Vanders Human Physiology The Mechanisms of Body Function 12th Edition By Widmaier – Test Bank

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Vanders Human Physiology The Mechanisms of Body Function 12th Edition By Widmaier – Test Bank

Chapter 02

Chemical Composition of the Body

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. In an atom, the number of
    A.Protons always equals the number of neutrons
    B. Of protons always equals the number of electrons
    C. Of neutrons always equals the number of electrons
    D. Both protons always equals the number of neutrons and of protons always equals the number of electrons are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. An atom’s identity is directly determined by
    A. The number of electrons it has
    B.  The number of neutrons it has
    C.  The number of protons it has
    D.  The number of bonds it can form
    E.  Its atomic weight

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Carbon-12 and carbon-14 are isotopes. They differ in the number of
    A.Protons
    B. Neutrons
    C. Electrons
    D. Chemical bonds they can form
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. A covalent bond between two atoms is
    A. Formed when each atom shares one of its inner-orbit electrons with the other atom
    B.  Formed when each atom shares one of its outer-orbit electrons with the other atom
    C.  The strongest of the chemical bonds
    D.  Formed when each atom shares one of its inner-orbit electrons with the other atom and the strongest of the chemical bonds
    E.  Formed when each atom shares one of its outer-orbit electrons with the other atom and the strongest of the chemical bonds

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Ions are
    A.Electrically neutral
    B. Electrically charged
    C. Formed by the gain or loss of protons from the nucleus
    D. Electrically charged and formed by the gain or loss of protons from the nucleus
    E. None of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. When magnesium loses electrons to become an ion it forms
    A.A covalent bond
    B. A cation
    C. An anion
    D. A new element

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. If a sports beverage advertises that it replaces the body’s electrolytes, it will replace
    A.Sugars that were broken down for energy
    B. Ionic forms of mineral elements
    C. Lipids that form the membranes of cells
    D. Oxygen and gases used by metabolism
    E. Vitamins

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Of the major ions in the body, the only one that carries a negative charge is
    A.Chloride
    B. Sodium
    C. Potassium
    D. Hydrogen
    E. Calcium

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Free radicals
    A.React rapidly with other atoms
    B. Include hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide
    C. Contain two electrons in the outermost orbital
    D. React rapidly with other atoms and include hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. If a free radical reacts with another molecule the free radical will
    A.Remove electrons from the other molecule
    B. Form an unbreakable bond with the other molecule
    C. Remove protons from the other molecule
    D. Stabilize the other molecule
    E. None of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Electrolytes
    A.Are ions
    B. Conduct electricity when dissolved in water
    C. Are found in pure water
    D. Both are ions and conduct electricity when dissolved in water are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Which of the following is not true of a polar chemical bond?
    A.It is covalent
    B. It is ionized
    C. It has opposite electrical charge at each end
    D. It has no net electrical charge
    E. None of the choices are false

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. A polar molecule
    A.Contains a significant proportion of polar bonds relative to nonpolar bonds
    B. May contain ionized groups
    C. Can form hydrogen bonds with other polar molecules
    D. Contains a significant proportion of polar bonds relative to nonpolar bonds and may contain ionized groups are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Hydrolysis
    A.Involves removal of water molecules from larger molecules
    B. Involves breaking of covalent bonds within water molecules and transfer of the resulting ions to other molecules
    C. Results in the breakdown of large molecules in the body
    D. Both involves removal of water molecules from larger molecules and involves breaking of covalent bonds within water molecules and transfer of the resulting ions to other molecules are correct
    E. Both involves breaking of covalent bonds within water molecules and transfer of the resulting ions to other molecules and results in the breakdown of large molecules in the body are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Consider the adage familiar to anyone who has observed oil spills in the ocean or has made a salad dressing: “Oil and water do not mix.” Which of the following helps explain this observation?
    A. Oil is hydrophobic
    B.  Oil is nonpolar
    C.  Oil is composed largely of carbon and hydrogen
    D.  Water is hydrophilic
    E.  All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. Molecules that have properties of both polar and nonpolar molecules are called
    A.Hydrophobic
    B. Hydrophilic
    C. Amphipathic
    D. All of the choices are correct
    E. None of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Compounds A, B and C have molecular weights of 10, 50 and 100 respectively. If 5 grams of each compound were put into 1 liter of water, which compound will have the greatest molar concentration?
    A.Compound A
    B. Compound B
    C. Compound C
    D. All will have the same molar concentration

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The pH of a solution
    A. Is a measure of the concentration of H atoms in solution
    B.  Is a measure of the concentration of bound H+ ions in solution
    C.  Is a measure of the concentration of free H+ ions in solution
    D.  Increases as the acidity of the solution increases
    E.  Both is a measure of the concentration of free H+ ions in solution and increases as the acidity of the solution increases are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. Most of the body weight of an average young adult male is
    A.Water
    B. Protein
    C. Minerals
    D. Lipids
    E. Carbohydrates

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Organic molecules
    A.Always contain oxygen
    B. Always contain carbon
    C. Are always macromolecules
    D. Both always contain oxygen and always contain carbon are correct
    E. Both always contain carbon and are always macromolecules are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Carbohydrates are
    A.Composed of equal parts of C atoms and water molecules
    B. The major organic molecules of the body
    C. Nonpolar
    D. Composed of equal parts of C atoms and water molecules and the major organic molecules of the body
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. Glucose is a
    A.Monosaccharide
    B. Disaccharide
    C. Polysaccharide
    D. Glycoprotein
    E. Phospholipid

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Carbohydrates are stored in the liver and muscles in the form of
    A.Cellulose
    B. Starch
    C. Triacylglycerol
    D. Glycogen
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Relative to carbohydrates, lipids
    A.Contain fewer carbon atoms per molecule
    B. Contain fewer oxygen atoms per molecule
    C. Are more hydrophilic
    D. Are less abundant in the body

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. Which of the following lipids have regulatory roles in the body?
    A.Steroids
    B. Eicosanoids
    C. Triacylglycerols
    D. Both steroids and eicosanoids are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Proteins are
    A.Critically important for physiological processes
    B. Composed of fatty acids
    C. Composed of nucleic acids
    D. Macromolecules with subunits linked by polypeptide bonds
    E. Critically important for physiological processes and macromolecules with subunits linked by polypeptide bonds

