Vander’s Human Physiology 14th Edition by Eric P. Widmaier Dr. -Test Bank

$25.00

Category:

Description

INSTANT DOWNLOAD WITH ANSWERS

Vander’s Human Physiology 14th Edition by Eric P. Widmaier Dr. -Test Bank

Chapter 06

Neuronal Signaling and the Structure of the Nervous System

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Which of the following is/are functions of the human nervous system?
    A. receiving, storing, and processing information on the internal and external environments
    B.  bringing about changes in physiology and/or behavior to ensure optimal functions of homeostatic mechanisms
    C.  secretion of hormones
    D.  coordination of movement
    E.  All of the choices are correct.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H01.01 Describe the major functions of the nervous system.
HAPS Topic: Module H01 General functions of the nervous system.
Learning Outcome: 06.01
Learning Outcome: 06.15
Section: 06.01
Section: 06.15
Topic: General functions of the nervous system
Topic: Neural integration in the CNS

 

 

  1. Which is NOT true of myelin?
    A. It is a fatty membranous sheath.
    B.  It is formed by glial cells.
    C.  It influences the velocity of conduction of an electrical signal down an axon.
    D.  It covers all parts of the neuron, including the axon, cell body, and dendrites.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H03.03b Describe functions for each of the glial cells found in the CNS.
HAPS Objective: H03.03c Explain how the anatomy of each CNS glial cell supports its function.
HAPS Objective: H03.04b Describe functions for each type of glial cell found in the PNS.
HAPS Objective: H03.04c Explain how the anatomy of each PNS glial cell supports its function.
HAPS Objective: H04.13b Explain how axon diameter and myelination affect impulse conduction velocity.
HAPS Topic: Module H03 Gross and microscopic anatomy of nervous tissue.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.01
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.01
Section: 06.07
Topic: Microscopic anatomy of glial cells
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

  1. Which of the following is NOT true about axon transport?
    A. It refers to the passage of materials from the cell body of a neuron to the axon terminals.
    B.  It refers to the passage of materials from axon terminals to the cell body of a neuron.
    C.  It refers to the transport of materials from the inside to the outside across the axonal membrane.
    D.  It is especially important for maintaining the integrity of neurons with long axons.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H03.02b Identify soma (cell body), axon, and dendrites in each of the three structural types of neurons (unipolar, bipolar and multipolar).
HAPS Objective: H03.02c State which parts of each of the three structural types of neurons (unipolar, bipolar and multipolar) receive information, which parts integrate information, and which parts conduct the output signal of the neuron.
HAPS Topic: Module H03 Gross and microscopic anatomy of nervous tissue.
Learning Outcome: 06.01
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microscopic anatomy of neurons

 

 

  1. Which is FALSE about neurons?
    A. A given neuron can be either a presynaptic neuron or a postsynaptic neuron.
    B.  An individual  neuron can receive information from multiple other neurons.
    C.  An individual neuron can transmit information to multiple other neurons.
    D.  A neuron can simultaneously release more than one type of neurotransmitter.
    E.  A neuron receives information on its axons and delivers it to other neurons through its dendrites.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H03.02c State which parts of each of the three structural types of neurons (unipolar, bipolar and multipolar) receive information, which parts integrate information, and which parts conduct the output signal of the neuron.
HAPS Objective: H05.01 Identify the presynaptic and postsynaptic cells at a synapse.
HAPS Topic: Module H03 Gross and microscopic anatomy of nervous tissue.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.01
Learning Outcome: 06.02
Learning Outcome: 06.08
Section: 06.01
Section: 06.02
Section: 06.08
Topic: Anatomical and functional organization of the nervous system
Topic: Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission

  1. Which of the following is NOT true of glial cells?
    A. They form the myelin for axons.
    B.  Neurons outnumber glial cells 10 to 1 in the nervous system.
    C.  They deliver fuel molecules to neurons and remove the waste products of metabolism.
    D.  They are important for the growth and development of the nervous system.
    E.  They regulate the composition of the extracellular fluid in the CNS.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H03.03b Describe functions for each of the glial cells found in the CNS.
HAPS Objective: H03.04b Describe functions for each type of glial cell found in the PNS.
HAPS Topic: Module H03 Gross and microscopic anatomy of nervous tissue.
Learning Outcome: 06.03
Section: 06.03
Topic: Anatomical and functional organization of the nervous system
Topic: Microscopic anatomy of glial cells

 

 

  1. The difference in electrical charge between two points:
    A. is called the potential difference between those points.
    B.  is called the diffusion potential between those points.
    C.  is called the current, and is expressed in the units of millimoles.
    D.  is the same for all ions.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H04.04 Differentiate between a concentration gradient and an electrical potential.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.05
Section: 06.05
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

  1. According to the equation expressed as Ohm’s law, which of these would cause the greatest increase in current?
    A. doubling both voltage and resistance
    B.  reducing both voltage and resistance by half
    C.  doubling voltage and reducing resistance by half
    D.  reducing voltage by half and doubling resistance
    E.  quadrupling both voltage and resistance

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H04.04 Differentiate between a concentration gradient and an electrical potential.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.05
Section: 06.05
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

 

 

  1. Compartments A and B are separated by a membrane that is permeable to K+ but not to Na+ or Cl. At time zero, a solution of KCl is poured into compartment A and an equally concentrated solution of NaCl is poured into compartment B. Which would be true once equilibrium is reached?
    A. The concentration of Na+ in A will be higher than it was at time zero.
    B.  Diffusion of K+ from A to B will be greater than the diffusion of K+ from B to A.
    C.  There will be a potential difference across the membrane, with side B negative relative to side A.
    D.  The electrical potential difference and diffusion potential due to the concentration gradient for K+ will be equal in magnitude and opposite in direction.
    E.  The concentration of Cl will be higher in B than it was at time zero.

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H04.04 Differentiate between a concentration gradient and an electrical potential.
HAPS Objective: H04.05 Define electrochemical gradient.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.06
Section: 06.06
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

  1. Which is TRUE about the resting membrane potential?
    A. It requires very few ions to be distributed unevenly.
    B.  It has the same value in all cells.
    C.  It is oriented so that the cell’s interior is positive with respect to the extracellular fluid.
    D.  Only nerve and muscle cells have a potential difference across the membrane at rest.
    E.  It is not altered by changing concentration gradients of permeating ions.

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H04.06b Explain how passive ion channels cause development of the resting membrane potential in neurons.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.06
Section: 06.06
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

 

 

  1. Which is TRUE about typical, resting neurons?
    A. The plasma membrane is most permeable to sodium ions.
    B.  The concentration of sodium ion is greater inside the cell than outside.
    C.  The permeability of the plasma membrane to potassium ions is much greater than its permeability to sodium ions.
    D.  The plasma membrane is completely impermeable to sodium ions.
    E.  The plasma membrane is completely impermeable to potassium ions.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H04.01 Define permeability.
HAPS Objective: H04.03 Contrast the relative concentrations of sodium, potassium and chloride ions inside and outside of a cell.
HAPS Objective: Q03.02 Compare and contrast the relative concentrations of major electrolytes in intracellular and extracellular fluids.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
HAPS Topic: Module Q03 Chemical composition of the major compartment fluids.
Learning Outcome: 06.06
Section: 06.06
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

  1. The membrane potential of most neurons at rest is:
    A. equal to the equilibrium potential for potassium.
    B.  equal to the equilibrium potential for sodium.
    C.  slightly more negative than the equilibrium potential of potassium ion.
    D.  more positive than the equilibrium potential for potassium.
    E.  more positive than the equilibrium potential for sodium.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H04.03 Contrast the relative concentrations of sodium, potassium and chloride ions inside and outside of a cell.
HAPS Objective: H04.05 Define electrochemical gradient.
HAPS Objective: H04.06b Explain how passive ion channels cause development of the resting membrane potential in neurons.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.06
Section: 06.06
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

 

 

  1. The diffusion potential due to the concentration gradient for Na+ across a nerve cell membrane:
    A. favors its movement into the cell at the resting membrane potential.
    B.  favors its movement out of the cell at the resting membrane potential.
    C.  is equal and opposite to the electrical potential acting on Na+ at the resting membrane potential.
    D.  Is in the same direction as the diffusion potential due to the concentration gradient for K+.
    E.  favors movement of Na+ in the opposite direction as the electrical potential acting on Na+ at the resting membrane potential.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H04.03 Contrast the relative concentrations of sodium, potassium and chloride ions inside and outside of a cell.
HAPS Objective: H04.04 Differentiate between a concentration gradient and an electrical potential.
HAPS Objective: H04.05 Define electrochemical gradient.
HAPS Objective: Q03.02 Compare and contrast the relative concentrations of major electrolytes in intracellular and extracellular fluids.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
HAPS Topic: Module Q03 Chemical composition of the major compartment fluids.
Learning Outcome: 06.06
Section: 06.06
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

  1. Which would result from an increase in the extracellular concentration of K+ above normal?
    A. depolarization of resting nerve cells
    B.  hyperpolarization of resting nerve cells
    C.  The potassium equilibrium potential of nerve cells would become more negative.
    D.  The sodium equilibrium potential would become less positive.

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H04.04 Differentiate between a concentration gradient and an electrical potential.
HAPS Objective: H04.05 Define electrochemical gradient.
HAPS Objective: H04.06b Explain how passive ion channels cause development of the resting membrane potential in neurons.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.06
Section: 06.06
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

 

 

  1. Which is TRUE about the Na+, K+ ATPase pump in neurons?
    A. It generates a small electrical potential such that the inside is made negative with respect to the outside.
    B.  It maintains a concentration gradient for K+ such that diffusion forces favor movement of K+ into the cell.
    C.  It maintains an electrical gradient at the equilibrium potential of K+.
    D.  It transports equal numbers of sodium and potassium ions with each pump cycle.
    E.  It pumps 3 Na+ ions into the cell for every 2 K+ ions it pumps out.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H04.03 Contrast the relative concentrations of sodium, potassium and chloride ions inside and outside of a cell.
HAPS Objective: H04.04 Differentiate between a concentration gradient and an electrical potential.
HAPS Objective: H04.08 Describe the role of the sodium-potassium exchange pump in maintaining the resting membrane potential and making continued action potentials possible.
HAPS Objective: Q03.02 Compare and contrast the relative concentrations of major electrolytes in intracellular and extracellular fluids.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
HAPS Topic: Module Q03 Chemical composition of the major compartment fluids.
Learning Outcome: 06.06
Section: 06.06
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

  1. Which of these would occur if the concentration of ATP were depleted in a typical nerve cell?
    A. Resting membrane potential would become more negative.
    B.  Resting membrane potential would become less negative.
    C.  The concentration gradient for Na+ would remain the same.
    D.  The resting membrane potential would eventually become positive inside with respect to outside.
    E.  There would be no change in the resting membrane potential.

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H04.08 Describe the role of the sodium-potassium exchange pump in maintaining the resting membrane potential and making continued action potentials possible.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.06
Section: 06.06
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

 

 

  1. Which is FALSE about the equilibrium potential of a given ion across a membrane?
    A. It is a function of the concentration of that ion on both sides of the membrane.
    B.  It is the potential at which there is no net movement of that ion across the membrane.
    C.  It is the potential difference across the membrane at which an electric force favoring movement of the ion in one direction is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the diffusion force provided by the concentration difference of the ion across the membrane.
    D.  A permeable ion will move in the direction that will tend to bring the membrane potential toward that ion’s equilibrium potential.
    E.  An anion that is in higher concentration inside the cell than outside the cell will have a negative eqilibrium potential.

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H04.04 Differentiate between a concentration gradient and an electrical potential.
HAPS Objective: H04.05 Define electrochemical gradient.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.06
Section: 06.06
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

  1. The equilibrium potential of K+ ions in nerve cells is about -90 mV. The membrane potential of typical nerve cells at rest is -70 mV. Therefore
    A. Increasing the permeability of a resting neuronal membrane to K+ will make the membrane potential more negative inside with respect to outside.
    B.  In resting neurons, there is a net diffusion of K+ into the cell.
    C.  changing the resting membrane potential of a neuron to -80 mV would increase K+ diffusion rate out of the cell.
    D.  potassium is the only permanent ion at rest.
    E.  there must be another permanent ion with an equilibrium potential more negative than -90 mV.

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H04.04 Differentiate between a concentration gradient and an electrical potential.
HAPS Objective: H04.05 Define electrochemical gradient.
HAPS Objective: H04.06b Explain how passive ion channels cause development of the resting membrane potential in neurons.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.06
Section: 06.06
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements concerning the permeability of a typical neuron membrane at rest is TRUE?
    A. The permeability to Na+ is much greater than the permeability to K+.
    B.  All of the K+ channels in the membrane are open.
    C.  The voltage-gated Na+ channels are in the inactivated state.
    D.  Most of the voltage-gated Na+ channels are in the closed state.
    E.  There is equal permeability to Na+ and K+.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H04.01 Define permeability.
HAPS Objective: H04.02 Explain how ion channels affect neuron selective permeability.
HAPS Objective: H04.06b Explain how passive ion channels cause development of the resting membrane potential in neurons.
HAPS Objective: H04.06d Describe the voltage-gated ion channels that are essential for development of the action potential.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.06
Section: 06.06
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

  1. Which is NOT an example of a graded potential?
    A. a receptor potential in a sensory receptor cell
    B.  a depolarizing excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)
    C.  a hyperpolarizing inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP)
    D.  a depolarizing pacemaker potential
    E.  a depolarizing action potential

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H05.08 Define excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) and inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) and interpret graphs showing the voltage vs. time relationship of an EPSP and an IPSP.
HAPS Objective: H05.12 Compare and contrast synaptic potentials with action potentials.
HAPS Objective: H06.03 Explain the generator potential that occurs when receptors for general senses are stimulated.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
HAPS Topic: Module H06 Sensory receptors and their roles.
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.07
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

 

 

  1. An action potential in a neuronal membrane differs from a graded potential in that:
    A. an action potential requires the opening of Ca2+ channels, whereas a graded potential does not.
    B.  an action potential is propagated without decrement, whereas a graded potential decrements with distance.
    C.  an action potential has a threshold, whereas a graded potential is an all-or-none phenomenon.
    D.  movement of Na+ and K+ across cell membranes mediate action potentials, while graded potentials do not involve movement of Na+ and K+.
    E.  action potentials vary in size with the size of a stimulus, while graded potentials do not.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H04.07 Discuss the sequence of events that must occur for an action potential to be generated.
HAPS Objective: H04.09 Define threshold.
HAPS Objective: H04.10 Discuss the role of positive feedback in generation of the action potential.
HAPS Objective: H04.13a Describe how local circuit currents cause impulse conduction in an unmyelinated axon.
HAPS Objective: H04.13c Describe saltatory conduction.
HAPS Objective: H05.10 Explain how movement of sodium ions alone, or movement of both sodium and potassium ions, across the postsynaptic cell membrane can excite a neuron.
HAPS Objective: H05.11 Explain how movement of potassium or chloride ions across the postsynaptic cell membrane can inhibit a neuron.
HAPS Objective: H05.12 Compare and contrast synaptic potentials with action potentials.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.07
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

  1. A threshold stimulus applied to an excitable membrane is one that is just sufficient to:
    A. trigger an excitatory postsynaptic potential.
    B.  cause a change in membrane potential.
    C.  trigger an action potential.
    D.  be conducted to the axon hillock.
    E.  depolarize a dendrite.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H04.09 Define threshold.
HAPS Objective: H05.08 Define excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) and inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) and interpret graphs showing the voltage vs. time relationship of an EPSP and an IPSP.
HAPS Objective: H05.12 Compare and contrast synaptic potentials with action potentials.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.07
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

 

 

  1. Which must happen in order for an action potential to begin?
    A. The membrane potential must be at the Na+ equilibrium potential.
    B.  Na+ influx must exceed K+ efflux.
    C.  The membrane must be out of the relative refractory period.
    D.  Na+ channels must all be inactivated.
    E.  Multiple inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) must summate.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H04.06d Describe the voltage-gated ion channels that are essential for development of the action potential.
HAPS Objective: H04.07 Discuss the sequence of events that must occur for an action potential to be generated.
HAPS Objective: H04.09 Define threshold.
HAPS Objective: H04.12a Define absolute and relative refractory periods.
HAPS Objective: H05.08 Define excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) and inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) and interpret graphs showing the voltage vs. time relationship of an EPSP and an IPSP.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.07
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

  1. Which describes the response of the voltage-gated channels when an axon is stimulated to threshold?
    A. K+ channels open before the Na+ channels.
    B.  Na+ channels are activated and then inactivated.
    C.  K+ channels open at the same time as the Na+ channels.
    D.  K+ channels are opened when Na+ binds to the channel.
    E.  K+ influx causes Na+ channels to inactivate.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H04.06d Describe the voltage-gated ion channels that are essential for development of the action potential.
HAPS Objective: H04.07 Discuss the sequence of events that must occur for an action potential to be generated.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.07
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

 

 

  1. During the rising (depolarizing) phase of a neuronal action potential,
    A. PK+ becomes much greater than PNa+.
    B.  PNa+ becomes much greater than PK+.
    C.  PK+ is the same as PNa+.
    D.  Na+ efflux (flow out of the cell) occurs.
    E.  K+ flows rapidly into the cell.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H04.01 Define permeability.
HAPS Objective: H04.07 Discuss the sequence of events that must occur for an action potential to be generated.
HAPS Objective: H04.10 Discuss the role of positive feedback in generation of the action potential.
HAPS Objective: H04.11 Interpret a graph showing the voltage vs. time relationship of an action potential, and relate the terms depolarize, repolarize, and hyperpolarize to the events of an action potential.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.07
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

  1. Which is TRUE about neuronal membrane electrical and concentration gradients at the peak of the action potential?
    A. The electrical gradient is in a direction that would tend to move K+ out of the cell.
    B.  The concentration gradient for K+ is in a direction that would tend to move it into the cell.
    C.  The concentration gradient for K+ greatly increases compared to at rest.
    D.  The concentration gradient for Na+ is in a direction that would tend to move it out of the cell.
    E.  The electrical gradient for  Na+ is in a direction that would tend to move it into the cell.

