Understanding Food Principles and Preparation 5th Edition Amy Christine Brown – Test Bank

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Understanding Food Principles and Preparation 5th Edition Amy Christine Brown – Test Bank

Test Bank[1] for Chapter 3 – Chemistry of Food Composition

 

Key to question information: ANS = correct answer; DIF = question difficulty; REF = page reference

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. The basic nutrients that comprise all foods and are necessary for the nutritional health of people are
  2. water, amino acids, fatty acids, sugars, vitamins, and minerals.
  3. proteins, fats, and carbohydrates.
  4. water, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids.
  5. proteins, vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, and amino acids.
  6. water, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.

 

ANS: e       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 31

 

  1. The physiological purpose of eating and drinking is to replace those nutrients used up
  2. in the body’s maintenance.
  3. in the body’s repair.
  4. in the body’s growth.
  5. as energy.
  6. all of the above answers are correct

 

ANS: e       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 31

 

  1. The building blocks of organic material include carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen plus
  2. chromium, manganese, and iron.
  3. nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur.
  4. copper, zinc, molybdenum, and selenium.
  5. magnesium, potassium, and calcium.

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 32

 

  1. The caloric contribution of foods is dependent on the amounts of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and alcohol in the food. Protein provides _____ kcal/g, fats provide _____, carbohydrates provide _____, and alcohol provides _____.
  2. 4, 4, 9, 7
  3. 7, 9, 6, 10
  4. 4, 7, 9, 10
  5. 4, 9, 4, 7

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 32

 

  1. The human body averages _____ percent water.
  2. 20 to 40
  3. 40 to 50
  4. 50 to 60
  5. 60 to 70

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 32|33

 

  1. Which of the following statements about bound water is false?
  2. Bound water is the most abundant form of water present in foods.
  3. Bound water is not easily removed and is resistant to freezing and drying.
  4. Bound water is not readily available to act as a medium for dissolving salts, acids, or sugars.
  5. Bound water is incorporated into the chemical structure of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins.

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 33

 

  1. Which of the following foods contains the highest percentage of water?
  2. butter
  3. peanut butter
  4. Swiss cheese
  5. baked potato
  6. cooked hamburger

 

ANS: d       DIF: Application-based                        REF: 33

 

  1. The energy value of food is measured in _____ of calories.
  2. tens
  3. hundreds
  4. thousands
  5. ten thousands

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 34

 

  1. _____ dictates whether a substance is a solid, liquid, or gas.
  2. Specific heat
  3. Molecular movement
  4. Freezing point
  5. Heat of solidification

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 34

 

  1. In foods, water has several functions, the two most important functions being
  2. transferring energy and dissolving lipids.
  3. transferring nutrients and serving as a universal solvent.
  4. transferring heat and serving as a solvent.
  5. retaining heat and dissolving vitamins and minerals.
  6. retaining nutrients and dissolving carbohydrates and minerals.

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 36

 

  1. The amount of energy in calories per gram that is absorbed or emitted as a substance undergoes a change from a solid to a liquid or gas is called
  2. latent heat.
  3. specific heat.
  4. melting point.
  5. heat of vaporization.
  6. heat of solidification.

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 35

 

  1. Increasing the elevation
  2. decreases the boiling point of water.
  3. increases the boiling point of water.
  4. increases the boiling point 1 degree F for every 500-feet increase in altitude.
  5. does not affect the boiling point of water.

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 35

 

  1. A pressure cooker speeds up heating time by _____.
  2. decreasing atmospheric pressure to five pounds
  3. decreasing the boiling point by ten degrees
  4. increasing atmospheric pressure to fifteen pounds
  5. increasing the boiling point by twenty degrees

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 35

 

  1. Hard water contains a greater concentration of calcium and magnesium compounds, whereas soft water has a higher _____ concentration.
  2. sodium
  3. potassium
  4. chloride
  5. copper

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 35

 

  1. Which of the following food items is/are not a colloidal dispersion?
  2. salad dressings
  3. jam, gelatin, cheese, and butter
  4. whipped egg white and whipped cream foams
  5. marshmallows
  6. all of the above are colloidal dispersions

 

ANS: e       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 37

 

  1. Which of the following food items is an example of a suspension?
  2. milk
  3. egg yolk
  4. cornstarch mixed in water
  5. oil mixed with vinegar
  6. ice cream

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 37

 

  1. A process in which colloid particles come out of suspension and solidify is called
  2. suspension.
  3. flocculation.
  4. ionization.
  5. salt formation.
  6. none of the above answers is correct

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 37

 

  1. Which of the following is not an example of hydrolysis?
  2. Hydrolysis of glucose to sucrose and maltose.
  3. Hydrolysis of maltose to two glucose molecules.
  4. Hydrolysis of cornstarch to yield corn syrup.
  5. Hydrolysis of table sugar to another sugar helpful in the manufacture of candy.

 

ANS: a       DIF: Application-based                        REF: 38-39|42

 

  1. Which of the following substances is/are not used in the food industry to reduce a food’s water activity (aw) level?
  2. salt and sugar
  3. glycerol
  4. propylene glycol
  5. modified corn syrups
  6. All of these substances are used by the food industry for this purpose.

 

ANS: e       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 39

 

  1. As free water within a food decreases,
  2. so does water activity.
  3. water activity increases.
  4. water activity remains constant.
  5. bacterial growth increases as a result.

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 39

 

  1. The primary six-carbon monosaccharides in foods are
  2. sucrose, maltose, and lactose.
  3. sucrose, glucose, and galactose.
  4. glucose, raffinose, and sucrose.
  5. glucose, fructose, and galactose.
  6. lactose, stachyose, and raffinose.

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 41

 

  1. The primary disaccharides found in foods are
  2. sucrose, maltose, and lactose.
  3. sucrose, glucose, and galactose.
  4. glucose, raffinose, and sucrose.
  5. glucose, fructose, and galactose.
  6. lactose, stachyose, and raffinose.

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 42

 

  1. Which of the following polysaccharides is/are digestible?
  2. inulin
  3. pectin and gums
  4. amylose and amylopectin
  5. cellulose and hemicellulose

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 41|43

 

  1. Which of the following is a function of the gum carrageenan in desserts?
  2. binder
  3. improves mouthfeel
  4. controls syneresis
  5. all of the above answers are correct

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 46|59

 

  1. As plants like celery and carrots mature, their cell walls increase in _____ concentration, resulting in a tough, stringy texture.
  2. cellulose
  3. gums
  4. hemicellulose
  5. lignin
  6. pectin
  7. all of the above answers are correct

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 47

 

  1. The difference between fats and oils is based on
  2. solubility in water and melting temperature.
  3. consistency (liquid or solid) at room temperature and source.
  4. the fatty acid content and the percentage of unsaturates.
  5. the number of unsaturated bonds and the alcohol to which they are attached.

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 47

 

  1. Which of the following foods has the lowest degree of saturation?
  2. avocado
  3. chocolate
  4. coconut oil
  5. palm oil
  6. cheese
  7. vegetable shortening

 

ANS: a       DIF: Application-based                        REF: 48

 

  1. Which of the following foods are good examples of predominately monounsaturated fats?
  2. almonds, pecans, and walnuts
  3. peanuts and peanut butter
  4. corn and canola oils
  5. milk, butter, and cheese

 

ANS: b       DIF: Application-based                        REF: 48

 

  1. The two essential fatty acids are
  2. butyric and histidine.
  3. linoleic and linolenic.
  4. leucine and isoleucine.
  5. threonine and tryptophan.

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 49

 

  1. Which of the following foods contains phospholipids?
  2. egg yolks
  3. liver
  4. soybeans
  5. wheat germ
  6. peanuts
  7. all of the above answers are correct
  8. none of the above answers is correct

 

ANS: f        DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 49

 

  1. Which of the following proteins is classified as incomplete?
  2. amaranth
  3. quinoa
  4. soybeans
  5. wheat berries

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 51

 

  1. The key difference in carbohydrate or lipid versus protein composition is the presence of _____ in proteins.
  2. hydrogen
  3. carbon
  4. oxygen
  5. nitrogen

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 51

 

  1. Which of the following reactions is not a function of protein during food preparation?
  2. hydration
  3. denaturation and coagulation
  4. buffering
  5. browning
  6. all of the above are protein functions

 

ANS: e       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 53

 

  1. The definition of protein complementation is
  2. an increase in the effectiveness of two complete proteins when combined.
  3. the combination of two incomplete protein foods to yield a complete protein profile.
  4. any combination of nonessential amino acids that make a complete protein.
  5. the supplementation of the diet with a complete protein source.

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 51

 

  1. Which of the following enzymes is/are used for meat tenderization?
  2. rennin, also known as chymosin
  3. phenol oxidase
  4. glucose oxidase
  5. papain, bromelain, and ficin

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 54

 

  1. Certain vitamins and one of the minerals function in foods to:
  2. provide energy when the foods are consumed.
  3. reduce microbial growth by increasing water activity.
  4. delay deterioration during storage by inhibiting oxidation.
  5. facilitate chemical reactions when enzymes are lacking.

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 57

 

  1. Which of the following foods has/have been enriched?
  2. wheat flour or rice with thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and iron
  3. milk with vitamins A and D
  4. orange juice with calcium
  5. cereals with folate
  6. all of the above answers are correct

 

ANS: a       DIF: Application-based                        REF: 57

 

 

True/False

 

  1. You are what you eat.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 31

 

  1. The most important of all the nutrients is water.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 32

 

  1. The perishability of a food is related to the water activity of the food.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 39

 

  1. Starch is a polysaccharide that does not provide energy to the body.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 32|42

 

  1. Fiber is an oligosaccharide that does provide energy to the body.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 42|44

 

  1. Approximately 95% of all food lipids are triglycerides.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 47

 

  1. The sterol of least significance in food is cholesterol.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 49

 

  1. Most of the complete proteins come from animals; exceptions are those from soybeans and certain grains.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 51

 

  1. The presence of a broad spectrum of colors in food makes it more appetizing.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 58

 

  1. Phytochemicals are plant compounds that have possible anti-carcinogenic properties.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 60-61

 

  1. Caffeine belongs to a group of compounds called oligosaccharides.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 42|61

 

 

Matching

 

Definition choices:

  1. compounds that are not normally soluble in water.
  2. inorganic elements that play vital roles in body processes.
  3. class of energy nutrients for which half of the compounds required to make them must be obtained from the diet.
  4. organic compounds that do not provide energy to the body.
  5. sugars, starches, and fibers found primarily in plant foods.

 

  1. carbohydrates
  2. lipids
  3. proteins
  4. vitamins
  5. minerals

 

Key:

  1. ANS: e DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 40
  2. ANS: a DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 47
  3. ANS: c DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 51
  4. ANS: d DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 56
  5. ANS: b DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 56-57

 

 

Discussion

 

  1. What makes water so important to humans? Discuss not only the nutritional functions of water, but also the function of water in food preservation and preparation.

 

ANS: See pp. 32-40. Answer should include the basic chemical facts related to water (i.e., its unique chemical properties with respect to solvency and heat transfer), its role in food composition (i.e., the percentage of water contained in various foods), and its role in the preservation of food (i.e., availability of water to microorganisms for growth).

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 32-40

 

  1. What is the basic difference between plant and animal proteins, and how may a person “remedy” a situation where there is a significantly higher proportion of plant proteins in the diet?

 

ANS: See p. 51. Answer should contain a definition of both complete and incomplete proteins and then define and explain complementation of protein foods.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 51

 

  1. Why do some vegetables like celery and carrots get tougher as they age? Why don’t they get soft even when they are boiled in water?

 

ANS: See p. 47.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 47

 

  1. You are in the process of beginning to make a fresh fruit cobbler and cutting up the fruits. The phone rings and you proceed to talk for about 45 minutes. When you return to your preparation area your fruit has begun to turn brownish in color. What may have happened? Why do pears, apples, or bananas turn brown when cut into and then allowed to sit? What could you have done to prevent or reduce this browning?

 

ANS: See pp. 55-56.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 55-56

 

  1. Discuss the importance of understanding the roles of water activity (aw), osmosis, and osmotic pressure in food preservation.

 

ANS: See pp. 39-40.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 39-40.

 

  1. What foods are high in carbohydrates? Discuss the classification of carbohydrates, including the various compounds included among monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. What are the characteristics of each sugar/starch found in these groups?

 

ANS: See pp. 40-47.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 40-47

 

  1. Discuss the differences and similarities between soluble and insoluble fibers. What benefits do these functional fibers provide from a nutritional/health standpoint and what properties do they contribute to food processing? Be sure to include cellulose, hemicellolose, pectic substances, gums, inulin, and lignin in your discussion.

 

ANS: See pp. 44-47.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 44-47

 

  1. Discuss lipid composition and how fatty acid structure influences the application of fats from both a health and culinary standpoint. Discuss cis, trans, and omega-three fatty acids. What is a phospholipid? What component in fats allows hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds to mix? Why is this food ingredient so important in the kitchen?

 

ANS: See pp. 47-51.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 47-51

 

  1. Discuss the following functions of proteins in foods: hydration, denaturation/coagulation, enzymatic reactions, buffering, and browning. What are the differences among a complete, an incomplete, and a complementary protein food?

 

ANS: See pp. 51 and 53-56.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 51|53-56

 


Ready-to-Use Chapter 3 Test

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. The basic nutrients that comprise all foods and are necessary for the nutritional health of people are
  2. water, amino acids, fatty acids, sugars, vitamins, and minerals.
  3. proteins, fats, and carbohydrates.
  4. water, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids.
  5. proteins, vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, and amino acids.
  6. water, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.

 

  1. The physiological purpose of eating and drinking is to replace those nutrients used up
  2. in the body’s maintenance.
  3. in the body’s repair.
  4. in the body’s growth.
  5. as energy.
  6. all of the above answers are correct

 

  1. The building blocks of organic material include carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen plus
  2. chromium, manganese, and iron.
  3. nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur.
  4. copper, zinc, molybdenum, and selenium.
  5. magnesium, potassium, and calcium.

 

  1. The caloric contribution of foods is dependent on the amounts of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and alcohol in the food. Protein provides _____ kcal/g, fats provide _____, carbohydrates provide _____, and alcohol provides _____.
  2. 4, 4, 9, 7
  3. 7, 9, 6, 10
  4. 4, 7, 9, 10
  5. 4, 9, 4, 7

 

  1. The human body averages _____ percent water.
  2. 20 to 40
  3. 40 to 50
  4. 50 to 60
  5. 60 to 70

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 32|33

 

  1. Which of the following statements about bound water is false?
  2. Bound water is the most abundant form of water present in foods.
  3. Bound water is not easily removed and is resistant to freezing and drying.
  4. Bound water is not readily available to act as a medium for dissolving salts, acids, or sugars.
  5. Bound water is incorporated into the chemical structure of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins.

 

  1. Which of the following foods contains the highest percentage of water?
  2. butter
  3. peanut butter
  4. Swiss cheese
  5. baked potato
  6. cooked hamburger

 

  1. The energy value of food is measured in _____ of calories.
  2. tens
  3. hundreds
  4. thousands
  5. ten thousands

 

  1. _____ dictates whether a substance is a solid, liquid, or gas.
  2. Specific heat
  3. Molecular movement
  4. Freezing point
  5. Heat of solidification

 

  1. In foods, water has several functions, the two most important functions being
  2. transferring energy and dissolving lipids.
  3. transferring nutrients and serving as a universal solvent.
  4. transferring heat and serving as a solvent.
  5. retaining heat and dissolving vitamins and minerals.
  6. retaining nutrients and dissolving carbohydrates and minerals.

 

  1. The amount of energy in calories per gram that is absorbed or emitted as a substance undergoes a change from a solid to a liquid or gas is called
  2. latent heat.
  3. specific heat.
  4. melting point.
  5. heat of vaporization.
  6. heat of solidification.

 

  1. Increasing the elevation
  2. decreases the boiling point of water.
  3. increases the boiling point of water.
  4. increases the boiling point 1 degree F for every 500-feet increase in altitude.
  5. does not affect the boiling point of water.

 

  1. A pressure cooker speeds up heating time by _____.
  2. decreasing atmospheric pressure to five pounds
  3. decreasing the boiling point by ten degrees
  4. increasing atmospheric pressure to fifteen pounds
  5. increasing the boiling point by twenty degrees

 

  1. Hard water contains a greater concentration of calcium and magnesium compounds, whereas soft water has a higher _____ concentration.
  2. sodium
  3. potassium
  4. chloride
  5. copper

 

  1. Which of the following food items is/are not a colloidal dispersion?
  2. salad dressings
  3. jam, gelatin, cheese, and butter
  4. whipped egg white and whipped cream foams
  5. marshmallows
  6. all of the above are colloidal dispersions

 

  1. Which of the following food items is an example of a suspension?
  2. milk
  3. egg yolk
  4. cornstarch mixed in water
  5. oil mixed with vinegar
  6. ice cream

 

  1. A process in which colloid particles come out of suspension and solidify is called
  2. suspension.
  3. flocculation.
  4. ionization.
  5. salt formation.
  6. none of the above answers is correct

 

  1. Which of the following is not an example of hydrolysis?
  2. Hydrolysis of glucose to sucrose and maltose.
  3. Hydrolysis of maltose to two glucose molecules.
  4. Hydrolysis of cornstarch to yield corn syrup.
  5. Hydrolysis of table sugar to another sugar helpful in the manufacture of candy.

 

  1. Which of the following substances is/are not used in the food industry to reduce a food’s water activity (aw) level?
  2. salt and sugar
  3. glycerol
  4. propylene glycol
  5. modified corn syrups
  6. All of these substances are used by the food industry for this purpose.

 

  1. As free water within a food decreases,
  2. so does water activity.
  3. water activity increases.
  4. water activity remains constant.
  5. bacterial growth increases as a result.

 

  1. The primary six-carbon monosaccharides in foods are
  2. sucrose, maltose, and lactose.
  3. sucrose, glucose, and galactose.
  4. glucose, raffinose, and sucrose.
  5. glucose, fructose, and galactose.
  6. lactose, stachyose, and raffinose.

 

  1. The primary disaccharides found in foods are
  2. sucrose, maltose, and lactose.
  3. sucrose, glucose, and galactose.
  4. glucose, raffinose, and sucrose.
  5. glucose, fructose, and galactose.
  6. lactose, stachyose, and raffinose.

 

  1. Which of the following polysaccharides is/are digestible?
  2. inulin
  3. pectin and gums
  4. amylose and amylopectin
  5. cellulose and hemicellulose

 

  1. Which of the following is a function of the gum carrageenan in desserts?
  2. binder
  3. improves mouthfeel
  4. controls syneresis
  5. all of the above answers are correct

 

  1. As plants like celery and carrots mature, their cell walls increase in _____ concentration, resulting in a tough, stringy texture.
  2. cellulose
  3. gums
  4. hemicellulose
  5. lignin
  6. pectin
  7. all of the above answers are correct

 

  1. The difference between fats and oils is based on
  2. solubility in water and melting temperature.
  3. consistency (liquid or solid) at room temperature and source.
  4. the fatty acid content and the percentage of unsaturates.
  5. the number of unsaturated bonds and the alcohol to which they are attached.

 

  1. Which of the following foods has the lowest degree of saturation?
  2. avocado
  3. chocolate
  4. coconut oil
  5. palm oil
  6. cheese
  7. vegetable shortening

 

  1. Which of the following foods are good examples of predominately monounsaturated fats?
  2. almonds, pecans, and walnuts
  3. peanuts and peanut butter
  4. corn and canola oils
  5. milk, butter, and cheese

 

  1. The two essential fatty acids are
  2. butyric and histidine.
  3. linoleic and linolenic.
  4. leucine and isoleucine.
  5. threonine and tryptophan.

 

  1. Which of the following foods contains phospholipids?
  2. egg yolks
  3. liver
  4. soybeans
  5. wheat germ
  6. peanuts
  7. all of the above answers are correct
  8. none of the above answers is correct

 

  1. Which of the following proteins is classified as incomplete?
  2. amaranth
  3. quinoa
  4. soybeans
  5. wheat berries

 

  1. The key difference in carbohydrate or lipid versus protein composition is the presence of _____ in proteins.
  2. hydrogen
  3. carbon
  4. oxygen
  5. nitrogen

 

  1. Which of the following reactions is not a function of protein during food preparation?
  2. hydration
  3. denaturation and coagulation
  4. buffering
  5. browning
  6. all of the above are protein functions

 

  1. The definition of protein complementation is
  2. an increase in the effectiveness of two complete proteins when combined.
  3. the combination of two incomplete protein foods to yield a complete protein profile.
  4. any combination of nonessential amino acids that make a complete protein.
  5. the supplementation of the diet with a complete protein source.

 

  1. Which of the following enzymes is/are used for meat tenderization?
  2. rennin, also known as chymosin
  3. phenol oxidase
  4. glucose oxidase
  5. papain, bromelain, and ficin

 

  1. Certain vitamins and one of the minerals function in foods to:
  2. provide energy when the foods are consumed.
  3. reduce microbial growth by increasing water activity.
  4. delay deterioration during storage by inhibiting oxidation.
  5. facilitate chemical reactions when enzymes are lacking.

 

  1. Which of the following foods has/have been enriched?
  2. wheat flour or rice with thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and iron
  3. milk with vitamins A and D
  4. orange juice with calcium
  5. cereals with folate
  6. all of the above answers are correct

 

 

True/False

 

  1. You are what you eat.

 

  1. The most important of all the nutrients is water.

 

  1. The perishability of a food is related to the water activity of the food.

 

  1. Starch is a polysaccharide that does not provide energy to the body.

 

  1. Fiber is an oligosaccharide that does provide energy to the body.

 

  1. Approximately 95% of all food lipids are triglycerides.

 

  1. The sterol of least significance in food is cholesterol.

 

  1. Most of the complete proteins come from animals; exceptions are those from soybeans and certain grains.

 

  1. The presence of a broad spectrum of colors in food makes it more appetizing.

 

  1. Phytochemicals are plant compounds that have possible anti-carcinogenic properties.

 

  1. Caffeine belongs to a group of compounds called oligosaccharides.

 

 

Matching

 

Definition choices:

  1. compounds that are not normally soluble in water.
  2. inorganic elements that play vital roles in body processes.
  3. class of energy nutrients for which half of the compounds required to make them must be obtained from the diet.
  4. organic compounds that do not provide energy to the body.
  5. sugars, starches, and fibers found primarily in plant foods.

 

  1. carbohydrates
  2. lipids
  3. proteins
  4. vitamins
  5. minerals

 

 

Discussion

 

  1. What makes water so important to humans? Discuss not only the nutritional functions of water, but also the function of water in food preservation and preparation.

 

  1. What is the basic difference between plant and animal proteins, and how may a person “remedy” a situation where there is a significantly higher proportion of plant proteins in the diet?

 

  1. Why do some vegetables like celery and carrots get tougher as they age? Why don’t they get soft even when they are boiled in water?

 

  1. You are in the process of beginning to make a fresh fruit cobbler and cutting up the fruits. The phone rings and you proceed to talk for about 45 minutes. When you return to your preparation area your fruit has begun to turn brownish in color. What may have happened? Why do pears, apples, or bananas turn brown when cut into and then allowed to sit? What could you have done to prevent or reduce this browning?

 

  1. Discuss the importance of understanding the roles of water activity (aw), osmosis, and osmotic pressure in food preservation.

 

  1. What foods are high in carbohydrates? Discuss the classification of carbohydrates, including the various compounds included among monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. What are the characteristics of each sugar/starch found in these groups?

 

  1. Discuss the differences and similarities between soluble and insoluble fibers. What benefits do these functional fibers provide from a nutritional/health standpoint and what properties do they contribute to food processing? Be sure to include cellulose, hemicellolose, pectic substances, gums, inulin, and lignin in your discussion.

 

  1. Discuss lipid composition and how fatty acid structure influences the application of fats from both a health and culinary standpoint. Discuss cis, trans, and omega-three fatty acids. What is a phospholipid? What component in fats allows hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds to mix? Why is this food ingredient so important in the kitchen?

 

  1. Discuss the following functions of proteins in foods: hydration, denaturation/coagulation, enzymatic reactions, buffering, and browning. What are the differences among a complete, an incomplete, and a complementary protein food?

 

 

Test Bank[2] for Chapter 15 – Soups, Salads, and Gelatins

 

Key to question information: ANS = correct answer; DIF = question difficulty; REF = page reference

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. The foundational thin liquid of many soups, produced when meat, poultry, seafood, and/or their bones or vegetables are reduced and strained, is called
  2. bouillon.
  3. bouquet garni.
  4. consommé.
  5. stock.

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 328

 

  1. _____ is seldom reduced and therefore is not as strong-flavored as a stock.
  2. Broth
  3. Bouillon
  4. Court bouillon
  5. Consomme

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 328

 

  1. Which of the following soups is traditionally served warm?
  2. borscht
  3. vichyssoise
  4. avgolemono
  5. gazpacho

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 328

 

  1. A white stock is
  2. a flavored liquid obtained by simmering the bones of beef, veal, chicken, or pork in water.
  3. a flavored liquid obtained by simmering caramelized bones in water.
  4. the foundation thin liquid that is used as the base of all soups and sauces.
  5. a small bundle of herbs and spices wrapped in cheesecloth or tied together with twine.

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 328

 

  1. A chef who desires to create both a viscous and rich, meaty tasting stock, should use
  2. whole veal bones.
  3. cracked veal bones.
  4. whole beef bones.
  5. cracked beef bones.
  6. both b and d

 

ANS: e       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 328

 

  1. A brown stock is
  2. a flavored liquid obtained by simmering the bones of beef, veal, chicken, or pork in water.
  3. a flavored liquid obtained by simmering browned bones and meat in water.
  4. the foundational thin liquid that is used as the base of all soups and sauces.
  5. a small bundle of herbs and spices wrapped in cheesecloth or tied together with twine.

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 328

 

  1. To prevent a stock with a deep, caramelized flavor from becoming cloudy, _____ to coagulate proteins and trap minute particles that might otherwise cause cloudiness.
  2. brown bones and meat before adding water
  3. add raw meat and bones to hot water
  4. add raw meat and bones to cold water
  5. make sure that the stock boils

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 328

 

  1. The preferred liquid for stocks is
  2. spring or distilled water.
  3. canned broth thinned with water.
  4. juice of some type with added vegetable stock.
  5. cold tap water.
  6. hot tap water.

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 328

 

  1. Stocks should be cooked at _____ for the least cloudy and cleanest tasting stock.
  2. a gentle boil
  3. a rolling boil
  4. a simmer
  5. stewing temperatures

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 328-329

 

  1. One should never allow a stock to boil because it will
  2. toughen the meat.
  3. cause any loose particles to float to the top of the stock, thus creating flavor loss.
  4. disintegrate the bones.
  5. cause any fat from the meat to rise to the top and create a raft.

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 329

 

  1. A standard mirepoix is made out of
  2. onions, celery, and carrots.
  3. leeks, celery, carrots, and salt.
  4. leeks, celery, carrots, and a bouquet garni.
  5. parsley, thyme, bay leaf, and whole black pepper corns.

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 329

 

  1. The most flavorful of the meat stocks are made from
  2. fatty meat.
  3. lean meat.
  4. meat from young animals.
  5. meat from mature animals.

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 329

 

  1. Heating time for which of the following stocks should not exceed about 30 minutes?
  2. beef and pork
  3. lamb and pork
  4. fish and vegetable
  5. chicken, turkey, and duck

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 329-330

 

  1. Regarding fish stocks, which of the following statements is false?
  2. Most stocks use frames or racks, heads, and/or tails of lean white fish.
  3. The high gelatin concentration of fish heads contributes to the flavor and viscosity of the stock.
  4. Fish generally contain more gelatin than chicken.
  5. Floating fish frames are occasionally pushed down into the liquid to release the flavorful compounds from the bones.
  6. The celery may be omitted for a milder flavor, and the carrots may be omitted if a golden color is not desired in the stock.

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 329-330

 

  1. Why do chefs begin a stock with cold water?
  2. it is more convenient
  3. to create a milder-flavored stock
  4. so that the meat, bones, and mirepoix do not disintegrate
  5. ingredients will transfer flavor more efficiently to the liquid
  6. none of the above answers is correct

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 329

 

  1. Regarding vegetable stocks, which of the following statements is correct?
  2. Cooking time is approximately sixty to ninety minutes.
  3. The younger the vegetable, the more flavor in the extract.
  4. The longer the cooking time, the sweeter the flavor of the stock.
  5. Vegetables may include a mirepoix, along with leeks, shallots, and garlic.
  6. none of the above answers is correct

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 330

 

  1. When cooling hot stocks,
  2. cool the stocks at room temperature within two hours for optimum flavor retention.
  3. place the stocks directly in the freezer until cool and then transfer to refrigerator.
  4. cover the stockpot, place directly in the refrigerator, and use within five days.
  5. place the stockpot in an ice water bath and stir until the stock becomes cool.

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 330

 

  1. Although some of the terms related to thin soups are sometimes used interchangeably, _____ is the French word for broth.
  2. raft
  3. court
  4. bouillon
  5. consommé
  6. all of the above answers are correct

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 330

 

  1. Which of the following ingredients is not part of a raft?
  2. egg yolk
  3. egg white
  4. ground meat
  5. finely chopped vegetables

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 330

 

  1. Which of the following soups is not an example of a thin soup?
  2. miso
  3. chicken noodle
  4. egg drop
  5. tomato

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 330-331

 

  1. Which of the following soups is a popular Indian soup?
  2. chowder
  3. gazpacho
  4. borscht
  5. mulligatawny

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 331

 

  1. Which soup is the most popular creamed soup made from an animal source?
  2. seafood bisque
  3. cream of chicken
  4. New England clam chowder
  5. cream of vegetable turkey

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 331

 

  1. Curdling of creamed soups may be reduced or avoided by
  2. adding milk to the acid base.
  3. adding acid to the milk base.
  4. avoiding tempering at all costs.
  5. stirring some of the cold dairy product into the hot soup.

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 332

 

  1. The salad’s base or under-liner is
  2. green leafy vegetables.
  3. pasta or some grain.
  4. cottage cheese or meat.
  5. gelatin, whipped or not.
  6. the salad’s foundation.

 

ANS: e       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 333

 

  1. Tart salad dressings best accompany
  2. carbohydrate-based salads.
  3. fruit salads.
  4. protein-based salads.
  5. greens or vegetables.
  6. both a and b
  7. both c and d
  8. all of the above answers are correct

 

ANS: f        DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 333

 

  1. An ultimate goal when preparing a salad is to arrange ingredients
  2. with balanced color.
  3. with an interesting texture and shape.
  4. all the way to the end of the rim of the salad plate.
  5. on a room-temperature salad plate.

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 335

 

  1. Which of the following is a key component of the quality of a leafy green salad?
  2. The greens should be clean and free of dirt and sand.
  3. The greens should be crisp and free of wash water.
  4. The salad should be made with hand-torn leaves.
  5. All of the above are key components of quality.

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 335-336

 

  1. A frequent problem with non-acidic fruit salads is
  2. acidic browning.
  3. enzymatic browning.
  4. Maillard browning.
  5. sugar-protein browning.

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 337

 

  1. In protein salads, the principle ingredient (unless it is a dairy product) should be
  2. acid washed.
  3. chopped.
  4. cooked.
  5. raw.

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 337

 

  1. Which of the following dressings is not considered an emulsified dressing?
  2. balsamic vinegar and hazelnut oil
  3. Chantilly
  4. Thousand Island
  5. Russian
  6. Green Goddess

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 338

 

  1. When adding dressing to salads,
  2. the best time to add dressing is about one-half hour before serving to allow the greens to wilt a bit and absorb the flavor.
  3. it is best to have the dressing at room temperature to improve its ability to coat the ingredients.
  4. it is best to top the salad with the dressing without mixing.
  5. it is best to only add enough dressing to lightly coat the salad ingredients.

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 338

 

  1. Even though gelatin is a protein from animal sources, it is low in _____, an essential amino acid.
  2. alanine
  3. arginine
  4. aspartic acid
  5. tryptophan
  6. tyrosine

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 339

 

  1. Which of the following is/are included in gelatin-based gel preparation?
  2. hydration of gelatin granules or sheets to prevent clumping
  3. heating without stirring to avoid crystallization
  4. stirring the sol at room temperature to promote gelation
  5. cooling for 1 to 6 hours in the freezer

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 339-340

 

  1. A gelatin-based gel’s optimal strength is found between a pH of
  2. 3 and 5.
  3. 5 and 10.
  4. 10 and 14.
  5. It could be any of the above answers, depending on the other influencing factors.

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 341

 

 

True/False

 

  1. The least common meats used for stocks are beef and chicken.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 328

 

  1. Vegetables are added in the last hour to half hour of cooking when preparing meat stocks.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 329

 

  1. Fatty fish are always used for fish stock because they impart their strong oily flavor to the stock.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 329

 

  1. Raw egg white is used to clarify the stock for consommé.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 330

 

  1. A raft may consist of egg yolk, some ground meat, and finely chopped vegetables.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 330

 

  1. The ingredients that make a cream soup are milk or cream added to a thickened, flavorful purée of meats, poultry, fish, or vegetables.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 331

 

  1. Tempering is a process that gradually increases the temperature of ingredients for a cream soup mixture and helps reduce curdling.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Application-based                        REF: 332

 

  1. Salads may be classified by whether the ingredients are raw or cooked or by the main ingredient.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 332-333

 

  1. The more assertively flavored the ingredient in a salad the larger its role in the salad should be.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 335

 

  1. Salads whose main ingredients are not leafy vegetables but that still combine several vegetables are called vegetable salads.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 336

 

  1. Another way of thinking about a salad dressing is to consider it a “sauce for salads.”

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 338

 

  1. Bromelin, papain, actinidan, and ficin prevent or weaken gelatin-based gel formation by hydrolyzing protein in the gel network.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 341

 

  1. Salts weaken the structure of gels.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 341

 

  1. The addition of solid ingredients such as fruits, vegetables, and nuts into a gel strengthens gel formation.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 341

 

 

Matching

 

Definition choices:

  1. a broth made from meat and vegetables and then strained to remove the solids
  2. a bundle of parsley, thyme, bay leaf, and whole black pepper rolled and tied in a leek
  3. a salad dressing consisting of only oil, vinegar, and seasoning
  4. a richly flavored soup stock that has been clarified using egg whites
  5. a cream soup traditionally made from shellfish

 

  1. bisque
  2. consommé
  3. bouquet garni
  4. bouillon
  5. vinaigrette

 

Key:

  1. ANS: e DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 331
  2. ANS: d DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 330
  3. ANS: b DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 329
  4. ANS: a DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 330
  5. ANS: c DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 338

 

 

Discussion

 

  1. What are the types of stocks used for soups, and in which types of finished soups are they most frequently used?

 

ANS: See pp. 328-332. Answer should include descriptions of the two stocks, white and brown. The finished soups mentioned should include each of the three basic categories: clear and thin, thick, and cream.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 328-332

 

  1. How are salads categorized? Name the types of salads and discuss the nutritional content of each. How does this compare with the perception of salads as low-kcalorie foods?

 

ANS: See pp. 332-338. Answer should include a discussion of the categories of salads based on the main ingredient. The types of salads should be listed from the categories in the text. The nutritional content is based on the main ingredients and the salad dressing, and thus does not always fit into the category of a low-kcalorie food. An explanation of the mismatch between the perception and the reality should be included.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 332-338

 

  1. Explain in detail how to make the following white stocks: meat, poultry, fish, shellfish, and vegetable. Be specific in details such as what type, age, and size of bones are best, liquid specifications, specific vegetables and size of cut for mirepoix, flavorings, seasonings, and straining, length of cooking, etc. Include specific guidelines for producing a stock with optimum clarity, viscosity, and flavor. What differences in preparation would be made to prepare a brown stock?

 

ANS: See pp. 328-330.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 328-330

 

  1. Describe the differences, if any, among a bouillon, broth, and consommé. Explain in detail how to make a consommé.

 

ANS: See pp. 328 and 330.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 328|330

 

  1. What are common ingredients used to thicken a cream soup? Give basic guidelines for preparing a cream soup, including tips for lower-fat variations. How can a chef avoid curdling problems when preparing a cream soup? Any food safety tips?

 

ANS: See pp. 330-332.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 330-332

 

  1. Give guidelines for making a low-fat cream soup.

 

ANS: See pp. 331-332.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 331-332

 

  1. What are the components of a salad? Discuss the principles of salad preparation, including nutritional issues such as portion control, fat, starch, and fiber content in salads. What lettuce options might be available for use?

 

ANS: See pp. 332-338.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 332-338

 

  1. When preparing a vinaigrette, describe the differences in the many oils and vinegars one might select for use. What is a winterized oil and under what circumstances would one use it? What is an emulsified dressing? What are some other types of dressings? When is the best time to add dressing to a salad and why?

 

ANS: See p. 338.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 338

 

  1. What is gelatin? Is gelatin nutritious? Describe the three phases of gel formation. Discuss the many factors can influence gel formation including the following: concentration, temperature, sugar, acid, enzymes, salts, and added solid ingredients. What is the best way to unmold a gel?

 

ANS: See pp. 339-341.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 339-341

 

  1. Discuss the reason that food additives are commonly used in commercial soups, salad dressings, and gelatins. Include the functions of the additives.

 

ANS: See p. 339.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 339

 

 


Ready-to-Use Chapter 15 Test

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. The foundational thin liquid of many soups, produced when meat, poultry, seafood, and/or their bones or vegetables are reduced and strained, is called
  2. bouillon.
  3. bouquet garni.
  4. consommé.
  5. stock.

 

  1. _____ is seldom reduced and therefore is not as strong-flavored as a stock.
  2. Broth
  3. Bouillon
  4. Court bouillon
  5. Consomme

 

  1. Which of the following soups is traditionally served warm?
  2. borscht
  3. vichyssoise
  4. avgolemono
  5. gazpacho

 

  1. A white stock is
  2. a flavored liquid obtained by simmering the bones of beef, veal, chicken, or pork in water.
  3. a flavored liquid obtained by simmering caramelized bones in water.
  4. the foundation thin liquid that is used as the base of all soups and sauces.
  5. a small bundle of herbs and spices wrapped in cheesecloth or tied together with twine.

 

  1. A chef who desires to create both a viscous and rich, meaty tasting stock, should use
  2. whole veal bones.
  3. cracked veal bones.
  4. whole beef bones.
  5. cracked beef bones.
  6. both b and d

 

  1. A brown stock is
  2. a flavored liquid obtained by simmering the bones of beef, veal, chicken, or pork in water.
  3. a flavored liquid obtained by simmering browned bones and meat in water.
  4. the foundational thin liquid that is used as the base of all soups and sauces.
  5. a small bundle of herbs and spices wrapped in cheesecloth or tied together with twine.

 

  1. To prevent a stock with a deep, caramelized flavor from becoming cloudy, _____ to coagulate proteins and trap minute particles that might otherwise cause cloudiness.
  2. brown bones and meat before adding water
  3. add raw meat and bones to hot water
  4. add raw meat and bones to cold water
  5. make sure that the stock boils

 

  1. The preferred liquid for stocks is
  2. spring or distilled water.
  3. canned broth thinned with water.
  4. juice of some type with added vegetable stock.
  5. cold tap water.
  6. hot tap water.

 

  1. Stocks should be cooked at _____ for the least cloudy and cleanest tasting stock.
  2. a gentle boil
  3. a rolling boil
  4. a simmer
  5. stewing temperatures

 

  1. One should never allow a stock to boil because it will
  2. toughen the meat.
  3. cause any loose particles to float to the top of the stock, thus creating flavor loss.
  4. disintegrate the bones.
  5. cause any fat from the meat to rise to the top and create a raft.

 

  1. A standard mirepoix is made out of
  2. onions, celery, and carrots.
  3. leeks, celery, carrots, and salt.
  4. leeks, celery, carrots, and a bouquet garni.
  5. parsley, thyme, bay leaf, and whole black pepper corns.

 

  1. The most flavorful of the meat stocks are made from
  2. fatty meat.
  3. lean meat.
  4. meat from young animals.
  5. meat from mature animals.

 

  1. Heating time for which of the following stocks should not exceed about 30 minutes?
  2. beef and pork
  3. lamb and pork
  4. fish and vegetable
  5. chicken, turkey, and duck

 

  1. Regarding fish stocks, which of the following statements is false?
  2. Most stocks use frames or racks, heads, and/or tails of lean white fish.
  3. The high gelatin concentration of fish heads contributes to the flavor and viscosity of the stock.
  4. Fish generally contain more gelatin than chicken.
  5. Floating fish frames are occasionally pushed down into the liquid to release the flavorful compounds from the bones.
  6. The celery may be omitted for a milder flavor, and the carrots may be omitted if a golden color is not desired in the stock.

 

  1. Why do chefs begin a stock with cold water?
  2. it is more convenient
  3. to create a milder-flavored stock
  4. so that the meat, bones, and mirepoix do not disintegrate
  5. ingredients will transfer flavor more efficiently to the liquid
  6. none of the above answers is correct

 

  1. Regarding vegetable stocks, which of the following statements is correct?
  2. Cooking time is approximately sixty to ninety minutes.
  3. The younger the vegetable, the more flavor in the extract.
  4. The longer the cooking time, the sweeter the flavor of the stock.
  5. Vegetables may include a mirepoix, along with leeks, shallots, and garlic.
  6. none of the above answers is correct

 

  1. When cooling hot stocks,
  2. cool the stocks at room temperature within two hours for optimum flavor retention.
  3. place the stocks directly in the freezer until cool and then transfer to refrigerator.
  4. cover the stockpot, place directly in the refrigerator, and use within five days.
  5. place the stockpot in an ice water bath and stir until the stock becomes cool.

 

  1. Although some of the terms related to thin soups are sometimes used interchangeably, _____ is the French word for broth.
  2. raft
  3. court
  4. bouillon
  5. consommé
  6. all of the above answers are correct

 

  1. Which of the following ingredients is not part of a raft?
  2. egg yolk
  3. egg white
  4. ground meat
  5. finely chopped vegetables

 

  1. Which of the following soups is not an example of a thin soup?
  2. miso
  3. chicken noodle
  4. egg drop
  5. tomato

 

  1. Which of the following soups is a popular Indian soup?
  2. chowder
  3. gazpacho
  4. borscht
  5. mulligatawny

 

  1. Which soup is the most popular creamed soup made from an animal source?
  2. seafood bisque
  3. cream of chicken
  4. New England clam chowder
  5. cream of vegetable turkey

 

  1. Curdling of creamed soups may be reduced or avoided by
  2. adding milk to the acid base.
  3. adding acid to the milk base.
  4. avoiding tempering at all costs.
  5. stirring some of the cold dairy product into the hot soup.

 

  1. The salad’s base or under-liner is
  2. green leafy vegetables.
  3. pasta or some grain.
  4. cottage cheese or meat.
  5. gelatin, whipped or not.
  6. the salad’s foundation.

 

  1. Tart salad dressings best accompany
  2. carbohydrate-based salads.
  3. fruit salads.
  4. protein-based salads.
  5. greens or vegetables.
  6. both a and b
  7. both c and d
  8. all of the above answers are correct

 

  1. An ultimate goal when preparing a salad is to arrange ingredients
  2. with balanced color.
  3. with an interesting texture and shape.
  4. all the way to the end of the rim of the salad plate.
  5. on a room-temperature salad plate.

 

  1. Which of the following is a key component of the quality of a leafy green salad?
  2. The greens should be clean and free of dirt and sand.
  3. The greens should be crisp and free of wash water.
  4. The salad should be made with hand-torn leaves.
  5. All of the above are key components of quality.

 

  1. A frequent problem with non-acidic fruit salads is
  2. acidic browning.
  3. enzymatic browning.
  4. Maillard browning.
  5. sugar-protein browning.

 

  1. In protein salads, the principle ingredient (unless it is a dairy product) should be
  2. acid washed.
  3. chopped.
  4. cooked.
  5. raw.

 

  1. Which of the following dressings is not considered an emulsified dressing?
  2. balsamic vinegar and hazelnut oil
  3. Chantilly
  4. Thousand Island
  5. Russian
  6. Green Goddess

 

  1. When adding dressing to salads,
  2. the best time to add dressing is about one-half hour before serving to allow the greens to wilt a bit and absorb the flavor.
  3. it is best to have the dressing at room temperature to improve its ability to coat the ingredients.
  4. it is best to top the salad with the dressing without mixing.
  5. it is best to only add enough dressing to lightly coat the salad ingredients.

 

  1. Even though gelatin is a protein from animal sources, it is low in _____, an essential amino acid.
  2. alanine
  3. arginine
  4. aspartic acid
  5. tryptophan
  6. tyrosine

 

  1. Which of the following is/are included in gelatin-based gel preparation?
  2. hydration of gelatin granules or sheets to prevent clumping
  3. heating without stirring to avoid crystallization
  4. stirring the sol at room temperature to promote gelation
  5. cooling for 1 to 6 hours in the freezer

 

  1. A gelatin-based gel’s optimal strength is found between a pH of
  2. 3 and 5.
  3. 5 and 10.
  4. 10 and 14.
  5. It could be any of the above answers, depending on the other influencing factors.

 

 

True/False

 

  1. The least common meats used for stocks are beef and chicken.

 

  1. Vegetables are added in the last hour to half hour of cooking when preparing meat stocks.

 

  1. Fatty fish are always used for fish stock because they impart their strong oily flavor to the stock.

 

  1. Raw egg white is used to clarify the stock for consommé.

 

  1. A raft may consist of egg yolk, some ground meat, and finely chopped vegetables.

 

  1. The ingredients that make a cream soup are milk or cream added to a thickened, flavorful purée of meats, poultry, fish, or vegetables.

 

  1. Tempering is a process that gradually increases the temperature of ingredients for a cream soup mixture and helps reduce curdling.

 

  1. Salads may be classified by whether the ingredients are raw or cooked or by the main ingredient.

 

  1. The more assertively flavored the ingredient in a salad the larger its role in the salad should be.

 

  1. Salads whose main ingredients are not leafy vegetables but that still combine several vegetables are called vegetable salads.

 

  1. Another way of thinking about a salad dressing is to consider it a “sauce for salads.”

 

  1. Bromelin, papain, actinidan, and ficin prevent or weaken gelatin-based gel formation by hydrolyzing protein in the gel network.

 

  1. Salts weaken the structure of gels.

 

  1. The addition of solid ingredients such as fruits, vegetables, and nuts into a gel strengthens gel formation.

 

 

Matching

 

Definition choices:

  1. a broth made from meat and vegetables and then strained to remove the solids
  2. a bundle of parsley, thyme, bay leaf, and whole black pepper rolled and tied in a leek
  3. a salad dressing consisting of only oil, vinegar, and seasoning
  4. a richly flavored soup stock that has been clarified using egg whites
  5. a cream soup traditionally made from shellfish

 

  1. bisque
  2. consommé
  3. bouquet garni
  4. bouillon
  5. vinaigrette

 

 

Discussion

 

  1. What are the types of stocks used for soups, and in which types of finished soups are they most frequently used?

 

  1. How are salads categorized? Name the types of salads and discuss the nutritional content of each. How does this compare with the perception of salads as low-kcalorie foods?

 

  1. Explain in detail how to make the following white stocks: meat, poultry, fish, shellfish, and vegetable. Be specific in details such as what type, age, and size of bones are best, liquid specifications, specific vegetables and size of cut for mirepoix, flavorings, seasonings, and straining, length of cooking, etc. Include specific guidelines for producing a stock with optimum clarity, viscosity, and flavor. What differences in preparation would be made to prepare a brown stock?

 

  1. Describe the differences, if any, among a bouillon, broth, and consommé. Explain in detail how to make a consommé.

 

  1. What are common ingredients used to thicken a cream soup? Give basic guidelines for preparing a cream soup, including tips for lower-fat variations. How can a chef avoid curdling problems when preparing a cream soup? Any food safety tips?

 

  1. Give guidelines for making a low-fat cream soup.

 

  1. What are the components of a salad? Discuss the principles of salad preparation, including nutritional issues such as portion control, fat, starch, and fiber content in salads. What lettuce options might be available for use?

 

  1. When preparing a vinaigrette, describe the differences in the many oils and vinegars one might select for use. What is a winterized oil and under what circumstances would one use it? What is an emulsified dressing? What are some other types of dressings? When is the best time to add dressing to a salad and why?

 

  1. What is gelatin? Is gelatin nutritious? Describe the three phases of gel formation. Discuss the many factors can influence gel formation including the following: concentration, temperature, sugar, acid, enzymes, salts, and added solid ingredients. What is the best way to unmold a gel?

 

  1. Discuss the reason that food additives are commonly used in commercial soups, salad dressings, and gelatins. Include the functions of the additives.

 

 

 

Test Bank[3] for Chapter 29 – Government Food Regulations

 

Key to question information: ANS = correct answer; DIF = question difficulty; REF = page reference

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. Which of the following organizations is not a federal agency involved in the regulation of the food supply in the United States?
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
  3. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
  4. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
  5. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
  6. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 589

 

  1. The _____ was the beginning of the government’s involvement in food regulation.
  2. Pure Food and Drug Act
  3. Federal Meat Inspection Act
  4. Federal Trade Commission Act
  5. Public Health Services Act

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 590

 

  1. Upton Sinclair’s novel The Jungle exposed the filthy conditions in Chicago’s
  2. ethnic bakeries.
  3. breweries.
  4. meat packing plants.
  5. small restaurants and food vendor carts.

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 590

 

  1. The current parent or umbrella legislation being used today is the _____ Act.
  2. 1906 Pure Food and Drug
  3. 1938 Food, Drug, and Cosmetic
  4. 1944 Public Health Services
  5. 1958 Food Additives Amendment to 1938
  6. 1990 Nutrition Labeling and Nutrition

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 590-591

 

  1. Which of the following federal agencies is involved in alcohol regulation?
  2. USDA
  3. FDA
  4. Federal Trade Commission
  5. Department of the Treasury

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 590|601

 

  1. Which of the following federal agencies is involved in the regulation of fish?
  2. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
  4. U.S. Department of Commerce
  5. Federal Trade Commission

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 590|600

 

  1. Labeling, food additives, research, and education are under the auspices of the
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
  3. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
  4. Federal Trade Commission.
  5. Department of the Treasury.
  6. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 590|591

 

  1. Grading of fruits and vegetables is conducted by the
  2. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
  3. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
  4. U.S. Department of Commerce.
  5. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 590|599

 

  1. Meat, eggs poultry, and dairy are regulated by the
  2. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).
  3. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
  4. U.S. Department of Commerce.
  5. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
  6. all of the above answers are correct

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 590|598

 

  1. The Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938 is enforced by the
  2. USDA.
  3. FDA.
  4. EPA.
  5. CDC.
  6. HACCP.

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 591

 

  1. The Food and Drug Administration has jurisdiction over production of which products?
  2. breads
  3. meats
  4. poultry
  5. eggs

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 591

 

  1. The FDA issues a _____ recall when a product is discovered to be dangerous or defective enough to cause serious health problems or death.
  2. Class I
  3. Class II
  4. Class III
  5. Class IV

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 592

 

  1. The Food Code is a(n) _____ publication, updated every _____ years, that shows food-service organizations how to prevent foodborne illness while preparing foods.
  2. CDC; two
  3. FDA; two
  4. USDA; five
  5. U.S. Department of Commerce; five

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 591

 

  1. Once a product is recalled, the manufacturer has all of the following alternatives except to
  2. allow the USDA to dispose of the food product.
  3. contest the government’s charges in court.
  4. request permission of the court to bring the product into compliance under the law.
  5. all of the above answers are correct

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 591-592

 

  1. Over _____ products are withdrawn from the marketplace every year, either by recall or court-ordered seizure.
  2. 500
  3. 1,000
  4. 2,000
  5. 3,000

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 592

 

  1. To make sure that manufacturers of canned goods pack the appropriate quantity of food in each can, the FDA established a “content” standard called
  2. Standards of Identity.
  3. Standards of Minimum Quality.
  4. Standards of Fill.
  5. all of the above answers are correct
  6. none of the above answers is correct

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 592-593

 

  1. Which of the following items is required on a Nutrition Facts label?
  2. serving size and number
  3. kilocalories and Daily Values
  4. grams/milligrams of total fat, cholesterol, sodium, and protein
  5. all of the above answers are correct

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 593-594

 

  1. Food labeling became required for most foods in _____, when the nutrient label on foods changed to Nutrition Facts.
  2. 1990
  3. 1994
  4. 1998
  5. 2002

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 593

 

  1. A large candy bar’s label states that it provides 320 kcal per serving and that there are 2 servings per package. This means that the entire bar provides _____ kcal.
  2. 320
  3. 640
  4. 160
  5. 960

 

ANS: b       DIF: Application-based                        REF: 594

 

  1. The eight major allergens identified by the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act account for _____ percent of all food allergies.
  2. 50
  3. 60
  4. 70
  5. 80
  6. 90
  7. 100

 

ANS: e       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 595

 

  1. According to the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act, the word “_____” must appear in the ingredients list if the food contains a protein derived from this food.
  2. meat
  3. milk
  4. oats
  5. tomatoes
  6. gluten

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 595

 

  1. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) allows qualified health claims regarding cancer risk to be made for all of the following food components except
  2. green tea.
  3. selenium.
  4. omega-3 fatty acids.
  5. antioxidant vitamins.
  6. tomato sauce.

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 596

 

  1. For which of the following food components are qualified health claims related to diabetes allowed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)?
  2. B vitamins
  3. chromium picolinate
  4. calcium
  5. 0.8 mg folic acid

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 596

 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding food colorings is false?
  2. FDA-certified colorings must be included in the ingredients list for foods that contain them other than butter, cheese, and ice cream.
  3. Food color additives include Blue No. 1 and No. 2 and Red No. 3 and No. 40.
  4. A food coloring that is included in the GRAS list is not considered a food additive.
  5. No food colors have tested positive as carcinogens in laboratory animals.
  6. All of the above answers are true.

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 594|597-598

 

  1. Which of the following is not one of the qualities a food must have to be labeled as “healthy”?
  2. less than 3 g fat/serving
  3. less than 1 g saturated fat/serving
  4. less than or equal to 480 mg sodium/serving
  5. less than or equal to cholesterol disclosure level
  6. 25 percent less fat/serving than a similar product
  7. all of the above answers are correct

 

ANS: e       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 596

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of a nutrient content claim?
  2. calcium builds strong bones
  3. fiber maintains bowel regularity
  4. antioxidants maintain cell integrity
  5. all of the above answers are nutrient content claims
  6. none of the above answers is a nutrient content claim

 

ANS: e       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 596

 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding the approval process for food additives is true?
  2. An additive that is found to be completely safe after thorough testing is given permanent approval.
  3. The process of approving a new additive is time consuming and costly.
  4. If 10 mg of the additive causes no harm in laboratory animals, then manufacturers may use up to 1 mg of it in foods for humans.
  5. A thousand-fold margin of safety is applied to additives.

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 597

 

  1. The USDA maintains inspections for many food commodities under the auspice of numerous legislative acts, but the food must
  2. be sold in the state in which it was produced.
  3. have been graded first.
  4. be inspected if it crosses state lines.
  5. be one of the foods on the list passed by Congress.

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 598

 

  1. The definition of a quality grade is:
  2. a grade based on the food’s appearance, texture, flavor, and other factors.
  3. a grade that describes the ratio of edible or lean muscle to fat and bone and refuse.
  4. the grade awarded to a food that meets minimum standards for flavor and color.
  5. a grade that is established by the manufacturer to assist the government in fixing price supports.

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 599

 

  1. Pesticides may be used on raw agricultural commodities if
  2. they are not cancer causing.
  3. they are used in accordance with the original Delaney Clause.
  4. the finished food products are completely pesticide free.
  5. the benefit from their use outweighs the risk they pose.

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 600

 

  1. State food inspection standards for food products manufactured in the state in which they are sold must equal or exceed those of the
  2. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
  3. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).
  4. adjacent states (those that share borders).
  5. Codex Alimentarius.

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 598

 

  1. What would the COOL information on a package of pecans tell you?
  2. that pecans are a food allergen
  3. the serving size for pecans
  4. that nut intake may reduce cardiovascular disease risk
  5. what country the pecans were grown in
  6. none of the above answers is correct

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 600

 

 

True/False

 

  1. The passage of federal food legislation in the United States started with the Food and Drug Act of 1938.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 590

 

  1. The creation of one federal agency to oversee food safety has not been proposed.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 590-591

 

  1. The USDA inspects and grades all meats, poultry, and eggs involved in interstate commerce.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 598

 

  1. The tool used by the federal government to determine whether food manufacturers are following standards is inspection.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 591

 

  1. Nutrient labeling is not required for food products today.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 593-595

 

  1. Health claims can be made for dietary supplements as long as they are not disease claims, which are only allowable for drugs.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 597

 

  1. The current definition of serving size is the “amount of food customarily eaten at one time.”

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 594

 

  1. The Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906 states that interstate beef need not be inspected.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 598

 

  1. Tofu is considered a major allergen as defined by the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act (FALCPA) passed in 2004.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 595

 

  1. Only food that has passed inspection may be graded for quality.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 599

 

  1. The Department of Commerce’s National Marine Fisheries Service oversees the inspection of fish and fish products.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 600-601

 

  1. The Federal Trade Commission approves all advertising copy prior to its use by the food industry.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 601

 

  1. Voluntary grading is available for fresh fish but not for frozen fish products.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 601

 

 

Matching

 

Definition choices:

  1. minimum requirements for tenderness, color, and freedom from defects in canned fruits and vegetables
  2. requirements for the type and amount of ingredients a food should contain in order to be labeled as that food
  3. a list of compounds that are exempt from the “food additive” definition based on “a reasonable certainty of no harm”
  4. requirements for the amount of raw product that must be put into a container before liquid is added
  5. civil court action to seize or confiscate a product that is defective, unsafe, filthy, or produced under unsanitary conditions

 

  1. product recall
  2. Standards of Identity
  3. Standards of Minimum Quality
  4. Standards of Fill
  5. GRAS list

 

Key:

  1. ANS: e DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 591
  2. ANS: b DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 592
  3. ANS: a DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 592
  4. ANS: d DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 592
  5. ANS: c DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 597

 

 

Discussion

 

  1. Define the requirements for a food label. Explain to a friend, in easily understandable terms, how to read both a food label and its Nutrition Facts panel. How do food label requirements differ in focus from the goal of a nutrient label requirement?

 

ANS: See pp. 593-597.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 593-597

 

  1. Draw an organizational chart that depicts the federal agencies in control of food regulations. Discuss the rationale for a single oversight agency.

 

ANS: See pp. 589-591. An organizational chart should be the result of the instructor’s coverage. The level of detail may vary from simply charting the cabinet level departments all the way to the agencies within each department. Instructor’s demand should reflect depth of coverage and expectations of the curriculum.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 589-591

 

  1. Are there acceptable levels of contaminants in certain foods? If so, discuss these allowable contaminants and provide examples of foods and specific levels of filth.

 

ANS: See p. 592.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 592

 

  1. Define food additives and discuss the safety of food additives. What foods are exempt from definition of a food additive? How do food additives obtain Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval? What is the Delaney Clause? Discuss the human cancer risk posed by food additives.

 

ANS: See pp. 597-598.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 597-598

 

  1. What are the essential components of a health claim? What is the difference between qualified and unqualified health claims? Which type is most reliable? Give examples of and discuss the qualified health claims allowed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). What law pronounced that dietary supplements are to be treated as foods, and in what year was it passed?

 

ANS: See pp. 595-597.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 595-597

 

  1. What are the differences between United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) inspection and grading? Discuss the history of USDA inspection and grading. What does an inspection stamp look like and where would a consumer find it? What is the difference between a quality and a yield grade? Are USDA grades useful when selecting and purchasing fruit for food preparation, and if so, how?

 

ANS: See pp. 598-599 and 600.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 598-599|600

 

  1. Discuss the individual goals and objectives of the two major international agencies that are part of the United Nations—the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). What is the Codex Alimentarius Commission?

 

ANS: See p. 601.

DIF: Knowledge-based                                           REF: 601

 

  1. What does COOL stand for and what foods does if apply to? What foods are exempt? Describe the COOL labeling categories.

 

ANS: See p. 600.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 600

 


Ready-to-Use Chapter 29 Test

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. Which of the following organizations is not a federal agency involved in the regulation of the food supply in the United States?
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
  3. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
  4. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
  5. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
  6. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)

 

  1. The _____ was the beginning of the government’s involvement in food regulation.
  2. Pure Food and Drug Act
  3. Federal Meat Inspection Act
  4. Federal Trade Commission Act
  5. Public Health Services Act

 

  1. Upton Sinclair’s novel The Jungle exposed the filthy conditions in Chicago’s
  2. ethnic bakeries.
  3. breweries.
  4. meat packing plants.
  5. small restaurants and food vendor carts.

 

  1. The current parent or umbrella legislation being used today is the _____ Act.
  2. 1906 Pure Food and Drug
  3. 1938 Food, Drug, and Cosmetic
  4. 1944 Public Health Services
  5. 1958 Food Additives Amendment to 1938
  6. 1990 Nutrition Labeling and Nutrition

 

  1. Which of the following federal agencies is involved in alcohol regulation?
  2. USDA
  3. FDA
  4. Federal Trade Commission
  5. Department of the Treasury

 

  1. Which of the following federal agencies is involved in the regulation of fish?
  2. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
  4. U.S. Department of Commerce
  5. Federal Trade Commission

 

  1. Labeling, food additives, research, and education are under the auspices of the
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
  3. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
  4. Federal Trade Commission.
  5. Department of the Treasury.
  6. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

 

  1. Grading of fruits and vegetables is conducted by the
  2. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
  3. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
  4. U.S. Department of Commerce.
  5. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).

 

  1. Meat, eggs poultry, and dairy are regulated by the
  2. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).
  3. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
  4. U.S. Department of Commerce.
  5. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
  6. all of the above answers are correct

 

  1. The Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938 is enforced by the
  2. USDA.
  3. FDA.
  4. EPA.
  5. CDC.
  6. HACCP.

 

  1. The Food and Drug Administration has jurisdiction over production of which products?
  2. breads
  3. meats
  4. poultry
  5. eggs

 

  1. The FDA issues a _____ recall when a product is discovered to be dangerous or defective enough to cause serious health problems or death.
  2. Class I
  3. Class II
  4. Class III
  5. Class IV

 

  1. The Food Code is a(n) _____ publication, updated every _____ years, that shows food-service organizations how to prevent foodborne illness while preparing foods.
  2. CDC; two
  3. FDA; two
  4. USDA; five
  5. U.S. Department of Commerce; five

 

  1. Once a product is recalled, the manufacturer has all of the following alternatives except to
  2. allow the USDA to dispose of the food product.
  3. contest the government’s charges in court.
  4. request permission of the court to bring the product into compliance under the law.
  5. all of the above answers are correct

 

  1. Over _____ products are withdrawn from the marketplace every year, either by recall or court-ordered seizure.
  2. 500
  3. 1,000
  4. 2,000
  5. 3,000

 

  1. To make sure that manufacturers of canned goods pack the appropriate quantity of food in each can, the FDA established a “content” standard called
  2. Standards of Identity.
  3. Standards of Minimum Quality.
  4. Standards of Fill.
  5. all of the above answers are correct
  6. none of the above answers is correct

 

  1. Which of the following items is required on a Nutrition Facts label?
  2. serving size and number
  3. kilocalories and Daily Values
  4. grams/milligrams of total fat, cholesterol, sodium, and protein
  5. all of the above answers are correct

 

  1. Food labeling became required for most foods in _____, when the nutrient label on foods changed to Nutrition Facts.
  2. 1990
  3. 1994
  4. 1998
  5. 2002

 

  1. A large candy bar’s label states that it provides 320 kcal per serving and that there are 2 servings per package. This means that the entire bar provides _____ kcal.
  2. 320
  3. 640
  4. 160
  5. 960

 

  1. The eight major allergens identified by the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act account for _____ percent of all food allergies.
  2. 50
  3. 60
  4. 70
  5. 80
  6. 90
  7. 100

 

  1. According to the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act, the word “_____” must appear in the ingredients list if the food contains a protein derived from this food.
  2. meat
  3. milk
  4. oats
  5. tomatoes
  6. gluten

 

  1. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) allows qualified health claims regarding cancer risk to be made for all of the following food components except
  2. green tea.
  3. selenium.
  4. omega-3 fatty acids.
  5. antioxidant vitamins.
  6. tomato sauce.

 

  1. For which of the following food components are qualified health claims related to diabetes allowed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)?
  2. B vitamins
  3. chromium picolinate
  4. calcium
  5. 0.8 mg folic acid

 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding food colorings is false?
  2. FDA-certified colorings must be included in the ingredients list for foods that contain them other than butter, cheese, and ice cream.
  3. Food color additives include Blue No. 1 and No. 2 and Red No. 3 and No. 40.
  4. A food coloring that is included in the GRAS list is not considered a food additive.
  5. No food colors have tested positive as carcinogens in laboratory animals.
  6. All of the above answers are true.

 

  1. Which of the following is not one of the qualities a food must have to be labeled as “healthy”?
  2. less than 3 g fat/serving
  3. less than 1 g saturated fat/serving
  4. less than or equal to 480 mg sodium/serving
  5. less than or equal to cholesterol disclosure level
  6. 25 percent less fat/serving than a similar product
  7. all of the above answers are correct

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of a nutrient content claim?
  2. calcium builds strong bones
  3. fiber maintains bowel regularity
  4. antioxidants maintain cell integrity
  5. all of the above answers are nutrient content claims
  6. none of the above answers is a nutrient content claim

 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding the approval process for food additives is true?
  2. An additive that is found to be completely safe after thorough testing is given permanent approval.
  3. The process of approving a new additive is time consuming and costly.
  4. If 10 mg of the additive causes no harm in laboratory animals, then manufacturers may use up to 1 mg of it in foods for humans.
  5. A thousand-fold margin of safety is applied to additives.

 

  1. The USDA maintains inspections for many food commodities under the auspice of numerous legislative acts, but the food must
  2. be sold in the state in which it was produced.
  3. have been graded first.
  4. be inspected if it crosses state lines.
  5. be one of the foods on the list passed by Congress.

 

  1. The definition of a quality grade is:
  2. a grade based on the food’s appearance, texture, flavor, and other factors.
  3. a grade that describes the ratio of edible or lean muscle to fat and bone and refuse.
  4. the grade awarded to a food that meets minimum standards for flavor and color.
  5. a grade that is established by the manufacturer to assist the government in fixing price supports.

 

  1. Pesticides may be used on raw agricultural commodities if
  2. they are not cancer causing.
  3. they are used in accordance with the original Delaney Clause.
  4. the finished food products are completely pesticide free.
  5. the benefit from their use outweighs the risk they pose.

 

  1. State food inspection standards for food products manufactured in the state in which they are sold must equal or exceed those of the
  2. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
  3. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).
  4. adjacent states (those that share borders).
  5. Codex Alimentarius.

 

  1. What would the COOL information on a package of pecans tell you?
  2. that pecans are a food allergen
  3. the serving size for pecans
  4. that nut intake may reduce cardiovascular disease risk
  5. what country the pecans were grown in
  6. none of the above answers is correct

 

 

True/False

 

  1. The passage of federal food legislation in the United States started with the Food and Drug Act of 1938.

 

  1. The creation of one federal agency to oversee food safety has not been proposed.

 

  1. The USDA inspects and grades all meats, poultry, and eggs involved in interstate commerce.

 

  1. The tool used by the federal government to determine whether food manufacturers are following standards is inspection.

 

  1. Nutrient labeling is not required for food products today.

 

  1. Health claims can be made for dietary supplements as long as they are not disease claims, which are only allowable for drugs.

 

  1. The current definition of serving size is the “amount of food customarily eaten at one time.”

 

  1. The Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906 states that interstate beef need not be inspected.

 

  1. Tofu is considered a major allergen as defined by the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act (FALCPA) passed in 2004.

 

  1. Only food that has passed inspection may be graded for quality.

 

  1. The Department of Commerce’s National Marine Fisheries Service oversees the inspection of fish and fish products.

 

  1. The Federal Trade Commission approves all advertising copy prior to its use by the food industry.

 

  1. Voluntary grading is available for fresh fish but not for frozen fish products.

 

 

Matching

 

Definition choices:

  1. minimum requirements for tenderness, color, and freedom from defects in canned fruits and vegetables
  2. requirements for the type and amount of ingredients a food should contain in order to be labeled as that food
  3. a list of compounds that are exempt from the “food additive” definition based on “a reasonable certainty of no harm”
  4. requirements for the amount of raw product that must be put into a container before liquid is added
  5. civil court action to seize or confiscate a product that is defective, unsafe, filthy, or produced under unsanitary conditions

 

  1. product recall
  2. Standards of Identity
  3. Standards of Minimum Quality
  4. Standards of Fill
  5. GRAS list

 

 

Discussion

 

  1. Define the requirements for a food label. Explain to a friend, in easily understandable terms, how to read both a food label and its Nutrition Facts panel. How do food label requirements differ in focus from the goal of a nutrient label requirement?

 

  1. Draw an organizational chart that depicts the federal agencies in control of food regulations. Discuss the rationale for a single oversight agency.

 

  1. Are there acceptable levels of contaminants in certain foods? If so, discuss these allowable contaminants and provide examples of foods and specific levels of filth.

 

  1. Define food additives and discuss the safety of food additives. What foods are exempt from definition of a food additive? How do food additives obtain Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval? What is the Delaney Clause? Discuss the human cancer risk posed by food additives.

 

  1. What are the essential components of a health claim? What is the difference between qualified and unqualified health claims? Which type is most reliable? Give examples of and discuss the qualified health claims allowed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). What law pronounced that dietary supplements are to be treated as foods, and in what year was it passed?

 

  1. What are the differences between United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) inspection and grading? Discuss the history of USDA inspection and grading. What does an inspection stamp look like and where would a consumer find it? What is the difference between a quality and a yield grade? Are USDA grades useful when selecting and purchasing fruit for food preparation, and if so, how?

 

  1. Discuss the individual goals and objectives of the two major international agencies that are part of the United Nations—the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). What is the Codex Alimentarius Commission?

 

  1. What does COOL stand for and what foods does if apply to? What foods are exempt? Describe the COOL labeling categories.

 

 

 

[1] By Dr. Joan Aronson of New York University. A ready-to-use test (the same questions reformatted for printing out as a test) is provided at the end of this document.

[2] By Dr. Joan Aronson of New York University. A ready-to-use test (the same questions reformatted for printing out as a test) is provided at the end of this document.

[3] By Dr. Joan Aronson of New York University. A ready-to-use test (the same questions reformatted for printing out as a test) is provided at the end of this document.

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