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Protein conformation is
    A.Independent of the sequence of subunits forming the protein
    B. Dependent upon a combination of covalent and noncovalent bonds
    C. Affected by interactions with water molecules
    D. Independent of the sequence of subunits forming the protein and affected by interactions with water molecules
    E. Dependent upon a combination of covalent and noncovalent bonds and affected by interactions with water molecules

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. Which of the following correctly describes the strength of the chemical bonds important in protein conformation, from strongest to weakest?
    A.Covalent, ionic, hydrogen, van der Waals
    B. Ionic, covalent, hydrogen, van der Waals
    C. Van der Waals, hydrogen, ionic, covalent
    D. Covalent, hydrogen, ionic, van der Waals
    E. Covalent, ionic, van der Waals, hydrogen

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The covalent bond formed between two amino acids is called a(n)
    A.Glycosidic bond
    B. Peptide bond
    C. Phosphodiester bond
    D. Ester bond
    E. Hydrolytic bond

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Hydrogen bonding is very important in maintaining the structure of
    A.Lipids
    B. Nucleic acids
    C. Proteins
    D. Nucleic acids and proteins
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. Nucleic acids are
    A.Macromolecules
    B. Composed of nucleotides
    C. Distinguished from each other in part by the composition of the sugar they contain
    D. Macromolecules and composed of nucleotides
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Adenosine triphosphate is a(n)
    A.Carbohydrate
    B. Lipid
    C. Protein
    D. Nucleotide
    E. Amino acid

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The function of adenosine triphosphate is
    A. To transfer energy in a cell
    B.  Catalyze chemical reactions
    C.  Store large amounts of energy within the cell
    D.  Act as a template for synthesizing lipids
    E.  All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

True / False Questions

  1. An atom is electrically neutral.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The mass of an atom is the sum of its protons and electrons.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The atomic number of an element is given by the number of electrons in the atom.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. An atomic nucleus is electrically neutral.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Protons and neutrons have roughly the same mass.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. The atomic number of an element refers to the number of particles in its atomic nucleus.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Twelve grams of C contains the same number of atoms as one gram of H.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The four most common elements in the body are hydrogen, carbon, calcium and oxygen.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Important mineral elements in the body include Na, Ca and K.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Trace elements such as zinc and manganese are found in minute quantities in the body but do not serve any known function.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. The number of covalent bonds that can be formed by a given atom depends upon the number of electrons present in the outermost orbit.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Nitrogen atoms can form a maximum of four covalent bonds with other atoms.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The shape of a molecule may change as atoms rotate about their covalent bonds.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. All of the physiologically important atoms of the body readily form ions.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Water molecules can form covalent bonds with other water molecules.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. In a molecule of water, an oxygen atom forms a double bond with each of two hydrogen atoms.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The carboxyl ion is an anion.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. NaCl is a molecule formed by the covalent bonding of a sodium atom to a chlorine atom.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. All covalent bonds are polar.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. During hydrolysis, hydrogen atoms and hydroxyl groups are formed.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. In general, polar molecules will dissolve in polar solvents, while nonpolar molecules cannot.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Solutes that do not dissolve in water are called hydrophilic.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Molecules with both polar and nonpolar regions are called ambidextrous.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The molarity of a solution is a measure of the concentration of the solute.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. A solution with a pH of 8 is more acidic than one with a pH of 3.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. Organic chemistry is the study of oxygen-containing compounds.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Polysaccharides are polymers of sugar molecules.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Sucrose is called “blood sugar” because it is the most abundant carbohydrate in the blood.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Triacylglycerol is one subclass of lipid molecules.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Saturated fats contain carbon atoms linked by double bonds.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. Cholesterol is a phospholipid.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Glycoproteins are protein molecules with molecules of glycogen attached to the amino acid side chains.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The sequence of amino acids in a protein is known as the secondary structure.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Protein molecules may consist of more than one polypeptide chain.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Substitution of one amino acid for another in a given protein will inevitably alter the conformation of that protein to a significant degree.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. In DNA, thymine binds with adenine and cytosine binds with uracil.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

Fill in the Blank Questions
Use this table to answer the question:

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. What is the atomic mass of H?
    1

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. What is the atomic mass of Na?
    23

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. What is the total (net) charge of an atom of K?
    0

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. What is the gram atomic mass of C?
    12g

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

In the reaction R-COOH   R-COO + H+
COOH is the carboxyl group

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. COO is the ________  ________.
    carboxyl ion

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. H+ represents the ________  ________.
    hydrogen ion

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. R refers to the _____________________.
    remainder of the molecule

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. The symbol  indicates that the process is (reversible/irreversible).
    reversible

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. A neutral solution has a pH of ____________.
    7.0

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 2.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

Chapter 08

Consciousness, the Brain, and Behavior

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. An electroencephalogram
    A.Is a record of action potentials in the brain
    B. Records the potential difference between two points on the scalp’s surface
    C. Is a pattern of complex waves with amplitudes similar to those of action potentials
    D. Is both is a record of action potentials in the brain and records the potential difference between two points on the scalp’s surface
    E. Both records the potential difference between two points on the scalp’s surface and is both is a record of action potentials in the brain and records the potential difference between two points on the scalp’s surface are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. It is believed that the rhythmic patterns of the EEG most likely originate from this structure in the brain
    A.Hypothalamus
    B. Thalamus
    C. Basal ganglia
    D. Cerebellum
    E. Hippocampus

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The alpha rhythm is the most prominent EEG pattern when an adult is
    A.In REM sleep
    B. In non-REM sleep
    C. Awake and relaxed with eyes open
    D. Awake and thinking hard about something

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

  1. If you were to record your own EEG activity while concentrating very hard on this exam the most prominent EEG pattern would be
    A.Alpha rhythm
    B. Beta rhythm
    C. Delta rhythm
    D. Theta rhythm

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 8.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which of the following statements about sleep is correct?
    A.Sleep typically occurs in stages in which a subject goes through progressively deeper stages of sleep and then awakens
    B. Sleep typically occurs in cycles in which a subject will cycle through various stages of slow-wave sleep punctuated by paradoxical sleep several times during one bout of sleep
    C. During REM sleep, blood pressure and breathing rate become elevated
    D. Both sleep typically occurs in stages in which a subject goes through progressively deeper stages of sleep and then awakens and during REM sleep, blood pressure and breathing rate become elevated are correct
    E. Both sleep typically occurs in cycles in which a subject will cycle through various stages of slow-wave sleep punctuated by paradoxical sleep several times during one bout of sleep and during REM sleep, blood pressure and breathing rate become elevated are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which of the following is not descriptive of REM sleep?
    A.It is the period when dreaming occurs
    B. It normally occurs only once per night, usually just before waking up
    C. Postural muscles are virtually paralyzed during REM sleep
    D. EEG waves that resemble the awake state can be recorded during REM sleep
    E. Eyes move rapidly back and forth beneath closed lids

