space
    B. Increase surface area for gas exchange
    C. Account for the total dead space in the lungs
    D. Both are part of the anatomic dead space and increase surface area for gas exchange are correct
    E. Both increase surface area for gas exchange and account for the total dead space in the lungs are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

 

  1. The type II alveolar cells are important because they
    A.Produce surfactant
    B. Secrete mucus
    C. Phagocytize bacteria and other foreign particles
    D. Do all of these things
    E. Do none of these things

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.01
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. That the lung surface and the thoracic wall will move in and out together, rather than separately, during ventilation is assured by the
    A.Diaphragm
    B. Inhalatory/inspiratory intercostal muscles
    C. Exhalatory/expiratory intercostal muscles
    D. Intrapleural fluid
    E. Alveoli

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.01
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. During an unforced exhalation/expiration, all of the following are true except
    A. Alveolar pressure is greater than atmospheric pressure
    B. Intrapleural pressure is greater than alveolar pressure
    C. Transpulmonary pressure decreases
    D. The diaphragm relaxes
    E. Lung volume decreases

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

 

  1. Inhalation/inspiration occurs as a result of
    A.An upward movement of the diaphragm
    B. Movement of the ribs closer together due to contraction of the inspiratory/inhalatory intercostal muscles
    C. A downward movement of the diaphragm
    D. An upward movement of the diaphragm and movement of the ribs closer together due to contraction of the inspiratory/inhalatory intercostal muscles
    E. Movement of the ribs closer together due to contraction of the inspiratory/inhalatory intercostal muscles and a downward movement of the diaphragm

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. In order for the lungs to function normally, the intrapleural pressure must
    A.Be lower than alveolar pressure
    B. Be between +5 and +10 mm Hg above atmospheric pressure
    C. Alternate between being less than and greater than atmospheric pressure
    D. Change as the respiratory demands of the body change
    E. Be the same as atmospheric pressure

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. The volume of air flowing into the alveoli during inhalation/inspiration is increased when there is an increase in
    A.Airway resistance
    B. The pressure gradient from the atmosphere to the alveoli
    C. The rate of action potential firing in the motor neurons to the inhalatory/inspiratory muscles
    D. Airway resistance and the pressure gradient from the atmosphere to the alveoli
    E. The pressure gradient from the atmosphere to the alveoli and the rate of action potential firing in the motor neurons to the inhalatory/inspiratory muscles

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

 

  1. Under normal circumstances, an increase in transpulmonary pressure will result in
    A.Inhalation/inspiration
    B. Exhalation/expiration
    C. A collapsed lung
    D. All of these things
    E. None of these things

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding pulmonary surfactant is true?
    A.It is secreted by type I alveolar cells
    B. It increases the compliance of the lungs
    C. It decreases airway resistance
    D. Both it is secreted by type I alveolar cells and it increases the compliance of the lungs are true
    E. Both it increases the compliance of the lungs and it decreases airway resistance are true

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Lung compliance is reduced in
    A.Respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn
    B. Prolonged shallow breathing
    C. Emphysema
    D. Respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn and prolonged shallow breathing
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

 

  1. Which of the following drugs, administered as an aerosol spray, would be most likely to help a victim of respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn?
    A.Pulmonary surfactant
    B. A beta-adrenergic agonist
    C. A muscarinic agonist
    D. Histamine
    E. A beta-adrenergic antagonist

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Asthma is caused by
    A.Loss of alveoli
    B. Inflammation of the bronchioles
    C. Elevation of intrapleural pressure to equal atmospheric pressure
    D. Loss of alveoli and inflammation of the bronchioles
    E. Loss of alveoli and elevation of intrapleural pressure to equal atmospheric pressure

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Which of the following drugs, administered as an aerosol spray, would be most likely to help a victim of an asthmatic attack?
    A.Pulmonary surfactant
    B. A beta-adrenergic agonist
    C. A muscarinic agonist
    D. Histamine
    E. A beta-adrenergic antagonist

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

 

