# Understanding Statistics In the Behavioral Sciences 9th Edition by Robert R. Pagano -Test Bank

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#### Understanding Statistics In the Behavioral Sciences 9th Edition by Robert R. Pagano -Test Bank

Chapter 2—Basic Mathematical and Measurement Concepts

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Given the following subjects and scores, which symbol would be used to represent the score of 3?

 Subject 1 2 3 4 5 Score 12 21 8 3 30

 a. X8 b. X4 c. X3 d. X2

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    MSC:  WWW

1. We have collected the following data:

X1 = 6, X2 = 2, X3 = 4, X4 = 1, X5 = 3

For these data,  is equal to ____.

 a. 16 b. 10 c. 7 d. 13

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    MSC:  WWW

1. Reaction time in seconds is an example of a(n) ____ scale.
 a. ratio b. ordinal c. interval d. nominal

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

1. After performing several clever calculations on your calculator, the display shows the answer 53.655001. What is the appropriate value rounded to two decimal places?
 a. 53.65 b. 53.66 c. 53.64 d. 53.6

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

1. Consider the following points on a scale:

If the scale upon which A, B, C, and D are arranged is a nominal scale, we can say ____.

 a. B = 2A b. B – A = D – C c. both a and b d. neither a nor b

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

1. When rounded to two decimal places, the number 3.175000 becomes ____.
 a. 3.17 b. 3.2 c. 3.18 d. 3.1

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    MSC:  WWW

Exhibit 2-1

Given the following data:

X1 = 1, X2 = 4, X3 = 5, X4 = 8, X5 = 10

1. Refer to Exhibit 2-1. Evaluate S X.
 a. 1 b. 18 c. 27 d. 28

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

1. Refer to Exhibit 2-1. Evaluate S X2.
 a. 56 b. 784 c. 206 d. 28

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

1. Refer to Exhibit 2-1. Evaluate (S X)2.
 a. 56 b. 784 c. 206 d. 28

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

1. Refer to Exhibit 2-1. Evaluate .
 a. 17 b. 27 c. 28 d. 23

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

1. Refer to Exhibit 2-1. Evaluate .
 a. 53 b. 47 c. 48 d. 32

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

1. Refer to Exhibit 2-1. Evaluate .
 a. 47 b. 53 c. 48 d. 32

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

1. A discrete scale of measurement ____.
 a. is the same as a continuous scale b. provides exact measurements c. necessarily uses whole numbers d. b and c

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

1. Consider the following points on a scale:

If the scale upon which A, B, C, and D are arranged is an interval scale, we can say ____.

 a. B = 2A b. B – A = D – C c. both a and b d. neither a nor b

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    MSC:  WWW

1. The number 83.476499 rounded to three decimal places is ____.
 a. 83.477 b. 83.48 c. 83.476 d. 83.47

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

1. The number 99.44650 rounded to two decimal places is ____.
 a. 99.45 b. 99.46 c. 99.44 d. 99.4

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

1. “Brand of soft drink” is measured on a(n) ____.
 a. nominal scale b. ordinal scale c. interval scale d. ratio scale

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

1. At the annual sailing regatta, prizes are awarded for 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th place. These “places” comprise a(n) ____.
 a. nominal scale b. ordinal scale c. interval scale d. ratio scale

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

1. Which of the following numbers is rounded incorrectly to two decimal places?
 a. 10.47634 ® 10.48 b. 15.36485 ® 15.36 c. 21.47500 ® 21.47 d. 8.24501 ®   8.25 e. 6.66500 ®   6.66

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

1. Consider the following points on a scale:

If the scale upon which points A, B, C, and D are shown is an ordinal scale, we can meaningfully say ____.

 a. B – A < D – C b. B < C/2 c. B = 2A d. C > B

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

1. A continuous scale of measurement is different than a discrete scale in that a continuous scale ____.
 a. is an interval scale, not a ratio scale b. never provides exact measurements c. can take an infinite number of intermediate possible values d. never uses decimal numbers e. b and c