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

  1. During paradoxical sleep,
    A.Brain neurotransmitter activity in the pathways regulating states of consciousness is similar to that in the awake state
    B. Brain oxygen consumption is lower than when awake
    C. Skeletal muscle tension is dramatically increased
    D. The person is easily aroused
    E. All of the choices occur

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which of the following most accurately describes the state of consciousness known as REM sleep?
    A.EEG tracings show large amplitude, low frequency waves; subject has very low muscle tone; if awakened will usually report dreaming
    B. EEG tracings show low amplitude, high frequency activity; subject has normal muscle tone; if awakened will usually report dreaming
    C. EEG tracings show low amplitude, high frequency activity; subject has very low muscle tone; if awakened will usually report dreaming
    D. EEG tracings show low amplitude, high frequency activity; subject has normal muscle tone; if awakened will not usually report dreaming
    E. EEG tracings show large amplitude, low frequency waves; subject has normal muscle tone; if awakened will usually report dreaming

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

  1. Which of the descriptions is not descriptive of REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep?
    A. Visible movements of the eyes resembling those of one tracking the movements of objects in space, watching TV, etc
    B.  Difficulty arousing the sleeper
    C.  Oxygen consumption decreases by comparison to NREM sleep and in an alert wakeful state
    D.  It represents 20-25% of a person’s “sleep time”
    E.  Skeletal muscle activity is markedly reduced, except for the extraocular and respiratory muscles

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. In sleep apnea
    A. A person with the disorder experiences symptoms of sleep deprivation
    B.  Periodic bouts of respiratory failure are experienced throughout the night
    C.  Slow-wave and REM sleep predominate in sleep cycling
    D.  Seriously low blood O2 and dangerously high CO2 levels result
    E.  All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. This part of the brain is thought to control the various states of consciousness
    A. Cerebral cortex
    B.  Reticular activating system
    C.  Thalamus
    D.  Cerebellum
    E.  Hippocampus

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

  1. Habituation to a stimulus
    A.Is due to receptor fatigue
    B. Is a result of decreased neurotransmitter release secondary to decreased calcium influx at synaptic terminals
    C. Can be overcome by a stronger stimulus of the same type
    D. Both is due to receptor fatigue and can be overcome by a stronger stimulus of the same type are correct
    E. Both is a result of decreased neurotransmitter release secondary to decreased calcium influx at synaptic terminals and can be overcome by a stronger stimulus of the same type are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Regarding its role as a neurotransmitter in the CNS, norepinephrine
    A.Is secreted by brain stem neurons in response to sensory stimulation
    B. Amplifies weak sensory signals and dampens strong ones so that more information can reach conscious levels
    C. Is important for maintaining directed attention
    D. Both is secreted by brain stem neurons in response to sensory stimulation and is important for maintaining directed attention are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

  1. A laboratory rat has an electrode implanted in its brain. By pressing a metal bar in its cage, the animal can activate the electrode. Which of the following is most likely to be true?
    A.If the animal presses the bar repeatedly, then the electrode is probably in an area associated with appetitive motivation
    B. If the animal presses the bar once, then never touches it again, then the electrode is probably in an area associated with aversive motivation
    C. Such an experiment has no relevance to emotional states in humans or human behavior
    D. Both if the animal presses the bar repeatedly, then the electrode is probably in an area associated with appetitive motivation and if the animal presses the bar once, then never touches it again, then the electrode is probably in an area associated with aversive motivation are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 5. Evaluate
Section 8.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding the brain areas that direct emotion is not true?
    A.The hypothalamus is the site of the conscious feeling of emotion
    B. The hypothalamus integrates emotional behaviors
    C. The limbic system delivers information about emotion from the cerebral cortex to the hypothalamus
    D. The cerebral cortex is responsible for control over emotions
    E. None of the choices are true

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

  1. Damage to the septum of the limbic system causes a tame animal to become vicious, whereas destruction of the amygdala will make the same animal docile again. Which of the following statements may explain this result or correctly follow from it?
    A.The septum is required for the expression of rage
    B. In a normal animal, the septum may inhibit the amygdala
    C. Stimulation of the septum in a normal animal would be likely to provoke rage
    D. Both the septum is required for the expression of rage and in a normal animal, the septum may inhibit the amygdala are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 8.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Regarding schizophrenia,
    A.It is a family of mental disorders that involves disturbances of thinking, perceiving and control of motor activity
    B. Its symptoms can include paranoid delusions and hallucinations
    C. It probably has a hereditary component
    D. Both it is a family of mental disorders that involves disturbances of thinking, perceiving and control of motor activity and its symptoms can include paranoid delusions and hallucinations are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Regarding schizophrenia,
    A.People with schizophrenia frequently have disorders of sensory awareness
    B. Treatment of schizophrenia may result in symptoms of Parkinson’s disease
    C. Lithium carbonate is the most common drug prescribed for schizophrenia
    D. Both people with schizophrenia frequently have disorders of sensory awareness and treatment of schizophrenia may result in symptoms of Parkinson’s disease are correct
    E. Both treatment of schizophrenia may result in symptoms of Parkinson’s disease and lithium carbonate is the most common drug prescribed for schizophrenia are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

  1. Schizophrenia is most strongly associated with excessive production of or sensitivity to
    A.Dopamine
    B. Acetylcholine
    C. Norepinephrine
    D. Enkephalin
    E. Lithium carbonate

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Drugs that are used to treat depression increase the levels of this neurotransmitter in the brain
    A.Glutamate
    B. Serotonin
    C. GABA
    D. Acetylcholine
    E. Dopamine

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Bipolar disorders
    A.Involve both mania and depression
    B. Are most effectively treated with drugs that increase availability of dopamine
    C. Are an exaggeration of normal changes in mood
    D. Both involve both mania and depression and are most effectively treated with drugs that increase availability of dopamine are correct
    E. Both involve both mania and depression and are an exaggeration of normal changes in mood are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

  1. Regarding psychoactive drugs,
    A.They can be taken to relieve altered states of consciousness
    B. They can be taken to experience altered states of consciousness
    C. They may stimulate neuronal activity in the “reward” areas of the brain
    D. Both they can be taken to experience altered states of consciousness and they may stimulate neuronal activity in the “reward” areas of the brain are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Regarding psychoactive drugs,
    A.Both the phenomenon of “tolerance” to and the symptoms of “withdrawal” from a psychoactive drug can be explained by the positive feedback effect of the drug on the production of the endogenous neurotransmitter/neuromodulator for which the drug is an agonist
    B. Only drugs that bind to endorphin/enkephalin receptors are described as “psychoactive.”
    C. Use of psychoactive drugs may result in physical dependence upon them
    D. Both the phenomenon of “tolerance” to and the symptoms of “withdrawal” from a psychoactive drug can be explained by the positive feedback effect of the drug on the production of the endogenous neurotransmitter/neuromodulator for which the drug is an agonist and only drugs that bind to endorphin/enkephalin receptors are described as “psychoactive” are correct
    E. Both the phenomenon of “tolerance” to and the symptoms of “withdrawal” from a psychoactive drug can be explained by the positive feedback effect of the drug on the production of the endogenous neurotransmitter/neuromodulator for which the drug is an agonist and use of psychoactive drugs may result in physical dependence upon them are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 8.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

  1. Which of the following best explains how the phenomenon of “tolerance” develops with use of psychoactive drugs over time?
    A.Psychoactive drugs can alter blood flow to the brain
    B. Psychoactive drugs often produce euphoria
    C. Psychoactive drugs can cross the blood-brain barrier
    D. Psychoactive drugs can inhibit production of endogenous neurotransmitters
    E. Psychoactive drugs can up-regulate receptors for endogenous neurotransmitters

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 8.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Symptoms of withdrawal when drug use is stopped
    A.May result from lower-than-normal secretion of neurotransmitter
    B. Are psychological, not physical
    C. May be alleviated by taking a drug that interacts with the same receptor as the original drug
    D. Both may result from lower-than-normal secretion of neurotransmitter and may be alleviated by taking a drug that interacts with the same receptor as the original drug are correct
    E. Include all of the choices

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Of the following substances, which has the greatest potential to cause dependence if used regularly?
    A.Nicotine
    B. Marijuana
    C. Alcohol
    D. Cocaine
    E. Heroin

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

  1. Selective attention is facilitated, enhanced and improved by way of the _____ of the brain stem, which acts as the origin point of neurons which project to the cerebral cortex and release ________ neurotransmitter(s)
    A. Pons, acetylcholine
    B.  Basal nuclei, dopamine
    C.  Hypothalamus, serotonin
    D.  Locus coeruleus, norepinephrine
    E.  Thalamus, melatonin

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. About 3-5% of school aged children are diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This neurobehavioral problem is anatomically linked, primarily to which area of dysfunction in the brain?
    A. Basal nuclei
    B.  Pituitary gland
    C.  Prefrontal cerebral cortex
    D.  Both basal nuclei and pituitary gland
    E.  Both basal nuclei and prefrontal cerebral cortex

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 8.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Unlike long-term memory, working memory
    A. Has unlimited capacity
    B.  Exists in the form of either graded or action potentials
    C.  Can be disrupted by drugs, electroconvulsive shock or a blow to the head
    D.  Both has unlimited capacity and exists in the form of either graded or action potentials are correct
    E.  Both exists in the form of either graded or action potentials and can be disrupted by drugs, electroconvulsive shock or a blow to the head are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 5. Evaluate
Section 8.05
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

  1. The transfer of working memory into long-term memory is
    A.Called memory retrieval
    B. Inhibited by such hormones as ACTH, epinephrine and vasopressin
    C. Thought to be caused by a relatively nonspecific “fix” signal
    D. Both called memory retrieval and inhibited by such hormones as ACTH, epinephrine and vasopressin
    E. Both inhibited by such hormones as ACTH, epinephrine and vasopressin and thought to be caused by a relatively nonspecific “fix” signal

 

Bloom’s Level: 5. Evaluate
Section 8.05
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. A person with bilateral damage to the hippocampus will probably
    A.Suffer from aphasia
    B. Develop symptoms of Parkinson’s disease
    C. Suffer impairment of consolidation of declarative memory
    D. Have difficulty learning new physical skills
    E. Experience all of the choices

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 8.05
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Anterograde amnesia is associated with damage to all of the following structures of the brain, except
    A.Thalamus
    B. Hypothalamus
    C. Limbic system
    D. Corpus callosum
    E. Hippocampus

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.05
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

  1. A person with bilateral damage to the substantia nigra region of the brain will probably
    A.Be unable to speak
    B. Have difficulty understanding language
    C. Have difficulty consolidating declarative memories
    D. Develop resting tremors
    E. Develop complete amnesia

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 8.05
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Damage to which of the following brain structures is most likely to result in difficulty in being able to remember meeting new people?
    A.Thalamus
    B. Hippocampus
    C. Hypothalamus
    D. Corpus callosum
    E. Broca’s area

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 8.05
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which of the following is an example of declarative memory?
    A.Recognition of a person’s face and matching a name to it
    B. Remembering how to ride a bicycle
    C. Being able to recall a phone number for only a short period of time
    D. Being given a specific address and being able to recall it several days or weeks later
    E. Responding to the sight, smell, taste or thought of one’s favorite food with salivation and hunger pangs

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 8.05
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

  1. When a person loses consciousness, working memory is interrupted and memories are abolished for all that happened for a variable period of time before the blow that caused unconsciousness. Why?
    A.The traumatic blow to the head caused a concussion through violent displacement of the brain in the skull
    B. There was a deficiency of adequate blood flow to the brain
    C. There was an interruption in the constant stream of neuron potentials to memory facilitation brain areas
    D. Conflicting external interference prevents conversion of short-term to long-term memory
    E. This is an area of neurological research which has not achieved any satisfying conclusions at the present time

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 8.05
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. In most people, all of the following functions are lateralized to the left hemisphere except
    A.Arithmetic ability
    B. The ability to read and write
    C. The ability to speak
    D. The ability to recognize faces and read maps
    E. None of these choices, all of these functions are lateralized to the left hemisphere

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 8.06
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Damage to that part of the brain known as Wernicke’s area is likely to
    A.Cause difficulty in recognizing faces
    B. Be associated with impairment of procedural memory
    C. Impair comprehension of language
    D. Impair one’s ability to speak
    E. Cause blindness

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 8.06
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

  1. Damage to that part of the brain known as Broca’s area is likely to
    A.Cause difficulty in recognizing faces
    B. Be associated with paralysis on the left side of the body
    C. Impair speech
    D. Both cause difficulty in recognizing faces and be associated with paralysis on the left side of the body are correct
    E. Both be associated with paralysis on the left side of the body and impair speech are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 8.06
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Conceptual aphasia is a result of damage to
    A.The mouth and vocal cords
    B. The cerebellum
    C. Broca’s area
    D. Wernicke’s area
    E. The primary visual cortex

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.06
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding higher brain functions is true?
    A.A person with damage only to Broca’s area of the brain will understand spoken or written speech but will have difficulty speaking
    B. A person with damage only to Wernicke’s area of the brain will have motor aphasia
    C. A person with damage only to Wernicke’s area of the brain will lose the ability to recognize faces
    D. Both a person with damage only to Broca’s area of the brain will understand spoken or written speech but will have difficulty speaking and a person with damage only to Wernicke’s area of the brain will have motor aphasia are true
    E. Both a person with damage only to Broca’s area of the brain will understand spoken or written speech but will have difficulty speaking and a person with damage only to Wernicke’s area of the brain will lose the ability to recognize faces are true

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 8.06
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

  1. The most nearly correct sequence of activation of brain areas when one responds in writing to a verbal command is:
    A.Primary auditory cortex; Wernicke’s area; Broca’s area; supplementary motor cortex; primary motor cortex
    B. Primary auditory cortex; Broca’s area; supplementary motor cortex; Wernicke’s area; primary motor cortex
    C. Primary auditory cortex; Broca’s area; Wernicke’s area; supplementary motor cortex; primary motor cortex
    D. Primary auditory cortex; Broca’s area; Wernicke’s area; primary motor cortex; supplementary motor cortex
    E. Primary auditory cortex; Wernicke’s area; Broca’s area; primary motor cortex; supplementary motor cortex

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.06
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

True / False Questions

  1. A high-amplitude, spike-wave EEG pattern is characteristic of someone in a coma.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The EEG tracing of a relaxed individual who has closed eyes and is not concentrating on anything in particular is mainly an alpha rhythm.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

  1. EEG arousal is the recording of brain activity of someone who has just been awakened from sleep.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Dreaming occurs when one is in NREM sleep.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Sleep-wake cycles are produced by interactions of nuclei in the brain stem.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. In paradoxical sleep an individual is easily aroused from a deep sleep although the EEG pattern which is observed is consistent with that of an individual in NREM sleep.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Lack of an adequate amount of sleep at its worst can cause death, as well as serious memory retention and learning difficulties.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

  1. A progressive decrease in an orienting response to a repeated stimulus is called adaptation.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. A brain stem nucleus that is strongly implicated in the mechanism for directed attention is the locus coeruleus.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Primary motivated behavior is behavior that is based on changes or anticipated changes in the internal environment.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Aversive motivation leads one to avoid repeating a behavior.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Administration of chlorpromazine to a rat that has an electrode implanted in the lateral hypothalamus will cause an increase in rate of the rat’s self-stimulation.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

  1. Neurotransmitters involved in the reward pathways include enkephalin, dopamine and epinephrine.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. By reducing the pain associated with some memorable events, enkephalins and endorphins may decrease the motivation for learning to occur.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The integrator of inner emotions and emotional behaviors is the thalamus.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The mood disorders are primarily disturbances of thought processes.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. A brain structure thought to be involved in dependence upon certain euphorigenic drugs is the nucleus accumbens.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

  1. All of the psychogenic drugs that induce drug dependence act on the same neurotransmitter/receptor system.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Alcohol is a stimulant and antidepressant.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Tolerance to drugs that are neurotransmitter agonists is thought to involve increased release of the neurotransmitter in response to the drug.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Both short- and long-term memory are seated in and associated with the same specific functional regions of the brain.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.05
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

  1. Persons suffering from anterograde amnesia continually have short lived, rapidly changing perceptions of events that they have only imagined, but then cannot recall them later as a consequence of an inability to translate these “false memories” from short-term to long-term memory.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.05
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Working memory is labile and can be lost in response to any condition that interrupts electrical activity of the brain.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.05
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Learning is generally facilitated if the material to be learned is emotionally neutral.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.05
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Stressful situations are likely to be remembered in striking detail in part because of the hormones released as a result of the stress.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.05
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

  1. Retrograde amnesia is the loss of memory for all events that happened before a serious brain trauma such as a blow to the head.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.05
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Memory consolidation probably occurs via an increase in the effectiveness of existing synapses and also via formation of new ones.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.05
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Brain size and the complexity of neuronal circuits are fixed and independent of environmental stimulation.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The right side of the brain is specialized for identifying visual patterns and three-dimensional objects.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.06
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

  1. Retrograde amnesia associated with a traumatic head injury can be directly related to the loss of memories considered as both short-term and long-term, including any events immediately related to the trauma.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.05
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. EEG with waves of high-amplitude and low frequency is descriptive of or occurs during
    A. Slow-wave sleep
    B.  Paradoxical sleep
    C.  Both slow-wave sleep and paradoxical sleep
    D.  Neither slow-wave sleep nor paradoxical sleep

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Rapid eye movement is descriptive of or occurs during
    A. Slow-wave sleep
    B.  Paradoxical sleep
    C.  Both slow-wave sleep and paradoxical sleep
    D.  Neither slow-wave sleep nor paradoxical sleep

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

  1. Alpha EEG rhythm is descriptive of or occurs during
    A.Slow-wave sleep
    B. Paradoxical sleep
    C. Both slow-wave sleep and paradoxical sleep
    D. Neither slow-wave sleep nor paradoxical sleep

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Absence of postural muscle tone is descriptive of or occurs during
    A.Slow-wave sleep
    B. Paradoxical sleep
    C. Both slow-wave sleep and paradoxical sleep
    D. Neither slow-wave sleep nor paradoxical sleep

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Pulsate secretion of growth hormone is descriptive of or occurs during
    A.Slow-wave sleep
    B. Paradoxical sleep
    C. Both slow-wave sleep and paradoxical sleep
    D. Neither slow-wave sleep nor paradoxical sleep

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Dreaming is descriptive of or occurs during
    A.Slow-wave sleep
    B. Paradoxical sleep
    C. Both slow-wave sleep and paradoxical sleep
    D. Neither slow-wave sleep nor paradoxical sleep

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 8.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

Chapter 18

The Immune System

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. The immune system
    A.Must recognize the identity of a foreign cell or substance in order to inactivate it
    B. Must recognize a foreign cell or substance as foreign in order to inactivate it
    C. Can recognize and destroy “self” cells that have been changed or damaged
    D. Both must recognize the identity of a foreign cell or substance in order to inactivate it and can recognize and destroy “self” cells that have been changed or damaged are correct
    E. Both must recognize a foreign cell or substance as foreign in order to inactivate it and can recognize and destroy “self” cells that have been changed or damaged are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18 Introduction
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Which of the following statements about viruses is not correct? Viruses
    A.Consist of a nucleic acid surrounded by a carbohydrate shell
    B. Require a host cell in order to reproduce themselves
    C. May reside in a host cell for years without killing it
    D. May cause a host cell to become cancerous
    E. May have genetic information in the form of RNA

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18 Introduction
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. The killing of virus-infected or cancerous cells by the immune system is called
    A.Immune oversight
    B. Immune surveillance
    C. Tissue immunity
    D. Phagocytosis
    E. Hemostasis

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18 Introduction
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

 

  1. Regarding the immune system cells,
    A. Plasma cells are derived from B cells
    B.  Macrophages are derived from basophils
    C.  Monocytes have functions similar to the functions of macrophages but are found in different compartments of the body
    D.  Both plasma cells are derived from B cells and monocytes have functions similar to the functions of macrophages but are found in different compartments of the body are correct
    E.  Both macrophages are derived from basophils and monocytes have functions similar to the functions of macrophages but are found in different compartments of the body are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.01
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Which of the following statements about the immune system is true?
    A. All cells with important immune-system functions originate in the bone marrow or are derived from precursors or immature cells that originated in bone marrow
    B.  Natural killer cells have functions similar to macrophages but are found in different compartments of the body
    C.  Mast cells are derived from monocytes
    D.  Plasma cells are derived from T lymphocytes
    E.  Macrophages are derived from neutrophils

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.01
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding the chemical mediators of inflammatory responses is not true?
    A.They may be secreted by cells residing in the area of injury
    B. They may be secreted by cells that enter the affected area
    C. They may be generated by enzymatic cleavage of proteins in plasma
    D. They are all peptides
    E. They may be chemotaxins

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 18.02
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

 

  1. After initial entry of bacteria into a cut in the skin, vasodilation of local blood vessels and increased capillary permeability occur. These phenomena are
    A.Part of the specific immune response
    B. Accompanied by chemotaxis of B lymphocytes
    C. Initiated by antibody activation of complement
    D. Components of the inflammatory response
    E. Both part of the specific immune response and initiated by antibody activation of complement are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.02
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Chemotaxis
    A.Refers to the chemical attraction of phagocytes to the site of inflammation
    B. Is important only for nonspecific immune responses
    C. Is important only for specific immune responses
    D. Both refers to the chemical attraction of phagocytes to the site of inflammation and is important only for nonspecific immune responses are correct
    E. Both refers to the chemical attraction of phagocytes to the site of inflammation and is important only for specific immune responses are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.02
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Chemotaxis
    A.Refers to the chemical attraction of erythrocytes to the site of inflammation
    B. Brings neutrophils and monocytes to the scene of microbial invasion or injury
    C. Activates macrophages
    D. Both refers to the chemical attraction of erythrocytes to the site of inflammation and brings neutrophils and monocytes to the scene of microbial invasion or injury are correct
    E. Both brings neutrophils and monocytes to the scene of microbial invasion or injury and activates macrophages are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.02
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding phagocytes and phagocytosis is true?
    A.Macrophages, monocytes, and mast cells are phagocytes
    B. Contact of phagocytes with microbes stimulates the phagocytes to release chemicals that stimulate the inflammatory response
    C. Phagocytosis is stimulated by the presence of proteins called rhodopsins
    D. Both macrophages, monocytes, and mast cells are phagocytes and contact of phagocytes with microbes stimulates the phagocytes to release chemicals that stimulate the inflammatory response are true
    E. All of the choices are true

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 18.02
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding phagocytosis is true?
    A.Macrophages are the only phagocytes in the tissues
    B. The microbe engulfed by the phagocyte is killed by lysosomal enzymes and hydrogen peroxide
    C. Phagocytosis is controlled by a negative feedback mechanism whereby phagocytes release chemicals that inhibit further phagocytosis
    D. The microbe engulfed by the phagocyte is killed by the membrane attack complex (MAC)
    E. None of these statements are true

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 18.02
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Cells in the immune system that can phagocytose or endocytose antigen include macrophages
    A. And NK cells
    B.  Neutrophils, and B cells
    C.  And cytotoxic T cells
    D.  And neutrophils
    E.  Only

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.02
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding complement is true?
    A. Complement refers to a protein that is present in blood in an inactive form
    B.  Activated complement can form a membrane attack complex, which causes lysis of microbes
    C.  Activated complement stimulates cells to secrete chemicals that cause vasoconstriction
    D.  Both complement refers to a protein that is present in blood in an inactive form and activated complement can form a membrane attack complex, which causes lysis of microbes are true
    E.  All of the choices are true

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 18.02
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding complement is true?
    A.It is activated by binding to a receptor on an antibody molecule
    B. It is activated by contact with collagen on the surface of microbes
    C. Activated complement proteins can function as opsonins
    D. Both it is activated by binding to a receptor on an antibody molecule and it is activated by contact with collagen on the surface of microbes are true
    E. Both it is activated by binding to a receptor on an antibody molecule and activated complement proteins can function as opsonins are true

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.02
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Complement
    A.Is the name of a specific family of proteins that interact in a defined, complex sequence
    B. Is secreted by lymphocytes
    C. Enhances antibody activity
    D. Both is the name of a specific family of proteins that interact in a defined, complex sequence and enhances antibody activity are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.02
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding the activation of complement is true?
    A.Complement is activated only as a result of nonspecific immune responses
    B. Complement is activated only as a result of specific immune responses
    C. Complement is activated as a result of both nonspecific and specific immune responses, but the activation by specific immune responses is more robust
    D. Complement is activated as a result of both nonspecific and specific immune responses, but the activation by nonspecific immune responses is more robust
    E. None of the choices are true

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 18.02
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Kinins are
    A.Part of the complement family
    B. Vasodilators
    C. Chemotaxins
    D. Part of the complement family and vasodilators
    E. Vasodilators and chemotaxins

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.02
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Interferon
    A.Is a family of protein mediators
    B. Interferes with viral replication in cells
    C. Enters cells and directly affects their protein-assembly functions
    D. Both is a family of protein mediators and interferes with viral replication in cells are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.02
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding the lymphoid organs is not true?
    A.The primary lymphoid organs are the bone marrow and thymus
    B. The thymus secretes hormones
    C. Large numbers of macrophages and lymphocytes are found in the lymph nodes and spleen
    D. The tonsils act as a first line of defense against microbes in food
    E. Once a lymphocyte reaches a peripheral lymphoid organ, it remains there for its lifetime

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 18.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Which if the following statements regarding major histocompatibility proteins (MHCs) is true?
    A.Class I MHCs are found on all nucleated cells in the body
    B. Class II MHCs are found on macrophages and B cells
    C. Cytotoxic T cells require class II MHCs to recognize foreign antigens
    D. Both class I MHCs are found on all nucleated cells in the body and class II MHCs are found on macrophages and B cells are true
    E. All of the choices are true

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 18.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Helper T cells
    A.Are activated by antigen presented with MHC II proteins
    B. Secrete interferon-gamma when activated
    C. Secrete perforin when activated
    D. Both are activated by antigen presented with MHC II proteins and secrete interferon-gamma when activated are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

 

  1. Cytotoxic T cells
    A.Secrete perforin, which kills bacteria and viruses by perforating the membrane or coat that surrounds them
    B. Are activated by interleukin 1
    C. Require Class I MHC proteins to recognize foreign antigens
    D. Both secrete perforin, which kills bacteria and viruses by perforating the membrane or coat that surrounds them and are activated by interleukin 1 are correct
    E. Both are activated by interleukin 1 and require Class I MHC proteins to recognize foreign antigens are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding the secretions of immune system cells is true?
    A. Interleukin 2 is an autocrine secreted by helper T cells
    B.  Interleukin 2 is a paracrine secreted by helper T cells
    C.  Interleukin 1 is a cytokine
    D.  Both interleukin 2 is an autocrine secreted by helper T cells and interleukin 1 is a cytokine are true
    E.  All of the choices are true

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding the secretions of immune system cells is true?
    A. Interleukin 2 is an autocrine secreted by cytotoxic T cells
    B.  Interleukin 1 is a paracrine secreted by macrophages and B lymphocytes
    C.  Interleukin 1 is an autocrine secreted by helper T cells
    D.  Both interleukin 2 is an autocrine secreted by cytotoxic T cells and interleukin 1 is a paracrine secreted by macrophages and B lymphocytes are true
    E.  All of the choices are true

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

 

  1. Natural killer cells
    A. Are activated by IL-2 and interferon-gamma
    B.  Have no MHC restriction
    C.  Can bind to the Fc portion of antibodies bound to antigen
    D.  Both are activated by IL-2 and interferon-gamma and can bind to the Fc portion of antibodies bound to antigen are correct
    E.  All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Activated macrophages
    A.Are activated by interferon-gamma
    B. Preferentially kill abnormal body cells
    C. Secrete tumor necrosis factor
    D. Both are activated by interferon-gamma and preferentially kill abnormal body cells are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Antibodies are
    A.Secreted by helper T cells
    B. Cytokines
    C. Immunoglobulins
    D. Composed of two polypeptide chains – a heavy chain and a light chain
    E. Cytokines and immunoglobulins

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

 

  1. Antibodies
    A.Are secreted by plasma cells
    B. Protect against viruses by binding to them and presenting them to phagocytes
    C. Protect against viruses by binding to them and neutralizing them
    D. Activate complement
    E. Are described by all of these choices

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. When an antigen is bound to an antibody, it binds to
    A.The heavy immunoglobulin chain only
    B. The light immunoglobulin chain only
    C. A specific antigen-binding site formed by heavy and light chains
    D. A hypervariable region of immunoglobulin DNA
    E. Gamma immunoglobulin only

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Compared to undifferentiated B cells,
    A.Plasma cells are more effective antigen-presenting cells
    B. Plasma cells have increased amounts of granular endoplasmic reticulum
    C. Memory cells respond faster to antigen
    D. Both plasma cells are more effective antigen-presenting cells and memory cells respond faster to antigen are correct
    E. Both plasma cells have increased amounts of granular endoplasmic reticulum and memory cells respond faster to antigen are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 18.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

 

  1. Binding of IgG or IgM to an antigen
    A.Activates the complement system by the classical complement pathway
    B. Facilitates production of MAC
    C. Stimulates phagocytosis by enabling phagocytes to be bound to the antigen
    D. Is an example of allosteric protein modulation
    E. Is described by all of these choices

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Systemic responses to infection
    A.Are mediated by cytokines such as IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor
    B. Include resetting the body’s “thermostat,” so that body temperature is maintained lower than normal
    C. Include secretion of iron and zinc into the blood by the liver
    D. Both are mediated by cytokines such as IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor and include resetting the body’s “thermostat,” so that body temperature is maintained lower than normal are correct
    E. Both are mediated by cytokines such as IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor and include secretion of iron and zinc into the blood by the liver are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.04
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Which of the following is not a systemic effect of IL-1 and other cytokines in response to infection or tissue injury?
    A.Increased plasma levels of amino acids
    B. Increased secretion of colony-stimulating factors
    C. Decreased appetite
    D. Secretion of acute-phase proteins by the liver
    E. Stimulation of helper T cells

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 18.04
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

 

  1. AIDS is
    A.Caused by a retrovirus
    B. Caused by a virus that contains RNA
    C. Transmitted by intimate contact with infected blood, sexual intercourse with an infected partner, or by an infected mother to her fetus or breast-fed infant
    D. Both caused by a retrovirus and transmitted by intimate contact with infected blood, sexual intercourse with an infected partner, or by an infected mother to her fetus or breast-fed infant are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 18.05
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Graft rejection
    A.Occurs primarily because donor macrophages recognize the host tissue as foreign
    B. Can be combated by drugs that inhibit lymphocyte proliferation
    C. Can be combated by drugs that inhibit cytokine secretion
    D. Both occurs primarily because donor macrophages recognize the host tissue as foreign and can be combated by drugs that inhibit lymphocyte proliferation are correct
    E. Both can be combated by drugs that inhibit lymphocyte proliferation and can be combated by drugs that inhibit cytokine secretion are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 18.06
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. A subject with type O blood has
    A.Erythrocytes carrying type A antigen
    B. Erythrocytes carrying type B antigen
    C. Antibodies to type A and type B antigen in his/her plasma
    D. Erythrocytes carrying type A antigen and erythrocytes carrying type B antigen
    E. None of these things

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 18.06
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding blood-type incompatibilities between a mother and her fetus is true?
    A.An Rh-negative fetus may be at risk if its mother is Rh-positive
    B. An Rh-positive fetus may be at risk if its mother is Rh-negative
    C. A fetus with type B blood may be at risk if its mother has type O blood
    D. Both an Rh-negative fetus may be at risk if its mother is Rh-positive and a fetus with type B blood may be at risk if its mother has type O blood are true
    E. Both an Rh-positive fetus may be at risk if its mother is Rh-negative and a fetus with type B blood may be at risk if its mother has type O blood are true

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 18.06
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Allergic reactions are the result of
    A.Inappropriate responses by the immune system to stimuli that are not antigens
    B. Mast cells and IgE activity
    C. Parasite infestation
    D. Mast cells and IgE activity and parasite infestation
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.06
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Autoimmune diseases
    A.Include multiple sclerosis and AIDS
    B. Can be treated by drugs that suppress the immune system
    C. Are diseases in which the immune system is damaged by microbes that kill leukocytes
    D. Both include multiple sclerosis and AIDS and can be treated by drugs that suppress the immune system are correct
    E. Both include multiple sclerosis and AIDS and are diseases in which the immune system is damaged by microbes that kill leukocytes are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.06
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

 

  1. Individuals who have been infected by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
    A.May show no signs or symptoms of the disease
    B. Generally are diagnosed by detection of anti-HIV antibodies from their blood
    C. Succumb to the disease in a relatively brief period of time after infection due to massive loss and failure to replace T lymphocytes
    D. Both may show no signs or symptoms of the disease and generally are diagnosed by detection of anti-HIV antibodies from their blood are correct
    E. Both generally are diagnosed by detection of anti-HIV antibodies from their blood and succumb to the disease in a relatively brief period of time after infection due to massive loss and failure to replace T lymphocytes

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.05
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Each of the following are typically associated with the transmission of HIV/AIDS, except:
    A.Unprotected sexual intercourse with an infected partner
    B. Through kissing or contact with items contaminated by the saliva of an infected individual
    C. Transmission from an infected mother to her fetus across the placenta during pregnancy or delivery
    D. Transfer via breast milk during nursing
    E. Transfer of contaminated blood or blood products from one person to another

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 18.05
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. The rationale behind the drugs used to treat HIV/AIDS, is to reduce the number of viruses present in the body to infect otherwise healthy cells, by all of the following methods, except:
    A.Inhibition of the reverse transcriptase enzyme
    B. Interference with the processes involved in expression of viral nucleic acid by the host cell
    C. Blocking an alpha protease enzyme associated with the assembly of the virus
    D. Chemical agents directed at interruption of mitosis in host cells for the virus
    E. Blocking the attachment and fusion of the HIV viruses with T lymphocyte host cells

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 18.05
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

 

 

 

True / False Questions

  1. Immune surveillance refers to the search for and destruction of bacteria in the blood.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18 Introduction
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. The body’s first line of defense against invasion by microbes is a physical and chemical barrier.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.02
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. The local response to injury in the body is called infection.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.02
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Histamine is a mediator of inflammatory responses that is generated by enzymatic cleavage of a plasma precursor.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.02
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

 

  1. A consequence of inflammation is increased capillary filtration and edema, which causes swelling and pain.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.02
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. A chemical that causes binding of a phagocyte to a microbe is called a chemotaxin.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.02
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. A phagocyte can kill a microbe only after phagocytosis.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.02
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Specific immune responses differ from nonspecific ones in that the former are mediated by lymphocytes.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Bone marrow and thymus are the primary sites of lymphocyte maturation.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

 

  1. B and T cells are preprogrammed to recognize specific antigens.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. The two broad categories of specific immune responses are antibody-mediated and humoral.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. In cell-mediated immune responses, immune cells directly kill antigen-bearing cells.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Cytotoxic T cells kill body cells by phagocytosis.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Helper T cells bind to antigen complexed with class II MHC proteins, while cytotoxic T cells bind to antigen complexed with class I MHC proteins.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

 

  1. Helper T cells are important only for cell-mediated immune responses.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Unlike cytotoxic T cells, natural killer cells do not require antigen to be complexed with class I MHC proteins in order to bind to the antigen.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. A person who receives a vaccine made from killed virus particles will, if the vaccination is successful, acquire passive immunity against that virus.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. The primary difference between active and passive immunity is accounted for by the presence of memory cells in the former.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.03
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. HIV preferentially attacks cytotoxic T cells.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.05
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

 

  1. Cyclosporin may be useful for treating autoimmune disorders.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.06
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. A person with type B blood can generally accept a transfusion of type AB blood.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.06
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. People lacking Rh factor have natural antibodies to it.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.06
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Passive immunization of an Rh-negative woman with anti-Rh factor antibodies within a few hours of giving birth to an Rh-positive baby is helpful in preventing erythroblastosis fetalis in a subsequent pregnancy.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.06
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. The skin constitutes a good barrier for foreign chemicals that are nonpolar.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.02
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

 

  1. A patient with AIDS would be likely to react to an infection with a greater elevation of plasma cortisol than a person without the disease.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.05
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. Treatment of individuals with HIV infection focuses upon early detection by interfering with the processes involved in replication and assembly of the virus by T lymphocytes, rather than attacking infected host cells directly.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.05
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

  1. The appearance of the signs and symptoms of AIDS in an HIV infected individual generally appear after the virus has had enough time to replicate within host tissue cells and to cause death and destruction of cells critical to mounting a normal immune response.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 18.05
Topic: Lymphatic System and Immunity
 

 

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