  1. During a physical examination, Joe learns that his resting tidal volume is 500 ml; his average resting respiratory rate is 12 breaths per minute; his total lung capacity is 6000 ml; and his anatomic dead space is 150 ml. Joe’s resting alveolar ventilation is
    A.72.0 L/min
    B. 6.0 L/min
    C. 4.2 L/min
    D. 1.8 L/min
    E. 0.5 L/min

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. In an average-size subject with a resting breathing rate of 10 breaths per minute at sea level, what is the approximate alveolar O2 ventilation in liters?
    A.5.0
    B. 3.5
    C. 1.5
    D. 0.7
    E. 0.2

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

 

  1. A respiratory physiologist has measured ventilation parameters for each of three subjects: Tidal volume (TV); Respiratory rate (RR), and Anatomic dead space volume (ADSV).Which of the following statements accurately compares the alveolar ventilation in the three men?
    A. Tom’s is the largest; Dick’s and Harry’s are the same
    B. Tom’s is the smallest; Dick’s and Harry’s are the same
    C. Tom’s is greater than Dick’s, which is greater than Harry’s
    D. Dick’s is greater than Harry’s, which is greater than Tom’s
    E. Harry’s is greater than Dick’s, which is greater than Tom’s

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Which of the following statements about the response of arteriolar smooth muscle to changing oxygen partial pressures is true?
    A.Both systemic and pulmonary arterioles respond to a decrease in by constricting
    B. Both systemic and pulmonary arterioles respond to a decrease in by dilating
    C. Systemic arterioles respond to a decrease in by dilating but pulmonary arterioles constrict in response to decreased
    D. Systemic arterioles respond to a decrease in by constricting but pulmonary arterioles dilate in response to decreased
    E. None of the choices are true

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 13.03
Topic: Respiratory System
 

 

  1. The concentration of a gas in a liquid is
    A.Directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas in the air around the liquid
    B. Directly proportional to the solubility of the gas in the liquid
    C. The partial pressure of the gas in the liquid
    D. Directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas in the air around the liquid and directly proportional to the solubility of the gas in the liquid
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.03
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Regarding the partial pressures of O2 and CO2, which of the following statements is not true in a normal person at rest?
    A. Atmospheric is greater than alveolar
    B.  In air is less than alveolar
    C.  Alveolar is greater than the in the pulmonary capillaries
    D.  In the systemic veins exceeds systemic arterial
    E.  In the systemic arteries exceeds systemic venous

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 13.03
Topic: Respiratory System
 

 

  1. Regarding the relationships between the rates of oxygen consumption/carbon dioxide production and alveolar ventilation,
    A. Increased ventilation without a similar increase in oxygen consumption is called hyperventilation
    B.  In hypoventilation, alveolar increases above resting levels
    C.  In hyperventilation, alveolar can fall to zero
    D.  Both increased ventilation without a similar increase in oxygen consumption is called hyperventilation and in hypoventilation, alveolar increases above resting levels are correct
    E.  Both in hypoventilation, alveolar increases above resting levels and in hyperventilation, alveolar can fall to zero are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 13.03
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Hyperventilation results in
    A.Increased alveolar and decreased alveolar
    B. Increased alveolar and
    C. Decreased alveolar and increased alveolar
    D. Decreased alveolar and
    E. No change in alveolar gas concentrations

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 13.03
Topic: Respiratory System
 

 

  1. Which of the following is not true regarding ventilation-perfusion inequality?
    A.It does not exist in normal lungs
    B. It may result from increased alveolar dead space
    C. It is increased in emphysema
    D. It is caused by too little or too much blood flow relative to ventilation
    E. It is caused by too little or too much ventilation relative to blood flow

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.03
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Oxygen is carried in blood
    A.Bound to hemoglobin
    B. Dissolved in the plasma
    C. Dissolved in the cytosol of erythrocytes
    D. Both bound to hemoglobin and dissolved in the cytosol of erythrocytes are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.04
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Hemoglobin
    A.Has a higher affinity for H+ when in the deoxy state
    B. Increases the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood
    C. Has a higher affinity for oxygen during exercise due to increased temperature and decreased pH
    D. Both has a higher affinity for H+ when in the deoxy state and increases the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood are correct
    E. Both increases the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood and has a higher affinity for oxygen during exercise due to increased temperature and decreased pH are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.04
Topic: Respiratory System
 

 

  1. According to the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve,
    A.The greater the of the blood, the greater the dissociation of O2 from hemoglobin
    B. At normal systemic arterial , hemoglobin is almost 100% saturated
    C. At normal systemic venous , only about 25% of the hemoglobin is in the form of deoxyhemoglobin
    D. Both the greater the of the blood, the greater the dissociation of O2 from hemoglobin and at normal systemic arterial , hemoglobin is almost 100% saturated are correct
    E. Both at normal systemic arterial , hemoglobin is almost 100% saturated and at normal systemic venous , only about 25% of the hemoglobin is in the form of deoxyhemoglobin are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.04
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Curve B below represents the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve for normal body temperature, arterial hydrogen ion concentration, and DPG concentration.  (mm Hg)A. Curve A may represent the dissociation at higher than normal arterial hydrogen ion concentration
    B. Curve C may represent the dissociation at lower than normal body temperature
    C. Curve A may represent the dissociation at very low DPG levels
    D. Both curve A may represent the dissociation at higher than normal arterial hydrogen ion concentration and curve C may represent the dissociation at lower than normal body temperature are correct
    E. Both curve A may represent the dissociation at higher than normal arterial hydrogen ion concentration and curve A may represent the dissociation at very low DPG levels are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 13.04
Topic: Respiratory System
 

 

  1. Which of the following would cause a decrease in the binding affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen?
    A.Increased pH of the blood
    B. Increased temperature of the blood
    C. Decreased DPG levels in erythrocytes
    D. Both increased pH of the blood and increased temperature of the blood are correct
    E. Both increased temperature of the blood and decreased DPG levels in erythrocytes are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 13.04
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes the chemical combination of
    A.H2O and O2
    B. H2O and CO2
    C. H2O and CO
    D. H+ and HCO3-
    E. None of these choices

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.05
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Most of the CO2 that is transported in blood is
    A.Dissolved in the plasma
    B. Bound to hemoglobin
    C. In carbonic acid
    D. In bicarbonate ion
    E. In carbonic anhydrase

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.05
Topic: Respiratory System
 

 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding the transport of CO2 in blood is true?
    A.Some of the CO2 in blood is dissolved in plasma
    B. Some of the CO2 in blood is dissolved in the cytosol of erythrocytes
    C. Some of the CO2 in blood is bound to hemoglobin
    D. Most of the CO2 in blood is converted to another molecule
    E. All of the these statements are true

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.05
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Hyperventilation
    A.Results in respiratory alkalosis
    B. Results in respiratory acidosis
    C. Lowers blood
    D. Both results in respiratory alkalosis and lowers blood are correct
    E. Both results in respiratory acidosis and lowers blood are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 13.06
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. During hypoventilation
    A.A person’s rate and depth of ventilation is dramatically increased
    B. The person’s levels of blood CO2 increase
    C. The person’s levels of blood H+ ions increase; blood pH decreases
    D. Both a person’s rate and depth of ventilation is dramatically increased and the person’s levels of blood H+ ions increase; blood pH decreases are correct
    E. Both the person’s levels of blood CO2 increase and the person’s levels of blood H+ ions increase; blood pH decreases are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 13.06
Topic: Respiratory System
 

 

  1. The affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen is decreased by
    A.Decreased H+ ion concentration
    B. Decreased pCO2
    C. Increased temperature
    D. Decreased diphosphoglycerate concentration
    E. Both decreased H+ ion concentration and decreased pCO2

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.04
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. The hypothesized value in hemoglobin’s ability to bind and transport nitric oxide is
    A.It allows hemoglobin to resist the effects of small pH changes as buffer molecule
    B. By circulation into peripheral vessels it will trigger vasodilation to improve local blood flow
    C. As it circulates it promotes smooth muscle of arteries and arterioles to contract, to increase blood pressure as needed
    D. It acts as an enzyme cofactor necessary to maintaining a “clean and smooth” endothelial lining within blood vessels
    E. It provides a mechanism upon which additional electrolytes can be transported to deficient tissues in the body

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.06
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. The skeletal muscles involved in producing the contractions related to inspiration are stimulated by motor impulses originating from
    A.The ventral respiratory group of the medulla oblongata
    B. The Pre-Botzinger complex
    C. The dorsal respiratory group of the medulla oblongata
    D. Pneumotaxic center of the pons
    E. Apneustic center of the pons

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.07
Topic: Respiratory System
 

 

  1. Action potentials in neurons in the inhalatory/inspiratory center of the medulla result in action potentials in the ________ nerves to the diaphragm, which in turn cause ________ of the muscle, resulting in a/an ________ in the volume of the thoracic cage.
    A.Motor; contraction; decrease
    B. Parasympathetic; contraction; decrease
    C. Sympathetic; contraction; increase
    D. Motor; contraction; increase
    E. Sympathetic; relaxation; increase

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.07
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Chemoreceptors include
    A.Hair cells in the cochlea
    B. Receptors in the aortic and carotid bodies
    C. Baroreceptors in the aortic and carotid arch
    D. Hair cells in the cochlea and receptors in the aortic and carotid bodies
    E. Receptors in the aortic and carotid bodies and baroreceptors in the aortic and carotid arch

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.07
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. An increase in arterial H+ concentration is detected by
    A.The medulla, which acts to increase respiratory rate
    B. The peripheral chemoreceptors
    C. The central chemoreceptors
    D. The diaphragm, which increases breathing rate
    E. The peripheral chemoreceptors and the central chemoreceptors

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.07
Topic: Respiratory System
 

 

  1. The primary regulator of the magnitude of ventilation under normal circumstances is
    A. The H+ concentration in the brain extracellular fluid, which is monitored by central chemoreceptors
    B.  The of the arterial blood, which is monitored by central chemoreceptors
    C.  The of the arterial blood, which is monitored by peripheral chemoreceptors
    D.  The H+ concentration in the arterial blood, which is monitored by central chemoreceptors

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.07
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding control of respiration is correct?
    A. A slight decrease in arterial is a stronger stimulus for increased ventilation than is a comparable decrease in arterial
    B.  The most important signal for regulating ventilation is the H ion concentration of arterial blood
    C.  Increased concentrations of lactic acid stimulate ventilation primarily by acting on peripheral chemoreceptors
    D.  All of the choices are correct
    E.  None of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 13.07
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Stimuli or conditions that would tend to increase ventilation include
    A.Lower than normal blood
    B. Higher than normal blood pH
    C. Breathing carbon monoxide
    D. Iron-deficiency anemia
    E. Breathing air with reduced

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 13.07
Topic: Respiratory System
 

 

  1. If the nerves from the carotid and aortic bodies are cut,
    A.A decrease in arterial will no longer stimulate increased ventilation
    B. An increase in arterial will no longer stimulate increased ventilation
    C. An increase in arterial lactic acid will no longer stimulate increased ventilation
    D. Both a decrease in arterial will no longer stimulate increased ventilation and an increase in arterial will no longer stimulate increased ventilation will occur
    E. Both a decrease in arterial will no longer stimulate increased ventilation and an increase in arterial lactic acid will no longer stimulate increased ventilation will occur

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 13.07
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. During heavy exercise, all of the following increase except
    A.Minute ventilation
    B. Arterial
    C. Oxygen delivery to muscles
    D. Oxygen extraction by muscles
    E. Body heat production

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 13.07
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Following strenuous exercise, blood levels of lactic acid are ________ compared to pre-exercise levels. This change in acid concentration causes a reflex ________ in ventilation by activating ________.
    A.Decreased; decrease; peripheral chemoreceptors
    B. Decreased; decrease; central chemoreceptors
    C. Increased; increase; baroreceptors in the aortic arch
    D. Increased; increase; central chemoreceptors
    E. Increased; increase; peripheral chemoreceptors

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.07
Topic: Respiratory System
 

 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding hypoxia is correct?
    A.Exposure to high altitude is a form of hypoxic hypoxia
    B. “Anemic hypoxia” refers to the condition of lower than normal arterial
    C. Carbon monoxide poisoning is an example of anemic hypoxia
    D. Both exposure to high altitude is a form of hypoxic hypoxia and “anemic hypoxia” refers to the condition of lower than normal arterial are correct
    E. Both exposure to high altitude is a form of hypoxic hypoxia and carbon monoxide poisoning is an example of anemic hypoxia are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.08
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Compared to healthy people who live at sea level, arterial  is lower in people who
    A. Live at high altitude
    B. Have pulmonary edema
    C. Have iron-deficiency anemia
    D. Both live at high altitude and have pulmonary edema are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Compared to normal people, people suffering from hypoxic hypoxia will have
    A.Elevated plasma concentration of erythropoietin
    B. A higher hematocrit
    C. Higher arterial values
    D. Elevated plasma concentration of erythropoietin and a higher hematocrit
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 13.08
Topic: Respiratory System
 

 

  1. A person who travels from sea level to a high elevation will initially experience bouts of increased ventilation followed by periods of suppressed ventilation. After a day or two, ventilation will be increased without suppression. The best explanation for the initial events is
    A.Arteriolar is decreased, which initiates reflexes leading to increased ventilation. Increased ventilation causes an increase in blood , which initiates reflexes leading to decreased ventilation
    B. Arteriolar is decreased, which initiates reflexes leading to increased ventilation. Increased ventilation causes an increase in blood , which initiates reflexes leading to decreased ventilation
    C. Arteriolar is decreased, which initiates reflexes leading to increased ventilation. Increased ventilation causes a decrease in blood , which initiates reflexes leading to decreased ventilation
    D. Arteriolar is increased, which initiates reflexes leading to increased ventilation. Increased ventilation causes an increase in blood which initiates reflexes leading to decreased ventilation
    E. Arteriolar is increased, which initiates reflexes leading to increased ventilation. Increased ventilation causes a decrease in blood , which initiates reflexes leading to decreased ventilation

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 13.08
Topic: Respiratory System
 

 

True / False Questions

  1. The diaphragm is a large sheet of smooth muscle that separates the thorax from the abdomen.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

 

  1. If the parietal pleura is cut during surgery, the lung on the side of the cut will expand and the chest wall will be compressed.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. The process of ventilation includes both the transport of gases by bulk flow and the diffusion of gases into and out of the blood.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. According to Boyle’s law, the pressure exerted by a constant number of gas molecules in a container is inversely proportional to the volume of the container. Therefore, increasing the volume of the container will cause a decrease in its pressure.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. During inhalation/inspiration, the total alveolar volume decreases.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

 

  1. During inhalation/inspiration, the diaphragm contracts and the alveolar pressure is less than atmospheric pressure; during exhalation/expiration, the diaphragm relaxes and the alveolar pressure is greater than atmospheric pressure.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. In a normal person at rest, the part of the respiratory cycle in which no air is flowing through the airways and the respiratory muscles are relaxed is at the end of inhalation/inspiration, prior to exhalation/expiration.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Exhalation/expiration of air from the lungs requires contraction of the exhalatory/expiratory intercostal muscles.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Infants born prematurely frequently develop respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn because they have too few alveoli to exchange O2 and CO2 efficiently.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

 

  1. The diameter of the airways in normal lungs is generally great enough that little resistance is offered to airflow.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Emphysema is a disease characterized by low lung compliance, obstructed airways, and ventilation-perfusion inequality.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. A clinical sign of obstructive lung disease would be a reduced FEV1/FVC ratio.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. The total dead space in the lungs includes anatomic dead space and any portion of the alveoli that has little or no blood supply.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Doubling the rate of breathing will cause a greater increase in alveolar ventilation than will doubling the depth of inspiration.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

 

  1. At sea level  , is about 760 mm Hg.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.03
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. In the systemic circulation, the  of arterial blood exceeds the   of venous blood, while the reverse is true for the pulmonary circulation.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.03
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Decreased alveolar  causes reflex vasodilation of the pulmonary arterioles.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.03
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Most of the O2 carried in the blood is dissolved in plasma.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.04
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. In the systemic capillaries, the  of the erythrocytes is greater than the   of the plasma, causing a shift from oxyhemoglobin to deoxyhemoglobin.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.04
Topic: Respiratory System
 

 

  1. If lung disease results in an arterial  of 80 mm Hg, the ability of the blood to carry O2 to the tissues is severely compromised.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.04
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. If a tissue increases its metabolism enough to drop its interstitial  to half the resting venous value, the amount of O2 available from oxyhemoglobin will be more than twice that for the resting tissue.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.04
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. The affinity of hemoglobin for O2 is decreased in rapidly metabolizing tissues.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.04
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Unlike O2, more of the CO2 in blood is dissolved in plasma than is bound to hemoglobin.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.05
Topic: Respiratory System
 

 

  1. Deoxyhemoglobin binds bicarbonate ion better than oxyhemoglobin does.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.05
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Normally all the H+ ions generated in tissue capillaries recombine with bicarbonate, then go to forming CO2 and water in pulmonary capillaries and don’t appear in arterial blood.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.05
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. The majority of hydrogen ions generated in the formation of carbonic acid are carried dissolved in the plasma.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.06
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. When a person hyperventilates, there are lower than normal levels of  and hydrogen ion in arterial blood, a condition called respiratory alkalosis.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.06
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. The rhythmic contractions and relaxations of the inhalatory/inspiratory muscles are dependent upon spontaneous depolarizations of the diaphragm.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.07
Topic: Respiratory System
 

 

  1. The neurons responsible for the cyclic nature of respiratory-muscle function are located in the brain stem.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.07
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. The medullary inhalatory/inspiratory neurons receive inhibitory neural input from the pons and also from pulmonary stretch receptors.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.07
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. A decrease in arterial  stimulates increased ventilation by causing increased firing of action potentials in the afferent neurons from the carotid and aortic body chemoreceptors.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.07
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. A slight fall in arterial  is a much stronger stimulus for increasing ventilation than a comparable fall in arterial
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.07
Topic: Respiratory System
 

 

  1. The most important signal for regulating ventilation is hydrogen ion concentration in the blood.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.07
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Increased plasma concentration of lactic acid stimulates increased ventilation primarily by means of central chemoreceptors.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.07
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. During moderate exercise, increased arterial  and hydrogen ion concentration and decreased arterial   are all readily demonstrated, and thus are probably the signals for increased ventilation.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.07
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. The most common cause of hypoxic hypoxia in disease is diffusion impairment of O2 resulting from decreased alveolar surface area.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.08
Topic: Respiratory System
 

 

  1. Exposure to high altitude is a form of ischemic hypoxia.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.08
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. A small amount of carbon monoxide in the air would alter neither the  of inspired air nor   the of arterial blood.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.04
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. The key difference between fetal hemoglobin and other forms is that fetal hemoglobin is less important to carrying the maximum threshold amount of oxygen – because the levels oxygen in placental blood is 2 to 3 times higher than the normal level.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.06
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. The levels of rate and depth of respiratory activity is controlled not only by the control centers in the medulla, but can also receive synaptic control from higher brain centers for more voluntary control, as in speech, diving, emotional reactions, and pain.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.07
Topic: Respiratory System
 

 

  1. Nonrespiratory functions of the lungs include acting as “filters” for removing certain chemicals and blood clots.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 13.09
Topic: Respiratory System
 

 

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