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H04.03 Contrast the relative concentrations of sodium, potassium and chloride ions inside and outside of a cell.
HAPS Objective: H04.04 Differentiate between a concentration gradient and an electrical potential.
HAPS Objective: H04.05 Define electrochemical gradient.
HAPS Objective: H04.07 Discuss the sequence of events that must occur for an action potential to be generated.
HAPS Objective: H04.11 Interpret a graph showing the voltage vs. time relationship of an action potential, and relate the terms depolarize, repolarize, and hyperpolarize to the events of an action potential.
HAPS Objective: Q03.02 Compare and contrast the relative concentrations of major electrolytes in intracellular and extracellular fluids.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
HAPS Topic: Module Q03 Chemical composition of the major compartment fluids.
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.07
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

 

 

  1. Which is most directly responsible for the falling (repolarizing) phase of the action potential?
    A. Voltage-gated Na+ channels are opened.
    B.  The Na+, K+ pump restores the ions to their original locations inside and outside of the cell.
    C.  The permeability to Na+ increases greatly.
    D.  ATPase destroys the energy supply that was maintaining the action potential at its peak.
    E.  The permeability to K+ increases greatly while that to Na+ decreases.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H04.01 Define permeability.
HAPS Objective: H04.06d Describe the voltage-gated ion channels that are essential for development of the action potential.
HAPS Objective: H04.07 Discuss the sequence of events that must occur for an action potential to be generated.
HAPS Objective: H04.08 Describe the role of the sodium-potassium exchange pump in maintaining the resting membrane potential and making continued action potentials possible.
HAPS Objective: H04.11 Interpret a graph showing the voltage vs. time relationship of an action potential, and relate the terms depolarize, repolarize, and hyperpolarize to the events of an action potential.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.07
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

  1. Why are action potentials sometimes described as being “all-or-none” in character?
    A. The rate of propagation of an action potential down an axon is independent of stimulus strength.
    B.  They are associated with an absolute refractory period.
    C.  A supra-threshold stimulus is required to stimulate an action potential during the relative refractory period.
    D.  An action potential occurs whenever a suprathreshold stimulus occurs, and its amplitude does not vary with the size of a stimulus, as long as the membrane is not in the refractory period.
    E.  Action potentials are always the same size, even when ion gradients vary in size.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H04.07 Discuss the sequence of events that must occur for an action potential to be generated.
HAPS Objective: H04.09 Define threshold.
HAPS Objective: H04.10 Discuss the role of positive feedback in generation of the action potential.
HAPS Objective: H04.12a Define absolute and relative refractory periods.
HAPS Objective: H04.13b Explain how axon diameter and myelination affect impulse conduction velocity.
HAPS Objective: H05.12 Compare and contrast synaptic potentials with action potentials.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.07
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements about the phases of a neuronal action potential is TRUE?
    A. During the after-hyperpolarization phase, the permeability of the membrane to sodium ions is greater than its permeability to potassium ions.
    B.  During the after-hyperpolarization phase, the permeability of the membrane to potassium ions is greater than its permeability at rest.
    C.  During the repolarizing phase, the permeability of the membrane to sodium ions is greater than its permeability to potassium ions.
    D.  Potassium channels inactivate during the depolarization phase.
    E.  Repolarizing to negative membrane potentials causes the sodium channels to inactivate.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H04.01 Define permeability.
HAPS Objective: H04.06d Describe the voltage-gated ion channels that are essential for development of the action potential.
HAPS Objective: H04.07 Discuss the sequence of events that must occur for an action potential to be generated.
HAPS Objective: H04.11 Interpret a graph showing the voltage vs. time relationship of an action potential, and relate the terms depolarize, repolarize, and hyperpolarize to the events of an action potential.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.07
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

  1. Which of the following statements about the refractory period of a membrane is TRUE?
    A. The absolute refractory period refers to the period of time during which another action potential cannot be initiated in that part of the membrane that is undergoing an action potential, no matter how great the strength of the stimulus.
    B.  The relative refractory period refers to the period of time during which another action potential can be initiated in that part of the membrane that has just undergone an action potential if a stronger than normal stimulus is applied.
    C.  The refractory period prevents the action potential from spreading back over the part of the membrane that just underwent an action potential.
    D.  The refractory period places an upper limit on the frequency with which a nerve cell can conduct action potentials.
    E.  All of the above choices are correct.

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H04.12a Define absolute and relative refractory periods.
HAPS Objective: H04.12c Discuss the consequence of a neuron having an absolute refractory period.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.07
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

 

 

  1. The relative refractory period of an axon coincides with the period of
    A. activation and inactivation of voltage-dependent Na+ channels.
    B.  Na+ permeability that is greater than that during the depolarization phase.
    C.  increased K+ flux into the cell.
    D.  increased K+ permeability of the cell.
    E.  Increased Na+ flux through K+ channels.

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H04.12b Explain the physiological basis of the absolute and relative refractory periods.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.07
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

  1. Neuronal axons typically have abundant
    A. voltage-gated channels for Na+ that open in response to depolarization.
    B.  voltage-gated channels for K+ that open in response to hyperpolarization.
    C.  ligand-gated channels for Na+.
    D.  ligand-gated channels for K+.
    E.  voltage-gated channels for Ca2+.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H03.02c State which parts of each of the three structural types of neurons (unipolar, bipolar and multipolar) receive information, which parts integrate information, and which parts conduct the output signal of the neuron.
HAPS Objective: H04.06c Differentiate between voltage-gated and chemically-gated ion channels.
HAPS Objective: H04.06d Describe the voltage-gated ion channels that are essential for development of the action potential.
HAPS Topic: Module H03 Gross and microscopic anatomy of nervous tissue.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.07
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding action potentials generated in a neuronal membrane is FALSE?
    A. Action potentials travel decrementally down the membrane.
    B.  An action potential generates a new action potential in an adjacent area of membrane.
    C.  An action potential generates a local current that depolarizes adjacent membrane to threshold potential.
    D.  Action potentials are usually initiated at the initial segment of a neuron.
    E.  An action potential generated by a threshold stimulus is the same size as one generated by a supra-threshold stimulus.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H03.02c State which parts of each of the three structural types of neurons (unipolar, bipolar and multipolar) receive information, which parts integrate information, and which parts conduct the output signal of the neuron.
HAPS Objective: H04.07 Discuss the sequence of events that must occur for an action potential to be generated.
HAPS Objective: H04.09 Define threshold.
HAPS Objective: H04.10 Discuss the role of positive feedback in generation of the action potential.
HAPS Objective: H04.13a Describe how local circuit currents cause impulse conduction in an unmyelinated axon.
HAPS Objective: H04.13c Describe saltatory conduction.
HAPS Objective: H05.12 Compare and contrast synaptic potentials with action potentials.
HAPS Topic: Module H03 Gross and microscopic anatomy of nervous tissue.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.07
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements concerning the properties of action potentials is TRUE?
    A. The rate of propagation of an action potential down an axon is independent of stimulus strength.
    B.  Action potentials can undergo summation.
    C.  A supra-threshold stimulus can stimulate an action potential during the absolute refractory period.
    D.  Action potentials generally propagate from the axon terminal toward the initial segment.
    E.  Increasing the size of a stimulus will increase the amplitude of an action potential.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H03.02c State which parts of each of the three structural types of neurons (unipolar, bipolar and multipolar) receive information, which parts integrate information, and which parts conduct the output signal of the neuron.
HAPS Objective: H04.07 Discuss the sequence of events that must occur for an action potential to be generated.
HAPS Objective: H04.09 Define threshold.
HAPS Objective: H04.10 Discuss the role of positive feedback in generation of the action potential.
HAPS Objective: H04.12a Define absolute and relative refractory periods.
HAPS Objective: H04.12c Discuss the consequence of a neuron having an absolute refractory period.
HAPS Objective: H04.13b Explain how axon diameter and myelination affect impulse conduction velocity.
HAPS Objective: H05.12 Compare and contrast synaptic potentials with action potentials.
HAPS Topic: Module H03 Gross and microscopic anatomy of nervous tissue.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.07
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

  1. How is the strength of a stimulus encoded by neurons?
    A. by the size of action potentials
    B.  by the frequency of action potentials
    C.  by the duration of action potentials
    D.  by whether the action potential peak is positive or negative

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H04.07 Discuss the sequence of events that must occur for an action potential to be generated.
HAPS Objective: H04.09 Define threshold.
HAPS Objective: H04.10 Discuss the role of positive feedback in generation of the action potential.
HAPS Objective: H04.11 Interpret a graph showing the voltage vs. time relationship of an action potential, and relate the terms depolarize, repolarize, and hyperpolarize to the events of an action potential.
HAPS Objective: H04.12c Discuss the consequence of a neuron having an absolute refractory period.
HAPS Objective: H05.12 Compare and contrast synaptic potentials with action potentials.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.07
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements concerning the rate of action potential propagation is TRUE?
    A. It is faster in small-diameter axons than in large-diameter axons.
    B.  It is faster for a strong stimulus than for a weak one.
    C.  It is faster in myelinated axons than in nonmyelinated axons.
    D.  It is faster in the dendrites than in the axon.
    E.  It occurs at the same rate in all axons, regardless of their diameter.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H04.13b Explain how axon diameter and myelination affect impulse conduction velocity.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.07
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

  1. An action potential does not re-stimulate the adjacent membrane that was previously depolarized because
    A. stimulation is inhibited by the myelin sheath.
    B.  it is impossible for an action potential to be propagated along an axon toward the nerve cell body.
    C.  the resting membrane potential of the axon is too positive.
    D.  the resting membrane potential of the axon is too negative.
    E.  that area of the membrane is in the absolutely refractory period.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H04.12a Define absolute and relative refractory periods.
HAPS Objective: H04.12b Explain the physiological basis of the absolute and relative refractory periods.
HAPS Objective: H04.12c Discuss the consequence of a neuron having an absolute refractory period.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.07
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

 

 

  1. The regions of axon membrane that lie between regions of myelin are the
    A. ganglia.
    B.  nodes of Ranvier.
    C.  synaptic membranes.
    D.  glial cells.
    E.  pia mater.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H03.03c Explain how the anatomy of each CNS glial cell supports its function.
HAPS Objective: H03.04c Explain how the anatomy of each PNS glial cell supports its function.
HAPS Objective: H04.13c Describe saltatory conduction.
HAPS Objective: H05.02 List the structures that comprise a chemical synapse.
HAPS Topic: Module H03 Gross and microscopic anatomy of nervous tissue.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.01
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.01
Section: 06.07
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

  1. Which is FALSE about interneurons?
    A. They receive synaptic input from other neurons in the CNS.
    B.  They sum excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs.
    C.  They deliver synaptic input on other neurons.
    D.  They make synapses on effector organs in the PNS.
    E.  They can transmit information between afferent neurons and efferent neurons.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H02.01 Describe the nervous system as a control system identifying nervous system elements that are sensory receptors, the afferent pathway, control centers, the efferent pathway, and effector organs.
HAPS Topic: Module H02 Organization of the nervous system from both anatomical and functional perspectives.
Learning Outcome: 06.02
Section: 06.02
Topic: Anatomical and functional organization of the nervous system

 

 

  1. Exocytosis of neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft is triggered by an influx of ______ in response to the arrival of an action potential in the axon terminal.
    A. K+
    B.  Na+
    C.  Ca2+
    D.  ATP
    E.  Cl

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H05.04 Restate the steps that lead from the action potential arriving in the synaptic terminal to the release of neurotransmitter from synaptic vesicles.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.09
Section: 06.09
Topic: Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission

  1. The main role of calcium ions at chemical synapses is to
    A. depolarize the axon terminal of the presynaptic cell.
    B.  bind to neurotransmitter receptors on the postsynaptic cell.
    C.  cause fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane of the axon terminal.
    D.  interfere with IPSPs in the postsynaptic cell.
    E.  diffuse across the synaptic space and enter the postsynaptic cell.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H05.04 Restate the steps that lead from the action potential arriving in the synaptic terminal to the release of neurotransmitter from synaptic vesicles.
HAPS Objective: H05.07 Describe the events of synaptic transmission in proper chronological order.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.09
Section: 06.09
Topic: Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission

 

 

  1. At an excitatory chemical synapse between two neurons,
    A. there is increased permeability of the postsynaptic cell to both Na+ and K+.
    B.  a small hyperpolarization of the postsynaptic membrane occurs when the synapse is activated.
    C.  an action potential in the presynaptic neuron always causes an action potential in the postsynaptic neuron.
    D.  excitation occurs because K+ enters the postsynaptic cell.
    E.  action potentials spread through gap junctions between cells.

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H05.07 Describe the events of synaptic transmission in proper chronological order.
HAPS Objective: H05.08 Define excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) and inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) and interpret graphs showing the voltage vs. time relationship of an EPSP and an IPSP.
HAPS Objective: H05.09 Explain temporal and spatial summation of synaptic potentials.
HAPS Objective: H05.10 Explain how movement of sodium ions alone, or movement of both sodium and potassium ions, across the postsynaptic cell membrane can excite a neuron.
HAPS Objective: H05.11 Explain how movement of potassium or chloride ions across the postsynaptic cell membrane can inhibit a neuron.
HAPS Objective: H05.17 Compare and contrast chemical and electrical synapses.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.10
Learning Outcome: 06.11
Section: 06.10
Section: 06.11
Topic: Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission

  1. An inhibitory postsynaptic potential:
    A. is produced by simultaneous increases in permeability to both Na+ and K+.
    B.  occurs when a ligand-gated ion channel increases its permeability to K+.
    C.  is a small depolarization in a postsynaptic cell.
    D.  can be summed with other IPSPs to trigger an action potential in the postsynaptic cell.
    E.  is produced by an increase in permeability to only Na+.

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H05.08 Define excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) and inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) and interpret graphs showing the voltage vs. time relationship of an EPSP and an IPSP.
HAPS Objective: H05.09 Explain temporal and spatial summation of synaptic potentials.
HAPS Objective: H05.10 Explain how movement of sodium ions alone, or movement of both sodium and potassium ions, across the postsynaptic cell membrane can excite a neuron.
HAPS Objective: H05.11 Explain how movement of potassium or chloride ions across the postsynaptic cell membrane can inhibit a neuron.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.10
Learning Outcome: 06.11
Section: 06.10
Section: 06.11
Topic: Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements about EPSPs is FALSE?
    A. They are produced by the opening of ligand-gated sodium channels.
    B.  They transmit signals over relatively short distances.
    C.  They depolarize postsynaptic cell membranes.
    D.  They are able to summate.
    E.  They are always the same amplitude.

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H05.06 Explain how the receptors for neurotransmitters are related to chemically- gated ion channels.
HAPS Objective: H05.08 Define excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) and inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) and interpret graphs showing the voltage vs. time relationship of an EPSP and an IPSP.
HAPS Objective: H05.09 Explain temporal and spatial summation of synaptic potentials.
HAPS Objective: H05.10 Explain how movement of sodium ions alone, or movement of both sodium and potassium ions, across the postsynaptic cell membrane can excite a neuron.
HAPS Objective: H05.12 Compare and contrast synaptic potentials with action potentials.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.10
Learning Outcome: 06.11
Section: 06.10
Section: 06.11
Topic: Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission

  1. An EPSP:
    A. is a direct result of the opening of ligand-gated channels permeable to both Na+ and K+ ions.
    B.  is a direct result of the opening of voltage-gated channels permeable to both Na+ and K+ ions.
    C.  stabilizes the membrane to remain at its resting potential.
    D.  opens voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in the presynaptic membrane.
    E.  occurs when voltage-gated Cl channels  open in a postsynaptic cell membrane.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H05.04 Restate the steps that lead from the action potential arriving in the synaptic terminal to the release of neurotransmitter from synaptic vesicles.
HAPS Objective: H05.06 Explain how the receptors for neurotransmitters are related to chemically- gated ion channels.
HAPS Objective: H05.08 Define excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) and inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) and interpret graphs showing the voltage vs. time relationship of an EPSP and an IPSP.
HAPS Objective: H05.10 Explain how movement of sodium ions alone, or movement of both sodium and potassium ions, across the postsynaptic cell membrane can excite a neuron.
HAPS Objective: H05.11 Explain how movement of potassium or chloride ions across the postsynaptic cell membrane can inhibit a neuron.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.10
Section: 06.10
Topic: Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission

 

 

  1. Which best describes temporal summation?
    A. A synapse is stimulated a second time before the effect of a first stimulus at the synapse has terminated.
    B.  It only refers to addition of EPSPs.
    C.  Two synapses on different regions of a cell are stimulated at the same time.
    D.  It always brings a postsynaptic cell to threshold.
    E.  The size of an EPSP depends on the size of the stimulus.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H04.09 Define threshold.
HAPS Objective: H05.08 Define excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) and inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) and interpret graphs showing the voltage vs. time relationship of an EPSP and an IPSP.
HAPS Objective: H05.09 Explain temporal and spatial summation of synaptic potentials.
HAPS Objective: H05.12 Compare and contrast synaptic potentials with action potentials.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.11
Section: 06.11
Topic: Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission

  1. A postsynaptic neuron has three presynaptic inputs – from neurons X, Y, and Z. Stimulation of neuron X causes the postsynaptic neuron to depolarize by 0.5 mV.  When X and Y are stimulated simultaneously, the postsynaptic neuron depolarizes by 1 mV.  When X and Z are stimulated simultaneously, however, there is no change in the membrane potential of the postsynaptic neuron. What is most likely true about presynaptic neurons Y and Z?
    A. They are both excitatory.
    B.  They are both inhibitory.
    C.  Y is excitatory and Z is inhibitory.
    D.  Z is excitatory and Y is inhibitory.

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H05.09 Explain temporal and spatial summation of synaptic potentials.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.11
Section: 06.11
Topic: Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission

 

 

  1. A postsynaptic neuron has three presynaptic inputs – from neurons X, Y, and Z. When X and Y are stimulated simultaneously and repeatedly, the postsynaptic neuron reaches threshold and undergoes an action potential. When X and Z are stimulated simultaneously, however, there is no change in the membrane potential of the postsynaptic neuron. The simultaneous stimulation of X and Y is an example of
    A. temporal summation.
    B.  presynaptic inhibition.
    C.  spatial summation.
    D.  neuronal divergence.
    E.  presynaptic facilitation.

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H05.09 Explain temporal and spatial summation of synaptic potentials.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.08
Learning Outcome: 06.11
Learning Outcome: 06.12
Section: 06.08
Section: 06.11
Section: 06.12
Topic: Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission

 

 

  1. Which is TRUE about the initial segment of an axon?
    A. Its membrane potential at threshold is more positive than that of the cell body and dendrites.
    B.  Its membrane potential at threshold is more negative than that of the cell body and dendrites.
    C.  Synapses far from the initial segment are more effective in influencing whether an action potential will be generated in the axon than are synapses close to the initial segment.
    D.  It is the region where neurotransmitter vesicles are docked and ready to be released by exocytosis.
    E.  It can only conduct graded potentials because it lacks voltage-gated Na+ channels.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H03.02b Identify soma (cell body), axon, and dendrites in each of the three structural types of neurons (unipolar, bipolar and multipolar).
HAPS Objective: H04.06d Describe the voltage-gated ion channels that are essential for development of the action potential.
HAPS Objective: H04.09 Define threshold.
HAPS Objective: H05.03 Describe the synaptic (axon) terminal.
HAPS Objective: H05.09 Explain temporal and spatial summation of synaptic potentials.
HAPS Topic: Module H03 Gross and microscopic anatomy of nervous tissue.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Learning Outcome: 06.08
Learning Outcome: 06.11
Section: 06.07
Section: 06.08
Section: 06.11
Topic: Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

 

 

  1. A presynaptic synapse:
    A. is a synapse between an axon terminal and a dendrite that can be either excitatory or inhibitory.
    B.  is a synapse between an axon terminal and another axon’s terminal that can be either excitatory or inhibitory.
    C.  is any synapse onto a cell body, and they can be either stimulatory or inhibitory.
    D.  is a synapse between an axon terminal and a dendrite of the same cell, which is always inhibitory.
    E.  is a synapse between an axon terminal and another axon’s terminal that is always inhibitory.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H05.01 Identify the presynaptic and postsynaptic cells at a synapse.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.12
Section: 06.12
Topic: Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission

  1. Neuron X makes inhibitory axon-axon synaptic contact with neuron Y at the synapse of Y and neuron Z. Which will occur when action potentials are stimulated in neuron X?
    A. Neuron Y will be inhibited from reaching the threshold to fire an action potential.
    B.  The release of neurotransmitter by neuron Y will be inhibited.
    C.  The synapse between neurons Y and Z will be changed from an excitatory synapse to an inhibitory one.
    D.  Neurons Y and Z will both be more likely to reach threshold and fire an action potential.
    E.  Neurons Y and Z will both be less likely to reach threshold and fire an action potential.

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H05.01 Identify the presynaptic and postsynaptic cells at a synapse.
HAPS Objective: H05.04 Restate the steps that lead from the action potential arriving in the synaptic terminal to the release of neurotransmitter from synaptic vesicles.
HAPS Objective: H05.07 Describe the events of synaptic transmission in proper chronological order.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.12
Section: 06.12
Topic: Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission

 

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT known to be an important neurotransmitter in the CNS?
    A. Dopamine
    B.  Acetylcholine
    C.  Morphine
    D.  Glutamate
    E.  Substance P

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H05.15 List the most common excitatory neurotransmitter(s) in the CNS and the most common inhibitory neurotransmitter(s) in the CNS.
HAPS Objective: H16.01 Predict factors or situations affecting the nervous system that could disrupt homeostasis.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
HAPS Topic: Module H16 Predictions related to homeostatic imbalance, including disease states and disorders.
Learning Outcome: 06.13
Section: 06.13
Topic: Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission

  1. Which of the following statements about acetylcholine is correct?
    A. Acetylcholine binds to nicotinic and muscarinic receptors.
    B.  Acetylcholine binds to adrenergic receptors.
    C.  Acetylcholine synthesis is catalyzed by acetylcholinesterase
    D.  Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter released by most sympathetic postganglionic neurons.
    E.  Acetylcholine is generally transported back into presynaptic nerve terminals without being enzymatically degraded.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H13.02 Contrast the anatomy of the parasympathetic and sympathetic systems, including central nervous system outflow locations, ganglia locations, pre- and post- ganglionic neuron relative lengths, and ganglionic and effector neurotransmitters.
HAPS Objective: H13.07 Differentiate between cholinergic and adrenergic nerve fibers and discuss the physiological interactions of transmitters released by these neurons with specific cholinergic and adrenergic receptor subtypes.
HAPS Objective: H14.03 Name the neurotransmitters released at synapses with effector organs in the somatic and autonomic motor pathways and classify each effector response as excitatory or inhibitory.
HAPS Topic: Module H13 Functions of the autonomic nervous system.
HAPS Topic: Module H14 Comparisons of somatic and autonomic nervous systems.
Learning Outcome: 06.13
Section: 06.13
Topic: Comparisons of somatic and autonomic nervous systems
Topic: Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding neurotransmitters is TRUE?
    A. Acetylcholine is broken down by enzymes present on postsynaptic cell membranes.
    B.  Acetylcholine that is released at synapses binds to adrenergic receptors in the postsynaptic cell membrane.
    C.  Catecholamines are the most abundant neurotransmitters in the central nervous system.
    D.  Opiate drugs, such as morphine, are antagonists of a class of neurotransmitters called endorphins.
    E.  Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a major excitatory transmitter in the central nervous system.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H05.15 List the most common excitatory neurotransmitter(s) in the CNS and the most common inhibitory neurotransmitter(s) in the CNS.
HAPS Objective: H13.02 Contrast the anatomy of the parasympathetic and sympathetic systems, including central nervous system outflow locations, ganglia locations, pre- and post- ganglionic neuron relative lengths, and ganglionic and effector neurotransmitters.
HAPS Objective: H13.07 Differentiate between cholinergic and adrenergic nerve fibers and discuss the physiological interactions of transmitters released by these neurons with specific cholinergic and adrenergic receptor subtypes.
HAPS Objective: H16.01 Predict factors or situations affecting the nervous system that could disrupt homeostasis.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
HAPS Topic: Module H13 Functions of the autonomic nervous system.
HAPS Topic: Module H16 Predictions related to homeostatic imbalance, including disease states and disorders.
Learning Outcome: 06.13
Section: 06.13
Topic: Clinical applications of the nervous system
Topic: Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission

  1. Acetylcholine is the main neurotransmitter released by:
    A. preganglionic sympathetic neurons and cells of the adrenal medulla.
    B.  cells of the adrenal medulla and postganglionic parasympathetic neurons.
    C.  motor neurons and postganglionic sympathetic neurons.
    D.  preganglionic sympathetic neurons and postganglionic sympathetic neurons.
    E.  preganglionic sympathetic neurons and motor neurons.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H13.02 Contrast the anatomy of the parasympathetic and sympathetic systems, including central nervous system outflow locations, ganglia locations, pre- and post- ganglionic neuron relative lengths, and ganglionic and effector neurotransmitters.
HAPS Objective: H14.03 Name the neurotransmitters released at synapses with effector organs in the somatic and autonomic motor pathways and classify each effector response as excitatory or inhibitory.
HAPS Topic: Module H13 Functions of the autonomic nervous system.
HAPS Topic: Module H14 Comparisons of somatic and autonomic nervous systems.
Learning Outcome: 06.13
Learning Outcome: 06.18
Section: 06.13
Section: 06.18
Topic: Comparisons of somatic and autonomic nervous systems
Topic: Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements about norepinephrine is FALSE?
    A. Norepinephrine is a neurotransmitter.
    B.  Norepinephrine binds to adrenergic receptors.
    C.  Norepinephrine is a catecholamine.
    D.  Dopamine is a precursor to norepinephrine.
    E.  Epinephrine is a precursor to norepinephrine.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H13.02 Contrast the anatomy of the parasympathetic and sympathetic systems, including central nervous system outflow locations, ganglia locations, pre- and post- ganglionic neuron relative lengths, and ganglionic and effector neurotransmitters.
HAPS Objective: H13.07 Differentiate between cholinergic and adrenergic nerve fibers and discuss the physiological interactions of transmitters released by these neurons with specific cholinergic and adrenergic receptor subtypes.
HAPS Topic: Module H13 Functions of the autonomic nervous system.
Learning Outcome: 06.13
Section: 06.13
Topic: Functions of the autonomic nervous system
Topic: Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission

  1. Which of the following enzymes is important for the metabolism of catecholamines?
    A. Tyrosine hydroxylase
    B.  Acetylcholinesterase
    C.  Superoxide dismutase
    D.  Trypsin
    E.  Adenylyl cyclase

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H13.02 Contrast the anatomy of the parasympathetic and sympathetic systems, including central nervous system outflow locations, ganglia locations, pre- and post- ganglionic neuron relative lengths, and ganglionic and effector neurotransmitters.
HAPS Topic: Module H13 Functions of the autonomic nervous system.
Learning Outcome: 06.13
Section: 06.13
Topic: Functions of the autonomic nervous system
Topic: Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission

 

 

  1. Nicotine is:
    A. a cholinergic antagonist.
    B.  a beta-adrenergic agonist.
    C.  a cholinergic agonist.
    D.  an alpha-adrenergic antagonist.
    E.  a neurotransmitter.

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H13.08 Propose clinical uses of specific drugs that act at cholinergic and adrenergic receptor subtypes.
HAPS Objective: H16.01 Predict factors or situations affecting the nervous system that could disrupt homeostasis.
HAPS Topic: Module H13 Functions of the autonomic nervous system.
HAPS Topic: Module H16 Predictions related to homeostatic imbalance, including disease states and disorders.
Learning Outcome: 06.13
Section: 06.13
Topic: Clinical applications of the nervous system
Topic: Functions of the autonomic nervous system

  1. Serotonin:
    A. acts as a neuromodulator.
    B.  is a catecholamine neurotransmitter.
    C.  is a neuropeptide.
    D.  has an inhibitory effect on pathways that are involved in the control of muscles.
    E.  has an excitatory effect on pathways that mediate sensations.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H05.14 Describe the mechanism by which neurotransmitters may have indirect (metabotropic) effects on postsynaptic cells.
HAPS Objective: H05.16 Propose a possible CNS function for each biogenic amine neurotransmitter.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.13
Section: 06.13
Topic: Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission

 

 

  1. Alzheimer’s disease is thought to involve primarily:
    A. loss of neurons that secrete or respond to catecholamines.
    B.  loss of adrenergic neurons.
    C.  loss of cholinergic neurons.
    D.  loss of neurons that secrete or respond to dopamine.
    E.  tumors that produce excess serotonin.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H16.01 Predict factors or situations affecting the nervous system that could disrupt homeostasis.
HAPS Topic: Module H16 Predictions related to homeostatic imbalance, including disease states and disorders.
Learning Outcome: 06.13
Section: 06.13
Topic: Clinical applications of the nervous system

  1. Which is one of the major inhibitory neurotransmittors in the CNS?
    A. Glutamate
    B.  Dopamine
    C.  Norepinephrine
    D.  Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
    E.  Beta-endorphin

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H05.15 List the most common excitatory neurotransmitter(s) in the CNS and the most common inhibitory neurotransmitter(s) in the CNS.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.13
Section: 06.13
Topic: Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission

  1. Which is one of the most abundant excitatory neurotransmittors in the CNS?
    A. Glutamate
    B.  Dopamine
    C.  Norepinephrine
    D.  Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
    E.  Endorphin

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H05.15 List the most common excitatory neurotransmitter(s) in the CNS and the most common inhibitory neurotransmitter(s) in the CNS.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.13
Section: 06.13
Topic: Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission

 

 

  1. The central nervous system includes the:
    A. afferent nerves and spinal cord.
    B.  efferent nerves and spinal cord.
    C.  autonomic nervous system and the brain.
    D.  brain stem and the autonomic nervous system.
    E.  brain and spinal cord.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H03.01 List the parts of the nervous system that constitute the central nervous system (CNS) and those that constitute the peripheral nervous system (PNS).
HAPS Topic: Module H03 Gross and microscopic anatomy of nervous tissue.
Learning Outcome: 06.15
Section: 06.15
Topic: Anatomical and functional organization of the nervous system

  1. The portion of the peripheral nervous system that is composed of nerve fibers that innervate skeletal muscle is called the:
    A. afferent nervous system.
    B.  sympathetic nervous system.
    C.  parasympathetic nervous system.
    D.  somatic motor nervous system.
    E.  autonomic nervous system.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H02.01 Describe the nervous system as a control system identifying nervous system elements that are sensory receptors, the afferent pathway, control centers, the efferent pathway, and effector organs.
HAPS Objective: H02.02 Differentiate between the somatic and autonomic divisions of the nervous system.
HAPS Objective: H14.01 Distinguish between the effectors of the somatic and autonomic nervous systems.
HAPS Topic: Module H02 Organization of the nervous system from both anatomical and functional perspectives.
HAPS Topic: Module H14 Comparisons of somatic and autonomic nervous systems.
Learning Outcome: 06.17
Section: 06.17
Topic: Anatomical and functional organization of the nervous system
Topic: Comparisons of somatic and autonomic nervous systems

 

 

  1. The region of the brain that is the most important control area for homeostatic regulation of the internal environment is:
    A. the thalamus.
    B.  the hippocampus.
    C.  the cerebrum.
    D.  the cerebellum.
    E.  the hypothalamus.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H07.02 Correlate functions with each major area of the adult brain.
HAPS Topic: Module H07 Division, origin, and function of component parts of the brain.
Learning Outcome: 06.15
Section: 06.15
Topic: Division, origin, and function of parts of the brain

  1. Which of the following kinds of neurons is NOT generally cholinergic?
    A. somatic motor neurons
    B.  postganglionic sympathetic neurons
    C.  postganglionic parasympathetic neurons
    D.  preganglionic sympathetic neurons
    E.  preganglionic parasympathetic neurons

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H13.02 Contrast the anatomy of the parasympathetic and sympathetic systems, including central nervous system outflow locations, ganglia locations, pre- and post- ganglionic neuron relative lengths, and ganglionic and effector neurotransmitters.
HAPS Objective: H14.03 Name the neurotransmitters released at synapses with effector organs in the somatic and autonomic motor pathways and classify each effector response as excitatory or inhibitory.
HAPS Topic: Module H13 Functions of the autonomic nervous system.
HAPS Topic: Module H14 Comparisons of somatic and autonomic nervous systems.
Learning Outcome: 06.18
Section: 06.18
Topic: Comparisons of somatic and autonomic nervous systems
Topic: Functions of the autonomic nervous system

 

 

  1. Which of the following does NOT result from the binding of nicotine with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors?
    A. a mild form of skeletal muscle paralysis that creates a more relaxed state
    B.  signal transmission at neuromuscular junctions
    C.  generation of excitatory signals within autonomic ganglia
    D.  the release of norepinephrine, dopamine, and epinephrine
    E.  facilitation of the release of multiple neurotransmitters within the brain, including the “reward pathway” involving dopamine

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: G04.04 Describe, in order, the events that occur at the neuromuscular junction that elicit an action potential in the muscle fiber.
HAPS Objective: H13.02 Contrast the anatomy of the parasympathetic and sympathetic systems, including central nervous system outflow locations, ganglia locations, pre- and post- ganglionic neuron relative lengths, and ganglionic and effector neurotransmitters.
HAPS Objective: H13.07 Differentiate between cholinergic and adrenergic nerve fibers and discuss the physiological interactions of transmitters released by these neurons with specific cholinergic and adrenergic receptor subtypes.
HAPS Objective: H13.08 Propose clinical uses of specific drugs that act at cholinergic and adrenergic receptor subtypes.
HAPS Objective: H14.03 Name the neurotransmitters released at synapses with effector organs in the somatic and autonomic motor pathways and classify each effector response as excitatory or inhibitory.
HAPS Objective: H16.01 Predict factors or situations affecting the nervous system that could disrupt homeostasis.
HAPS Topic: Module G04 Physiology of skeletal muscle contraction
HAPS Topic: Module H13 Functions of the autonomic nervous system.
HAPS Topic: Module H14 Comparisons of somatic and autonomic nervous systems.
HAPS Topic: Module H16 Predictions related to homeostatic imbalance, including disease states and disorders.
Learning Outcome: 06.13
Section: 06.13
Topic: Comparisons of somatic and autonomic nervous systems
Topic: Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission

  1. Drug X interferes with the action of norepinephrine at synapses. Which of the following mechanisms would NOT explain the effects of X?
    A. X inhibits synthesis of norepinephrine at the axon terminal.
    B.  X inhibits norepinephrine release from the terminal.
    C.  X blocks reuptake of norepinephrine by the terminal.
    D.  X is an adrenergic receptor antagonist.
    E.  X stimulates the catabolism of norepinephrine.

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H05.07 Describe the events of synaptic transmission in proper chronological order.
HAPS Objective: H13.07 Differentiate between cholinergic and adrenergic nerve fibers and discuss the physiological interactions of transmitters released by these neurons with specific cholinergic and adrenergic receptor subtypes.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
HAPS Topic: Module H13 Functions of the autonomic nervous system.
Learning Outcome: 06.13
Section: 06.13
Topic: Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission

 

 

  1. Synthesis of neuropeptides differs from that of other neurotransmitters because it:
    A. takes place in the axon terminals of neurons.
    B.  takes place in the cell bodies of neurons.
    C.  takes place on ribosomes in the postsynaptic cell’s membrane.
    D.  uses amino acids as precursor molecules.
    E.  only takes place at synapses outside the central nervous system.

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H03.02b Identify soma (cell body), axon, and dendrites in each of the three structural types of neurons (unipolar, bipolar and multipolar).
HAPS Objective: H03.02c State which parts of each of the three structural types of neurons (unipolar, bipolar and multipolar) receive information, which parts integrate information, and which parts conduct the output signal of the neuron.
HAPS Objective: H05.03 Describe the synaptic (axon) terminal.
HAPS Topic: Module H03 Gross and microscopic anatomy of nervous tissue.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.13
Section: 06.13
Topic: Microscopic anatomy of neurons
Topic: Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission

  1. Which best describes the reticular formation of the brain?
    A. It is mainly involved in motor coordination and balance.
    B.  It is the master endocrine gland of the brain.
    C.  It is primarily responsible for visual perception.
    D.  It integrates information from all regions of the CNS, and incorporates the mechanisms that regulate sleep and wakefulness.
    E.  It is the primary synaptic relay station for sensory information entering the CNS.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H07.02 Correlate functions with each major area of the adult brain.
HAPS Objective: H07.09 Describe the location and functions of the reticular activating system.
HAPS Topic: Module H07 Division, origin, and function of component parts of the brain.
Learning Outcome: 06.15
Section: 06.15
Topic: Division, origin, and function of parts of the brain

 

 

  1. The cerebellum:
    A. is important for coordinating body movement.
    B.  is the gray matter covering the entire surface of the brain.
    C.  is the same thing as the brain stem.
    D.  is in the anterior portion of the brain, just above the eyes.
    E.  is one of the basal nuclei that is found deep inside the cerebrum.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H07.02 Correlate functions with each major area of the adult brain.
HAPS Topic: Module H07 Division, origin, and function of component parts of the brain.
Learning Outcome: 06.15
Section: 06.15
Topic: Division, origin, and function of parts of the brain
Topic: Gross anatomy of the components of the brain

  1. The ________________ is best described as “an interconnected group of brain structures including parts of the frontal lobe-cortex, temporal lobe, thalamus, and hypothalamus, that is associated with learning, emotional experience, and behavior?”
    A. diencephalon
    B.  cerebrum
    C.  limbic system
    D.  reticular formation
    E.  cerebellum

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H07.02 Correlate functions with each major area of the adult brain.
HAPS Objective: H07.07 Describe the location and functions of the limbic system.
HAPS Topic: Module H07 Division, origin, and function of component parts of the brain.
Learning Outcome: 06.15
Section: 06.15
Topic: Division, origin, and function of parts of the brain

 

 

  1. Which is a FALSE statement about the cerebrospinal fluid?
    A. It has the same composition as blood plasma.
    B.  It acts as a cushion for the brain and spinal cord.
    C.  It is secreted by cells lining the ventricles of the brain.
    D.  It circulates within and between brain ventricles and surrounds the spinal cord.
    E.  It is in diffusion equilibrium with the extracellular fluid of the central nervous system.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H08.03 Describe the functions of cerebrospinal fluid, as well as the details of its production, its circulation within the central nervous system, and its ultimate reabsorption into the bloodstream.
HAPS Topic: Module H08 Protective roles of the cranial bones, meninges, and cerebrospinal fluid.
Learning Outcome: 06.19
Section: 06.19
Topic: Protective roles of cranial bones, meninges, and cerebrospinal fluid

  1. Which of the following is NOT characteristic of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system?
    A. Preganglionic neurons tend to be long, with the ganglion located in or near the effector target tissue(s).
    B.  Preganglionic neurons are short and synapse in ganglia located near the spinal cord.
    C.  Preganglionic neurons release acetylcholine at synapses with postganglionic neurons.
    D.  Postganglionic neurons release norepinephrine at their neuroeffector junctions.
    E.  Postganglionic neuron cell bodies are located in the collateral chain ganglia (sympathetic trunk).

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H13.02 Contrast the anatomy of the parasympathetic and sympathetic systems, including central nervous system outflow locations, ganglia locations, pre- and post- ganglionic neuron relative lengths, and ganglionic and effector neurotransmitters.
HAPS Topic: Module H13 Functions of the autonomic nervous system.
Learning Outcome: 06.18
Section: 06.18
Topic: Anatomy of the sympathetic division of the ANS
Topic: Functions of the autonomic nervous system

 

 

  1. Postganglionic neuron cell bodies of the autonomic nervous system have which category of neurotransmitter receptor?
    A. Adrenergic receptors
    B.  Serotonin receptors
    C.  Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors
    D.  Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors
    E.  Dopamine receptors

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H13.02 Contrast the anatomy of the parasympathetic and sympathetic systems, including central nervous system outflow locations, ganglia locations, pre- and post- ganglionic neuron relative lengths, and ganglionic and effector neurotransmitters.
HAPS Objective: H13.07 Differentiate between cholinergic and adrenergic nerve fibers and discuss the physiological interactions of transmitters released by these neurons with specific cholinergic and adrenergic receptor subtypes.
HAPS Topic: Module H13 Functions of the autonomic nervous system.
Learning Outcome: 06.18
Section: 06.18
Topic: Functions of the autonomic nervous system

 

True / False Questions

  1. A myelinated axon is shielded from direct contact with the extracellular fluid all along its length.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H03.03c Explain how the anatomy of each CNS glial cell supports its function.
HAPS Objective: H03.04c Explain how the anatomy of each PNS glial cell supports its function.
HAPS Objective: H04.13c Describe saltatory conduction.
HAPS Topic: Module H03 Gross and microscopic anatomy of nervous tissue.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.01
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microscopic anatomy of neurons
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

 

 

  1. The lipid portion of a cell’s plasma membrane constitutes a barrier to current.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: C07.01 Describe how lipids are distributed in the cell membrane, and explain their functions.
HAPS Objective: H04.02 Explain how ion channels affect neuron selective permeability.
HAPS Topic: Module C07 Membrane structure and function
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.05
Section: 06.05
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

  1. Ions other than K+ play no role in generating the resting membrane potential of a cell.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H04.06b Explain how passive ion channels cause development of the resting membrane potential in neurons.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.06
Section: 06.06
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

  1. The maintenance of a resting potential in a neuron depends indirectly upon the functioning of the Na+, K+-ATPase pumps in the membrane.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H04.08 Describe the role of the sodium-potassium exchange pump in maintaining the resting membrane potential and making continued action potentials possible.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.06
Section: 06.06
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

 

 

  1. A graded potential in a membrane results in an electric current along an adjacent area of membrane and this current diminishes with distance from the site of the initial potential change.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H05.12 Compare and contrast synaptic potentials with action potentials.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.07
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

  1. During a hyperpolarizing graded potential, positively charged ions flow away from the site of the initial hyperpolarization on the outside of membrane and toward this site on the inside.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H05.08 Define excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) and inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) and interpret graphs showing the voltage vs. time relationship of an EPSP and an IPSP.
HAPS Objective: H05.11 Explain how movement of potassium or chloride ions across the postsynaptic cell membrane can inhibit a neuron.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.07
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

  1. Because so many Na+ ions move into a cell during an action potential and so many K+ ions move out, no further action potentials can be generated in a given membrane until the Na+, K+-ATPase pumps can restore the concentration gradient.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H04.07 Discuss the sequence of events that must occur for an action potential to be generated.
HAPS Objective: H04.08 Describe the role of the sodium-potassium exchange pump in maintaining the resting membrane potential and making continued action potentials possible.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.07
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

 

 

  1. The Na+ and K+ channels that open during an action potential are voltage-regulated, both opening in response to depolarization of the membrane.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H04.06d Describe the voltage-gated ion channels that are essential for development of the action potential.
HAPS Objective: H04.07 Discuss the sequence of events that must occur for an action potential to be generated.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.07
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

  1. SNARE receptor protein complexes in presynaptic neurons function as inhibitors of calcium transport to dampen or reduce the amount of neurotransmitter vesicles that participate in exocytosis.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H05.03 Describe the synaptic (axon) terminal.
HAPS Objective: H05.04 Restate the steps that lead from the action potential arriving in the synaptic terminal to the release of neurotransmitter from synaptic vesicles.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.09
Section: 06.09
Topic: Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission

  1. The action potential elicited by a supra-threshold stimulus is larger than one elicited by a threshold stimulus.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H04.07 Discuss the sequence of events that must occur for an action potential to be generated.
HAPS Objective: H04.09 Define threshold.
HAPS Objective: H04.10 Discuss the role of positive feedback in generation of the action potential.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.07
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

 

 

  1. The relative refractory period of an excitable membrane refers to the period of time during which no stimulus, however strong, will elicit a second action potential in the membrane.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H04.12a Define absolute and relative refractory periods.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.07
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

  1. The absolute refractory period of an excitable membrane roughly corresponds to the period when sodium channels are opening and inactivated.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H04.06d Describe the voltage-gated ion channels that are essential for development of the action potential.
HAPS Objective: H04.12b Explain the physiological basis of the absolute and relative refractory periods.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.07
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

  1. Because all parts of a neuronal cell body have the same threshold, no one synapse on the cell is more important than any other.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H04.09 Define threshold.
HAPS Objective: H05.09 Explain temporal and spatial summation of synaptic potentials.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Learning Outcome: 06.11
Section: 06.07
Section: 06.11
Topic: Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

 

 

  1. The frequency of action potentials in a postsynaptic cell is directly related to the degree of depolarization of the postsynaptic cell.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H04.07 Discuss the sequence of events that must occur for an action potential to be generated.
HAPS Objective: H04.09 Define threshold.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.07
Section: 06.07
Topic: Physiology of nerve impulse transmission

  1. Catecholamines are the most abundant neurotransmitters in the CNS.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H05.15 List the most common excitatory neurotransmitter(s) in the CNS and the most common inhibitory neurotransmitter(s) in the CNS.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
Learning Outcome: 06.13
Section: 06.13
Topic: Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission

  1. Opioid drugs, such as morphine, are agonists of a class of neurotransmitters called endorphins.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H05.15 List the most common excitatory neurotransmitter(s) in the CNS and the most common inhibitory neurotransmitter(s) in the CNS.
HAPS Objective: H16.01 Predict factors or situations affecting the nervous system that could disrupt homeostasis.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
HAPS Topic: Module H16 Predictions related to homeostatic imbalance, including disease states and disorders.
Learning Outcome: 06.13
Section: 06.13
Topic: Clinical applications of the nervous system
Topic: Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission

 

 

  1. The most common neurotransmitters for neuroeffector communication are dopamine and acetylcholine.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H14.03 Name the neurotransmitters released at synapses with effector organs in the somatic and autonomic motor pathways and classify each effector response as excitatory or inhibitory.
HAPS Topic: Module H14 Comparisons of somatic and autonomic nervous systems.
Learning Outcome: 06.14
Learning Outcome: 06.17
Learning Outcome: 06.18
Section: 06.14
Section: 06.17
Section: 06.18
Topic: Comparisons of somatic and autonomic nervous systems
Topic: Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission

  1. Dorsal root ganglia contain the cell bodies of efferent neurons.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H10.04 Identify the dorsal root ganglia, dorsal and ventral roots, and spinal nerves.
HAPS Topic: Module H10 Anatomy of the spinal cord and spinal nerves.
Learning Outcome: 06.16
Section: 06.16
Topic: Anatomy of the spinal cord and spinal nerves

  1. Spinal nerves are composed of the axons of both afferent and efferent neurons.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H10.01 Describe the gross anatomy of the spinal cord and spinal nerves and specify their location relative to the anatomy of the skeletal system.
HAPS Objective: H10.04 Identify the dorsal root ganglia, dorsal and ventral roots, and spinal nerves.
HAPS Topic: Module H10 Anatomy of the spinal cord and spinal nerves.
Learning Outcome: 06.16
Section: 06.16
Topic: Anatomy of the spinal cord and spinal nerves

 

 

  1. Although nerve cells in each cerebral hemisphere make connections with other cells in the same hemisphere, there is no crossover of information between the two hemispheres.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H07.06 Discuss the concept of cerebral hemispheric specialization and the role of the corpus callosum in connecting the two halves of the cerebrum.
HAPS Topic: Module H07 Division, origin, and function of component parts of the brain.
Learning Outcome: 06.15
Section: 06.15
Topic: Division, origin, and function of parts of the brain
Topic: Gross anatomy of the components of the brain

  1. The cerebrum consists only of gray matter.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H10.03 Contrast the relative position of gray matter and white matter in the spinal cord with the corresponding arrangement of gray and white matter in the brain.
HAPS Topic: Module H10 Anatomy of the spinal cord and spinal nerves.
Learning Outcome: 06.15
Section: 06.15
Topic: Gross anatomy of the components of the brain

  1. The basal nuclei are important subcortical nuclei in the cerebrum.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H07.02 Correlate functions with each major area of the adult brain.
HAPS Topic: Module H07 Division, origin, and function of component parts of the brain.
Learning Outcome: 06.15
Section: 06.15
Topic: Division, origin, and function of parts of the brain
Topic: Gross anatomy of the components of the brain

 

 

  1. The thalamus is the single most important control area for regulating the homeostasis of the internal environment.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H07.02 Correlate functions with each major area of the adult brain.
HAPS Topic: Module H07 Division, origin, and function of component parts of the brain.
Learning Outcome: 06.15
Section: 06.15
Topic: Division, origin, and function of parts of the brain

  1. The efferent division of the peripheral nervous system consists of the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H02.01 Describe the nervous system as a control system identifying nervous system elements that are sensory receptors, the afferent pathway, control centers, the efferent pathway, and effector organs.
HAPS Objective: H02.02 Differentiate between the somatic and autonomic divisions of the nervous system.
HAPS Topic: Module H02 Organization of the nervous system from both anatomical and functional perspectives.
Learning Outcome: 06.17
Section: 06.17
Topic: Anatomical and functional organization of the nervous system

  1. Preganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system leave the CNS at the level of the brainstem and sacral portions of the spinal cord.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H13.02 Contrast the anatomy of the parasympathetic and sympathetic systems, including central nervous system outflow locations, ganglia locations, pre- and post- ganglionic neuron relative lengths, and ganglionic and effector neurotransmitters.
HAPS Topic: Module H13 Functions of the autonomic nervous system.
Learning Outcome: 06.18
Section: 06.18
Topic: Anatomy of the parasympathetic division of the ANS

 

 

  1. Most of the parasympathetic ganglia lie in chains along the spinal cord called sympathetic trunks.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H13.02 Contrast the anatomy of the parasympathetic and sympathetic systems, including central nervous system outflow locations, ganglia locations, pre- and post- ganglionic neuron relative lengths, and ganglionic and effector neurotransmitters.
HAPS Topic: Module H13 Functions of the autonomic nervous system.
Learning Outcome: 06.18
Section: 06.18
Topic: Anatomy of the parasympathetic division of the ANS

  1. Responses made possible by motor signals transmitted by the parasympathetic nervous system tend to be displayed throughout the body simultaneously because there is much divergence of nerve pathways and close anatomical association between presynaptic neurons and their ganglia as well as accessory activity with the adrenal glands.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H13.01 Discuss the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system and the general physiological roles of each.
HAPS Objective: H13.02 Contrast the anatomy of the parasympathetic and sympathetic systems, including central nervous system outflow locations, ganglia locations, pre- and post- ganglionic neuron relative lengths, and ganglionic and effector neurotransmitters.
HAPS Topic: Module H13 Functions of the autonomic nervous system.
Learning Outcome: 06.18
Section: 06.18
Topic: Anatomy of the parasympathetic division of the ANS
Topic: Functions of the autonomic nervous system

  1. The sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system is arranged so that it acts largely as a unit, whereas the components of the parasympathetic division generally act as discreet, independent components.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H13.01 Discuss the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system and the general physiological roles of each.
HAPS Objective: H13.02 Contrast the anatomy of the parasympathetic and sympathetic systems, including central nervous system outflow locations, ganglia locations, pre- and post- ganglionic neuron relative lengths, and ganglionic and effector neurotransmitters.
HAPS Objective: H13.09 Describe major parasympathetic and/or sympathetic physiological effects on target organs.
HAPS Topic: Module H13 Functions of the autonomic nervous system.
Learning Outcome: 06.18
Section: 06.18
Topic: Functions of the autonomic nervous system

 

 

  1. “Dual innervation of effectors” refers to the innervation of the same effector organs by somatic and autonomic nerves.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H13.03 Describe examples of specific effectors dually innervated by the two branches of the autonomic nervous system and explain how each branch influences function in a given effector.
HAPS Objective: H14.01 Distinguish between the effectors of the somatic and autonomic nervous systems.
HAPS Topic: Module H13 Functions of the autonomic nervous system.
HAPS Topic: Module H14 Comparisons of somatic and autonomic nervous systems.
Learning Outcome: 06.18
Section: 06.18
Topic: Comparisons of somatic and autonomic nervous systems
Topic: Functions of the autonomic nervous system

 

Chapter 07

Sensory Physiology

 

 

 Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Which of the following statements regarding sensory systems is correct?
    A. All sensory information that reaches the brain can be experienced as a conscious sensation.
    B.  Sensory information that leads to conscious awareness of the stimulus is called transduction.
    C.  The term “sensory unit” refers to a group of receptors that receive a particular stimulus and the afferent neuron associated with those receptors.
    D.  The term “adequate stimulus” means that a stimulus is strong enough to be detected.
    E.  Some sensory receptors are modifications of the peripheral endings of efferent neurons.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H02.01 Describe the nervous system as a control system identifying nervous system elements that are sensory receptors, the afferent pathway, control centers, the efferent pathway, and effector organs.
HAPS Objective: H06.03 Explain the generator potential that occurs when receptors for general senses are stimulated.
HAPS Objective: H06.04 Describe the relationship between unipolar neurons and receptors for general senses.
HAPS Objective: H07.02 Correlate functions with each major area of the adult brain.
HAPS Topic: Module H02 Organization of the nervous system from both anatomical and functional perspectives.
HAPS Topic: Module H06 Sensory receptors and their roles.
HAPS Topic: Module H07 Division, origin, and function of component parts of the brain.
Learning Outcome: 07.02
Section: 07.02
Topic: Introduction to sensory receptors
Topic: Physiology of sensory and motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord

 

 

  1. Which is TRUE about receptor potentials?
    A. They are action potentials.
    B.  They always trigger action potentials.
    C.  They vary in magnitude with stimulus strength.
    D.  They propagate without decrement.
    E.  They generally occur at the axon hillock of afferent neurons.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H02.01 Describe the nervous system as a control system identifying nervous system elements that are sensory receptors, the afferent pathway, control centers, the efferent pathway, and effector organs.
HAPS Objective: H03.02b Identify soma (cell body), axon, and dendrites in each of the three structural types of neurons (unipolar, bipolar and multipolar).
HAPS Objective: H03.02c State which parts of each of the three structural types of neurons (unipolar, bipolar and multipolar) receive information, which parts integrate information, and which parts conduct the output signal of the neuron.
HAPS Objective: H04.07 Discuss the sequence of events that must occur for an action potential to be generated.
HAPS Objective: H04.09 Define threshold.
HAPS Objective: H06.03 Explain the generator potential that occurs when receptors for general senses are stimulated.
HAPS Objective: H06.05 Differentiate between the site of action potential generation in a unipolar neuron and a multipolar neuron.
HAPS Topic: Module H02 Organization of the nervous system from both anatomical and functional perspectives.
HAPS Topic: Module H03 Grossand microscopic anatomy of nervous tissue.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
HAPS Topic: Module H06 Sensory receptors and their roles.
Learning Outcome: 07.01
Section: 07.01
Topic: Introduction to sensory receptors

  1. A sensory unit is defined as
    A. all of the sensory receptors in a given area of the body that respond to the same stimulus.
    B.  a single receptor ending and its afferent nerve fiber.
    C.  a single afferent neuron and all its receptor endings.
    D.  an afferent neuron and its postsynaptic interneurons.
    E.  a reflex composed of an afferent neuron, an interneuron, and an efferent neuron.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H02.01 Describe the nervous system as a control system identifying nervous system elements that are sensory receptors, the afferent pathway, control centers, the efferent pathway, and effector organs.
HAPS Objective: H06.04 Describe the relationship between unipolar neurons and receptors for general senses.
HAPS Objective: H12.01 Describe the locations and functions of the first-, second- and third-order neurons in a sensory pathway.
HAPS Topic: Module H02 Organization of the nervous system from both anatomical and functional perspectives.
HAPS Topic: Module H06 Sensory receptors and their roles.
HAPS Topic: Module H12 Physiology of sensory and motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord.
Learning Outcome: 07.02
Section: 07.02
Topic: Introduction to sensory receptors

 

 

  1. What is the best definition of the “receptive field” of an afferent neuron?
    A. The number of interneurons with which the central process of the afferent neuron makes synaptic contact via divergence.
    B.  The type of stimulus energy to which the afferent neuron is most sensitive.
    C.  All of the interneuron cell bodies and dendrites onto which the afferent neuron synapses.
    D.  The area of the cerebral cortex in which information from that afferent neuron is initially received.
    E.  The area of the body that, when stimulated, leads to activity in that particular afferent neuron.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H02.01 Describe the nervous system as a control system identifying nervous system elements that are sensory receptors, the afferent pathway, control centers, the efferent pathway, and effector organs.
HAPS Objective: H07.04 Identify the five lobes of the cerebral cortex and describe how the motor and sensory functions of the cerebrum are distributed among the lobes.
HAPS Objective: H12.01 Describe the locations and functions of the first-, second- and third-order neurons in a sensory pathway.
HAPS Topic: Module H02 Organization of the nervous system from both anatomical and functional perspectives.
HAPS Topic: Module H07 Division, origin, and function of component parts of the brain.
HAPS Topic: Module H12 Physiology of sensory and motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord.
Learning Outcome: 07.02
Section: 07.02
Topic: Introduction to sensory receptors

  1. Which best describes the process of “adaptation” in sensory receptors?
    A. Information from sensory receptors reaches the cerebral cortex and the person becomes aware of it.
    B.  Conversion of the energy of a stimulus into a pattern of electrical activity.
    C.  Persistence of the sensation of a limb even after it has been severed from the body.
    D.  A decrease in receptor sensitivity despite continuation of a stimulus.
    E.  A depolarization of receptive membrane that increase in magnitude as the stimulus intensity increases.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H06.03 Explain the generator potential that occurs when receptors for general senses are stimulated.
HAPS Objective: H06.06 Explain the phenomenon of adaptation.
HAPS Topic: Module H06 Sensory receptors and their roles.
Learning Outcome: 07.01
Section: 07.01
Topic: Introduction to sensory receptors

 

 

  1. Which is TRUE regarding the ascending pathways in the sensory system?
    A. Specific pathways for auditory stimuli project primarily to the frontal lobes of the cerebral cortex.
    B.  Specific pathways for all sensory information synapse in the somatosensory cortex.
    C.  Specific pathways for olfaction synapse in the limbic system.
    D.  Specific pathways for visual stimuli project primarily to the frontal lobes of the cerebral cortex.
    E.  Specific pathways for pain project primarily to the occipital lobes of the cerebral cortex.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H07.02 Correlate functions with each major area of the adult brain.
HAPS Objective: H07.04 Identify the five lobes of the cerebral cortex and describe how the motor and sensory functions of the cerebrum are distributed among the lobes.
HAPS Objective: H07.07 Describe the location and functions of the limbic system.
HAPS Objective: H10.07 Distinguish between ascending and descending tracts in the spinal cord.
HAPS Objective: H12.01 Describe the locations and functions of the first-, second- and third-order neurons in a sensory pathway.
HAPS Objective: I02.02 Trace the path of light as it passes through the eye to the retina and the path of nerve impulses from the retina to various parts of the brain.
HAPS Objective: I03.03 Describe the path of nerve impulses from the olfactory receptors to various parts of the brain.
HAPS Objective: I06.02 Describe the sound conduction pathway from the auricle to the fluids of the inner ear and the path of nerve impulses from the spiral organ to various parts of the brain.
HAPS Topic: Module H07 Division, origin, and function of component parts of the brain.
HAPS Topic: Module H10 Anatomy of the spinal cord and spinal nerves.
HAPS Topic: Module H12 Physiology of sensory and motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord.
HAPS Topic: Module I02 Roles of specific tissues of the eye in vision.
HAPS Topic: Module I03 Olfactory receptors and their role in smell.
HAPS Topic: Module I06 Roles of specific tissues of the ear in hearing.
Learning Outcome: 07.03
Section: 07.03
Topic: Division, origin, and function of parts of the brain
Topic: Physiology of sensory and motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord

  1. Polymodal neurons are:
    A. afferent neurons.
    B.  interneurons that receive synaptic input from different kinds of sensory units.
    C.  part of specific ascending sensory pathways.
    D.  interneurons that receive synaptic input from only one type of sensory unit.
    E.  efferent neurons.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H02.01 Describe the nervous system as a control system identifying nervous system elements that are sensory receptors, the afferent pathway, control centers, the efferent pathway, and effector organs.
HAPS Objective: H10.07 Distinguish between ascending and descending tracts in the spinal cord.
HAPS Objective: H12.01 Describe the locations and functions of the first-, second- and third-order neurons in a sensory pathway.
HAPS Topic: Module H02 Organization of the nervous system from both anatomical and functional perspectives.
HAPS Topic: Module H10 Anatomy of the spinal cord and spinal nerves.
HAPS Topic: Module H12 Physiology of sensory and motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord.
Learning Outcome: 07.03
Section: 07.03
Topic: Physiology of sensory and motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord

 

 

  1. Which is an accurate description of the cortical association areas?
    A. They are all found in the parietal lobe of the cerebral cortex.
    B.  They integrate multiple types of sensory information and are responsible for complex processing of sensory information.
    C.  They are the cortical locations where primary sensory information first arrives from specific ascending pathways.
    D.  They are found deep in the cerebrum, surrounding the thalamus.
    E.  Their main input is sensory information arriving along neurons that project directly from the thalamus.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H07.02 Correlate functions with each major area of the adult brain.
HAPS Objective: H10.07 Distinguish between ascending and descending tracts in the spinal cord.
HAPS Objective: H12.01 Describe the locations and functions of the first-, second- and third-order neurons in a sensory pathway.
HAPS Topic: Module H07 Division, origin, and function of component parts of the brain.
HAPS Topic: Module H10 Anatomy of the spinal cord and spinal nerves.
HAPS Topic: Module H12 Physiology of sensory and motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord.
Learning Outcome: 07.04
Section: 07.04
Topic: Division, origin, and function of parts of the brain

  1. Which of the following is most important for the determination of stimulus type?
    A. the relative sensitivity of different receptors to different stimulus energies
    B.  the presence of polymodal neurons in the sensory pathway
    C.  the intensity of a stimulus
    D.  the location on the body where a stimulus is applied
    E.  propagation of a signal along a nonspecific ascending pathway

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H06.02 Describe each of the following types of receptors, indicating what sensation it detects and giving an example of where it can be found in the body- pain receptors (nociceptors), temperature receptors, mechanoreceptors (including proprioceptors and barorceptors/pressoreceptors), chemoreceptors, and photoreceptors.
HAPS Objective: H06.03 Explain the generator potential that occurs when receptors for general senses are stimulated.
HAPS Objective: H10.07 Distinguish between ascending and descending tracts in the spinal cord.
HAPS Objective: H12.01 Describe the locations and functions of the first-, second- and third-order neurons in a sensory pathway.
HAPS Topic: Module H06 Sensory receptors and their roles.
HAPS Topic: Module H10 Anatomy of the spinal cord and spinal nerves.
HAPS Topic: Module H12 Physiology of sensory and motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord.
Learning Outcome: 07.02
Section: 07.02
Topic: Introduction to sensory receptors

 

 

  1. Which of these is one reason you can distinguish between a needle prick on the foot and an ice cube on the wrist?
    A. The ice cube stimulates a different class of receptors than the needle prick, even though both signals go to exactly the same location in the brain.
    B.  The action potentials from the needle prick are inherently different from the impulse generated by the ice cube.
    C.  The region of the brain to which one receptor pathway leads is different from the region to which the other pathway leads.
    D.  The needle prick generates a stronger action potential in any one neuron than an ice cube does.
    E.  The needle prick generates a higher frequency of action potentials than the ice cube does.

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H06.02 Describe each of the following types of receptors, indicating what sensation it detects and giving an example of where it can be found in the body- pain receptors (nociceptors), temperature receptors, mechanoreceptors (including proprioceptors and barorceptors/pressoreceptors), chemoreceptors, and photoreceptors.
HAPS Objective: H07.04 Identify the five lobes of the cerebral cortex and describe how the motor and sensory functions of the cerebrum are distributed among the lobes.
HAPS Objective: H07.05 Explain why the sensory and motor homunculi are relevant clinically.
HAPS Objective: H10.07 Distinguish between ascending and descending tracts in the spinal cord.
HAPS Objective: H12.01 Describe the locations and functions of the first-, second- and third-order neurons in a sensory pathway.
HAPS Topic: Module H06 Sensory receptors and their roles.
HAPS Topic: Module H07 Division, origin, and function of component parts of the brain.
HAPS Topic: Module H10 Anatomy of the spinal cord and spinal nerves.
HAPS Topic: Module H12 Physiology of sensory and motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord.
Learning Outcome: 07.02
Learning Outcome: 07.05
Section: 07.02
Section: 07.05
Topic: Introduction to sensory receptors
Topic: Physiology of sensory and motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding the determination of stimulus intensity is true?
    A. Stronger intensity stimuli cause rapid adaptation, while weaker stimuli cause slower adaptation.
    B.  The amplitude of action potentials increases with increasing stimulus intensity.
    C.  The duration of receptor potentials decreases with increasing stimulus intensity.
    D.  The frequency of action potentials increases with increasing stimulus intensity.
    E.  The only means of detecting intensity changes is through recruitment of greater numbers of sensory units.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H04.07 Discuss the sequence of events that must occur for an action potential to be generated.
HAPS Objective: H04.09 Define threshold.
HAPS Objective: H04.10 Discuss the role of positive feedback in generation of the action potential.
HAPS Objective: H06.03 Explain the generator potential that occurs when receptors for general senses are stimulated.
HAPS Objective: H06.06 Explain the phenomenon of adaptation.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
HAPS Topic: Module H06 Sensory receptors and their roles.
Learning Outcome: 07.01
Learning Outcome: 07.02
Section: 07.01
Section: 07.02
Topic: Introduction to sensory receptors

  1. Which of the following statements regarding the precision of locating a somatic stimulus is FALSE?
    A. The precision is greater in areas of the body that have small, overlapping receptive fields than in areas with large, nonoverlapping receptive fields.
    B.  The precision is greater in the lips and fingers than on the back.
    C.  The precision is greater for the skin than for the internal organs.
    D.  Lateral inhibition of parallel afferent pathways increases the precision of locating a stimulus.
    E.  Convergence of afferent neurons onto common ascending pathways increases acuity.

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H10.07 Distinguish between ascending and descending tracts in the spinal cord.
HAPS Objective: H12.01 Describe the locations and functions of the first-, second- and third-order neurons in a sensory pathway.
HAPS Topic: Module H10 Anatomy of the spinal cord and spinal nerves.
HAPS Topic: Module H12 Physiology of sensory and motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord.
Learning Outcome: 07.02
Section: 07.02
Topic: Introduction to sensory receptors
Topic: Physiology of sensory and motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord

 

 

  1. Which best describes lateral inhibition in the somatic sensory system?
    A. The frequency of action potentials along pathways from the site of a stimulus is increased by lateral inhibition.
    B.  The precision of locating a stimulus is increased by inhibiting signaling along nearby, parallel pathways.
    C.  The precision of locating a stimulus is enhanced by increasing the frequency of action potentials in nearby, parallel pathways.
    D.  Stimuli of one particular modality in a region of the body block transmission of action potentials coding for other modalities generated in the same region of the body.
    E.  Lateral inhibition reduces the contrast between the frequency of action potentials generated at the center of a stimulus and the frequency of action potentials in surrounding pathways.

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H12.01 Describe the locations and functions of the first-, second- and third-order neurons in a sensory pathway.
HAPS Topic: Module H12 Physiology of sensory and motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord.
Learning Outcome: 07.02
Section: 07.02
Topic: Physiology of sensory and motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord

  1. A stimulus to which afferent neurons X, Y, and Z are sensitive is applied in the middle of Y’s receptive field. The same stimulus simultaneously activates receptors on the periphery of the receptive fields of X and Z. Which of the following is likely to be true?
    A. The receptor potential in neurons X and Z will be more depolarized than in neuron Y.
    B.  It won’t be possible to discriminate which neuron’s receptive field was stimulated at its center.
    C.  The frequency of action potentials in the afferent pathway from neuron Y will be increased by excitatory interneurons projecting from the afferent pathways from neurons X and Z.
    D.  The frequency of action potentials in neuron Y will be greater than that in neurons X and Z.
    E.  The receptor potentials in all three neurons will achieve the same, average value.

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H06.03 Explain the generator potential that occurs when receptors for general senses are stimulated.
HAPS Objective: H12.01 Describe the locations and functions of the first-, second- and third-order neurons in a sensory pathway.
HAPS Topic: Module H06 Sensory receptors and their roles.
HAPS Topic: Module H12 Physiology of sensory and motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord.
Learning Outcome: 07.02
Section: 07.02
Topic: Physiology of sensory and motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord

 

 

  1. Which of the following would NOT be categorized as a “somatic” sensation?
    A. pressure
    B.  cold and warmth
    C.  sound
    D.  proprioception
    E.  kinesthesia

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: E04.01b With respect to the following – sweat glands (eccrine and apocrine), sebaceous glands, nails, hair (follicle and arrector pili muscle), and sensory receptors (Merkel cell, Meissner’s and Pacinian corpuscles, hair follicle receptor, and temperature receptors), describe the location of each structure in the body.
HAPS Objective: H06.02 Describe each of the following types of receptors, indicating what sensation it detects and giving an example of where it can be found in the body- pain receptors (nociceptors), temperature receptors, mechanoreceptors (including proprioceptors and barorceptors/pressoreceptors), chemoreceptors, and photoreceptors.
HAPS Topic: Module E04 Anatomy and functional roles of accessory structures
HAPS Topic: Module H06 Sensory receptors and their roles.
Learning Outcome: 07.05
Section: 07.05
Topic: Introduction to sensory receptors

  1. Which of the following statements regarding sensory pathways is correct?
    A. All somatic sensory information that reaches the cerebral cortex is first processed in the thalamus.
    B.  Somatic sensory information from the left side of the body projects to the left side of the somatosensory cortex.
    C.  All somatic sensory information travels together in a single tract in the spinal cord.
    D.  Ascending pathways in the anterolateral column of the spinal cord carry information about fine touch discrimination.
    E.  Ascending pathways in the dorsal column of the spinal cord carry information about pain from the back muscles.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H07.02 Correlate functions with each major area of the adult brain.
HAPS Objective: H07.04 Identify the five lobes of the cerebral cortex and describe how the motor and sensory functions of the cerebrum are distributed among the lobes.
HAPS Objective: H10.07 Distinguish between ascending and descending tracts in the spinal cord.
HAPS Objective: H12.01 Describe the locations and functions of the first-, second- and third-order neurons in a sensory pathway.
HAPS Objective: H12.03 Explain how decussation occurs in sensory and motor pathways and predict how decussation impacts the correlation of brain damage and symptoms in stroke patients.
HAPS Topic: Module H07 Division, origin, and function of component parts of the brain.
HAPS Topic: Module H10 Anatomy of the spinal cord and spinal nerves.
HAPS Topic: Module H12 Physiology of sensory and motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord.
Learning Outcome: 07.05
Section: 07.05
Topic: Physiology of sensory and motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding pain pathways is FALSE?
    A. Substance P is an important neurotransmitter in specific pain pathways.
    B.  Transmission of information in pain pathways may be inhibited by activation of neurons that synthesize opiate neurotransmitters.
    C.  Synaptic activity in afferent neurons associated with pain receptors can be inhibited by axon-axon synapses with neurons from descending pathways.
    D.  Afferents neurons that detect painful stimuli in the skin can converge onto common ascending pathways with neurons that detect painful stimuli in internal organs.
    E.  Substance P is released by neurons descending from the brain, and it inhibits activation of ascending pain pathways.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H05.15 List the most common excitatory neurotransmitter(s) in the CNS and the most common inhibitory neurotransmitter(s) in the CNS.
HAPS Objective: H10.07 Distinguish between ascending and descending tracts in the spinal cord.
HAPS Objective: H12.01 Describe the locations and functions of the first-, second- and third-order neurons in a sensory pathway.
HAPS Objective: H15.01 Provide specific examples to demonstrate how the nervous system responds to maintain homeostasis in the body.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
HAPS Topic: Module H10 Anatomy of the spinal cord and spinal nerves.
HAPS Topic: Module H12 Physiology of sensory and motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord.
HAPS Topic: Module H15 Application of homeostatic mechanisms.
Learning Outcome: 07.05
Section: 07.05
Topic: Physiology of sensory and motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord

  1. Which of the following symptoms would a patient with a lesion (injury) that destroyed the right side of the spinal cord in the region of the upper back be most likely to experience?
    A. loss of both pressure sense and pain in the right foot
    B.  loss of both pressure sense and pain in the left foot
    C.  loss of pressure sense in the right foot and pain in the left foot
    D.  loss of pressure sense in the left foot and pain in the right foot

 

Bloom’s: Level 3. Apply
HAPS Objective: H10.07 Distinguish between ascending and descending tracts in the spinal cord.
HAPS Objective: H12.01 Describe the locations and functions of the first-, second- and third-order neurons in a sensory pathway.
HAPS Objective: H12.03 Explain how decussation occurs in sensory and motor pathways and predict how decussation impacts the correlation of brain damage and symptoms in stroke patients.
HAPS Objective: H16.01 Predict factors or situations affecting the nervous system that could disrupt homeostasis.
HAPS Objective: H16.02 Predict the types of problems that would occur in the body if the nervous system could not maintain homeostasis.
HAPS Topic: Module H10 Anatomy of the spinal cord and spinal nerves.
HAPS Topic: Module H12 Physiology of sensory and motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord.
HAPS Topic: Module H16 Predictions related to homeostatic imbalance, including disease states and disorders.
Learning Outcome: 07.05
Section: 07.05
Topic: Clinical applications of the nervous system
Topic: Physiology of sensory and motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord

 

 

  1. Accommodation for near vision requires:
    A. flattening of the lens.
    B.  contraction of the ciliary muscles.
    C.  activation of the sympathetic nervous system.
    D.  increased rounding of the cornea.
    E.  dilation of the pupil.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H13.03 Describe examples of specific effectors dually innervated by the two branches of the autonomic nervous system and explain how each branch influences function in a given effector.
HAPS Objective: I01.01 Identify the accessory eye structures, the tunics, the optical components and the neural components of the eye.
HAPS Objective: I02.05 Explain how the optical system of the eye creates an image on the retina.
HAPS Objective: I02.08 Relate changes in the anatomy of the eye to changes in vision.
HAPS Objective: I09.01 Provide specific examples to demonstrate how the special sense organs respond to maintain homeostasis in the body.
HAPS Topic: Module H13 Functions of the autonomic nervous system.
HAPS Topic: Module I01 Gross and microscopic anatomy of the eye.
HAPS Topic: Module I02 Roles of specific tissues of the eye in vision.
HAPS Topic: Module I09 Application of homeostatic mechanisms.
Learning Outcome: 07.06
Section: 07.06
Topic: Gross anatomy of the eye
Topic: Physiology of vision

  1. During normal viewing of a distant object, the:
    A. firing of parasympathetic nerves to ciliary muscles increases.
    B.  zonular fibers are slackened.
    C.  lens flattens.
    D.  light rays striking the eyes are diverged by the cornea.
    E.  ciliary muscles are contracted.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H13.03 Describe examples of specific effectors dually innervated by the two branches of the autonomic nervous system and explain how each branch influences function in a given effector.
HAPS Objective: I01.01 Identify the accessory eye structures, the tunics, the optical components and the neural components of the eye.
HAPS Objective: I02.05 Explain how the optical system of the eye creates an image on the retina.
HAPS Objective: I02.08 Relate changes in the anatomy of the eye to changes in vision.
HAPS Objective: I09.01 Provide specific examples to demonstrate how the special sense organs respond to maintain homeostasis in the body.
HAPS Topic: Module H13 Functions of the autonomic nervous system.
HAPS Topic: Module I01 Gross and microscopic anatomy of the eye.
HAPS Topic: Module I02 Roles of specific tissues of the eye in vision.
HAPS Topic: Module I09 Application of homeostatic mechanisms.
Learning Outcome: 07.06
Section: 07.06
Topic: Gross anatomy of the eye
Topic: Physiology of vision

 

 

  1. A person whose lens focuses light from distant objects in front of (rather than on) the retina has a condition called:
    A. presbyopia.
    B.  hyperopia.
    C.  myopia.
    D.  cataract.
    E.  glaucoma.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: I02.05 Explain how the optical system of the eye creates an image on the retina.
HAPS Objective: I02.08 Relate changes in the anatomy of the eye to changes in vision.
HAPS Objective: I10.01 Predict factors or situations affecting the special sense organs that could disrupt homeostasis.
HAPS Objective: I10.02 Predict the types of problems that would occur in the body if the special sense organs could not maintain homeostasis.
HAPS Topic: Module I02 Roles of specific tissues of the eye in vision.
HAPS Topic: Module I10 Predictions related to homeostatic imbalance, including disease states and disorders.
Learning Outcome: 07.06
Section: 07.06
Topic: Clinical applications of the special senses
Topic: Physiology of vision

  1. Which of the following statements regarding vision is FALSE?
    A. The cornea refracts light rays more strongly than the lens.
    B.  Presbyopia is a condition in which the lens cannot accommodate adequately for near vision.
    C.  Myopia is a condition in which the lens focuses light from distant objects behind the retina.
    D.  Cataract is an increase in opacity (clouding) of the lens.
    E.  The image of an object that is focused on the retina is upside down relative to the object’s actual position in space.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: I01.01 Identify the accessory eye structures, the tunics, the optical components and the neural components of the eye.
HAPS Objective: I02.05 Explain how the optical system of the eye creates an image on the retina.
HAPS Objective: I02.08 Relate changes in the anatomy of the eye to changes in vision.
HAPS Objective: I10.01 Predict factors or situations affecting the special sense organs that could disrupt homeostasis.
HAPS Objective: I10.02 Predict the types of problems that would occur in the body if the special sense organs could not maintain homeostasis.
HAPS Topic: Module I01 Gross and microscopic anatomy of the eye.
HAPS Topic: Module I02 Roles of specific tissues of the eye in vision.
HAPS Topic: Module I10 Predictions related to homeostatic imbalance, including disease states and disorders.
Learning Outcome: 07.06
Section: 07.06
Topic: Clinical applications of the special senses
Topic: Physiology of vision

 

 

  1. A person struggling with a stressful exam question might experience difficulty focusing her eyes on the paper because:
    A. she suddenly develops presbyopia.
    B.  activation of her parasympathetic nerves causes sudden contraction of her ciliary muscles.
    C.  activation of her sympathetic nerves causes sudden contraction of her ciliary muscles.
    D.  activation of her parasympathetic nerves inhibits contraction of her ciliary muscles.
    E.  activation of her sympathetic nerves inhibits contraction of her ciliary muscles.

 

Bloom’s: Level 3. Apply
HAPS Objective: H13.03 Describe examples of specific effectors dually innervated by the two branches of the autonomic nervous system and explain how each branch influences function in a given effector.
HAPS Objective: H15.01 Provide specific examples to demonstrate how the nervous system responds to maintain homeostasis in the body.
HAPS Objective: I01.01 Identify the accessory eye structures, the tunics, the optical components and the neural components of the eye.
HAPS Objective: I02.05 Explain how the optical system of the eye creates an image on the retina.
HAPS Objective: I02.08 Relate changes in the anatomy of the eye to changes in vision.
HAPS Objective: I10.01 Predict factors or situations affecting the special sense organs that could disrupt homeostasis.
HAPS Objective: I10.02 Predict the types of problems that would occur in the body if the special sense organs could not maintain homeostasis.
HAPS Topic: Module H13 Functions of the autonomic nervous system.
HAPS Topic: Module H15 Application of homeostatic mechanisms.
HAPS Topic: Module I01 Gross and microscopic anatomy of the eye.
HAPS Topic: Module I02 Roles of specific tissues of the eye in vision.
HAPS Topic: Module I10 Predictions related to homeostatic imbalance, including disease states and disorders.
Learning Outcome: 07.06
Section: 07.06
Topic: Clinical applications of the special senses
Topic: Gross anatomy of the eye
Topic: Physiology of vision

  1. Which of the following statements with regard to vision is FALSE?
    A. Photoreceptors are neurons.
    B.  There are two basic types of photoreceptors in the retina, rods, and cones.
    C.  There are normally four different photopigments in the retina.
    D.  There are four different chromophore molecules in the retina.
    E.  There are four different opsins in the retina.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: I01.01 Identify the accessory eye structures, the tunics, the optical components and the neural components of the eye.
HAPS Objective: I02.03 Describe the structure of the retina and the cells that compose it.
HAPS Objective: I02.04 Describe how light activates photoreceptors.
HAPS Topic: Module I01 Gross and microscopic anatomy of the eye.
HAPS Topic: Module I02 Roles of specific tissues of the eye in vision.
Learning Outcome: 07.06
Section: 07.06
Topic: Physiology of vision

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements about rods and cones in the retina is TRUE?
    A. Cones enable us to see in dim light; rods provide color vision.
    B.  Rods and cones all have the same kind of opsin.
    C.  Cones are found in highest density in the fovea; rods are more prevalent near the edges of the retina.
    D.  Rods require brighter light to activate them than do cones.
    E.  Rods provide higher visual acuity than do cones.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: I01.01 Identify the accessory eye structures, the tunics, the optical components and the neural components of the eye.
HAPS Objective: I02.03 Describe the structure of the retina and the cells that compose it.
HAPS Objective: I02.04 Describe how light activates photoreceptors.
HAPS Objective: I02.06 Compare and contrast the function of rods and cones in vision.
HAPS Topic: Module I01 Gross and microscopic anatomy of the eye.
HAPS Topic: Module I02 Roles of specific tissues of the eye in vision.
Learning Outcome: 07.06
Section: 07.06
Topic: Physiology of vision

  1. Which of these occurs when light strikes photoreceptors?
    A. The chromophore retinal undergoes a change of shape.
    B.  There is an increase in neurotransmitter release from photoreceptor cells.
    C.  The photoreceptor cell membrane becomes depolarized.
    D.  The concentration of cyclic GMP inside cells increases.
    E.  The photoreceptor cells are stimulated and fire action potentials.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: I02.04 Describe how light activates photoreceptors.
HAPS Topic: Module I02 Roles of specific tissues of the eye in vision.
Learning Outcome: 07.06
Section: 07.06
Topic: Physiology of vision

 

 

  1. The membrane potential of rod and cone cells is around:
    A. -70 mV in the dark, and the cells depolarize in the light.
    B.  -70 mV in the dark, and the cells hyperpolarize in the light.
    C.  -35 mV in the dark, and the cells hyperpolarize in the light.
    D.  -35 mV in the dark,  and the cells depolarize in the light.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: I02.04 Describe how light activates photoreceptors.
HAPS Topic: Module I02 Roles of specific tissues of the eye in vision.
Learning Outcome: 07.06
Section: 07.06
Topic: Physiology of vision

  1. Each of the following statements regarding vision is true. Which statement best explains why we cannot see colors in dim light?
    A. The human eye has three kinds of cone photoreceptors.
    B.  The lateral geniculate nucleus contains opponent color cells.
    C.  The human eye has only one kind of rod photoreceptor.
    D.  All photoreceptors contain the same chromophore.
    E.  Cone photoreceptors are concentrated in the fovea.

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: I02.03 Describe the structure of the retina and the cells that compose it.
HAPS Objective: I02.04 Describe how light activates photoreceptors.
HAPS Objective: I02.06 Compare and contrast the function of rods and cones in vision.
HAPS Topic: Module I02 Roles of specific tissues of the eye in vision.
Learning Outcome: 07.06
Section: 07.06
Topic: Physiology of vision

 

 

  1. In ______ cells, infoldings of the external plasma membrane and proteins found there allow us to detect different colors of light.
    A. bipolar
    B.  rod
    C.  ganglion
    D.  cone
    E.  pigment epithelial

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: I01.01 Identify the accessory eye structures, the tunics, the optical components and the neural components of the eye.
HAPS Objective: I02.03 Describe the structure of the retina and the cells that compose it.
HAPS Objective: I02.06 Compare and contrast the function of rods and cones in vision.
HAPS Topic: Module I01 Gross and microscopic anatomy of the eye.
HAPS Topic: Module I02 Roles of specific tissues of the eye in vision.
Learning Outcome: 07.06
Section: 07.06
Topic: Gross anatomy of the eye
Topic: Physiology of vision

  1. Vitamin A plays a critical role in night vision because:
    A. it is required for the synthesis of the retinal portion of rhodopsin.
    B.  it is transformed into the opsins found in cone cells.
    C.  it acts a coenzyme in the reaction that degrades cGMP within rod cells.
    D.  it catalyzes the mitotic generation of light-reflecting epithelial cells, which support widely dispersed rod receptors.
    E.  it is a key intermediate in the signal transduction pathway within cone cells that is activated by light.

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: I02.03 Describe the structure of the retina and the cells that compose it.
HAPS Objective: I02.04 Describe how light activates photoreceptors.
HAPS Objective: I02.07 Explain the process of light and dark adaptation.
HAPS Objective: O01.01d Classify vitamins as either fat-soluble or water-soluble and discuss the major uses of each vitamin in the body.
HAPS Topic: Module I02 Roles of specific tissues of the eye in vision.
HAPS Topic: Module O01 Nutrition
Learning Outcome: 07.06
Section: 07.06
Topic: Physiology of vision

 

 

  1. Which of these is most responsible for “light adaptation”–the process by which we only gradually become able to see objects in a brightly lit place after being in the dark?
    A. Cone receptors are very hyperpolarized in the dark, and they must be exposed to bright light for awhile before they will depolarize.
    B.  Rhodopsin is quickly inactivated in the presence of bright light so rods become unresponsive, and the higher-acuity cones then become the main detectors of vision.
    C.  Because rods are more sensitive to light than cones, they gradually become extremely activated in bright light.
    D.  Cones and rods are stimulated equally, leading to difficulties in interpreting the sensory inputs to the brain.
    E.  Rhodopsin is not activated by colored light, and the lack of stimulation causes rods to gradually depolarize when we are exposed to bright light.

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: I02.03 Describe the structure of the retina and the cells that compose it.
HAPS Objective: I02.04 Describe how light activates photoreceptors.
HAPS Objective: I02.07 Explain the process of light and dark adaptation.
HAPS Objective: I09.01 Provide specific examples to demonstrate how the special sense organs respond to maintain homeostasis in the body.
HAPS Topic: Module I02 Roles of specific tissues of the eye in vision.
HAPS Topic: Module I09 Application of homeostatic mechanisms.
Learning Outcome: 07.06
Section: 07.06
Topic: Physiology of vision

  1. In the visual pathway providing sensory action potentials to the brain, the first cells that are capable of initiating action potentials are:
    A. cone cells.
    B.  rod cells.
    C.  lateral geniculate cells.
    D.  ganglion cells.
    E.  bipolar cells.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: I01.01 Identify the accessory eye structures, the tunics, the optical components and the neural components of the eye.
HAPS Objective: I02.02 Trace the path of light as it passes through the eye to the retina and the path of nerve impulses from the retina to various parts of the brain.
HAPS Objective: I02.03 Describe the structure of the retina and the cells that compose it.
HAPS Topic: Module I01 Gross and microscopic anatomy of the eye.
HAPS Topic: Module I02 Roles of specific tissues of the eye in vision.
Learning Outcome: 07.06
Section: 07.06
Topic: Physiology of vision

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements related to the “ON pathway” of the visual system is correct?
    A. Bipolar cells fire action potentials only when bright light strikes the photoreceptors linked to them.
    B.  Bipolar cells spontaneously depolarize in the absence of input from photoreceptor cells.
    C.  Bipolar cells hyperpolarize in the absence of input from photoreceptor cells.
    D.  Glutamate receptors on bipolar cells are excitatory.
    E.  Only cones are associated with bipolar cells of the “ON pathway,” rods are not.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: I01.01 Identify the accessory eye structures, the tunics, the optical components and the neural components of the eye.
HAPS Objective: I02.02 Trace the path of light as it passes through the eye to the retina and the path of nerve impulses from the retina to various parts of the brain.
HAPS Objective: I02.03 Describe the structure of the retina and the cells that compose it.
HAPS Topic: Module I01 Gross and microscopic anatomy of the eye.
HAPS Topic: Module I02 Roles of specific tissues of the eye in vision.
Learning Outcome: 07.06
Section: 07.06
Topic: Physiology of vision

  1. Which of the following statements regarding hearing is TRUE?
    A. The pitch of sounds is conveyed by the amplitude of the vibration of the oval window.
    B.  Low-pitched tones selectively cause vibration of the basilar membrane at a point closer to the oval window than high-pitched tones do.
    C.  Sound is amplified as it is conducted from the oval window to the tympanic membrane.
    D.  The loudness of a sound is conveyed by the frequency of action potentials generated in the cochlear nerve.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: I05.01 Identify the hearing structures of the outer, middle and inner ear.
HAPS Objective: I06.01 Describe how the various structures of the outer, middle and inner ear function in hearing.
HAPS Objective: I06.03 Explain how the structures of the ear enable differentiation of pitch and loudness of sounds.
HAPS Topic: Module I05 General gross and microscopic anatomy of the hearing and accessory structures of the ear.
HAPS Topic: Module I06 Roles of specific tissues of the ear in hearing.
Learning Outcome: 07.07
Section: 07.07
Topic: Gross anatomy of the ear
Topic: Physiology of hearing

 

 

  1. The incus, malleus, and stapes of the middle ear
    A. serve to keep the pressure on the two sides of the tympanic membrane equal.
    B.  are part of the vestibular apparatus.
    C.  are in direct contact with both the tympanic membrane and the round window.
    D.  serve to amplify the pressure of sound vibrations from the air in the outer ear to the fluid in the inner ear.
    E.  are found inside the cochlear duct.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: I05.01 Identify the hearing structures of the outer, middle and inner ear.
HAPS Objective: I06.01 Describe how the various structures of the outer, middle and inner ear function in hearing.
HAPS Objective: I06.02 Describe the sound conduction pathway from the auricle to the fluids of the inner ear and the path of nerve impulses from the spiral organ to various parts of the brain.
HAPS Objective: I07.02 Describe the role of the auditory tube in drainage and equalization of pressure in the middle ear.
HAPS Topic: Module I05 General gross and microscopic anatomy of the hearing and accessory structures of the ear.
HAPS Topic: Module I06 Roles of specific tissues of the ear in hearing.
HAPS Topic: Module I07 Roles of the accessory structures.
Learning Outcome: 07.07
Section: 07.07
Topic: Gross anatomy of the ear
Topic: Physiology of hearing

  1. The actual receptors for hearing are called:
    A. baroreceptors.
    B.  nociceptors.
    C.  hair cells.
    D.  Pacinian corpuscles.
    E.  somatic receptors.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: E04.01b With respect to the following – sweat glands (eccrine and apocrine), sebaceous glands, nails, hair (follicle and arrector pili muscle), and sensory receptors (Merkel cell, Meissner’s and Pacinian corpuscles, hair follicle receptor, and temperature receptors), describe the location of each structure in the body.
HAPS Objective: H06.02 Describe each of the following types of receptors, indicating what sensation it detects and giving an example of where it can be found in the body- pain receptors (nociceptors), temperature receptors, mechanoreceptors (including proprioceptors and barorceptors/pressoreceptors), chemoreceptors, and photoreceptors.
HAPS Objective: I05.01 Identify the hearing structures of the outer, middle and inner ear.
HAPS Objective: I06.01 Describe how the various structures of the outer, middle and inner ear function in hearing.
HAPS Objective: I06.02 Describe the sound conduction pathway from the auricle to the fluids of the inner ear and the path of nerve impulses from the spiral organ to various parts of the brain.
HAPS Topic: Module E04 Anatomy and functional roles of accessory structures
HAPS Topic: Module H06 Sensory receptors and their roles.
HAPS Topic: Module I05 General gross and microscopic anatomy of the hearing and accessory structures of the ear.
HAPS Topic: Module I06 Roles of specific tissues of the ear in hearing.
Learning Outcome: 07.07
Section: 07.07
Topic: Physiology of hearing

 

 

  1. The receptors for hearing are found on the:
    A. tympanic membrane.
    B.  basilar membrane.
    C.  stapes.
    D.  oval window.
    E.  scala vestibuli.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: I05.01 Identify the hearing structures of the outer, middle and inner ear.
HAPS Objective: I06.01 Describe how the various structures of the outer, middle and inner ear function in hearing.
HAPS Objective: I06.02 Describe the sound conduction pathway from the auricle to the fluids of the inner ear and the path of nerve impulses from the spiral organ to various parts of the brain.
HAPS Topic: Module I05 General gross and microscopic anatomy of the hearing and accessory structures of the ear.
HAPS Topic: Module I06 Roles of specific tissues of the ear in hearing.
Learning Outcome: 07.07
Section: 07.07
Topic: Gross anatomy of the ear
Topic: Physiology of hearing

  1. Distinguishing the pitch of sounds is possible because:
    A. different frequencies of sounds make the eardrum vibrate with different amplitudes.
    B.  different frequencies of sounds stimulate different regions of the basilar membrane in the cochlear duct.
    C.  different frequencies of sounds cause different kinds of action potentials in neurons in the auditory nerve.
    D.  different frequencies of sounds cause different frequencies of action potentials in neurons in the auditory nerve.
    E.  there are many different types of receptors for sound, each of which responds to a single frequency.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: I05.01 Identify the hearing structures of the outer, middle and inner ear.
HAPS Objective: I06.01 Describe how the various structures of the outer, middle and inner ear function in hearing.
HAPS Objective: I06.02 Describe the sound conduction pathway from the auricle to the fluids of the inner ear and the path of nerve impulses from the spiral organ to various parts of the brain.
HAPS Objective: I06.03 Explain how the structures of the ear enable differentiation of pitch and loudness of sounds.
HAPS Topic: Module I05 General gross and microscopic anatomy of the hearing and accessory structures of the ear.
HAPS Topic: Module I06 Roles of specific tissues of the ear in hearing.
Learning Outcome: 07.07
Section: 07.07
Topic: Physiology of hearing

 

 

  1. As the pitch of a sound gets higher, displacements of the basilar membrane:
    A. occur closer to the oval window.
    B.  occur closer to the helicotrema.
    C.  occur uniformly throughout the membrane.
    D.  become greater in amplitude.
    E.  become smaller in amplitude.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: I05.01 Identify the hearing structures of the outer, middle and inner ear.
HAPS Objective: I06.01 Describe how the various structures of the outer, middle and inner ear function in hearing.
HAPS Objective: I06.03 Explain how the structures of the ear enable differentiation of pitch and loudness of sounds.
HAPS Topic: Module I05 General gross and microscopic anatomy of the hearing and accessory structures of the ear.
HAPS Topic: Module I06 Roles of specific tissues of the ear in hearing.
Learning Outcome: 07.07
Section: 07.07
Topic: Gross anatomy of the ear
Topic: Physiology of hearing

  1. Which of the following is NOT a function of the tensor tympani and stapedius muscles?
    A. protection of the inner ear against continuous loud sounds
    B.  protection of the delicate inner ear from sudden intermittent loud sounds
    C.  reflexive contraction when vocalizing to reduce the loudness of your own voice
    D.  optimization of the state of the inner ear for hearing over certain frequency ranges

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: I05.01 Identify the hearing structures of the outer, middle and inner ear.
HAPS Objective: I06.01 Describe how the various structures of the outer, middle and inner ear function in hearing.
HAPS Objective: I06.03 Explain how the structures of the ear enable differentiation of pitch and loudness of sounds.
HAPS Objective: I09.01 Provide specific examples to demonstrate how the special sense organs respond to maintain homeostasis in the body.
HAPS Topic: Module I05 General gross and microscopic anatomy of the hearing and accessory structures of the ear.
HAPS Topic: Module I06 Roles of specific tissues of the ear in hearing.
HAPS Topic: Module I09 Application of homeostatic mechanisms.
Learning Outcome: 07.07
Section: 07.07
Topic: Gross anatomy of the ear
Topic: Physiology of hearing

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding the vestibular system is TRUE?
    A. Hair cells in the cochlea are involved in the detection of movement and position of the head.
    B.  The utricle and saccule are mainly responsible for detecting angular rotation of the head.
    C.  The vestibular apparatus is principally involved in our ability to detect and interpret sound.
    D.  Deflection of the basilar membrane by fluid moving within the semicircular canals allows us to detect rotational movement of the head.
    E.  Receptors in the utricle and saccule detect changes in the position of the head with respect to gravity.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: I05.01 Identify the hearing structures of the outer, middle and inner ear.
HAPS Objective: I06.01 Describe how the various structures of the outer, middle and inner ear function in hearing.
HAPS Objective: I08.01 Distinguish between static and dynamic equilibrium.
HAPS Objective: I08.02 Describe the structure of the maculae and their function in static equilibrium.
HAPS Objective: I08.03 Describe the structure of the crista ampullaris and its function in dynamic equilibrium.
HAPS Topic: Module I05 General gross and microscopic anatomy of the hearing and accessory structures of the ear.
HAPS Topic: Module I06 Roles of specific tissues of the ear in hearing.
HAPS Topic: Module I08 Role of the ear in equilibrium.
Learning Outcome: 07.08
Section: 07.08
Topic: Gross anatomy of the ear
Topic: Physiology of equilibrium

  1. Shaking your head “no” mainly activates hair cells in the:
    A. cochlea.
    B.  utricle.
    C.  semicircular canals.
    D.  olfactory mucosa.
    E.  tectorial membrane.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: I03.01 Identify the location of olfactory receptors.
HAPS Objective: I03.02 Explain how odorants activate olfactory receptors.
HAPS Objective: I05.01 Identify the hearing structures of the outer, middle and inner ear.
HAPS Objective: I06.01 Describe how the various structures of the outer, middle and inner ear function in hearing.
HAPS Objective: I08.01 Distinguish between static and dynamic equilibrium.
HAPS Objective: I08.03 Describe the structure of the crista ampullaris and its function in dynamic equilibrium.
HAPS Topic: Module I03 Olfactory receptors and their role in smell.
HAPS Topic: Module I05 General gross and microscopic anatomy of the hearing and accessory structures of the ear.
HAPS Topic: Module I06 Roles of specific tissues of the ear in hearing.
HAPS Topic: Module I08 Role of the ear in equilibrium.
Learning Outcome: 07.08
Section: 07.08
Topic: Gross anatomy of the ear
Topic: Physiology of equilibrium

 

 

  1. Which of the following are classified as “mechanoreceptors”?
    A. cone cells in the eye
    B.  taste buds on the tongue
    C.  hair cells in the olfactory mucosa
    D.  hair cells in the cochlea

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H06.02 Describe each of the following types of receptors, indicating what sensation it detects and giving an example of where it can be found in the body- pain receptors (nociceptors), temperature receptors, mechanoreceptors (including proprioceptors and barorceptors/pressoreceptors), chemoreceptors, and photoreceptors.
HAPS Objective: I02.04 Describe how light activates photoreceptors.
HAPS Objective: I03.02 Explain how odorants activate olfactory receptors.
HAPS Objective: I04.02 Explain how dissolved chemicals activate gustatory receptors.
HAPS Objective: I06.01 Describe how the various structures of the outer, middle and inner ear function in hearing.
HAPS Topic: Module H06 Sensory receptors and their roles.
HAPS Topic: Module I02 Roles of specific tissues of the eye in vision.
HAPS Topic: Module I03 Olfactory receptors and their role in smell.
HAPS Topic: Module I04 Gustatory receptors and their role in taste.
HAPS Topic: Module I06 Roles of specific tissues of the ear in hearing.
Learning Outcome: 07.01
Learning Outcome: 07.06
Learning Outcome: 07.07
Learning Outcome: 07.09
Section: 07.01
Section: 07.06
Section: 07.07
Section: 07.09
Topic: Gustatory receptors and their role in taste
Topic: Introduction to sensory receptors
Topic: Olfactory receptors and their role in smell
Topic: Physiology of hearing
Topic: Physiology of vision

 

 

  1. Where are receptors for the chemical senses located?
    A. in the organ of Corti and saccule
    B.  in the cochlea and lateral geniculate nucleus
    C.  in the skin and tendons
    D.  in the tongue and nose
    E.  in the fovea and semicircular canals

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: E04.01b With respect to the following – sweat glands (eccrine and apocrine), sebaceous glands, nails, hair (follicle and arrector pili muscle), and sensory receptors (Merkel cell, Meissner’s and Pacinian corpuscles, hair follicle receptor, and temperature receptors), describe the location of each structure in the body.
HAPS Objective: H06.02 Describe each of the following types of receptors, indicating what sensation it detects and giving an example of where it can be found in the body- pain receptors (nociceptors), temperature receptors, mechanoreceptors (including proprioceptors and barorceptors/pressoreceptors), chemoreceptors, and photoreceptors.
HAPS Objective: I02.03 Describe the structure of the retina and the cells that compose it.
HAPS Objective: I02.04 Describe how light activates photoreceptors.
HAPS Objective: I03.01 Identify the location of olfactory receptors.
HAPS Objective: I03.02 Explain how odorants activate olfactory receptors.
HAPS Objective: I04.01 Identify the location and structure of taste buds.
HAPS Objective: I04.02 Explain how dissolved chemicals activate gustatory receptors.
HAPS Objective: I06.01 Describe how the various structures of the outer, middle and inner ear function in hearing.
HAPS Objective: I08.02 Describe the structure of the maculae and their function in static equilibrium.
HAPS Topic: Module E04 Anatomy and functional roles of accessory structures
HAPS Topic: Module H06 Sensory receptors and their roles.
HAPS Topic: Module I02 Roles of specific tissues of the eye in vision.
HAPS Topic: Module I03 Olfactory receptors and their role in smell.
HAPS Topic: Module I04 Gustatory receptors and their role in taste.
HAPS Topic: Module I06 Roles of specific tissues of the ear in hearing.
HAPS Topic: Module I08 Role of the ear in equilibrium.
Learning Outcome: 07.09
Section: 07.09
Topic: Gustatory receptors and their role in taste
Topic: Olfactory receptors and their role in smell

 

 

  1. Which is TRUE about olfactory receptors?
    A. They can discriminate only four primary chemicals – sweet, sour, salty, and bitter.
    B.  When stimulated, their signaling pathway sends action potentials directly to the limbic system.
    C.  They are unable to detect odorants without activation of taste buds.
    D.  Only four different types of odorant receptor proteins are found in the plasma membrane of olfactory receptors.
    E.  They are found in the floor of the nasal cavity and on the upper surface of the hard palate, which separates the mouth from the nose.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: I03.01 Identify the location of olfactory receptors.
HAPS Objective: I03.02 Explain how odorants activate olfactory receptors.
HAPS Objective: I03.03 Describe the path of nerve impulses from the olfactory receptors to various parts of the brain.
HAPS Topic: Module I03 Olfactory receptors and their role in smell.
Learning Outcome: 07.09
Section: 07.09
Topic: Olfactory receptors and their role in smell
Topic: Physiology of sensory and motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord

  1. Which is TRUE about information from the vestibular system?
    A. It is conveyed in the form of action potentials in the optic nerve.
    B.  It is conveyed to nerves that control eye movements.
    C.  It does not reach the level of conscious perception.
    D.  It is primarily conveyed to the cortex of the occipital lobe of the brain.
    E.  It is interpreted as sound in the temporal lobes of the brain.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H07.04 Identify the five lobes of the cerebral cortex and describe how the motor and sensory functions of the cerebrum are distributed among the lobes.
HAPS Objective: H09.02 Describe the specific functions of each of the cranial nerves and classify each as sensory, motor or mixed.
HAPS Objective: I02.02 Trace the path of light as it passes through the eye to the retina and the path of nerve impulses from the retina to various parts of the brain.
HAPS Objective: I06.02 Describe the sound conduction pathway from the auricle to the fluids of the inner ear and the path of nerve impulses from the spiral organ to various parts of the brain.
HAPS Objective: I08.02 Describe the structure of the maculae and their function in static equilibrium.
HAPS Objective: I08.03 Describe the structure of the crista ampullaris and its function in dynamic equilibrium.
HAPS Objective: I09.02 Explain how the special sense organs relate to other body organs and systems to maintain homeostasis.
HAPS Topic: Module H07 Division, origin, and function of component parts of the brain.
HAPS Topic: Module H09 Structure and function of cranial nerves.
HAPS Topic: Module I02 Roles of specific tissues of the eye in vision.
HAPS Topic: Module I06 Roles of specific tissues of the ear in hearing.
HAPS Topic: Module I08 Role of the ear in equilibrium.
HAPS Topic: Module I09 Application of homeostatic mechanisms.
Learning Outcome: 07.08
Section: 07.08
Topic: Physiology of equilibrium
Topic: Physiology of sensory and motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord

 

 

  1. Which of the following correctly pairs a chemical with its associated taste modality?
    A. poisonous alkaloids, sour
    B.  acids, bitter
    C.  sugars, salty
    D.  glutamate, umami
    E.  lipids, sweet

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: I04.04 Describe the five primary taste sensations.
HAPS Topic: Module I04 Gustatory receptors and their role in taste.
Learning Outcome: 07.09
Section: 07.09
Topic: Gustatory receptors and their role in taste

  1. The phenomenon known as referred pain
    A. is a perception of a false painful stimulus with no initiating stimulus; it is created in the mind.
    B.  is the projected perception of pain as a sensation being experienced at a site other than that of the actual injured or diseased tissue.
    C.  involves a descending pathway that blocks the release of substance P in the spinal cord.
    D.  is synonymous with the persistence of perceptions of painful stimuli long after the activity responsible for triggering them has ceased.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H10.07 Distinguish between ascending and descending tracts in the spinal cord.
HAPS Objective: H10.08 Describe the concept of dermatomes and explain why they are clinically significant.
HAPS Objective: H12.01 Describe the locations and functions of the first-, second- and third-order neurons in a sensory pathway.
HAPS Objective: H16.01 Predict factors or situations affecting the nervous system that could disrupt homeostasis.
HAPS Objective: H16.02 Predict the types of problems that would occur in the body if the nervous system could not maintain homeostasis.
HAPS Topic: Module H10 Anatomy of the spinal cord and spinal nerves.
HAPS Topic: Module H12 Physiology of sensory and motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord.
HAPS Topic: Module H16 Predictions related to homeostatic imbalance, including disease states and disorders.
Learning Outcome: 07.05
Section: 07.05
Topic: Clinical applications of the nervous system
Topic: Physiology of sensory and motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord

 

 

 True / False Questions

  1. A “sensation” is any sensory information that reaches the brain.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H01.01 Describe the major functions of the nervous system.
HAPS Objective: H07.02 Correlate functions with each major area of the adult brain.
HAPS Topic: Module H01 General functions of the nervous system.
HAPS Topic: Module H07 Division, origin, and function of component parts of the brain.
Learning Outcome: 07.01
Section: 07.01
Topic: Division, origin, and function of parts of the brain
Topic: Physiology of sensory and motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord

  1. Perceptions are derived from higher-order processing of sensory information.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H01.01 Describe the major functions of the nervous system.
HAPS Objective: H07.02 Correlate functions with each major area of the adult brain.
HAPS Topic: Module H01 General functions of the nervous system.
HAPS Topic: Module H07 Division, origin, and function of component parts of the brain.
Learning Outcome: 07.01
Section: 07.01
Topic: Division, origin, and function of parts of the brain

  1. The process by which sensory receptors change various forms of energy into electrical energy is called translation.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H06.03 Explain the generator potential that occurs when receptors for general senses are stimulated.
HAPS Topic: Module H06 Sensory receptors and their roles.
Learning Outcome: 07.01
Section: 07.01
Topic: Introduction to sensory receptors

 

 

  1. The greater the magnitude of the receptor potential generated by a stimulus, the greater the amplitude of the action potentials the receptor potential induces.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H04.07 Discuss the sequence of events that must occur for an action potential to be generated.
HAPS Objective: H04.09 Define threshold.
HAPS Objective: H04.10 Discuss the role of positive feedback in generation of the action potential.
HAPS Objective: H06.03 Explain the generator potential that occurs when receptors for general senses are stimulated.
HAPS Topic: Module H04 Neurophysiology, including mechanism of resting membrane potential, production of action potentials, and impulse transmission.
HAPS Topic: Module H06 Sensory receptors and their roles.
Learning Outcome: 07.01
Learning Outcome: 07.02
Section: 07.01
Section: 07.02
Topic: Introduction to sensory receptors

  1. Rapidly adapting receptors are important for detecting the continued presence of a stimulus.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H06.06 Explain the phenomenon of adaptation.
HAPS Topic: Module H06 Sensory receptors and their roles.
Learning Outcome: 07.01
Section: 07.01
Topic: Introduction to sensory receptors

 

 

  1. “Somatosensory” refers to the part of the cerebral cortex that receives synaptic input from specific ascending pathways originating only with receptors for touch.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: E04.01b With respect to the following – sweat glands (eccrine and apocrine), sebaceous glands, nails, hair (follicle and arrector pili muscle), and sensory receptors (Merkel cell, Meissner’s and Pacinian corpuscles, hair follicle receptor, and temperature receptors), describe the location of each structure in the body.
HAPS Objective: H07.02 Correlate functions with each major area of the adult brain.
HAPS Objective: H07.04 Identify the five lobes of the cerebral cortex and describe how the motor and sensory functions of the cerebrum are distributed among the lobes.
HAPS Objective: H10.07 Distinguish between ascending and descending tracts in the spinal cord.
HAPS Topic: Module E04 Anatomy and functional roles of accessory structures
HAPS Topic: Module H07 Division, origin, and function of component parts of the brain.
HAPS Topic: Module H10 Anatomy of the spinal cord and spinal nerves.
Learning Outcome: 07.03
Learning Outcome: 07.05
Section: 07.03
Section: 07.05
Topic: Division, origin, and function of parts of the brain
Topic: Physiology of sensory and motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord

  1. Sensory information is invested with emotional significance in association areas in the frontal lobes and limbic system.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H07.02 Correlate functions with each major area of the adult brain.
HAPS Objective: H07.07 Describe the location and functions of the limbic system.
HAPS Topic: Module H07 Division, origin, and function of component parts of the brain.
Learning Outcome: 07.04
Section: 07.04
Topic: Division, origin, and function of parts of the brain

 

 

  1. Information about the location of a given stimulus on or in the body is conveyed by the same mechanism that conveys information about stimulus intensity, namely action potential frequency.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H07.02 Correlate functions with each major area of the adult brain.
HAPS Objective: H07.04 Identify the five lobes of the cerebral cortex and describe how the motor and sensory functions of the cerebrum are distributed among the lobes.
HAPS Objective: H12.01 Describe the locations and functions of the first-, second- and third-order neurons in a sensory pathway.
HAPS Topic: Module H07 Division, origin, and function of component parts of the brain.
HAPS Topic: Module H12 Physiology of sensory and motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord.
Learning Outcome: 07.02
Section: 07.02
Topic: Physiology of sensory and motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord

  1. The density of receptors in a receptive field is usually greatest in the periphery of the field.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H03.02c State which parts of each of the three structural types of neurons (unipolar, bipolar and multipolar) receive information, which parts integrate information, and which parts conduct the output signal of the neuron.
HAPS Objective: H12.01 Describe the locations and functions of the first-, second- and third-order neurons in a sensory pathway.
HAPS Topic: Module H03 Grossand microscopic anatomy of nervous tissue.
HAPS Topic: Module H12 Physiology of sensory and motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord.
Learning Outcome: 07.02
Section: 07.02
Topic: Introduction to sensory receptors

  1. In the somatosensory cortex, neuronal representation of body parts is proportional to the size of the body part.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H07.04 Identify the five lobes of the cerebral cortex and describe how the motor and sensory functions of the cerebrum are distributed among the lobes.
HAPS Objective: H07.05 Explain why the sensory and motor homunculi are relevant clinically.
HAPS Topic: Module H07 Division, origin, and function of component parts of the brain.
Learning Outcome: 07.05
Section: 07.05
Topic: Division, origin, and function of parts of the brain

 

 

  1. The precision of locating a somatosensory stimulus is greater in areas of the body that have small, overlapping receptive fields than in areas with large, nonoverlapping fields.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H12.01 Describe the locations and functions of the first-, second- and third-order neurons in a sensory pathway.
HAPS Topic: Module H12 Physiology of sensory and motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord.
Learning Outcome: 07.02
Section: 07.02
Topic: Introduction to sensory receptors

  1. The afferent pathways for pain differ from those for other somatic sensations in that they are highly influenced by repeated exposure and they are significantly modulated by descending neuronal pathways.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H10.07 Distinguish between ascending and descending tracts in the spinal cord.
HAPS Objective: H12.01 Describe the locations and functions of the first-, second- and third-order neurons in a sensory pathway.
HAPS Topic: Module H10 Anatomy of the spinal cord and spinal nerves.
HAPS Topic: Module H12 Physiology of sensory and motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord.
Learning Outcome: 07.05
Section: 07.05
Topic: Physiology of sensory and motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord

  1. A common neurotransmitter for afferent neurons carrying information about pain is prostaglandin.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H05.15 List the most common excitatory neurotransmitter(s) in the CNS and the most common inhibitory neurotransmitter(s) in the CNS.
HAPS Objective: H12.01 Describe the locations and functions of the first-, second- and third-order neurons in a sensory pathway.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
HAPS Topic: Module H12 Physiology of sensory and motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord.
Learning Outcome: 07.05
Section: 07.05
Topic: Physiology of sensory and motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord

 

 

  1. The phenomenon of referred pain may occur because an ascending pathway for pain receives input from both visceral and somatic afferent fibers.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H10.07 Distinguish between ascending and descending tracts in the spinal cord.
HAPS Objective: H10.08 Describe the concept of dermatomes and explain why they are clinically significant.
HAPS Objective: H12.01 Describe the locations and functions of the first-, second- and third-order neurons in a sensory pathway.
HAPS Objective: H16.01 Predict factors or situations affecting the nervous system that could disrupt homeostasis.
HAPS Objective: H16.02 Predict the types of problems that would occur in the body if the nervous system could not maintain homeostasis.
HAPS Topic: Module H10 Anatomy of the spinal cord and spinal nerves.
HAPS Topic: Module H12 Physiology of sensory and motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord.
HAPS Topic: Module H16 Predictions related to homeostatic imbalance, including disease states and disorders.
Learning Outcome: 07.05
Section: 07.05
Topic: Clinical applications of the nervous system
Topic: Physiology of sensory and motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord

  1. In the phenomenon of phantom limb, a person can perceive tingling, touch, pressure, warmth, itch, and other sensations in a body part that has been lost by amputation or accident.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H07.05 Explain why the sensory and motor homunculi are relevant clinically.
HAPS Objective: H12.01 Describe the locations and functions of the first-, second- and third-order neurons in a sensory pathway.
HAPS Objective: H16.01 Predict factors or situations affecting the nervous system that could disrupt homeostasis.
HAPS Objective: H16.02 Predict the types of problems that would occur in the body if the nervous system could not maintain homeostasis.
HAPS Topic: Module H07 Division, origin, and function of component parts of the brain.
HAPS Topic: Module H12 Physiology of sensory and motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord.
HAPS Topic: Module H16 Predictions related to homeostatic imbalance, including disease states and disorders.
Learning Outcome: 07.05
Section: 07.05
Topic: Clinical applications of the nervous system
Topic: Physiology of sensory and motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord

 

 

  1. Presbyopia is correctable using eyeglasses that converge light rays.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 3. Apply
HAPS Objective: I02.05 Explain how the optical system of the eye creates an image on the retina.
HAPS Objective: I02.08 Relate changes in the anatomy of the eye to changes in vision.
HAPS Objective: I10.01 Predict factors or situations affecting the special sense organs that could disrupt homeostasis.
HAPS Objective: I10.02 Predict the types of problems that would occur in the body if the special sense organs could not maintain homeostasis.
HAPS Topic: Module I02 Roles of specific tissues of the eye in vision.
HAPS Topic: Module I10 Predictions related to homeostatic imbalance, including disease states and disorders.
Learning Outcome: 07.06
Section: 07.06
Topic: Clinical applications of the special senses
Topic: Physiology of vision

  1. Increased pressure in the eye caused by an accumulation of aqueous humor is called astigmatism.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: I01.01 Identify the accessory eye structures, the tunics, the optical components and the neural components of the eye.
HAPS Objective: I10.01 Predict factors or situations affecting the special sense organs that could disrupt homeostasis.
HAPS Objective: I10.02 Predict the types of problems that would occur in the body if the special sense organs could not maintain homeostasis.
HAPS Topic: Module I01 Gross and microscopic anatomy of the eye.
HAPS Topic: Module I10 Predictions related to homeostatic imbalance, including disease states and disorders.
Learning Outcome: 07.06
Section: 07.06
Topic: Clinical applications of the special senses
Topic: Gross anatomy of the eye

  1. Vitamin A deficiency can lead to blindness.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: I02.03 Describe the structure of the retina and the cells that compose it.
HAPS Objective: I02.04 Describe how light activates photoreceptors.
HAPS Objective: I10.01 Predict factors or situations affecting the special sense organs that could disrupt homeostasis.
HAPS Objective: I10.02 Predict the types of problems that would occur in the body if the special sense organs could not maintain homeostasis.
HAPS Objective: O01.01d Classify vitamins as either fat-soluble or water-soluble and discuss the major uses of each vitamin in the body.
HAPS Topic: Module I02 Roles of specific tissues of the eye in vision.
HAPS Topic: Module I10 Predictions related to homeostatic imbalance, including disease states and disorders.
HAPS Topic: Module O01 Nutrition
Learning Outcome: 07.06
Section: 07.06
Topic: Clinical applications of the special senses
Topic: Physiology of vision

 

 

  1. The optic nerves from each eye cross at the optic chiasm, so all visual information from the right eye is received by the left side of the brain.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: I01.01 Identify the accessory eye structures, the tunics, the optical components and the neural components of the eye.
HAPS Objective: I02.02 Trace the path of light as it passes through the eye to the retina and the path of nerve impulses from the retina to various parts of the brain.
HAPS Topic: Module I01 Gross and microscopic anatomy of the eye.
HAPS Topic: Module I02 Roles of specific tissues of the eye in vision.
Learning Outcome: 07.06
Section: 07.06
Topic: Gross anatomy of the eye
Topic: Physiology of sensory and motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord

  1. Axons of ganglion cells from the retina synapse in the medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus on the way to the occipital lobes.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: I01.01 Identify the accessory eye structures, the tunics, the optical components and the neural components of the eye.
HAPS Objective: I02.02 Trace the path of light as it passes through the eye to the retina and the path of nerve impulses from the retina to various parts of the brain.
HAPS Objective: I02.03 Describe the structure of the retina and the cells that compose it.
HAPS Topic: Module I01 Gross and microscopic anatomy of the eye.
HAPS Topic: Module I02 Roles of specific tissues of the eye in vision.
Learning Outcome: 07.06
Section: 07.06
Topic: Gross anatomy of the eye
Topic: Physiology of sensory and motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord
Topic: Physiology of vision

  1. The greatest concentration of cones is in the fovea centralis of the retina.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: I01.01 Identify the accessory eye structures, the tunics, the optical components and the neural components of the eye.
HAPS Objective: I02.03 Describe the structure of the retina and the cells that compose it.
HAPS Topic: Module I01 Gross and microscopic anatomy of the eye.
HAPS Topic: Module I02 Roles of specific tissues of the eye in vision.
Learning Outcome: 07.06
Section: 07.06
Topic: Gross anatomy of the eye
Topic: Physiology of vision

 

 

  1. Photoreceptor cells (rods and cones) are different from other sensory receptors in that they are the only type that is relatively depolarized at rest.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: I02.03 Describe the structure of the retina and the cells that compose it.
HAPS Objective: I02.04 Describe how light activates photoreceptors.
HAPS Topic: Module I02 Roles of specific tissues of the eye in vision.
Learning Outcome: 07.06
Section: 07.06
Topic: Physiology of vision

  1. In both ON and OFF visual pathways, light stimulates the release of glutamate onto bipolar cells.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: I01.01 Identify the accessory eye structures, the tunics, the optical components and the neural components of the eye.
HAPS Objective: I02.02 Trace the path of light as it passes through the eye to the retina and the path of nerve impulses from the retina to various parts of the brain.
HAPS Objective: I02.03 Describe the structure of the retina and the cells that compose it.
HAPS Objective: I02.04 Describe how light activates photoreceptors.
HAPS Topic: Module I01 Gross and microscopic anatomy of the eye.
HAPS Topic: Module I02 Roles of specific tissues of the eye in vision.
Learning Outcome: 07.06
Section: 07.06
Topic: Physiology of vision

  1. The response of a bipolar cell, i.e., whether it acts to bring about an “ON pathway” or an “OFF pathway,” depends on the amount of glutamate released by photoreceptor cells.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H05.13 Explain how a single neurotransmitter may be excitatory at one synapse and inhibitory at another.
HAPS Objective: I01.01 Identify the accessory eye structures, the tunics, the optical components and the neural components of the eye.
HAPS Objective: I02.02 Trace the path of light as it passes through the eye to the retina and the path of nerve impulses from the retina to various parts of the brain.
HAPS Objective: I02.03 Describe the structure of the retina and the cells that compose it.
HAPS Objective: I02.04 Describe how light activates photoreceptors.
HAPS Topic: Module H05 Neurotransmitters and their roles in synaptic transmission.
HAPS Topic: Module I01 Gross and microscopic anatomy of the eye.
HAPS Topic: Module I02 Roles of specific tissues of the eye in vision.
Learning Outcome: 07.06
Section: 07.06
Topic: Physiology of vision

 

 

  1. One function of saccades is to prevent adaptation of photoreceptors to a visual image.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H06.06 Explain the phenomenon of adaptation.
HAPS Objective: I01.01 Identify the accessory eye structures, the tunics, the optical components and the neural components of the eye.
HAPS Objective: I02.01 Describe the functions of the accessory structures of the eye.
HAPS Objective: I02.04 Describe how light activates photoreceptors.
HAPS Objective: I09.01 Provide specific examples to demonstrate how the special sense organs respond to maintain homeostasis in the body.
HAPS Topic: Module H06 Sensory receptors and their roles.
HAPS Topic: Module I01 Gross and microscopic anatomy of the eye.
HAPS Topic: Module I02 Roles of specific tissues of the eye in vision.
HAPS Topic: Module I09 Application of homeostatic mechanisms.
Learning Outcome: 07.06
Section: 07.06
Topic: Anatomy of accessory structures of the eye
Topic: Physiology of vision

  1. A sound with a frequency of 4000 Hz has a lower pitch than a sound with a frequency of 1000 Hz.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: I06.01 Describe how the various structures of the outer, middle and inner ear function in hearing.
HAPS Objective: I06.03 Explain how the structures of the ear enable differentiation of pitch and loudness of sounds.
HAPS Topic: Module I06 Roles of specific tissues of the ear in hearing.
Learning Outcome: 07.07
Section: 07.07
Topic: Physiology of hearing

  1. The tympanic membrane separates an air-filled chamber from a fluid-filled chamber.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: I05.01 Identify the hearing structures of the outer, middle and inner ear.
HAPS Topic: Module I05 General gross and microscopic anatomy of the hearing and accessory structures of the ear.
Learning Outcome: 07.07
Section: 07.07
Topic: Gross anatomy of the ear

 

 

  1. The vibration of the tympanic membrane varies in frequency according to the pitch of the sound it receives.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: I05.01 Identify the hearing structures of the outer, middle and inner ear.
HAPS Objective: I06.01 Describe how the various structures of the outer, middle and inner ear function in hearing.
HAPS Objective: I06.03 Explain how the structures of the ear enable differentiation of pitch and loudness of sounds.
HAPS Topic: Module I05 General gross and microscopic anatomy of the hearing and accessory structures of the ear.
HAPS Topic: Module I06 Roles of specific tissues of the ear in hearing.
Learning Outcome: 07.07
Section: 07.07
Topic: Gross anatomy of the ear
Topic: Physiology of hearing

  1. The function of the tympanic membrane is to amplify sound waves on their way to the inner ear.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: I05.01 Identify the hearing structures of the outer, middle and inner ear.
HAPS Objective: I06.01 Describe how the various structures of the outer, middle and inner ear function in hearing.
HAPS Objective: I06.02 Describe the sound conduction pathway from the auricle to the fluids of the inner ear and the path of nerve impulses from the spiral organ to various parts of the brain.
HAPS Topic: Module I05 General gross and microscopic anatomy of the hearing and accessory structures of the ear.
HAPS Topic: Module I06 Roles of specific tissues of the ear in hearing.
Learning Outcome: 07.07
Section: 07.07
Topic: Gross anatomy of the ear
Topic: Physiology of hearing

 

 

  1. A tone caused by striking one of the lowest notes on a piano keyboard will cause vibration of the basilar membrane at a point closer to the helicotrema than to the oval window.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: I05.01 Identify the hearing structures of the outer, middle and inner ear.
HAPS Objective: I06.01 Describe how the various structures of the outer, middle and inner ear function in hearing.
HAPS Objective: I06.02 Describe the sound conduction pathway from the auricle to the fluids of the inner ear and the path of nerve impulses from the spiral organ to various parts of the brain.
HAPS Objective: I06.03 Explain how the structures of the ear enable differentiation of pitch and loudness of sounds.
HAPS Topic: Module I05 General gross and microscopic anatomy of the hearing and accessory structures of the ear.
HAPS Topic: Module I06 Roles of specific tissues of the ear in hearing.
Learning Outcome: 07.07
Section: 07.07
Topic: Gross anatomy of the ear
Topic: Physiology of hearing

  1. Unlike information from the eyes, information from the ears bypasses the thalamus on its way to the cerebral cortex.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: H09.02 Describe the specific functions of each of the cranial nerves and classify each as sensory, motor or mixed.
HAPS Objective: I02.02 Trace the path of light as it passes through the eye to the retina and the path of nerve impulses from the retina to various parts of the brain.
HAPS Objective: I06.02 Describe the sound conduction pathway from the auricle to the fluids of the inner ear and the path of nerve impulses from the spiral organ to various parts of the brain.
HAPS Topic: Module H09 Structure and function of cranial nerves.
HAPS Topic: Module I02 Roles of specific tissues of the eye in vision.
HAPS Topic: Module I06 Roles of specific tissues of the ear in hearing.
Learning Outcome: 07.06
Learning Outcome: 07.07
Section: 07.06
Section: 07.07
Topic: Physiology of hearing
Topic: Physiology of sensory and motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord
Topic: Physiology of vision

 

 

  1. Hair cells in the semicircular canals detect changes in the rate of angular motion of the head, while the same kinds of cells in the utricle and saccule detect changes in the head’s rate of linear motion.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: I08.02 Describe the structure of the maculae and their function in static equilibrium.
HAPS Objective: I08.03 Describe the structure of the crista ampullaris and its function in dynamic equilibrium.
HAPS Topic: Module I08 Role of the ear in equilibrium.
Learning Outcome: 07.08
Section: 07.08
Topic: Gross anatomy of the ear
Topic: Physiology of equilibrium

  1. When you turn your head to the left to look over your left shoulder, the hairs in the cupula of the horizontal semicircular canals will be bent to the left.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 3. Apply
HAPS Objective: I05.01 Identify the hearing structures of the outer, middle and inner ear.
HAPS Objective: I08.03 Describe the structure of the crista ampullaris and its function in dynamic equilibrium.
HAPS Topic: Module I05 General gross and microscopic anatomy of the hearing and accessory structures of the ear.
HAPS Topic: Module I08 Role of the ear in equilibrium.
Learning Outcome: 07.08
Section: 07.08
Topic: Physiology of equilibrium

  1. Olfactory receptors are neurons.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: I03.02 Explain how odorants activate olfactory receptors.
HAPS Objective: I03.03 Describe the path of nerve impulses from the olfactory receptors to various parts of the brain.
HAPS Topic: Module I03 Olfactory receptors and their role in smell.
Learning Outcome: 07.09
Section: 07.09
Topic: Olfactory receptors and their role in smell

 

 

  1. Opponent color ganglion cells that respond to blue light by increasing their rate of firing will respond to yellow light by decreasing their rate of firing.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: I01.01 Identify the accessory eye structures, the tunics, the optical components and the neural components of the eye.
HAPS Objective: I02.02 Trace the path of light as it passes through the eye to the retina and the path of nerve impulses from the retina to various parts of the brain.
HAPS Objective: I02.03 Describe the structure of the retina and the cells that compose it.
HAPS Topic: Module I01 Gross and microscopic anatomy of the eye.
HAPS Topic: Module I02 Roles of specific tissues of the eye in vision.
Learning Outcome: 07.06
Section: 07.06
Topic: Physiology of vision

 

 Multiple Choice Questions

  1. What category of receptors do Pacinian corpuscles belong to?
    A. mechanoreceptors
    B.  chemoreceptors
    C.  nociceptors
    D.  photoreceptors

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: E04.01b With respect to the following – sweat glands (eccrine and apocrine), sebaceous glands, nails, hair (follicle and arrector pili muscle), and sensory receptors (Merkel cell, Meissner’s and Pacinian corpuscles, hair follicle receptor, and temperature receptors), describe the location of each structure in the body.
HAPS Objective: H06.02 Describe each of the following types of receptors, indicating what sensation it detects and giving an example of where it can be found in the body- pain receptors (nociceptors), temperature receptors, mechanoreceptors (including proprioceptors and barorceptors/pressoreceptors), chemoreceptors, and photoreceptors.
HAPS Topic: Module E04 Anatomy and functional roles of accessory structures
HAPS Topic: Module H06 Sensory receptors and their roles.
Learning Outcome: 07.05
Section: 07.05
Topic: Introduction to sensory receptors

 

 

  1. What category do hair cells in the organ of Corti belong to?
    A. mechanoreceptors
    B.  chemoreceptors
    C.  nociceptors
    D.  photoreceptors
    E.  proprioceptors

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H06.02 Describe each of the following types of receptors, indicating what sensation it detects and giving an example of where it can be found in the body- pain receptors (nociceptors), temperature receptors, mechanoreceptors (including proprioceptors and barorceptors/pressoreceptors), chemoreceptors, and photoreceptors.
HAPS Objective: I05.01 Identify the hearing structures of the outer, middle and inner ear.
HAPS Objective: I06.01 Describe how the various structures of the outer, middle and inner ear function in hearing.
HAPS Topic: Module H06 Sensory receptors and their roles.
HAPS Topic: Module I05 General gross and microscopic anatomy of the hearing and accessory structures of the ear.
HAPS Topic: Module I06 Roles of specific tissues of the ear in hearing.
Learning Outcome: 07.07
Section: 07.07
Topic: Physiology of hearing

  1. Cone cells belong to what category of sensory receptors?
    A. mechanoreceptors
    B.  chemoreceptors
    C.  nociceptors
    D.  photoreceptors
    E.  proprioceptors

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H06.02 Describe each of the following types of receptors, indicating what sensation it detects and giving an example of where it can be found in the body- pain receptors (nociceptors), temperature receptors, mechanoreceptors (including proprioceptors and barorceptors/pressoreceptors), chemoreceptors, and photoreceptors.
HAPS Objective: I02.03 Describe the structure of the retina and the cells that compose it.
HAPS Objective: I02.04 Describe how light activates photoreceptors.
HAPS Topic: Module H06 Sensory receptors and their roles.
HAPS Topic: Module I02 Roles of specific tissues of the eye in vision.
Learning Outcome: 07.06
Section: 07.06
Topic: Physiology of vision

 

 

  1. In what category of sensory receptors are the receptor cells in taste buds?
    A. mechanoreceptors
    B.  chemoreceptors
    C.  nociceptors
    D.  photoreceptors
    E.  proprioceptors

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H06.02 Describe each of the following types of receptors, indicating what sensation it detects and giving an example of where it can be found in the body- pain receptors (nociceptors), temperature receptors, mechanoreceptors (including proprioceptors and barorceptors/pressoreceptors), chemoreceptors, and photoreceptors.
HAPS Objective: I04.02 Explain how dissolved chemicals activate gustatory receptors.
HAPS Topic: Module H06 Sensory receptors and their roles.
HAPS Topic: Module I04 Gustatory receptors and their role in taste.
Learning Outcome: 07.09
Section: 07.09
Topic: Gustatory receptors and their role in taste

  1. Of which categories of receptor types are nociceptors?
    A. mechanoreceptors and photoreceptors
    B.  chemoreceptors and proprioceptors
    C.  mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors
    D.  chemoreceptors and photoreceptors

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H06.02 Describe each of the following types of receptors, indicating what sensation it detects and giving an example of where it can be found in the body- pain receptors (nociceptors), temperature receptors, mechanoreceptors (including proprioceptors and barorceptors/pressoreceptors), chemoreceptors, and photoreceptors.
HAPS Topic: Module H06 Sensory receptors and their roles.
Learning Outcome: 07.05
Section: 07.05
Topic: Introduction to sensory receptors

 

 

  1. Hair cells in semicircular canals are
    A. mechanoreceptors.
    B.  chemoreceptors.
    C.  nociceptors.
    D.  photoreceptors.
    E.  audioreceptors.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: H06.02 Describe each of the following types of receptors, indicating what sensation it detects and giving an example of where it can be found in the body- pain receptors (nociceptors), temperature receptors, mechanoreceptors (including proprioceptors and barorceptors/pressoreceptors), chemoreceptors, and photoreceptors.
HAPS Objective: I08.03 Describe the structure of the crista ampullaris and its function in dynamic equilibrium.
HAPS Topic: Module H06 Sensory receptors and their roles.
HAPS Topic: Module I08 Role of the ear in equilibrium.
Learning Outcome: 07.08
Section: 07.08
Topic: Physiology of equilibrium

 

Reviews

There are no reviews yet.

Be the first to review “Vander’s Human Physiology 14th Edition by Eric P. Widmaier Dr. -Test Bank”

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *