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Understanding Statistics In the Behavioral Sciences 9th Edition by Robert R. Pagano Test Bank
Chapter 2—Basic Mathematical and Measurement Concepts
MULTIPLE CHOICE
 Given the following subjects and scores, which symbol would be used to represent the score of 3?
Subject  1  2  3  4  5 
Score  12  21  8  3  30 
a.  X_{8} 
b.  X_{4} 
c.  X_{3} 
d.  X_{2} 
ANS: B PTS: 1 MSC: WWW
 We have collected the following data:
X_{1} = 6, X_{2} = 2, X_{3} = 4, X_{4} = 1, X_{5} = 3
For these data, is equal to ____.
a.  16 
b.  10 
c.  7 
d.  13 
ANS: D PTS: 1 MSC: WWW
 Reaction time in seconds is an example of a(n) ____ scale.
a.  ratio 
b.  ordinal 
c.  interval 
d.  nominal 
ANS: A PTS: 1
 After performing several clever calculations on your calculator, the display shows the answer 53.655001. What is the appropriate value rounded to two decimal places?
a.  53.65 
b.  53.66 
c.  53.64 
d.  53.60 
ANS: B PTS: 1
 Consider the following points on a scale:
If the scale upon which A, B, C, and D are arranged is a nominal scale, we can say ____.
a.  B = 2A 
b.  B – A = D – C 
c.  both a and b 
d.  neither a nor b 
ANS: D PTS: 1
 When rounded to two decimal places, the number 3.175000 becomes ____.
a.  3.17 
b.  3.20 
c.  3.18 
d.  3.10 
ANS: C PTS: 1 MSC: WWW
Exhibit 21
Given the following data:
X_{1} = 1, X_{2} = 4, X_{3} = 5, X_{4} = 8, X_{5} = 10
 Refer to Exhibit 21. Evaluate S X.
a.  1 
b.  18 
c.  27 
d.  28 
ANS: D PTS: 1
 Refer to Exhibit 21. Evaluate S X^{2}.
a.  56 
b.  784 
c.  206 
d.  28 
ANS: C PTS: 1
 Refer to Exhibit 21. Evaluate (S X)^{2}.
a.  56 
b.  784 
c.  206 
d.  28 
ANS: B PTS: 1
 Refer to Exhibit 21. Evaluate .
a.  17 
b.  27 
c.  28 
d.  23 
ANS: A PTS: 1
 Refer to Exhibit 21. Evaluate .
a.  53 
b.  47 
c.  48 
d.  32 
ANS: D PTS: 1
 Refer to Exhibit 21. Evaluate .
a.  47 
b.  53 
c.  48 
d.  32 
ANS: A PTS: 1
 A discrete scale of measurement ____.
a.  is the same as a continuous scale 
b.  provides exact measurements 
c.  necessarily uses whole numbers 
d.  b and c 
ANS: B PTS: 1
 Consider the following points on a scale:
If the scale upon which A, B, C, and D are arranged is an interval scale, we can say ____.
a.  B = 2A 
b.  B – A = D – C 
c.  both a and b 
d.  neither a nor b 
ANS: B PTS: 1 MSC: WWW
 The number 83.476499 rounded to three decimal places is ____.
a.  83.477 
b.  83.480 
c.  83.476 
d.  83.470 
ANS: C PTS: 1
 The number 99.44650 rounded to two decimal places is ____.
a.  99.45 
b.  99.46 
c.  99.44 
d.  99.40 
ANS: A PTS: 1
 “Brand of soft drink” is measured on a(n) ____.
a.  nominal scale 
b.  ordinal scale 
c.  interval scale 
d.  ratio scale 
ANS: A PTS: 1
 At the annual sailing regatta, prizes are awarded for 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th place. These “places” comprise a(n) ____.
a.  nominal scale 
b.  ordinal scale 
c.  interval scale 
d.  ratio scale 
ANS: B PTS: 1
 Which of the following numbers is rounded incorrectly to two decimal places?
a.  10.47634 ® 10.48 
b.  15.36485 ® 15.36 
c.  21.47500 ® 21.47 
d.  8.24501 ® 8.25 
e.  6.66500 ® 6.66 
ANS: C PTS: 1
 Consider the following points on a scale:
If the scale upon which points A, B, C, and D are shown is an ordinal scale, we can meaningfully say ____.
a.  B – A < D – C 
b.  B < C/2 
c.  B = 2A 
d.  C > B 
ANS: D PTS: 1
 A continuous scale of measurement is different than a discrete scale in that a continuous scale ____.
a.  is an interval scale, not a ratio scale 
b.  never provides exact measurements 
c.  can take an infinite number of intermediate possible values 
d.  never uses decimal numbers 
e.  b and c 
ANS: E PTS: 1
 Sex of children is an example of a(n) ____ scale.
a.  ratio 
b.  nominal 
c.  ordinal 
d.  interval 
ANS: B PTS: 1
 Which of the following variables has been labeled with an incorrect measuring scale?
a.  the number of students in a psychology class – ratio 
b.  ranking in a beauty contest – ordinal 
c.  finishing order in a poetry contest – ordinal 
d.  selfrating of anxiety level by students in a statistics class – ratio 
ANS: D PTS: 1
 A nutritionist uses a scale that measures weight to the nearest 0.01 grams. A slice of cheese weighs 0.35 grams on the scale. The variable being measured is a ____.
a.  discrete variable 
b.  constant 
c.  continuous variable 
d.  random variable 
ANS: C PTS: 1
 A nutritionist uses a scale that measures weight to the nearest 0.01 grams. A slice of cheese weighs 0.35 grams on the scale. The true weight of the cheese ____.
a.  is 0.35 grams 
b.  may be anywhere in the range 0.3450.355 grams 
c.  may be anywhere in the range 0.340.35 grams 
d.  may be anywhere in the range 0.340.36 grams 
ANS: B PTS: 1
 In a 10mile crosscountry race, all runners are randomly assigned an identification number. These numbers represent a(n) ____.
a.  nominal scale 
b.  ratio scale 
c.  interval scale 
d.  ordinal scale 
ANS: A PTS: 1
 In a 10mile crosscountry race, a comparison of each runner’s finishing time would represent a(n) ____.
a.  nominal scale 
b.  ratio scale 
c.  interval scale 
d.  ordinal scale 
ANS: B PTS: 1
 The sum of a distribution of 40 scores is 150. If we add a constant of 5 to each score, the resulting sum will be ____.
a.  158 
b.  350 
c.  150 
d.  195 
ANS: B PTS: 1
Exhibit 22
Given the following set of numbers:
X_{1} = 2, X_{2} = 4, X_{3} = 6, X_{4} = 10
 Refer to Exhibit 22. What is the value for S X?
a.  12 
b.  156 
c.  480 
d.  22 
ANS: D PTS: 1
 Refer to Exhibit 22. What is the value of S X^{2}?
a.  156 
b.  22 
c.  480 
d.  37 
ANS: A PTS: 1 MSC: WWW
 Refer to Exhibit 22. What is the value of X_{4}^{2}?
a.  4 
b.  6 
c.  100 
d.  10 
ANS: C PTS: 1
 Refer to Exhibit 22. What is the value of (S X)^{2}?
a.  480 
b.  484 
c.  156 
d.  44 
ANS: B PTS: 1
 Refer to Exhibit 22. What is the value of N?
a.  2 
b.  4 
c.  6 
d.  10 
ANS: B PTS: 1
 Refer to Exhibit 22. What is the value of (S X)/N?
a.  5 
b.  4 
c.  6 
d.  5.5 
ANS: D PTS: 1
 Classifying subjects on the basis of sex is an example of using what kind of scale?
a.  nominal 
b.  ordinal 
c.  interval 
d.  ratio 
e.  bathroom 
ANS: A PTS: 1 MSC: WWW
 Number of bar presses is an example of a(n) ____ variable.
a.  discrete 
b.  continuous 
c.  nominal 
d.  ordinal 
ANS: A PTS: 1
 Using an ordinal scale to assess leadership, which of the following statements is appropriate?
a.  A has twice as much leadership ability as B 
b.  X has no leadership ability 
c.  Y has the most leadership ability 
d.  all of the above 
ANS: C PTS: 1
 The number of legs on a centipede is an example of a(n) ____ scale.
a.  nominal 
b.  ordinal 
c.  ratio 
d.  continuous 
ANS: C PTS: 1
 What are the real limits of the observation of 6.1 seconds (measured to the nearest second)?
a.  6.05–6.15 
b.  5.5–6.5 
c.  6.0–6.2 
d.  6.00–6.20 
ANS: A PTS: 1 MSC: WWW
 What is 17.295 rounded to one decimal place?
a.  17.1 
b.  17.0 
c.  17.2 
d.  17. 
ANS: D PTS: 1
 What is the value of 0.05 rounded to one decimal place?
a.  0.0 
b.  0.1 
c.  0.2 
d.  0.5 
ANS: A PTS: 1
 The symbol “S” means:
a.  add the scores 
b.  summarize the data 
c.  square the value 
d.  multiply the scores 
ANS: A PTS: 1
 A therapist measures the difference between two clients. If the therapist can say that Rebecca’s score is higher than Sarah’s, but can’t specify how much higher, the measuring scale used must have been a(n) ____ scale.
a.  nominal 
b.  ordinal 
c.  interval 
d.  ratio 
ANS: B PTS: 1 MSC: WWW
 An individual is measuring various objects. If the measurements made are to determine into which of six categories each object belongs, the measuring scale used must have been a(n)____ scale.
a.  nominal 
b.  ordinal 
c.  interval 
d.  ratio 
ANS: A PTS: 1 MSC: WWW
 If an investigator determines that Carlo’s score is five times as large as the score of Juan, the measuring scale used must have been a(n) ____ scale.
a.  nominal 
b.  ordinal 
c.  interval 
d.  ratio 
ANS: D PTS: 1 MSC: WWW
The following problem(s) are for your own use in evaluating your skills at elementary algebra. If you do not get all the problem(s) correct you should probably review your algebra.
 Where 3X = 9, what is the value of X?
a.  3 
b.  6 
c.  9 
d.  12 
ANS: A PTS: 1
 For X + Y = Z, X equals ____.
a.  Y + Z 
b.  Z – Y 
c.  Z/Y 
d.  Y/Z 
ANS: B PTS: 1
 1/X + 2/X equals ____.
a.  2/X 
b.  3/2X 
c.  3/X 
d.  2/X^{2} 
ANS: C PTS: 1
 What is (4 – 2)(3×4)/(6/3)?
a.  24 
b.  1.3 
c.  12 
d.  6 
ANS: C PTS: 1
 6 + 4´3 – 1 simplified is ____.
a.  29 
b.  48 
c.  71 
d.  17 
ANS: D PTS: 1
 X = Y/Z can be expressed as ____.
a.  Y = (Z)(X) 
b.  X = Z/Y 
c.  Y = X/Z 
d.  Z = X + Y 
ANS: A PTS: 1
 2^{4} equals ____.
a.  4 
b.  32 
c.  8 
d.  16 
ANS: D PTS: 1
 equals ____.
a.  ±3 
b.  ±81 
c.  ±9 
d.  ±27 
ANS: C PTS: 1
 X(Z + Y) equals ____.
a.  XZ + Y 
b.  ZX + YX 
c.  (X)(Y)(Z) 
d.  (Z + Y)/X 
ANS: B PTS: 1
 1/2 + 1/4 equals ____.
a.  1/6 
b.  1/8 
c.  2/8 
d.  3/4 
ANS: D PTS: 1
 X^{6}/X^{2} equals ____.
a.  X^{8} 
b.  X^{4} 
c.  X^{2} 
d.  X^{3} 
ANS: B PTS: 1
TRUE/FALSE
 When doing summation, the number above the summation sign indicates the term ending the summation and the number below indicates the beginning term.
ANS: T PTS: 1 MSC: WWW
 S X^{2} and (S X)^{2} generally yield the same answer.
ANS: F PTS: 1 MSC: WWW
 With nominal scales there is a numerical relationship between the units of the scale.
ANS: F PTS: 1
 If IQ was measured on a ratio scale, and John had an IQ of 40 and Fred an IQ of 80, it would be correct to say that Fred was twice as intelligent as John.
ANS: T PTS: 1
 An ordinal scale possesses the attributes of magnitude and equal interval.
ANS: F PTS: 1
 Most scales used for measuring psychological variables are either ratio or interval.
ANS: F PTS: 1
 Measurement is always approximate with a continuous variable.
ANS: T PTS: 1 MSC: WWW
 It is standard practice to carry all intermediate calculations to four more decimal places than will be reported in the final answer.
ANS: F PTS: 1
 In rounding, if the remainder beyond the last digit is greater than 1/2, add one to the last digit. If the remainder is less than 1/2, leave the last digit as it is.
ANS: T PTS: 1
 It is legitimate to do ratios with interval scaling.
ANS: F PTS: 1
 The number of students in a class is an example of a continuous variable.
ANS: F PTS: 1
 The real limits of a discrete variable are those values that are above and below the recorded value by one half of the smallest measuring unit of the scale.
ANS: F PTS: 1
 When rounding, if the decimal remainder is equal to 1/2 and the last digit of the answer is even, add 1 to the last digit of the answer.
ANS: F PTS: 1
 A fundamental property of a nominal scale is equivalence.
ANS: T PTS: 1
 An interval scale is like a ratio scale, except that the interval scale doesn’t possess an absolute zero point.
ANS: T PTS: 1
 A discrete variable requires nominal or interval scaling.
ANS: T PTS: 1 MSC: WWW
 Classifying students into whether they are good, fair, or poor speakers is an example of ordinal scaling.
ANS: T PTS: 1
 Determining the number of students in each section of introductory psychology involves the use of a ratio scale.
ANS: T PTS: 1 MSC: WWW
 In a race, Sam came in first and Fred second. Determining the difference in time to complete the race between Sam and Fred involves an ordinal scale
ANS: F PTS: 1
 If the remainder of a number = 1/2, we always round the last digit up.
ANS: F PTS: 1
DEFINITIONS
 Define continuous variable.
ANS:
Answer not provided.
PTS: 1 MSC: WWW
 Define discrete variable.
ANS:
Answer not provided.
PTS: 1
 Define interval scale.
ANS:
Answer not provided.
PTS: 1
 Define nominal scale.
ANS:
Answer not provided.
PTS: 1
 Define ratio scale.
ANS:
Answer not provided.
PTS: 1 MSC: WWW
 Define real limits of a continuous variable.
ANS:
Answer not provided.
PTS: 1
SHORT ANSWER
 How does an interval scale differ from an ordinal scale?
ANS:
Answer not provided.
PTS: 1
 Give two differences between continuous and discrete scales.
ANS:
Answer not provided.
PTS: 1
 What are the four types of scales and what mathematical operations can be done with each?
ANS:
Answer not provided.
PTS: 1
 Prove algebraically that .
ANS:
Answer not provided.
PTS: 1
 What is a discrete variable? Give an example.
ANS:
Answer not provided.
PTS: 1
 Student A claims that because his IQ is twice that of Student B, he is twice as smart as Student B. Is student A correct? Explain.
ANS:
Answer not provided.
PTS: 1
 What is meant by “the real limits of a continuous variable.”
ANS:
Answer not provided.
PTS: 1 MSC: WWW
 The faculty of a psychology department are trying to decide between three candidates for a single faculty position. The department chairperson suggests that to decide, each faculty person should rank order the candidates from 1 to 3, and the ranks would then be averaged. The candidate with the highest average would be offered the position. Mathematically, what is wrong with that proposal?
ANS:
Answer not provided.
PTS: 1 MSC: WWW
Chapter 16—Introduction to TwoWay Analysis of Variance
MULTIPLE CHOICE
 A significant interaction effect occurs when ____.
a.  there are no main effects 
b.  variable A has a main effect and variable B does not 
c.  the combined effects of variables A and B yield an unexpected effect 
d.  none of the above 
ANS: C PTS: 1
 The null hypothesis for the twoway ANOVA asserts that ____.
a.  the withincells variance estimate is an estimate of s^{2} 
b.  
c.  
d.  
e.  all of the above 
f.  b, c and d 
ANS: F PTS: 1
 Which of the following increase(s) as the effect of the A variable increases?
a.  s_{R}^{2} 
b.  s_{C}^{2} 
c.  s_{W}^{2} 
d.  s_{RC}^{2} 
ANS: A PTS: 1
 Which of the following increase(s) as the effect of the B variable increases?
a.  s_{R}^{2} 
b.  s_{C}^{2} 
c.  s_{W}^{2} 
d.  s_{RC}^{2} 
ANS: B PTS: 1
 Which of the following increase(s) as the interaction effect increases?
a.  s_{R}^{2} 
b.  s_{C}^{2} 
c.  s_{W}^{2} 
d.  s_{RC}^{2} 
ANS: D PTS: 1
 If the null hypothesis is correct, which of the following is (are) an estimate of s^{2}?
a.  s_{R}^{2} 
b.  s_{C}^{2} 
c.  s_{W}^{2} 
d.  s_{RC}^{2} 
e.  all of the above 
ANS: E PTS: 1
 If there are no main effects, then ____.
a.  s_{C}^{2}/s_{W}^{2} is less than F_{crit} 
b.  s_{R}^{2}/s_{W}^{2} is less than F_{crit} 
c.  s_{RC}^{2}/s_{W}^{2} is less than F_{crit} 
d.  a and b 
e.  b and c 
ANS: D PTS: 1
 If the A variable has a real effect, ____.
a.  s_{C}^{2}/s_{W}^{2} must equal or exceed F_{crit} 
b.  s_{R}^{2}/s_{W}^{2} must equal or exceed F_{crit} 
c.  it is possible that s_{C}^{2}/s_{W}^{2} is less than F_{crit} 
d.  it is possible that s_{R}^{2}/s_{W}^{2} is less than F_{crit} 
ANS: B PTS: 1
 A main effect for variable A means that ____.
a.  the effect of variable A is the same over all levels of variable B 
b.  the effect of variable A is significant when averaged over all levels of variable B 
c.  the effect of variable A is not the same over all levels of variable B 
d.  variable A has a greater effect than variable B 
ANS: B PTS: 1
 The twoway analysis of variance ____.
a.  assesses the effects of two independent variables in one experiment 
b.  allows an assessment of the interaction between two independent variables 
c.  results in calculation of three F ratio’s 
d.  all of the above 
e.  a and b 
ANS: D PTS: 1
 Which of the following are called “main effects” in a twoway analysis of variance?
a.  the effect of Factor A 
b.  the effect of Factor B 
c.  the interaction of Factors A and B 
d.  all of the above 
e.  a and b 
ANS: E PTS: 1
 In a twoway ANOVA, if there is a significant interaction between Factor A and Factor B, which of the following may be true?
a.  the effect of Factor A is not the same at all levels of Factor B 
b.  the effect of Factor B is not the same at all levels of Factor A 
c.  the effects of the two Factors do not differ across levels 
d.  a and/or b 
e.  need more information 
ANS: D PTS: 1
 The row variance estimate s_{R}^{2} and the column variance estimate s_{C}^{2} are used to measure ____.
a.  the main effects of the independent variables 
b.  the interaction effects of the independent variables 
c.  a and b 
d.  none of the above 
ANS: A PTS: 1
Exhibit 161
An investigator collects the following data on variables A and B, using a twoway independent groups design. Use a = .05 in analyzing the data.
Variable B  
Variable A  (1)  (2)  (3) 
(1) 
10
12 14 18 17 
13
15 17 22 16 
15
19 20 25 19 
(2) 
15
17 19 23 20 
18
19 22 27 21 
26
30 31 36 29 
 Refer to Exhibit 161. F_{obt} for the A variable equals ____.
a.  2.66 
b.  16.34 
c.  29.11 
d.  11.23 
ANS: C PTS: 1
 Refer to Exhibit 161. F_{obt} for the B variable equals ____.
a.  2.66 
b.  16.34 
c.  29.11 
d.  11.23 
ANS: B PTS: 1
 Refer to Exhibit 161. F_{obt} for the interaction equals ____.
a.  2.66 
b.  16.34 
c.  29.11 
d.  11.23 
ANS: A PTS: 1
 Refer to Exhibit 161. F_{crit} for the A variable equals ____.
a.  3.40 
b.  7.82 
c.  5.81 
d.  4.26 
ANS: D PTS: 1
 Refer to Exhibit 161. F_{crit} for the B variable equals ____.
a.  3.40 
b.  7.82 
c.  5.81 
d.  4.26 
ANS: A PTS: 1
 Refer to Exhibit 161. F_{crit} for the interaction equals ____.
a.  3.40 
b.  7.82 
c.  5.81 
d.  4.26 
ANS: A PTS: 1
 Refer to Exhibit 161. The conclusion regarding the A variable is ____.
a.  retain H_{0}; chance is a reasonable explanation 
b.  reject H_{0}; there is a significant main effect for variable A 
c.  accept H_{0}; variable A has no real effect 
d.  reject H_{0}; chance is a reasonable explanation 
ANS: B PTS: 1
 Refer to Exhibit 161. The conclusion regarding the B variable is ____.
a.  reject H_{0}; variable B has no effect 
b.  retain H_{0}; chance is a reasonable explanation 
c.  reject H_{0}; there is a significant main effect for variable B 
d.  accept H_{0}; chance is a reasonable explanation 
ANS: C PTS: 1
 Refer to Exhibit 161. The conclusion regarding the interaction is ____.
a.  retain H_{0}; chance is a reasonable explanation 
b.  accept H_{0}; chance is a reasonable explanation 
c.  reject H_{0}; there is a significant interaction between variables A and B 
d.  reject H_{0}; there is no interaction between variables A and B 
ANS: A PTS: 1
 The twoway analysis of variance ____.
a.  assesses the effects of two independent variables in one experiment 
b.  allows an assessment of the interaction between two independent variables 
c.  results in calculation of three F ratios 
d.  all of the above 
e.  a and b 
ANS: D PTS: 1
 Which of the following are called “main effects” in a twoway analysis of variance?
a.  the effect of Factor A 
b.  the effect of Factor B 
c.  the interaction of Factors A and B 
d.  all of the above 
e.  a and b 
ANS: E PTS: 1
 In a twoway ANOVA, if there is a significant interaction between Factor A and Factor B, which of the following may be true?
a.  the effect of Factor A is not the same at all levels of Factor B 
b.  the effect of Factor B is not the same at all levels of Factor A 
c.  the effects of the two Factors do not differ across levels 
d.  a and/or b 
e.  need more information 
ANS: D PTS: 1
 The row variance estimate s_{R}^{2} and the column variance estimate s_{C}^{2} are used to measure ____.
a.  the main effects of the independent variables 
b.  the interaction effects of the independent variables 
c.  a and b 
d.  none of the above 
ANS: A PTS: 1
Exhibit 162
Use the following data, collected from an independent groups design. a = 0.05.
 Refer to Exhibit 162. The value of F_{obt} for evaluating the row effect is ____.
a.  0.66 
b.  6.23 
c.  0.29 
d.  5.28 
ANS: A PTS: 1 MSC: WWW
 Refer to Exhibit 162. The value of F_{crit} for evaluating the row effect is ____.
a.  3.40 
b.  7.82 
c.  4.26 
d.  5.61 
ANS: C PTS: 1 MSC: WWW
 Refer to Exhibit 162. The conclusion regarding the main effect of variable A is ____.
a.  Retain H_{0}; We cannot conclude variable A has main effect. 
b.  Accept H_{0}; We cannot conclude variable A has main effect. 
c.  Reject H_{0}; Variable A has a significant main effect. 
d.  Reject H_{0}; Variable A has no effect. 
ANS: A PTS: 1 MSC: WWW
 Refer to Exhibit 162. The value of F_{obt} for evaluating the column effect is ____.
a.  0.66 
b.  6.23 
c.  0.29 
d.  5.28 
ANS: B PTS: 1 MSC: WWW
 Refer to Exhibit 162. The value of F_{crit} for evaluating the column effect is ____.
a.  3.40 
b.  7.82 
c.  4.26 
d.  5.61 
ANS: A PTS: 1 MSC: WWW
 Refer to Exhibit 162. The conclusion regarding the main effect of variable B is ____.
a.  Retain H_{0}; We cannot conclude variable B has main effect. 
b.  Accept H_{0}; We cannot conclude variable B has main effect. 
c.  Reject H_{0}; Variable B has a significant main effect. 
d.  Reject H_{0}; Variable B has no effect. 
ANS: C PTS: 1 MSC: WWW
 Refer to Exhibit 162. The value of F_{obt} for evaluating the row ´ column effect is ____.
a.  0.66 
b.  6.23 
c.  0.29 
d.  5.28 
ANS: C PTS: 1 MSC: WWW
 Refer to Exhibit 162. The value of F_{crit} for evaluating the row ´ column effect is ____.
a.  3.40 
b.  7.82 
c.  4.26 
d.  5.61 
ANS: A PTS: 1 MSC: WWW
 Refer to Exhibit 162. The conclusion regarding the interaction effect of variables A and B is ____.
a.  Retain H_{0}; We cannot conclude there is a significant interaction 
b.  Accept H_{0}; There is no interaction effect between A and B 
c.  Reject H_{0}; There is a significant interaction effect 
d.  Reject H_{0}; There is no interaction effect between A and B 
ANS: A PTS: 1 MSC: WWW
 Consider the following graphic results from a 2 ´ 2 factorial experiment. These results show ____.
a.  there are no significant main effects or interaction effects 
b.  there is a significant main effect for factor A, no other significant effects 
c.  there is a significant main effect for factor B, no other significant effects 
d.  there is a significant interaction effect, no other significant effects 
ANS: B PTS: 1
 Consider the following graphic results from a 2 ´ 2 factorial experiment. These results show ____.
a.  there are no significant main effects or interaction effects 
b.  there is a significant main effect for factor A, no other significant effects 
c.  there is a significant main effect for factor B, no other significant effects 
d.  there is a significant interaction effect, no other significant effects 
ANS: C PTS: 1
 Consider the following graphic results from a 2 ´ 2 factorial experiment. These results show ____.
a.  there are no significant main effects or interaction effects 
b.  there is a significant main effect for factor A, no other significant effects 
c.  there is a significant main effect for factor B, no other significant effects 
d.  there is a significant interaction effect, no other significant effects 
ANS: A PTS: 1
 Consider the following graphic results from a 2 ´ 2 factorial experiment. These results show ____.
a.  there are no significant main effects or interaction effects 
b.  there is a significant main effect for factor A, no other significant effects 
c.  there is a significant main effect for factor B, no other significant effects 
d.  there is a significant interaction effect, no other significant effects 
ANS: D PTS: 1
 Consider the following graphic results from a 2 ´ 2 factorial experiment. These results show ____.
a.  there is a significant main effect for factor A, no other significant effects 
b.  there is a significant main effect for factor B, no other significant effects 
c.  there is a significant interaction effect, no other significant effects 
d.  there is a significant main effect for factor A, a significant interaction effect, and no other significant effects 
e.  there is a significant main effect for factor B, a significant interaction effect, and no other significant effects 
ANS: D PTS: 1 MSC: WWW
 How many variance estimates are there in a 2 ´ 2 factorial design?
a.  1 
b.  2 
c.  3 
d.  4 
ANS: D PTS: 1
 Consider the following graphic results from a 2 ´ 2 factorial experiment.
Would you think there is a significant A ´ B interaction?
a.  yes 
b.  no, it is not possible to have a significant interaction in a 2 ´ 2 factorial experiment. 
c.  no, the lines should be parallel for a significant interaction 
ANS: A PTS: 1
 Which of the following are not true statements?
a.  The main effect of factor A is the effect of factor A averaged over the levels of factor B. 
b.  The main effect of factor B is the effect of factor B averaged over the levels of factor A. 
c.  An interaction effect occurs when the effect of one factor is the same for all levels of the other factor. 
d.  All of the above statements are false. 
ANS: C PTS: 1
 In the oneway ANOVA, the withingroups variance estimate is like ____ in twoway ANOVA.
a.  the row variance estimate 
b.  the withincells variance estimate 
c.  the column variance estimate 
d.  the row ´ column variance estimate 
ANS: B PTS: 1
Exhibit 163
Refer to the following twoway ANOVA summary table.
Source  SS  df  s^{2}  F_{obt} 
Rows
Columns Rows ´ Columns Within cells Total 
450.5
116.4 2.3
829.6 
2
1 2
29 
116.40 1.15

0.11 
 Refer to Exhibit 163. What is the value for SS within cells?
a.  160.4 
b.  260.4 
c.  250.4 
d.  150.4 
ANS: B PTS: 1
 Refer to Exhibit 163. What is the value for df within cells?
a.  2 
b.  1 
c.  34 
d.  24 
ANS: D PTS: 1
 Refer to Exhibit 163. What is the value for s^{2} for Rows?
a.  225.25 
b.  450.5 
c.  225.50 
d.  9.39 
ANS: A PTS: 1
 Refer to Exhibit 163. What is the value for s^{2} within cells?
a.  260.4 
b.  130.2 
c.  10.85 
d.  8.98 
ANS: C PTS: 1
 Refer to Exhibit 163. What is the value of F_{obt} for Rows?
a.  20.76 
b.  195.87 
c.  1.94 
d.  22.53 
ANS: A PTS: 1
 Refer to Exhibit 163. What is the value of F_{obt} for Columns?
a.  11.64 
b.  10.73 
c.  4.85 
d.  4.01 
ANS: B PTS: 1
TRUE/FALSE
 In twoway ANOVA, SS_{T} is partitioned into SS_{R}, SS_{W}, SS_{C} and SS_{RC}.
ANS: T PTS: 1 MSC: WWW
 The withincells variance estimate measures treatment effects.
ANS: F PTS: 1 MSC: WWW
 The row variance estimate does not change as the effect of the independent variable increases.
ANS: F PTS: 1
 The column variance estimate increases as the effect of the independent variable increases.
ANS: T PTS: 1
 A significant interaction effect occurs when the effects of one of the variables is not the same at all levels of the other variable.
ANS: T PTS: 1 MSC: WWW
 Differences among cell means are used to assess the interaction effect.
ANS: T PTS: 1 MSC: WWW
 Differences among row means are used to assess the interaction effect.
ANS: F PTS: 1
 Differences among column means are used to assess the main effect of one of the variables
ANS: T PTS: 1 MSC: WWW
 SS_{W} for oneway ANOVA and SS_{W} for twoway ANOVA are conceptually similar.
ANS: T PTS: 1
 SS_{B} for oneway ANOVA is conceptually similar to SS_{R} and SS_{C} for twoway ANOVA.
ANS: T PTS: 1
 SS_{T} = SS_{R} + SS_{C} + SS_{W}
ANS: F PTS: 1
 It is not possible to have a significant interaction effect unless one of the variables also has a significant main effect.
ANS: F PTS: 1
 A “mean square” is the same thing as a “variance estimate”.
ANS: T PTS: 1
 The homogeneity of variance assumption assumes the population scores from which each of the samples are drawn are normally distributed.
ANS: F PTS: 1
 A two factor experiment yields no more information than two single factor experiments.
ANS: F PTS: 1
 A factorial experiment is one in which the effect of two or more factors is assessed in one experiment.
ANS: T PTS: 1
 In a twoway ANOVA, there are three possible main effects and one interaction.
ANS: F PTS: 1
 In a twoway ANOVA, it is possible to have significant main effects without a significant interaction.
ANS: T PTS: 1
 If there is an interaction between the variables of “activity level” and “time of day,” this means that activity level does not have the same effect at different times of day.
ANS: T PTS: 1
DEFINITIONS
 Define column degrees of freedom (df_{C}).
ANS:
Answer not provided.
PTS: 1
 Define column sum of squares (SS_{C}).
ANS:
Answer not provided.
PTS: 1
 Define column variance estimate (s_{C}^{2}).
ANS:
Answer not provided.
PTS: 1
 Define factorial experiment.
ANS:
Answer not provided.
PTS: 1
 Define interaction effect.
ANS:
Answer not provided.
PTS: 1 MSC: WWW
 Define main effect.
ANS:
Answer not provided.
PTS: 1 MSC: WWW
 Define row degrees of freedom (df_{R}).
ANS:
Answer not provided.
PTS: 1
 Define row sum of squares (SS_{R}).
ANS:
Answer not provided.
PTS: 1
 Define row ´ column degrees of freedom (df_{RC}).
ANS:
Answer not provided.
PTS: 1
 Define row ´ column sum of squares (SS_{RC}).
ANS:
Answer not provided.
PTS: 1
 Define row ´ column variance estimate (s_{RC}^{2}).
ANS:
Answer not provided.
PTS: 1
 Define row variance estimate (s_{R}^{2}).
ANS:
Answer not provided.
PTS: 1
 Define twoway analysis of variance.
ANS:
Answer not provided.
PTS: 1
 Define withincells degrees of freedom (df_{W}).
ANS:
Answer not provided.
PTS: 1
 Define withincells sum of squares (SS_{W}).
ANS:
Answer not provided.
PTS: 1
 Define withincells variance estimate (s_{W}^{2}).
ANS:
Answer not provided.
PTS: 1
SHORT ANSWER
 In the twoway ANOVA, what is a main effect? What is an interaction?
ANS:
Answer not provided.
PTS: 1
 What is a factorial experiment?
ANS:
Answer not provided.
PTS: 1
 What are the advantages of twoway ANOVA as compared to oneway ANOVA?
ANS:
Answer not provided.
PTS: 1
 In a twoway ANOVA, how many F values are computed; what are they?
ANS:
Answer not provided.
PTS: 1
 In a twoway ANOVA, which variance estimate is a measure of s^{2} alone (no treatment effects)? Explain.
ANS:
Answer not provided.
PTS: 1
 Although not covered in the textbook, generalizing from oneway ANOVA, identify four variables, other than beta, that affect power, and state how power is affected by increases in each. (Remember there are two independent variables, not just one.)
ANS:
Answer not provided.
PTS: 1 MSC: WWW
 In a twoway ANOVA, the total sum of squares is partitioned into several different sums of squares. What are they?
ANS:
Answer not provided.
PTS: 1
 What are the assumptions underlying twoway ANOVA?
ANS:
Answer not provided.
PTS: 1
 One of the poorer students in your class insists that there is a direct relationship between s_{W}^{2} and the size of real effect. Is he correct? Explain.
ANS:
Answer not provided.
PTS: 1 MSC: WWW
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