Vanders Human Physiology The Mechanisms of Body Function 12th Edition By Widmaier – Test Bank

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Vanders Human Physiology The Mechanisms of Body Function 12th Edition By Widmaier – Test Bank

Chapter 05

Control of Cells by Chemical Messengers

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Receptors for intercellular messengers are most commonly
    A.Peripheral membrane proteins
    B. Integral membrane proteins
    C. Specialized phospholipids within the membrane
    D. Nucleic acids

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 5.01
Topic: Cells
 

  1. Activation of a receptor by a chemical messenger
    A.Occurs when the messenger binds to the ligand-binding site of the receptor
    B. Is the first step leading to the ultimate response of a cell to the messenger
    C. Requires a change in receptor conformation
    D. Both occurs when the messenger binds to the ligand-binding site of the receptor and is the first step leading to the ultimate response of a cell to the messenger are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 5.01
Topic: Cells
 

 

  1. Messages, in the form of chemical signals, are sent from one cell to another with only those capable of receiving the specific chemical able to respond to them. Water soluble signals have receptors
    A.On the outside of the cell, constituting a component of the plasma membrane
    B. On the inside of the cell, beyond the boundary of the plasma membrane
    C. Which have a specific structure complementary to the molecular chemical message being sent
    D. Both on the outside of the cell, constituting a component of the plasma membrane and which have a specific structure complementary to the molecular chemical message being sent
    E. Both on the inside of the cell, beyond the boundary of the plasma membrane and which have a specific structure complementary to the molecular chemical message being sent are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 5.01
Topic: Cells
 

  1. Which of the following are common means by which binding of an intercellular chemical messenger with a cell’s receptor brings about an intracellular response?
    A. Opening or closing of specific ionic channels in the plasma membrane
    B.  Activation of an intracellular second-messenger system
    C.  Promoting or inhibiting the transcription of genes that code for the synthesis of cellular proteins
    D.  Both opening or closing of specific ionic channels in the plasma membrane and activation of an intracellular second-messenger system are correct
    E.  All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 5.02
Topic: Cells
 

  1. Another term for lipid soluble hormones is
    A.Lipophilic
    B. Lipophobic
    C. Hydrophobic
    D. Hydrophilic
    E. polar

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 5.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. Lipid soluble hormones which pass through the membrane bind with receptors at the nucleus and then increase the rate of mRNA synthesis to
    A.Decrease the output of a specific protein from that cell
    B. Increase the production of the protein transcribed from the DNA
    C. Allow for rRNA and tRNA biosynthesis to proceed at an increased rate
    D. Directly trigger ribosomal sub-unit disconjunction
    E. Decrease the metabolic output of the cell to match the needs of the tissue around it

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 5.02
Topic: Cells
 

  1. Cellular receptors are classified as either intracellular or as plasma membrane bound receptors. Which of the following is not an integrated plasma membrane receptor related description?
    A.Binding activates G proteins to, in turn, activate ion channels or enzymes
    B. Regulation of genetic transcription
    C. Function as directly regulated ion channels
    D. Represent membrane bound enzymes, i.e., tyrosine kinases
    E. bind to and activate JAK kinases

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 5.01
Topic: Cells
 

  1. The process whereby repeated exposure to a hormone can cause a decrease in the number of receptors for that hormone is called
    A.Competition
    B. Inhibition
    C. Down regulation
    D. Antagonism
    E. Saturation

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 5.01
Topic: Cells
 

 

  1. Cocaine lowers the levels of a chemical messenger in the brain called enkephalin. Researchers have found the number of enkephalin receptors to be higher in cocaine addicts than nonaddicted people. This is an example of
    A.Saturation
    B. Up regulation
    C. Antagonism
    D. Affinity
    E. Down regulation

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 5.01
Topic: Cells
 

  1. Methadone is a drug given to treat heroin addicts. It works by binding to the same receptors as heroin but with greater affinity, thereby preventing heroin from binding. This is an example of
    A.Competition
    B. Down regulation
    C. Signal transduction
    D. Agonistic behavior
    E. None of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 5.01
Topic: Cells
 

  1. Oxytocin is a peptide hormone that causes the smooth muscle of the uterus to contract, but it has no effect on the smooth muscle cells of the small intestine. This difference in responsiveness exists because
    A.Oxytocin is inactivated prior to reaching the smooth muscle cells of the intestine
    B. Intestinal smooth muscle cells do not contain the proper second messenger system
    C. Uterine smooth muscle cells contain specific receptors for oxytocin
    D. Oxytocin is able to cross the plasma membrane of uterine cells but not intestinal cells
    E. Oxytocin is not delivered by the circulatory system to intestinal cells

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 5.01
Topic: Cells
 

 

  1. Epinephrine activates the cyclic AMP pathway in liver cells. Therefore, epinephrine
    A.Probably binds a specific transmembrane receptor in these cells
    B. Elicits its response in liver cells through second messengers
    C. Probably binds a receptor in the nucleus of liver cells
    D. Both probably binds a specific transmembrane receptor in these cells and elicits its response in liver cells through second messengers are correct
    E. Both elicits its response in liver cells through second messengers and probably binds a receptor in the nucleus of liver cells are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 5.02
Topic: Cells
 

  1. At very low concentrations, epinephrine causes an artery to vasodilate. At higher concentrations epinephrine causes the same artery to constrict. How can these different effects be explained?
    A.There is one type of epinephrine receptor that uses two second messenger systems
    B. There are two types of epinephrine receptors with different affinities for epinephrine that use two different second messenger systems
    C. There are two types of receptors for epinephrine that use the same second messenger system
    D. At higher concentrations epinephrine can pass through the plasma membrane and directly stimulate contraction within the cell

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Section 5.02
Topic: Cells
 

 

  1. The significance of plasma membrane receptors for chemical regulators such as hormones and neurotransmitters is that
    A. They allow the regulators to affect cell functions while preventing them from entering into the cell’s cytoplasm
    B.  They permit nonpolar chemical messengers to affect cell functions
    C.  They allow for signal amplification or a multiplier effect of the message
    D.  Both they allow the regulators to affect cell functions while preventing them from entering into the cell’s cytoplasm and they permit nonpolar chemical messengers to affect cell functions are correct
    E.  All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 5.02
Topic: Cells
 

  1. Cells can control their responsiveness to external chemical regulators by
    A.Increasing the number of their transmembrane receptors by exocytosis
    B. Decreasing the number of their transmembrane receptors by endocytosis
    C. Uncoupling their receptors from the second message generator
    D. Both increasing the number of their transmembrane receptors by exocytosis and decreasing the number of their transmembrane receptors by endocytosis are correct
    E. Both decreasing the number of their transmembrane receptors by endocytosis and uncoupling their receptors from the second message generator are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 5.01
Topic: Cells
 

  1. A ligand that is an effective agonist for a chemical messenger
    A.May have a higher affinity than the messenger for the messenger’s receptor
    B. May achieve 50 percent saturation of the messenger’s receptor at a lower concentration than that required by the messenger
    C. Does not couple to the binding site of the messenger’s receptor
    D. Both may have a higher affinity than the messenger for the messenger’s receptor and may achieve 50 percent saturation of the messenger’s receptor at a lower concentration than that required by the messenger are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 5.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. A fat cell responds to the presence of the hormone epinephrine by increasing cytosolic cyclic AMP production, which leads to the catabolism of both glycogen and fat. The best explanation for this phenomenon is:
    A. Epinephrine is binding to two types of receptors in the plasma membrane
    B.  The activated receptor complex stimulates production of two different second messengers
    C.  Cyclic AMP can directly activate two kinds of enzymes
    D.  Cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase can activate two kinds of enzymes
    E.  All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Section 5.02
Topic: Cells
 

  1. Which of the following statements about G proteins is not correct? G proteins may
    A.Act as second messengers
    B. Be stimulatory for second-messenger production
    C. Be inhibitory for second-messenger production
    D. Act as transducers for activated receptors by opening or closing ion channels
    E. Do none of the choices

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 5.02
Topic: Cells
 

  1. Activation of a receptor that is coupled by G proteins to adenylyl cyclase
    A.May increase the intracellular concentration of cyclic AMP
    B. May decrease the intracellular concentration of cyclic AMP
    C. May result in stimulation or inhibition of DNA transcription
    D. Both may increase the intracellular concentration of cyclic AMP and may decrease the intracellular concentration of cyclic AMP are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 5.02
Topic: Cells
 

 

  1. Second messengers
    A. Are necessary for all receptor signal transduction mechanisms
    B.  Act in the cell cytoplasm
    C.  Act as intercellular messengers
    D.  Always function to activate enzymes
    E.  Are always proteins

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 5.02
Topic: Cells
 

  1. Which of the following statements is true?
    A. Phosphorylation by protein kinase can stimulate or inhibit the activity of effector proteins
    B.  Ca2+ and cyclic AMP are second messengers
    C.  Phosphodiesterase converts GMP into cGMP
    D.  Both phosphorylation by protein kinase can stimulate or inhibit the activity of effector proteins and Ca2+ and cyclic AMP are second messengers are true
    E.  All of the choices are true

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 5.02
Topic: Cells
 

  1. Which of the following are known to be second messengers?
    A.Diacylglycerol
    B. Phospholipase C
    C. ATP
    D. Both diacylglycerol and phospholipase C are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 5.02
Topic: Cells
 

 

  1. Amplification during a second messenger cascade is beneficial because amplification
    A.Takes small molecules and makes polymers out of them
    B. Results in the production of more of the first messenger
    C. Allows a cell to respond to more different hormones
    D. Allows small amounts of hormones to produce large responses in target cells
    E. None of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 5.02
Topic: Cells
 

  1. Amplification of a second messenger cascade can take place at this level:
    A.1 activated receptor can activate numerous G-proteins
    B. 1 activated G-protein can activate numerous effector enzymes
    C. 1 active effector enzyme can catalyze numerous reactions
    D. 1 activated protein kinase can allosterically modulate numerous proteins
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 5.02
Topic: Cells
 

  1. Calcium ion
    A.Concentration in the cytosol is increased by activation of phospholipase C
    B. Concentration in the cytosol is increased by activation of membrane calcium channels
    C. Release from the endoplasmic reticulum may be triggered by entry of calcium ion from the extracellular fluid
    D. Both concentration in the cytosol is increased by activation of phospholipase C and concentration in the cytosol is increased by activation of membrane calcium channels are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 5.02
Topic: Cells
 

 

  1. The second messenger that causes calcium ion to be released from intracellular stores is
    A.Diacylglycerol
    B. Adenylyl cyclase
    C. Inositol triphosphate
    D. Phospholipase A
    E. None of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 5.02
Topic: Cells
 

 

True / False Questions

  1. First messengers may bind to a membrane receptor that then transforms to an ionic diffusion channel which promotes a change in membrane polarity.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 5.01
Topic: Cells
 

  1. Eicosanoids are a family of ubiquitous, fatty-acid-derived, local chemical messengers.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 5.02
Topic: Cells
 

  1. Aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are more specific in their effects on eicosanoid synthesis than are steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 5.02
Topic: Cells
 

 

  1. Two cell types having the same type of receptor for a chemical messenger will always respond to that messenger in the same way.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 5.02
Topic: Cells
 

  1. Competition for receptors is strictly a pharmacological phenomenon, since naturally occurring chemical messengers do not compete with each other for the same receptor site.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 5.01
Topic: Cells
 

  1. An antagonist blocks the action of a chemical messenger by binding to its receptor.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 5.01
Topic: Cells
 

  1. Phosphorylation is a necessary component of any enzyme activation.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 5.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The enzyme that catalyzes the production of cAMP from ATP is phosphodiesterase.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 5.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. Cyclic AMP activates allosteric proteins.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 5.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Activated calmodulin functions to activate or inactivate cytosolic enzymes.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 5.02
Topic: Cells
 

Chapter 11

The Endocrine System

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Which of the following statements is not true of the endocrine system?
    A.It is one of two major regulatory systems of the body
    B. It is composed of glands that secrete chemical messengers into the blood
    C. It is an important regulator of homeostatic mechanisms
    D. It influences and is influenced by the nervous system
    E. All of the choices are true

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11 Introduction
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. Hormones(,)
    A.Are chemical regulators that are conveyed from one organ to another via the bloodstream
    B. In some cases, also function as local regulators and/or neurotransmitters
    C. In some cases, contain carbohydrates
    D. Both are chemical regulators that are conveyed from one organ to another via the bloodstream and, in some cases, also function as local regulators and/or neurotransmitters are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11 Introduction
Topic: Endocrine System
 

 

  1. Endocrine regulation
    A.Refers to chemical regulators that are conveyed from one organ to another via the bloodstream
    B. Is slower than regulation by neurotransmission
    C. Differs from paracrine regulation in that endocrine regulators act on different cell types from those that secreted them, whereas paracrine regulators are secreted by the same cell type on which they act
    D. Both refers to chemical regulators that are conveyed from one organ to another via the bloodstream and is slower than regulation by neurotransmission are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11 Introduction
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. An endocrine cell that contains an abundance of granular endoplasmic reticulum, a large Golgi apparatus, and secretion granules is likely to
    A.Secrete a peptide/protein hormone
    B. Secrete by exocytosis
    C. Secrete in an exocrine manner
    D. Secrete a peptide/protein hormone and secrete by exocytosis
    E. Do all of these things

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 11A.01
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. Cells that secrete steroid hormones
    A.Store large amounts of hormone
    B. Are characterized by abundant agranular endoplasmic reticulum
    C. Are characterized by large and numerous mitochodria
    D. Both store large amounts of hormone and are characterized by abundant agranular endoplasmic reticulum are correct
    E. Both are characterized by abundant agranular endoplasmic reticulum and are characterized by large and numerous mitochondria are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 11A.01
Topic: Endocrine System
 

 

  1. Regarding the structure and synthesis of hormones,
    A.Steroid hormones are synthesized from cholesterol
    B. Thyroid hormones are catecholamines
    C. The hormones of the adrenal cortex have the same structure as the neurotransmitters of adrenergic neurons
    D. Most peptide hormones require binding proteins for transport in the blood
    E. Vasopressin is synthesized in the posterior pituitary

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11A.01
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. The enzyme in the mitochondria responsible for the modification of cholesterol that is important to the synthesis of steroid hormones is called
    A.Cytochrome P450 enzyme
    B. Tyrosine hydroxylase
    C. Protein kinase
    D. Cholesterol esterase
    E. Lipase

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11A.01
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. Which of the following statements about hormone activation is true?
    A.Prohormones are inactive messengers that must undergo conversion to an active form at their site of production
    B. Conversion of T3 to T4 is an example of hormone activation
    C. Conversion of testosterone to estradiol is an example of hormone activation
    D. Both prohormones are inactive messengers that must undergo conversion to an active form at their site of production and conversion of T3 to T4 is an example of hormone activation are true
    E. Both prohormones are inactive messengers that must undergo conversion to an active form at their site of production and conversion of testosterone to estradiol is an example of hormone activation are true

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11A.01
Topic: Endocrine System
 

 

  1. Which of the following statements about hormone synthesis is not correct?
    A.Progesterone is a precursor of cortisol
    B. Progesterone is a precursor of mineralocorticoid(s) and glucocorticoid(s)
    C. Progesterone is a precursor for all steroid hormones
    D. Tryptophan is a precursor for thyroid hormones
    E. All of these are true statements

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11A.01
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. If a patient were given a drug that inhibited the actions of proteolytic enzymes in the blood plasma only (i.e., not in cells), which of the following is most likely to result?
    A.Conversion of thyroxine to triiodothyronine would be inhibited
    B. Conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin would be reduced
    C. Conversion of testosterone to estradiol would be unaffected
    D. Both conversion of thyroxine to triiodothyronine would be inhibited and conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin would be reduced would result
    E. Both conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin would be reduced and conversion of testosterone to estradiol would be unaffected would result

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 11A.03
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. Peptide hormones are
    A.Often derived from larger molecules called prohormones
    B. Packaged into secretory vesicles in the endoplasmic reticulum of the cells that synthesize them
    C. Secreted in response to a stimulus that causes depletion of cytosolic calcium in the secreting cell
    D. Both often derived from larger molecules called prohormones and packaged into secretory vesicles in the endoplasmic reticulum of the cells that synthesize them are correct
    E. Both often derived from larger molecules called prohormones and secreted in response to a stimulus that causes depletion of cytosolic calcium in the secreting cell are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11A.01
Topic: Endocrine System
 

 

  1. A hormone may be
    A.Inactivated by its target cell
    B. Activated by its target cell
    C. Inactivated by nontarget cells
    D. Excreted before it has a chance to act on a target cell
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11A.03
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. The concentration of a hormone in plasma is determined by
    A.Its secretion and clearance rates
    B. Whether or not it binds to carriers and/or other plasma proteins
    C. The kind of receptor to which it binds
    D. Its secretion and clearance rates and whether or not it binds to carriers and/or other plasma proteins
    E. Whether or not it binds to carriers and/or other plasma proteins and the kind of receptor to which it binds

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11A.02
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. Some hormones are transported in plasma bound to proteins. These proteins function to
    A.Maintain a stable high concentration of the hormone in the plasma and reduce its clearance rate from plasma
    B. Reduce the binding of the hormone to its receptors in some cases
    C. Make the hormone more soluble in aqueous plasma
    D. Do all of these things
    E. Do none of these things

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11A.02
Topic: Endocrine System
 

 

  1. The liver participates in endocrine regulation by
    A.Producing hormones and hormone-binding proteins
    B. Clearing hormones from plasma
    C. Secreting an inactive form of a hormone that is activated in the plasma
    D. Producing hormones and hormone-binding proteins and clearing hormones from plasma
    E. Doing all of these things

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11A.03
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. The main difference between the modes of action of peptide hormones and steroid hormones is that
    A.Peptide hormones bind to intracellular receptors whereas steroid hormones bind to receptors on the cell surface
    B. Peptide hormones bind to receptors in the nucleus whereas steroid hormones bind to receptors in the cytosol
    C. Peptide hormones bind to receptors on the cell surface whereas steroid hormones act as second messengers
    D. Peptide hormones bind to receptors on the cell surface whereas steroid hormones bind to intracellular receptors
    E. There are no differences; both act by binding to receptors on the cell surface

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 11A.04
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. Receptors for steroid hormones
    A.Are proteins in the nucleus and/or cytoplasm
    B. Undergo allosteric modulation when they bind to the hormone
    C. Regulate gene transcription
    D. Both are proteins in the nucleus and/or cytoplasm and regulate gene transcription are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11A.04
Topic: Endocrine System
 

 

  1. Rapidly acting chemical regulators generally
    A.Bind to receptor proteins in the nucleus of target cells
    B. Are polar
    C. Activate plasma-membrane-associated receptors
    D. Both bind to receptor proteins in the nucleus of target cells and are polar are correct
    E. Both are polar and activate plasma-membrane-associated receptors are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 11A.04
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. In the absence of thyroid hormone, epinephrine stimulates release of a small amount of fatty acids from adipose cells. In the presence of thyroid hormone (which has no effect by itself), epinephrine causes a much more substantial release of fatty acids from the cells. The effect of thyroid hormone on epinephrine’s actions is called
    A. Antagonistic
    B.  Agonistic
    C.  Permissive
    D.  Direct
    E.  Paracrine

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 11A.04
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. Secretion of hormones is controlled by
    A. Concentration of mineral ions in the blood
    B.  Neural input
    C.  Tropic hormones
    D.  Concentration of mineral ions in the blood and tropic hormones
    E.  All of these things

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11A.05
Topic: Endocrine System
 

 

  1. Which of the following statements about oxytocin is true?
    A. Target cells of oxytocin have receptors for the hormone on their plasma membrane
    B.  Oxytocin is synthesized in the hypothalamus
    C.  Oxytocin is secreted by the anterior pituitary gland
    D.  Both target cells of oxytocin have receptors for the hormone on their plasma membrane and oxytocin is synthesized in the hypothalamus are true
    E.  All of the choices are true

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 11B.01
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. The median eminence of the hypothalamus is
    A. The site of synthesis of ACTH
    B.  A site of neurohormone release into blood vessels
    C.  A major link connecting the nervous system and the endocrine system
    D.  The site of synthesis of ACTH and a site of neurohormone release into blood vessels
    E.  A site of neurohormone release into blood vessels and a major link connecting the nervous system and the endocrine system

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11B.01
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. Which of the following statements about hormone action or control of secretion is correct?
    A.Growth hormone is a tropic hormone
    B. Inhibition of prolactin release by dopamine is an example of short-loop negative feedback
    C. Somatostatin stimulates growth hormone secretion
    D. ACTH inhibits cortisol secretion
    E. None of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 11A.05
Topic: Endocrine System
 

 

  1. Which of the following is not a cause of hyporesponsiveness?
    A.Low levels of the circulating hormone
    B. Abnormal receptors incapable of binding the hormone on the target tissue
    C. Defects in the second messenger pathway used by a hormone and its receptor
    D. Enzymes required for activation of the prohormone may be absent
    E. All of the choices are causes of hyporesponsiveness

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11A.06
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. Which of the following hormones is not secreted by the anterior pituitary gland?
    A.Somatotropin
    B. Prolactin
    C. Corticotropin
    D. Erythropoietin
    E. TSH

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11B.01
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. Brain hormones that regulate the secretion of hormones from the anterior pituitary gland are called
    A.Hypophysiotropic hormones
    B. Growth factors
    C. Releasing or release-inhibiting hormones
    D. Hypophysiotropic hormones and growth factors
    E. Hypophysiotropic hormones and releasing or release-inhibiting hormones

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11B.01
Topic: Endocrine System
 

 

  1. Examples of long-loop negative feedback include
    A.The stimulation of dopamine release by prolactin
    B. Inhibition of GHRH release by GH
    C. Inhibition of GHRH release by IGF-I
    D. The stimulation of dopamine release by prolactin and inhibition of GHRH release by GH
    E. Inhibition of GHRH release by GH and inhibition of GHRH release by IGF-I

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 11B.01
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. Which of the following statements is correct?
    A.Anterior pituitary hormones are synthesized in the hypothalamus
    B. All hormones secreted by the anterior and posterior pituitary glands are peptides
    C. IGF-I stimulates growth by increasing growth hormone secretion through positive feedback
    D. Both anterior pituitary hormones are synthesized in the hypothalamus and all hormones secreted by the anterior and posterior pituitary glands are peptides are correct
    E. Both all hormones secreted by the anterior and posterior pituitary glands are peptides and IGF-I stimulates growth by increasing growth hormone secretion through positive feedback are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 11B.01
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. The precursor for cortisol is ________, which is made from ________. Cortisol is secreted by ________ when stimulated by ________ from the anterior pituitary.
    A.Androstenedione, progesterone, adrenal cortex, CRH
    B. Progesterone, cholesterol, adrenal medulla, ACTH
    C. Testosterone, cholesterol, adrenal medulla, ACTH
    D. Progesterone, cholesterol, adrenal cortex, ACTH
    E. Estrogen, cholesterol, adrenal medulla, CRH

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11A.01
Topic: Endocrine System
 

 

  1. The posterior pituitary
    A.Synthesizes oxytocin and vasopressin
    B. Is neural tissue
    C. Secretes hormones when stimulated by action potentials generated in the hypothalamus
    D. Both synthesizes oxytocin and vasopressin and is neural tissue are correct
    E. Both is neural tissue and secretes hormones when stimulated by action potentials generated in the hypothalamus are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11B.01
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. The gonadotropic hormones
    A.Stimulate hormone secretion by the gonads
    B. Are secreted by the anterior pituitary gland of both males and females
    C. Are LH and prolactin
    D. Both stimulate hormone secretion by the gonads and are secreted by the anterior pituitary gland of both males and females are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11B.01
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. If the adrenal glands were removed from a patient, his plasma cortisol levels would ________ and secretion of ________ by the adenohypophysis would ________ because the ________ would secrete ________ amounts of the regulator ________. This last effect would occur because of the loss of ________.
    A.Increase; TSH; increase; brain; reduced; ACTH; equilibrium
    B. Decrease; ACTH; increase; hypothalamus; increased; CRH; negative feedback
    C. Decrease; CRH; remain stable; hypothalamus; reduced; ACTH; negative feedback
    D. Decrease; ACTH; increase; hypothalamus; increased; CRH; positive feedback
    E. Decrease; ACTH; increase; hypothalamus; increased; CRH; plasma electrolytes in the urine

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 11B.01
Topic: Endocrine System
 

 

  1. Hypertrophy of the adrenal cortex could result from
    A.Excessively rapid clearance of cortisol from the circulation
    B. A tumor of the pituitary gland that secretes excessive amounts of ACTH
    C. Inactivation of enzymes that are required to synthesize corticosteroids
    D. Excessively rapid clearance of cortisol from the circulation and a tumor of the pituitary gland that secretes excessive amounts of ACTH
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 11A.06
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. A subject consuming a diet deficient in iodine is likely to have
    A.A low plasma concentration of thyroxine due to reduced secretion of TSH by the pituitary gland
    B. A low plasma concentration of thyroxine and an enlarged thyroid gland
    C. A high plasma concentration of TSH
    D. A low plasma concentration of thyroxine due to reduced secretion of TSH by the pituitary gland and a low plasma concentration of thyroxine and an enlarged thyroid gland
    E. A low plasma concentration of thyroxine and an enlarged thyroid gland and a high plasma concentration of TSH

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 11C.01
Topic: Endocrine System
 

 

  1. What would be the effect of a blood clot that blocked the veins of the hypothalamo-pituitary portal system in the infundibulum between the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary gland?
    A.Secretion of ACTH will decrease and the adrenal cortex will atrophy
    B. The secretion of gonadotropins will decrease and the gonads will hypertrophy
    C. Plasma cortisol concentration will decrease, which will cause a decrease in long-loop negative feedback, and so the secretion of ACTH by the pituitary gland will increase
    D. Both secretion of ACTH will decrease and the adrenal cortex will atrophy and the secretion of gonadotropins will decrease and the gonads will hypertrophy would occur
    E. Both the secretion of gonadotropins will decrease and the gonads will hypertrophy and plasma cortisol concentration will decrease, which will cause a decrease in long-loop negative feedback, and so the secretion of ACTH by the pituitary gland will increase would occur

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 11B.01
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. Exposure to stress activates the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical system as demonstrated by
    A.Increased secretion of corticotropin from the anterior pituitary in response to stress
    B. Increased secretion of corticotropin releasing hormone from the hypothalamus in response to stress
    C. Increased secretion of cortisol from the adrenal medulla in response to stress
    D. Increased secretion of corticotropin from the anterior pituitary in response to stress and increased secretion of corticotropin releasing hormone from the hypothalamus in response to stress
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 11B.01
Topic: Endocrine System
 

 

  1. Long-loop negative feedback differs from short-loop negative feedback by
    A.The distance that the chemical regulator must travel to reach its site of action
    B. Whether or not autocrine or paracrine signals such as prostaglandins are involved
    C. Whether or not the hormonal product of a peripheral target organ (e.g., the gonads or adrenals) is involved
    D. All of the choices are correct
    E. None of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 11B.01
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. If the pituitary gland is removed from a human subject, which of the following is likely to occur?
    A.The adrenal gland will hypertrophy to increase cortisol production
    B. The adrenal gland will atrophy and plasma cortisol levels will be reduced
    C. The hypothalamus will secrete less CRH
    D. The subject will remain euthyroid
    E. None of these things are likely to occur

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 11B.01
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. The hormones secreted by the posterior pituitary include
    A.Vasopressin
    B. Corticotropin
    C. Oxytocin
    D. Vasopressin and corticotropin
    E. Vasopressin and oxytocin

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11B.01
Topic: Endocrine System
 

 

  1. Stimuli for the secretion of growth hormone include
    A.Waking from sleep
    B. Exercising
    C. Increased levels of IGF-I in blood
    D. Waking from sleep and exercising
    E. Exercising and increased levels of IGF-I in blood

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11E.03
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. Deficiency of iodine in the diet results in a goiter (an enlarged thyroid gland). Which of the following statements offers the best explanation for this phenomenon?
    A.The thyroid enlarges so that it can secrete more thyroid hormones to compensate for the lack of iodine
    B. Decreased plasma iodine levels are detected by the hypothalamus, which stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete more thyroid stimulating hormone
    C. Without iodine, the thyroid gland cannot produce thyroid hormones. Thyroid hormones normally act as a negative-feedback signal for the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Loss of this signal results in excessive secretion of thyroid stimulating hormone
    D. All of the choices are correct
    E. None of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 11C.02
Topic: Endocrine System
 

 

  1. Carlos and Sally each have a routine physical examination that includes measurement of thyroid hormone levels in their plasma

    Sally has no symptoms of thyroid problems. Therefore,
    A. Carlos probably has symptoms of hypothyroidism
    B. Carlos probably has symptoms of hyperthyroidism
    C. Carlos probably has no symptoms of thyroid problems
    D. Sally probably has a goiter

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 11C.04
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. Hypersecretion of growth hormone is most likely to result in
    A.Acromegaly
    B. Dwarfism
    C. Decreased plasma concentration of IGF-I
    D. Acromegaly and decreased plasma concentration of IGF-I
    E. Dwarfism and decreased plasma concentration of IGF-I

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11E.03
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. A patient appears in a clinic complaining of chronic fatigue and unusual sensitivity to cold. He also has a lump in his neck near his larynx. Blood tests show he has low levels of TH in his plasma. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
    A.Primary hyperthyroidism
    B. Secondary hyperthyroidism
    C. Secondary hypothyroidism
    D. Insufficient secretion of TRH
    E. Insufficient iodine in the patient’s diet

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 11C.04
Topic: Endocrine System
 

 

  1. To synthesize thyroid hormones, iodine is attached to
    A.Cholesterol
    B. The amino acid tyrosine
    C. The amino acid tryptophan
    D. Acetyl coenzyme A
    E. The amino acid phenylalanine

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11A.01
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. Thyroid hormones stimulate metabolism by stimulating
    A.Lipid synthesis
    B. The Na/K ATPase
    C. Action potentials
    D. Cell division

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11C.03
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. An absence of thyroid hormones during fetal development leads to
    A.Acromegaly
    B. Cushing’s syndrome
    C. Cretinism
    D. Graves’ disease
    E. Addison’s disease

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11C.03
Topic: Endocrine System
 

 

  1. Stress
    A.Refers to a wide variety of noxious stimuli
    B. Invariably results in aldosterone secretion by the adrenal cortex
    C. Usually activates the parasympathetic nervous system
    D. Both refers to a wide variety of noxious stimuli and invariably results in aldosterone secretion by the adrenal cortex are correct
    E. Both refers to a wide variety of noxious stimuli and usually activates the parasympathetic nervous system are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11D
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. During stress, cortisol
    A.Stimulates protein synthesis
    B. Antagonizes the actions of insulin
    C. Increases glucose availability to the brain
    D. Both stimulates protein synthesis and antagonizes the actions of insulin are correct
    E. Both antagonizes the actions of insulin and increases glucose availability to the brain are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11D.02
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. The major hormone responsible for mediating the body’s response to stress is
    A.Thyroid hormone
    B. Growth hormone
    C. Testosterone
    D. Aldosterone
    E. Cortisol

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11D
Topic: Endocrine System
 

 

  1. Which of the following is/are not stimulated by cortisol during stress?
    A.Gluconeogenesis
    B. Protein catabolism
    C. Glucose uptake and oxidation
    D. Triglyceride catabolism
    E. All of the choices are stimulated by cortisol

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11D.02
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding activation of the sympathetic nervous system during stress is true?
    A.It increases one’s ability to respond to situations where physical activity is required
    B. It increases blood flow to the skeletal muscles and viscera
    C. It inhibits blood clotting
    D. Both it increases one’s ability to respond to situations where physical activity is required and it increases blood flow to the skeletal muscles and viscera are true
    E. Both it increases one’s ability to respond to situations where physical activity is required and it inhibits blood clotting are true

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11D.04
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. During stress,
    A.Insulin secretion is stimulated and glucagon secretion is inhibited
    B. Hormones that decrease salt and water excretion are secreted
    C. Prolactin and growth hormone are co-secreted from the anterior pituitary with ACTH
    D. Both insulin secretion is stimulated and glucagon secretion is inhibited and hormones that decrease salt and water excretion are secreted occur
    E. Both hormones that decrease salt and water excretion are secreted and prolactin and growth hormone are co-secreted from the anterior pituitary with ACTH occur

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 11D.04
Topic: Endocrine System
 

 

  1. Which statement best describes the manner in which growth hormone stimulates cell proliferation?
    A.It directly stimulates cell division in most tissues
    B. It stimulates the release of insulin-like growth factor I from the liver
    C. It stimulates metabolism
    D. It stimulates the release of eicosanoids from lymphoid tissues
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 11E.03
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. Growth hormone secretion rate is highest
    A.In utero
    B. During childhood
    C. During adolescence
    D. During adulthood
    E. During senescence

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11E.03
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. Bone growth
    A.Occurs as a result of osteoblast division
    B. Of the long bones requires growth of the epiphyseal cartilage
    C. Of the long bones ceases after closure of the epiphyseal growth plate
    D. Both occurs as a result of osteoblast division and of the long bones requires growth of the epiphyseal cartilage are correct
    E. Both of the long bones requires growth of the epiphyseal cartilage and of the long bones ceases after closure of the epiphyseal growth plate are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11E.01
Topic: Endocrine System
 

 

  1. The vast majority of the body’s calcium is held in reserve in
    A.Connective tissues embedded in collagen
    B. Blood, dissolved within the plasma
    C. Skeletal muscle, stored in terminal cisternae
    D. Bones, in the form of hydroxyapatites
    E. All of the above have the make equal contributions to the storage capacity of calcium Scrambling: Locked
    F. in the body

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11F.01
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. Which of the hormones listed below has the most profound direct effect on the decrease of bone mass, increased resorption of bone, in response to lowered plasma calcium levels?
    A.Thyroxine
    B. Parathyroid hormone
    C. Calcitonin
    D. Cortisol
    E. Insulin

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11F.02
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. All of the following effects would be attributed to parathyroid hormone, except
    A.Increases the bone degrading activity of osteoclasts
    B. Increases the bone building activities of osetoblasts
    C. Promotes vitamin D synthesis, leading to increased intestinal absorption of calcium
    D. Produces urinary excretion of calcium
    E. Decreases reabsorption of phosphate released as bone mineral salts are liberated from bones

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 11F.02
Topic: Endocrine System
 

 

  1. An adenoma of the parathyroid gland can produce
    A.Hypercalcemia
    B. Hypocalcemia
    C. Increased kidney reabsorption of calcium
    D. Decreased intestinal absorption of calcium
    E. Both hypocalcemia and increased kidney reabsorption of calcium

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 11F.02
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. Which of the following is true regarding pituitary growth hormone?
    A.The liver produces a factor that mediates the metabolic actions of GH
    B. GH stimulates IGF-I production by the liver and by many other cells
    C. GH has diabetogenic activity
    D. Both the liver produces a factor that mediates the metabolic actions of GH and GH stimulates IGF-I production by the liver and by many other cells are true
    E. Both GH stimulates IGF-I production by the liver and by many other cells and GH has diabetogenic activity are true

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11E.03
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. Which of the following is not true of pituitary growth hormone?
    A.It directly promotes protein anabolism in many cells
    B. It causes differentiation of precursor cells that then respond to IGF-I by proliferating
    C. Hypersecretion of growth hormone in adults leads to acromegaly
    D. It is absent or deficient in pituitary dwarfs
    E. It is necessary for fetal growth

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 11E.03
Topic: Endocrine System
 

 

  1. Thyroid hormones are important for growth because they
    A.Maintain the responsiveness of various tissues to growth-promoting hormones
    B. Promote synthesis of GH by the anterior pituitary gland
    C. Increase metabolic rate above normal when their levels are high
    D. Both do maintain the responsiveness of various tissues to growth-promoting hormones and promote synthesis of GH by the anterior pituitary gland are correct
    E. Do all of the choices

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11E.03
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. A deficiency in dietary iodine can cause
    A.Cretinism
    B. A slowing of mental functions
    C. Low metabolic rate
    D. Cretinism and a slowing of mental functions
    E. All of these things

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11C.04
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. Estrogen in females and testosterone in males
    A.Are responsible for the pubertal growth spurt
    B. Are responsible for epiphyseal plate closure
    C. Cause increased strength and mass of skeletal muscle
    D. Both are responsible for the pubertal growth spurt and are responsible for epiphyseal plate closure are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11E.03
Topic: Endocrine System
 

 

True / False Questions
 

  1. An endocrine cell that contains an abundance of granular endoplasmic reticulum, a large Golgi apparatus, and secretion granules is likely to secrete a peptide hormone.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11A.01
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. Steroid hormones are stored in the cells that synthesize them until a stimulus is received that provokes their secretion.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11A.05
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. The adrenal cortex secretes androgens.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11A.01
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. Ovaries synthesize as much androgen as they do estradiol.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11A.01
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. Amine and peptide hormones circulate in the plasma as free hormones whereas steroid hormones are mostly bound to circulating binding proteins.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11A.02
Topic: Endocrine System
 

 

  1. In general, steroid hormones bind to receptors on cell membranes, whereas peptide hormones bind to receptors inside of cells.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11A.04
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. In general, the metabolism and excretion rates of steroid hormones are higher than those of peptide hormones.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11A.03
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. The concentration of a hormone in the blood can affect the number of receptors for that hormone on or in a target cell.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11A.04
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. Thyroid hormones exert a permissive effect on the actions of epinephrine.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11A.04
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. Most molecules of thyroxine and thyrotropin in blood are bound to proteins.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11C.01
Topic: Endocrine System
 

 

  1. Stimuli for the secretion of hormones include changes in plasma concentrations of ions, nutrients, and other hormones.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11A.05
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. The mechanism of action of lipid-soluble hormones is the stimulation or inhibition of specific DNA-dependent protein synthesis.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11A.04
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. Binding of lipid-insoluble hormones to their receptors often results in the formation of one or more second messengers that lead to alterations of the cell’s activity.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11A.04
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. A precursor of cortisol is cholesterol.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11A.01
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. The adrenal cortex is part of the autonomic nervous system.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11A.01
Topic: Endocrine System
 

 

  1. Receptors for estradiol, T3, and vasopressin are located in the nuclei of target cells.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11A.04
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. Unlike neurons, endocrine cells generally do not act as integrators of various kinds of positive or negative inputs.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11 Introduction
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. In cases where the plasma concentration of an ion or nutrient affects the secretion rate of a hormone, the affected hormone is a regulator of the homeostasis of that ion or nutrient.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11A.05
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. Hormones of the posterior lobe of the pituitary are synthesized in neuronal cell bodies of the hypothalamus and transported to the pituitary in axonal fluid.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11B.01
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. The pituitary portal circulation refers to the blood vessels linking the anterior pituitary with the target glands of anterior pituitary hormones.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11B.01
Topic: Endocrine System
 

 

  1. The primary function of thyrotropin is to stimulate secretion of thyroid hormones.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11C.02
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. The liver is a target gland of growth hormone.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11E.03
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. A general name for a hormone that regulates mineral ion homeostasis is “tropic hormone.”
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11A.01
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. The effect of some tropic hormones is to stimulate release of other tropic hormones.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11A.05
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. In cases in which one adrenal cortex is destroyed, the other gland undergoes what is called compensatory hypertrophy.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11C.02
Topic: Endocrine System
 

 

  1. In bone, osteoblasts secrete a protein matrix upon which calcium salts are deposited.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11E.01
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. The net intake and output of calcium for the entire body is regulated most directly by the activities of the kidneys and the gastrointestinal tract.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11F.01
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. The amount of calcium ions within the body is dynamic and alters the total body balance between the bones and extracellular fluid at any given time.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11F.01
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. In order for growth to occur, the overall rate of anabolism must be greater than the overall rate of catabolism.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11E.01
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. A high-protein, low-calorie diet is the best for achieving maximal growth in infants and children.
    TRUE

 

Section 11E.02
Topic: Endocrine System
 

 

  1. All other things being equal, the most damage to a child’s growth and development would be caused by malnutrition during prenatal development.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11E.02
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. A hypothalamic tumor that secretes large amounts of somatostatin may cause dwarfism in a young child.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11E.03
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. Growth hormone is secreted in largest amounts during exercise.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11E.03
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. The actions of thyroid hormones in stimulating body growth are permissive to the actions of growth hormone.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11E.03
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. Insulin is important for growth both before and after birth.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11E.03
Topic: Endocrine System
 

 

  1. Elevated plasma cortisol concentration is permissive for the growth-promoting actions of growth hormone.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11E.03
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. Depressed levels of TH in blood resulting from a defect in the cells that secrete TSH are an example of (primary/secondary) hyposecretion of TH.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 11C.04
Topic: Endocrine System
 

Chapter 19

Medical Physiology: Integration Using Clinical Cases

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. An alteration in either the structure or function of the human body leading away from a state of normal healthy function is called disease. More specifically the study of the changes in function associated with disease is known as
    A.Homeopathy
    B. Protoptosis
    C. Pathophysiology
    D. Necropsy
    E. Autopsy

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 19 Introduction
Topic: General
 

  1. An important point to remember in using and applying factual physiological information is that
    A.Most diagnostic normal parameters or values fall within a range of values
    B. While specific physiological values are collected through specific tests, it is necessary to know how all are related to one another in normal and abnormal physiological states
    C. Rather than memorizing what specific values represent specific disease states, it is more important to understand the processes at work that may be producing these values
    D. Recognition of the processes that maintain homeostasis is required to recognize the physiological indicators used in the diagnosis and treatment of disease
    E. All of the above are correct.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 19 Introduction
Topic: General
 

 

  1. Each of the following physiological processes could be associated with a person’s feelings of excessive warmth, EXCEPT
    A.Ingestion of food
    B. Increased blood thyroid hormone level
    C. Decreased epinephrine release from adrenal glands
    D. Movements exhibited normally by active smooth muscle
    E. Increased activities regulated and sustained through the activity of the sympathetic nervous system

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 19.01
Topic: Nutrition and Metabolism
 

  1. Which of the following would not be a physical manifestation seen in an individual with a hyperactive thyroid gland?
    A.Enlarged thyroid gland in neck; goiter
    B. Decreased levels of total and free T4 hormone in blood serum
    C. Increased TSH in blood serum
    D. Proptosis and diplopia
    E. Abnormally low blood glucose level

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 19.01
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. The effects of hyperthyroidism on the cardiovascular system: increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, and increased respiratory rate, are due to
    A.Compensatory increased activity by the parasympathetic nervous system
    B. Compensatory decreased activity by the sympathetic nervous system
    C. The up-regulation of beta-adrenergic receptors by thyroid hormone
    D. Decreased utilization of iodine consequently leaving largely unused amounts in the bloodstream
    E. All of the choices are correct.

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Section 19.01
Topic: Endocrine System
 

 

  1. Diseases, other than Graves’ disease, which can produce symptoms of hyperthyroidism, could provide an error in diagnosis. Which physiological parameters should be examined also to rule out Graves’ disease?
    A.Fasting plasma glucose (diabetes mellitus)
    B. Serum calcium (hyperparathyroidism)
    C. Blood pH (diabetes mellitus)
    D. Serum prolactin levels (hyperprolactinemia)
    E. Serum protein levels (proteinuria)

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Section 19.01
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. The increased metabolic rate exhibited in individuals who are suffering from increased secretion of thyroid hormone would include all of the following symptoms or signs, except
    A.Weight gain
    B. Increased body temperature
    C. Elevated perspiration and sweating
    D. Irritability and anxiety
    E. Hyperactive reflex reactions

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 19.01
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. Bruits are audible sounds heard in a stethoscope when
    A. Listening to the breath sounds of a patient
    B.  Monitoring the flow of blood through an occluded carotid artery
    C.  The enlarged thyroid gland rises and falls during deglutition
    D.  Listening to the opening and closing of the mitral valve
    E.  Blood passes through the radial artery during pulse counts

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 19.01
Topic: Endocrine System
 

 

  1. Treatments for hyperthyroidism all involve reduction of the thyroid hormone levels. Which of those listed below is the most likely to do so by interfering with the synthesis of TH without destroying viable thyroid gland tissue cells.
    A. Radioactive nucleotide
    B.  Thyroidectomy
    C.  Propylthiouracil and methimazole
    D.  Beta-adrenergic receptor blockers
    E.  Anti-inflammatory glucocorticoids

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Section 19.01
Topic: Endocrine System
 

  1. An individual experiencing chest pain, and shortness of breath, fearing that she may be having a heart attack could be expected to exhibit elevated blood pressure and increased heart rate as a consequence of
    A.Decreased parasympathetic nervous system activity
    B. Increased sympathetic nervous system activity
    C. Increased parasympathetic nervous system activity
    D. Increased levels of epinephrine in the bloodstream
    E. All except increased parasympathetic nervous system activity

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 19.02
Topic: Cardiovascular System
 

  1. Arterial blood pH increasing to values greater than 7.5 (acute respiratory alkalosis) can be caused by
    A.Atelectasis and decreased ventilation
    B. Hyperventilation
    C. Increased urine volume
    D. Decreased hemoglobin production
    E. Hyperemia

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 19.02
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance
 

 

  1. Hypoxemia is the condition in which
    A.Circulating arterial oxygen level is increased
    B. Circulating venous oxygen level is reduced
    C. Circulating venous carbon dioxide level is increased
    D. Circulating arterial oxygen level is decreased
    E. Respiratory alakalosis is observed

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 19.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Which of the following conditions is most likely to be the physiological cause of hypoxemia?
    A.Increased depth and rate of ventilation
    B. Chronic obstructive lung diseases causing ventilation-perfusion imbalances
    C. Anatomical anomalies permitting mixed venous blood to bypass alveolar circulation and passage from the right side of heart to left
    D. Interference with gas exchange between alveolar capillaries and alveoli due to thickened alveolar epithelial membranes
    E. Failure of the kidney to produce adequate amounts of renal erythropoietic factor

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Section 19.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Long periods of inactivity or lack of exercise can lead to formation of _____, which block blood flow and impede gas exchange in small blood vessels due to long-term pooling of blood in ____.
    A.Thrombuses, deep leg veins
    B. Emboli, superficial abdominal arteries
    C. Thrombuses, superficial cutaneous arteries
    D. Emboli, deep leg veins
    E. Thrombuses, renal and hepatic veins

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 19.02
Topic: Cardiovascular System
 

 

  1. The distribution and flow of blood through lung vasculature is assessed by using a procedure called a ventilation-perfusion scan. Decreased distribution of blood through the lungs is highly suggestive of a respiratory disorder known as _________, supported by the results of a(n) _______ procedure performed on the patient’s legs, and then will require treatment referred to as ________ to remove the blood clots.
    A.Systemic venous thrombosis, ultrasound, streptokinase
    B. Pulmonary embolism, ultrasound, tissue plasminogen activator
    C. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, ultrasound, tissue plasminogen activator
    D. Pulmonary embolism, CT scan, coumadin
    E. Systemic venous thrombosis, MRI, heparin

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 19.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. In a fever response, an individual feels “chills” despite elevated temperature that ensues because
    A.Vasodilation occurs to improve blood flow, subsequently increasing conductive heat loss from the skin to the external environment
    B. Systemic vasoconstriction throughout the body promotes reduced blood flow and minimal heat distribution
    C. The hypothalamic temperature set-point is lowered by exposure to toxins, stress, and certain kinds of trauma
    D. Shivering thermogenesis creates an immediate heat loss before proceeding long enough to produce a perceptible increase in heat
    E. Of increased heat loss due to decreased perspiration

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 19.03
Topic: Nutrition and Metabolism
 

 

  1. The presence of pain and tenderness to touch in the lower right anterior abdominal quadrant is commonly associated with
    A.Gastric ulcer
    B. Hemorrhoids
    C. Urinary tract infection
    D. Ovarian cyst
    E. Appendicitis

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 19.03
Topic: Digestive System
 

  1. Elevated white blood cell counts can be indicative of
    A.Bacterial infection
    B. Viral infection
    C. Parasitic infection
    D. Immune hypersensitivities / allergic reactions
    E. All of the choices are correct.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 19.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Sepsis, associated with bacterial infections, is defined by which of the following signs / symptoms?
    A. Decreased respiratory rate and depth
    B.  Elevated / high neutrophil count
    C.  Decreased arterial pCO2
    D.  Increased arterial pO2
    E.  Hypothermia

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 19.02
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

 

  1. In the condition known as peritonitis
    A. There is an inflammation of the membranes and fluid filled space surrounding abdominal organs
    B.  Perforations of the pleural membranes lead to accumulation of pus and interstitial fluids in the thoracic cavity
    C.  The covering connective tissues surrounding the abdominal muscles develop a paralyzing type of infection and may become necrotic
    D.  A procedure known as dialysis is done to cleanse the blood of bacterial toxins
    E.  An infection of the GI tract is producing referred pain in the abdominal and pubic regions leading to cramping and diarrhea

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 19.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Septic shock is the most common type of vasodilatory shock, very frequently associated with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. The primary cause for concern in cases such as this is
    A.That septic shock is always accompanied by major hemorrhage
    B. Chemical mediators involved in promoting the immune response, increase peripheral blood pressure
    C. Immune inflammatory mediators trigger decreased peripheral circulation and potential edema
    D. Reduced peripheral blood pressure impairs venous return and impedes arterial flow to organs
    E. Both immune inflammatory mediators trigger decreased peripheral circulation and potential edema and reduced peripheral blood pressure impairs venous return and impedes arterial flow to organs are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 19.03
Topic: Cardiovascular System
 

 

  1. A reliable sign of infection is pus, which is also a sign that a defensive immune reaction is taking place. An analysis of pus would show it to be composed of which of these infection fighting agents?
    A.Necrotic cells
    B. Tissue macrophages
    C. Histamine
    D. Red blood cells
    E. Interstitial fluids

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 19.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. In the scenario of the patient with peritonitis caused by appendicitis, the appendix is surgically removed and the abdominal organs are given a thorough washing with saline and antibiotics. Why was this done?
    A.To reduce the number of bacterial cells and toxins present through flushing
    B. To create a hypertonic environment to kill the E. coli bacteria
    C. To create a hypotonic environment to inhibit growth of the E. coli bacteria
    D. To rehydrate the local tissues and replace fluids lost through vomiting and diarrhea
    E. To act as a supplement to fluids being replaced by intravenous therapy and to maintain an osmotic balance in the area affected by the surgery

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 19.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Norepinephrine and vasopressin are used therapeutically to
    A. Decrease glomerular filtration rates
    B.  Decrease blood pressure
    C.  Increase blood pressure
    D.  Stabilize respiration rates
    E.  Enhance CO2 and O2 exchange between alveoli and alveolar capillaries

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 19.03
Topic: Cardiovascular System
 

 

  1. Increased levels of lactate in the blood indicate
    A. Cells are creating ATP so rapidly that acidosis is a result
    B.  Rapid excretion of hydrogen ions in the urine
    C.  Cells are relying more on anaerobic ATP synthesis
    D.  The arterial pO2 and oxygen delivery to tissue cells is more than adequate for the metabolic needs
    E.  Respiratory alkalosis

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 19.03
Topic: Nutrition and Metabolism
 

  1. In the inflammatory immune response one hallmark of action is increased permeability of tissue capillaries leading to infiltration of plasma and plasma proteins into the interstitial fluids around the lungs. Consequently fluid accumulates within the lung and
    A. Blood pressure increases
    B.  Gas exchange at the alveoli and alveolar capillaries is improved
    C.  Arterial pCO2 increases
    D.  Arterial pO2 increases
    E.  An immediate response by the kidney excretes more H+ ions into urine

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 19.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. The high mortality rates in patients with septic shock (40%-60%) demand that vital physiological parameters be monitored. Which of those listed below are most likely to offer the first signs that an individual is experiencing septic shock?
    A. Fever / increase in body temperature
    B.  Decreased heart rate
    C.  Increased blood pressure
    D.  Increased urine output
    E.  Increased arterial O2 saturation level

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Section 19.03
Topic: Cardiovascular System
 

 

  1. Immediate therapeutic interventions in the treatment of septic shock as a consequence of infection are aimed at the priority of relieving _____, which could lead to multisystem organ failure throughout the body, by improving _____.
    A.Vascular hypertension, vasomotor tone
    B. Thromboembolism, levels of prostacycline
    C. Fever, blood plasma viscosity
    D. Tissue hypoxia, mean arterial blood pressure
    E. Respiratory alkalosis, ventilation rate and depth

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 19.03
Topic: Cardiovascular System
 

  1. When treating the initial stages of an infection
    A.A narrow spectrum antibiotic is administered immediately upon determination that an infection is present
    B. Antibiotic treatment is withheld for no less than 48 hrs. to allow the growth and identification of the infectious agent in consideration for selection of the antibiotic
    C. Drugs other than antibiotics will be used initially to relieve the symptoms of the infection in order to reduce the possibility of antibiotic resistance by the infectious agent
    D. A broad spectrum antibiotic will be administered and replaced with one known to be more effective once the precise infectious agent has been identified
    E. Both antibiotic treatment is withheld for no less than 48 hrs. to allow the growth and identification of the infectious agent in consideration for selection of the antibiotic and drugs other than antibiotics will be used initially to relieve the symptoms of the infection in order to reduce the possibility of antibiotic resistance by the infectious agent are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 19.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

 

  1. With mortality rates for septic shock patients at or near 50% in the United States, every year important alternative supportive therapy is used. Which of the methods listed below is mismatched to the physiological variable it is intended to target in the patient’s health?
    A.Paralysis of respiratory muscles – reduced oxygen demand and improved delivery to vital organs
    B. Glucocorticoid injections – overall reduced responses to the physiological stresses associated with the infection
    C. Cortisol blocking agents – vasodilation to promote increased blood pressure and flow throughout the body
    D. Cortisol – minimizes and inhibits the inflammatory response
    E. Norepinephrine – counteracts the typical toxic effects of infectious agents by inducing vasoconstriction and increasing blood pressure

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Section 19.03
Topic: Cardiovascular System
 

 

True / False Questions

  1. Seldom does a disease state related to human physiology have associated effects on more than one of the major organ systems at the same time.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 19 Introduction
Topic: General
 

  1. Coming to terms with the cause(s) of disease must often begin with recognition of the physiological process(es) associated with a particular symptom or sign and working through the cause and effect relationships integrated through interactions between multiple organ systems.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 19 Introduction
Topic: General
 

 

  1. The practice of medicine can best be described as a skill which requires one to memorize the specific treatment called for in every conceivable disease state.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 19 Introduction
Topic: General
 

  1. Recent, short-term, respiratory alkalosis is characterized by failure to eliminate carbon dioxide as quickly as it is produced by compensatory reflexive responses in rate and depth of ventilation.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 19.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Chest pain and shortness of breath is rarely, if ever, indicative of any other physiological disorder other than myocardial infarction.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 19.02
Topic: Cardiovascular System
 

  1. While occurring in less than 3% of the population, some individuals can inherit a condition known as hypercoagulability, directly related to a resistance in an activated blood protein.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 19.02
Topic: Cardiovascular System
 

 

  1. To experience the effects of septic shock due to a bacterial infection, one must have viable reproducing microorganisms present in the bloodstream.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 19.02
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

 

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