ANS:  E                    PTS:   1

1. Sex of children is an example of a(n) ____ scale.
 a. ratio b. nominal c. ordinal d. interval

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

1. Which of the following variables has been labeled with an incorrect measuring scale?
 a. the number of students in a psychology class – ratio b. ranking in a beauty contest – ordinal c. finishing order in a poetry contest – ordinal d. self-rating of anxiety level by students in a statistics class – ratio

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

1. A nutritionist uses a scale that measures weight to the nearest 0.01 grams. A slice of cheese weighs 0.35 grams on the scale. The variable being measured is a ____.
 a. discrete variable b. constant c. continuous variable d. random variable

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

1. A nutritionist uses a scale that measures weight to the nearest 0.01 grams. A slice of cheese weighs 0.35 grams on the scale. The true weight of the cheese ____.
 a. is 0.35 grams b. may be anywhere in the range 0.345-0.355 grams c. may be anywhere in the range 0.34-0.35 grams d. may be anywhere in the range 0.34-0.36 grams

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

1. In a 10-mile cross-country race, all runners are randomly assigned an identification number. These numbers represent a(n) ____.
 a. nominal scale b. ratio scale c. interval scale d. ordinal scale

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

1. In a 10-mile cross-country race, a comparison of each runner’s finishing time would represent a(n) ____.
 a. nominal scale b. ratio scale c. interval scale d. ordinal scale

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

1. The sum of a distribution of 40 scores is 150. If we add a constant of 5 to each score, the resulting sum will be ____.
 a. 158 b. 350 c. 150 d. 195

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

Exhibit 2-2

Given the following set of numbers:

X1 = 2, X2 = 4, X3 = 6, X4 = 10

1. Refer to Exhibit 2-2. What is the value for S X?
 a. 12 b. 156 c. 480 d. 22

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

1. Refer to Exhibit 2-2. What is the value of S X2?
 a. 156 b. 22 c. 480 d. 37

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    MSC:  WWW

1. Refer to Exhibit 2-2. What is the value of X42?
 a. 4 b. 6 c. 100 d. 10

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

1. Refer to Exhibit 2-2. What is the value of (S X)2?
 a. 480 b. 484 c. 156 d. 44

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

1. Refer to Exhibit 2-2. What is the value of N?
 a. 2 b. 4 c. 6 d. 10

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

1. Refer to Exhibit 2-2. What is the value of (S X)/N?
 a. 5 b. 4 c. 6 d. 5.5

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

1. Classifying subjects on the basis of sex is an example of using what kind of scale?
 a. nominal b. ordinal c. interval d. ratio e. bathroom

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    MSC:  WWW

1. Number of bar presses is an example of a(n) ____ variable.
 a. discrete b. continuous c. nominal d. ordinal

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

1. Using an ordinal scale to assess leadership, which of the following statements is appropriate?
 a. A has twice as much leadership ability as B b. X has no leadership ability c. Y has the most leadership ability d. all of the above

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

1. The number of legs on a centipede is an example of a(n) ____ scale.
 a. nominal b. ordinal c. ratio d. continuous

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

1. What are the real limits of the observation of 6.1 seconds (measured to the nearest second)?
 a. 6.05–6.15 b. 5.5–6.5 c. 6.0–6.2 d. 6.00–6.20

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    MSC:  WWW

1. What is 17.295 rounded to one decimal place?
 a. 17.1 b. 17 c. 17.2 d. 17

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

1. What is the value of 0.05 rounded to one decimal place?
 a. 0 b. 0.1 c. 0.2 d. 0.5

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

1. The symbol “S” means:
 a. add the scores b. summarize the data c. square the value d. multiply the scores

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

1. A therapist measures the difference between two clients. If the therapist can say that Rebecca’s score is higher than Sarah’s, but can’t specify how much higher, the measuring scale used must have been a(n) ____ scale.
 a. nominal b. ordinal c. interval d. ratio

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    MSC:  WWW

1. An individual is measuring various objects. If the measurements made are to determine into which of six categories each object belongs, the measuring scale used must have been a(n)____ scale.
 a. nominal b. ordinal c. interval d. ratio

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    MSC:  WWW

1. If an investigator determines that Carlo’s score is five times as large as the score of Juan, the measuring scale used must have been a(n) ____ scale.
 a. nominal b. ordinal c. interval d. ratio

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    MSC:  WWW

The following problem(s) are for your own use in evaluating your skills at elementary algebra. If you do not get all the problem(s) correct you should probably review your algebra.

1. Where 3X = 9, what is the value of X?
 a. 3 b. 6 c. 9 d. 12

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

1. For X + Y = Z, X equals ____.
 a. Y + Z b. Z – Y c. Z/Y d. Y/Z

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

1. 1/X + 2/X equals ____.
 a. 2/X b. 3/2X c. 3/X d. 2/X2

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

1. What is (4 – 2)(3×4)/(6/3)?
 a. 24 b. 1.3 c. 12 d. 6

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

1. 6 + 4´3 – 1 simplified is ____.
 a. 29 b. 48 c. 71 d. 17

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

1. X = Y/Z can be expressed as ____.
 a. Y = (Z)(X) b. X = Z/Y c. Y = X/Z d. Z = X + Y

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

1. 24 equals ____.
 a. 4 b. 32 c. 8 d. 16

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

1.  equals ____.
 a. ±3 b. ±81 c. ±9 d. ±27

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

1. X(Z + Y) equals ____.
 a. XZ + Y b. ZX + YX c. (X)(Y)(Z) d. (Z + Y)/X

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

1. 1/2 + 1/4 equals ____.
 a. 1/6 b. 1/8 c. 2/8 d. 3/4

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

1. X6/X2 equals ____.
 a. X8 b. X4 c. X2 d. X3

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

TRUE/FALSE

1. When doing summation, the number above the summation sign indicates the term ending the summation and the number below indicates the beginning term.

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    MSC:  WWW

1. S X2 and (S X)2 generally yield the same answer.

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    MSC:  WWW

1. With nominal scales there is a numerical relationship between the units of the scale.

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

1. If IQ was measured on a ratio scale, and John had an IQ of 40 and Fred an IQ of 80, it would be correct to say that Fred was twice as intelligent as John.

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

1. An ordinal scale possesses the attributes of magnitude and equal interval.

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

1. Most scales used for measuring psychological variables are either ratio or interval.

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

1. Measurement is always approximate with a continuous variable.

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    MSC:  WWW

1. It is standard practice to carry all intermediate calculations to four more decimal places than will be reported in the final answer.

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

1. In rounding, if the remainder beyond the last digit is greater than 1/2, add one to the last digit. If the remainder is less than 1/2, leave the last digit as it is.

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

1. It is legitimate to do ratios with interval scaling.

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

1. The number of students in a class is an example of a continuous variable.

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

1. The real limits of a discrete variable are those values that are above and below the recorded value by one half of the smallest measuring unit of the scale.

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

1. When rounding, if the decimal remainder is equal to 1/2 and the last digit of the answer is even, add 1 to the last digit of the answer.

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

1. A fundamental property of a nominal scale is equivalence.

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

1. An interval scale is like a ratio scale, except that the interval scale doesn’t possess an absolute zero point.

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

1. A discrete variable requires nominal or interval scaling.

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    MSC:  WWW

1. Classifying students into whether they are good, fair, or poor speakers is an example of ordinal scaling.

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

1. Determining the number of students in each section of introductory psychology involves the use of a ratio scale.

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    MSC:  WWW

1. In a race, Sam came in first and Fred second. Determining the difference in time to complete the race between Sam and Fred involves an ordinal scale

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

1. If the remainder of a number = 1/2, we always round the last digit up.

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

DEFINITIONS

1. Define continuous variable.

ANS:

PTS:   1                    MSC:  WWW

1. Define discrete variable.

ANS:

PTS:   1

1. Define interval scale.

ANS:

PTS:   1

1. Define nominal scale.

ANS:

PTS:   1

1. Define ratio scale.

ANS:

PTS:   1                    MSC:  WWW

1. Define real limits of a continuous variable.

ANS:

PTS:   1

1. How does an interval scale differ from an ordinal scale?

ANS:

PTS:   1

1. Give two differences between continuous and discrete scales.

ANS:

PTS:   1

1. What are the four types of scales and what mathematical operations can be done with each?

ANS:

PTS:   1

1. Prove algebraically that .

ANS:

PTS:   1

1. What is a discrete variable? Give an example.

ANS:

PTS:   1

1. Student A claims that because his IQ is twice that of Student B, he is twice as smart as Student B. Is student A correct? Explain.

ANS:

PTS:   1

1. What is meant by “the real limits of a continuous variable.”

ANS:

PTS:   1                    MSC:  WWW

1. The faculty of a psychology department are trying to decide between three candidates for a single faculty position. The department chairperson suggests that to decide, each faculty person should rank order the candidates from 1 to 3, and the ranks would then be averaged. The candidate with the highest average would be offered the position. Mathematically, what is wrong with that proposal?

ANS:

PTS:   1                    MSC:  WWW

Chapter 16—Introduction to Two-Way Analysis of Variance

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. A significant interaction effect occurs when ____.
 a. there are no main effects b. variable A has a main effect and variable B does not c. the combined effects of variables A and B yield an unexpected effect d. none of the above

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

1. The null hypothesis for the two-way ANOVA asserts that ____.
 a. the within-cells variance estimate is an estimate of s2 b. c. d. e. all of the above f. b, c and d

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

1. Which of the following increase(s) as the effect of the A variable increases?
 a. sR2 b. sC2 c. sW2 d. sRC2

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

1. Which of the following increase(s) as the effect of the B variable increases?
 a. sR2 b. sC2 c. sW2 d. sRC2

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

1. Which of the following increase(s) as the interaction effect increases?
 a. sR2 b. sC2 c. sW2 d. sRC2

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

1. If the null hypothesis is correct, which of the following is (are) an estimate of s2?
 a. sR2 b. sC2 c. sW2 d. sRC2 e. all of the above

ANS:  E                    PTS:   1

1. If there are no main effects, then ____.
 a. sC2/sW2 is less than Fcrit b. sR2/sW2 is less than Fcrit c. sRC2/sW2 is less than Fcrit d. a and b e. b and c

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

1. If the A variable has a real effect, ____.
 a. sC2/sW2 must equal or exceed Fcrit b. sR2/sW2 must equal or exceed Fcrit c. it is possible that sC2/sW2 is less than Fcrit d. it is possible that sR2/sW2 is less than Fcrit

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

1. A main effect for variable A means that ____.
 a. the effect of variable A is the same over all levels of variable B b. the effect of variable A is significant when averaged over all levels of variable B c. the effect of variable A is not the same over all levels of variable B d. variable A has a greater effect than variable B

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

1. The two-way analysis of variance ____.
 a. assesses the effects of two independent variables in one experiment b. allows an assessment of the interaction between two independent variables c. results in calculation of three F ratio’s d. all of the above e. a and b

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

1. Which of the following are called “main effects” in a two-way analysis of variance?
 a. the effect of Factor A b. the effect of Factor B c. the interaction of Factors A and B d. all of the above e. a and b

ANS:  E                    PTS:   1

1. In a two-way ANOVA, if there is a significant interaction between Factor A and Factor B, which of the following may be true?
 a. the effect of Factor A is not the same at all levels of Factor B b. the effect of Factor B is not the same at all levels of Factor A c. the effects of the two Factors do not differ across levels d. a and/or b e. need more information

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

1. The row variance estimate sR2 and the column variance estimate sC2 are used to measure ____.
 a. the main effects of the independent variables b. the interaction effects of the independent variables c. a and b d. none of the above

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

Exhibit 16-1

An investigator collects the following data on variables A and B, using a two-way independent groups design. Use a = .05 in analyzing the data.

 Variable B Variable A (1) (2) (3) (1) 10 12 14 18 17 13 15 17 22 16 15 19 20 25 19 (2) 15 17 19 23 20 18 19 22 27 21 26 30 31 36 29

1. Refer to Exhibit 16-1. Fobt for the A variable equals ____.
 a. 2.66 b. 16.34 c. 29.11 d. 11.23

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

1. Refer to Exhibit 16-1. Fobt for the B variable equals ____.
 a. 2.66 b. 16.34 c. 29.11 d. 11.23

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

1. Refer to Exhibit 16-1. Fobt for the interaction equals ____.
 a. 2.66 b. 16.34 c. 29.11 d. 11.23

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

1. Refer to Exhibit 16-1. Fcrit for the A variable equals ____.
 a. 3.4 b. 7.82 c. 5.81 d. 4.26

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

1. Refer to Exhibit 16-1. Fcrit for the B variable equals ____.
 a. 3.4 b. 7.82 c. 5.81 d. 4.26

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

1. Refer to Exhibit 16-1. Fcrit for the interaction equals ____.
 a. 3.4 b. 7.82 c. 5.81 d. 4.26

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

1. Refer to Exhibit 16-1. The conclusion regarding the A variable is ____.
 a. retain H0; chance is a reasonable explanation b. reject H0; there is a significant main effect for variable A c. accept H0; variable A has no real effect d. reject H0; chance is a reasonable explanation

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

1. Refer to Exhibit 16-1. The conclusion regarding the B variable is ____.
 a. reject H0; variable B has no effect b. retain H0; chance is a reasonable explanation c. reject H0; there is a significant main effect for variable B d. accept H0; chance is a reasonable explanation

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

1. Refer to Exhibit 16-1. The conclusion regarding the interaction is ____.
 a. retain H0; chance is a reasonable explanation b. accept H0; chance is a reasonable explanation c. reject H0; there is a significant interaction between variables A and B d. reject H0; there is no interaction between variables A and B

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

1. The two-way analysis of variance ____.
 a. assesses the effects of two independent variables in one experiment b. allows an assessment of the interaction between two independent variables c. results in calculation of three F ratios d. all of the above e. a and b

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

1. Which of the following are called “main effects” in a two-way analysis of variance?
 a. the effect of Factor A b. the effect of Factor B c. the interaction of Factors A and B d. all of the above e. a and b

ANS:  E                    PTS:   1

1. In a two-way ANOVA, if there is a significant interaction between Factor A and Factor B, which of the following may be true?
 a. the effect of Factor A is not the same at all levels of Factor B b. the effect of Factor B is not the same at all levels of Factor A c. the effects of the two Factors do not differ across levels d. a and/or b e. need more information

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

1. The row variance estimate sR2 and the column variance estimate sC2 are used to measure ____.
 a. the main effects of the independent variables b. the interaction effects of the independent variables c. a and b d. none of the above

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

Exhibit 16-2

Use the following data, collected from an independent groups design. a = 0.05.

1. Refer to Exhibit 16-2. The value of Fobt for evaluating the row effect is ____.
 a. 0.66 b. 6.23 c. 0.29 d. 5.28

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    MSC:  WWW

1. Refer to Exhibit 16-2. The value of Fcrit for evaluating the row effect is ____.
 a. 3.4 b. 7.82 c. 4.26 d. 5.61

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    MSC:  WWW

1. Refer to Exhibit 16-2. The conclusion regarding the main effect of variable A is ____.
 a. Retain H0; We cannot conclude variable A has main effect. b. Accept H0; We cannot conclude variable A has main effect. c. Reject H0; Variable A has a significant main effect. d. Reject H0; Variable A has no effect.

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    MSC:  WWW

1. Refer to Exhibit 16-2. The value of Fobt for evaluating the column effect is ____.
 a. 0.66 b. 6.23 c. 0.29 d. 5.28

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    MSC:  WWW

1. Refer to Exhibit 16-2. The value of Fcrit for evaluating the column effect is ____.
 a. 3.4 b. 7.82 c. 4.26 d. 5.61

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    MSC:  WWW

1. Refer to Exhibit 16-2. The conclusion regarding the main effect of variable B is ____.
 a. Retain H0; We cannot conclude variable B has main effect. b. Accept H0; We cannot conclude variable B has main effect. c. Reject H0; Variable B has a significant main effect. d. Reject H0; Variable B has no effect.

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    MSC:  WWW

1. Refer to Exhibit 16-2. The value of Fobt for evaluating the row ´ column effect is ____.
 a. 0.66 b. 6.23 c. 0.29 d. 5.28

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    MSC:  WWW

1. Refer to Exhibit 16-2. The value of Fcrit for evaluating the row ´ column effect is ____.
 a. 3.4 b. 7.82 c. 4.26 d. 5.61

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    MSC:  WWW

1. Refer to Exhibit 16-2. The conclusion regarding the interaction effect of variables A and B is ____.
 a. Retain H0; We cannot conclude there is a significant interaction b. Accept H0; There is no interaction effect between A and B c. Reject H0; There is a significant interaction effect d. Reject H0; There is no interaction effect between A and B

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    MSC:  WWW

1. Consider the following graphic results from a 2 ´ 2 factorial experiment. These results show ____.

 a. there are no significant main effects or interaction effects b. there is a significant main effect for factor A, no other significant effects c. there is a significant main effect for factor B, no other significant effects d. there is a significant interaction effect, no other significant effects

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

1. Consider the following graphic results from a 2 ´ 2 factorial experiment. These results show ____.

 a. there are no significant main effects or interaction effects b. there is a significant main effect for factor A, no other significant effects c. there is a significant main effect for factor B, no other significant effects d. there is a significant interaction effect, no other significant effects

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

1. Consider the following graphic results from a 2 ´ 2 factorial experiment. These results show ____.

 a. there are no significant main effects or interaction effects b. there is a significant main effect for factor A, no other significant effects c. there is a significant main effect for factor B, no other significant effects d. there is a significant interaction effect, no other significant effects

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

1. Consider the following graphic results from a 2 ´ 2 factorial experiment. These results show ____.

 a. there are no significant main effects or interaction effects b. there is a significant main effect for factor A, no other significant effects c. there is a significant main effect for factor B, no other significant effects d. there is a significant interaction effect, no other significant effects

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

1. Consider the following graphic results from a 2 ´ 2 factorial experiment. These results show ____.

 a. there is a significant main effect for factor A, no other significant effects b. there is a significant main effect for factor B, no other significant effects c. there is a significant interaction effect, no other significant effects d. there is a significant main effect for factor A, a significant interaction effect, and no other significant effects e. there is a significant main effect for factor B, a significant interaction effect, and no other significant effects

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    MSC:  WWW

1. How many variance estimates are there in a 2 ´ 2 factorial design?
 a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d. 4

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

1. Consider the following graphic results from a 2 ´ 2 factorial experiment.

Would you think there is a significant A ´ B interaction?

 a. yes b. no, it is not possible to have a significant interaction in a 2 ´ 2 factorial experiment. c. no, the lines should be parallel for a significant interaction

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

1. Which of the following are not true statements?
 a. The main effect of factor A is the effect of factor A averaged over the levels of factor B. b. The main effect of factor B is the effect of factor B averaged over the levels of factor A. c. An interaction effect occurs when the effect of one factor is the same for all levels of the other factor. d. All of the above statements are false.

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

1. In the one-way ANOVA, the within-groups variance estimate is like ____ in two-way ANOVA.
 a. the row variance estimate b. the within-cells variance estimate c. the column variance estimate d. the row ´ column variance estimate

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

Exhibit 16-3

Refer to the following two-way ANOVA summary table.

 Source SS df s2 Fobt Rows Columns Rows ´ Columns Within cells Total 450.5 116.4 2.3   829.6 2 1 2   29 116.40 1.15 0.11

1. Refer to Exhibit 16-3. What is the value for SS within cells?
 a. 160.4 b. 260.4 c. 250.4 d. 150.4

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

1. Refer to Exhibit 16-3. What is the value for df within cells?
 a. 2 b. 1 c. 34 d. 24

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

1. Refer to Exhibit 16-3. What is the value for s2 for Rows?
 a. 225.25 b. 450.5 c. 225.5 d. 9.39

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

1. Refer to Exhibit 16-3. What is the value for s2 within cells?
 a. 260.4 b. 130.2 c. 10.85 d. 8.98

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

1. Refer to Exhibit 16-3. What is the value of Fobt for Rows?
 a. 20.76 b. 195.87 c. 1.94 d. 22.53

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

1. Refer to Exhibit 16-3. What is the value of Fobt for Columns?
 a. 11.64 b. 10.73 c. 4.85 d. 4.01

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

TRUE/FALSE

1. In two-way ANOVA, SST is partitioned into SSR, SSW, SSC and SSRC.

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    MSC:  WWW

1. The within-cells variance estimate measures treatment effects.

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    MSC:  WWW

1. The row variance estimate does not change as the effect of the independent variable increases.

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

1. The column variance estimate increases as the effect of the independent variable increases.

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

1. A significant interaction effect occurs when the effects of one of the variables is not the same at all levels of the other variable.

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    MSC:  WWW

1. Differences among cell means are used to assess the interaction effect.

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    MSC:  WWW

1. Differences among row means are used to assess the interaction effect.

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

1. Differences among column means are used to assess the main effect of one of the variables

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    MSC:  WWW

1. SSW for one-way ANOVA and SSW for two-way ANOVA are conceptually similar.

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

1. SSB for one-way ANOVA is conceptually similar to SSR and SSC for two-way ANOVA.

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

1. SST = SSR + SSC + SSW

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

1. It is not possible to have a significant interaction effect unless one of the variables also has a significant main effect.

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

1. A “mean square” is the same thing as a “variance estimate”.

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

1. The homogeneity of variance assumption assumes the population scores from which each of the samples are drawn are normally distributed.

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

1. A two factor experiment yields no more information than two single factor experiments.

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

1. A factorial experiment is one in which the effect of two or more factors is assessed in one experiment.

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

1. In a two-way ANOVA, there are three possible main effects and one interaction.

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

1. In a two-way ANOVA, it is possible to have significant main effects without a significant interaction.

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

1. If there is an interaction between the variables of “activity level” and “time of day,” this means that activity level does not have the same effect at different times of day.

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

DEFINITIONS

1. Define column degrees of freedom (dfC).

ANS:

PTS:   1

1. Define column sum of squares (SSC).

ANS:

PTS:   1

1. Define column variance estimate (sC2).

ANS:

PTS:   1

1. Define factorial experiment.

ANS:

PTS:   1

1. Define interaction effect.

ANS:

PTS:   1                    MSC:  WWW

1. Define main effect.

ANS:

PTS:   1                    MSC:  WWW

1. Define row degrees of freedom (dfR).

ANS:

PTS:   1

1. Define row sum of squares (SSR).

ANS:

PTS:   1

1. Define row ´ column degrees of freedom (dfRC).

ANS:

PTS:   1

1. Define row ´ column sum of squares (SSRC).

ANS:

PTS:   1

1. Define row ´ column variance estimate (sRC2).

ANS:

PTS:   1

1. Define row variance estimate (sR2).

ANS:

PTS:   1

1. Define two-way analysis of variance.

ANS:

PTS:   1

1. Define within-cells degrees of freedom (dfW).

ANS:

PTS:   1

1. Define within-cells sum of squares (SSW).

ANS:

PTS:   1

1. Define within-cells variance estimate (sW2).

ANS:

PTS:   1

1. In the two-way ANOVA, what is a main effect? What is an interaction?

ANS:

PTS:   1

1. What is a factorial experiment?

ANS:

PTS:   1

1. What are the advantages of two-way ANOVA as compared to one-way ANOVA?

ANS:

PTS:   1

1. In a two-way ANOVA, how many F values are computed; what are they?

ANS:

PTS:   1

1. In a two-way ANOVA, which variance estimate is a measure of s2 alone (no treatment effects)? Explain.

ANS:

PTS:   1

1. Although not covered in the textbook, generalizing from one-way ANOVA, identify four variables, other than beta, that affect power, and state how power is affected by increases in each. (Remember there are two independent variables, not just one.)

ANS:

PTS:   1                    MSC:  WWW

1. In a two-way ANOVA, the total sum of squares is partitioned into several different sums of squares. What are they?

ANS:

PTS:   1

1. What are the assumptions underlying two-way ANOVA?

ANS:

PTS:   1

1. One of the poorer students in your class insists that there is a direct relationship between sW2 and the size of real effect. Is he correct? Explain.

ANS: