Theories Of Personality 7th Edition By Barbara Engler – Test Bank

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Test Bank For Theories Of Personality 7th Edition By Barbara Engler

 

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Sample Questions

 

Theories of Personality, 7e (Cloninger)

Chapter 4

 

Multiple Choice

 

1) Adler believed that personality development was shaped by

  1. A) the mutual cooperation of the mother–infant relationship.
  2. B) the constant striving of the id impulses to be recognized.
  3. C) social and interpersonal elements.
  4. D) Both A and C

Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the concepts

Learning Objectives: 4.1 and 4.4

Topic: Personality development

  1. 60

 

2) Adler

  1. A) criticized society’s restrictive gender roles.
  2. B) believed that masculine dominance did not occur naturally.
  3. C) proposed that schools could potentially address healthy development of both sexes.
  4. D) All of the above

Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.1

Topic: Gender roles

  1. 60

 

3) Adler believed that biology is

  1. A) the sole determinant of the basis of positive striving.
  2. B) one of the factors that creates the basis for positive striving.
  3. C) unrelated to the basis for positive striving.
  4. D) disregarded entirely with emphasis instead upon cognition.

Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 4.1

Topic: Biology and positive striving

  1. 60 and 61

 

 

 

4) In the description of Malala Yousafzai in the beginning of chapter 4, the text states that Malala was distressed by a childhood memory of social conditions, seeing children who were trying to survive by scavenging scraps from a garbage dump. What would an Adlerian psychologist call these negative evaluations of her social conditions?

  1. A) Felt-minus
  2. B) Felt-plus
  3. C) Inferiority drive
  4. D) Id complex

Answer: A

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Learning Objective: 4.2

Topic: Inferiority (felt-minus)

  1. 62

 

5) Adler’s theory is called

  1. A) psychoanalysis.
  2. B) social analysis.
  3. C) individual psychology.
  4. D) learning theory.

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.1.

Topic: Individual psychology

  1. 64

 

6) Which statement best describes the relationship between Freud and Adler?

  1. A) Freud influenced Adler.
  2. B) Adler influenced Freud.
  3. C) Freud and Adler each influenced the other.
  4. D) Neither Freud nor Adler influenced the other.

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 4.1

Topic: Relationship between Adler and Freud

  1. 64

 

 

 

7) When comparing Adler’s theory to classical psychoanalysis, we see that Adler placed more emphasis on

  1. A) society and culture.
  2. B) ego and superego conflict.
  3. C) hypnosis as a methodology.
  4. D) aggression.

Answer: A

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.1

Topic: Adler’s theory vs. classical psychoanalysis

  1. 64 and 65

 

8) According to Adler, the basic human motivation is to strive toward

  1. A) a better situation.
  2. B) sexual fulfillment.
  3. C) balance between the conscious and the unconscious.
  4. D) inner peace.

Answer: A

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.2

Topic: Basic motivation

  1. 66

 

9) Adler’s term, “__________,” has become widely known.

  1. A) transference
  2. B) psychic determinism
  3. C) collective unconscious
  4. D) inferiority complex

Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 4.2

Topic: Inferiority complex

  1. 66

 

10) Adler suggests that a person’s identity can be adversely affected when the person perceives the inability to overcome a “felt minus” situation. Adler claims that this perception puts a person at risk for

  1. A) perceiving oneself as a victim.
  2. B) a superiority complex.
  3. C) exaggerated transference.
  4. D) fictional finalism.

Answer: A

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 4.2

Topic: Felt minus and victim status

  1. 66 and 67

 

11) What were Adler’s views on the therapeutic value of first memories and dreams?

  1. A) First memories were not significant in therapy, although dreams were considered the “royal road to the unconscious.”
  2. B) Dreams and mistaken memories represented areas of repressed conflict.
  3. C) Emotions evoked in dreams and first memories were ignored in therapy.
  4. D) Dreams and first memories were useful in identifying the patient’s problem.

Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 4.2

Topic: First memories and dreams in therapy

  1. 67

 

12) The creative choices that people make to overcome perceptions of inferiority include fictional finalisms such as

  1. A) a strong, healthy body if the person is ill.
  2. B) a fortune, if the person feels held back by lack of money.
  3. C) admiration, if the person feels underappreciated.
  4. D) All of these could constitute fictional finalism examples

Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.2

Topic: Examples of fictional finalism

  1. 68

 

13) In his explanation of the concept of organ inferiority, Adler emphasized

  1. A) the inheritance of personality.
  2. B) the subjective experience of the child.
  3. C) the impact of physical limitations on the development of intelligence.
  4. D) determinism.

Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 4.2

Topic: Organ inferiority

  1. 68

 

14) According to Adler, the healthy way to deal with physical inferiorities is through

  1. A) denial.
  2. B) repression.
  3. C) compensation.
  4. D) social support.

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.2

Topic: Compensation

  1. 68

 

 

15) According to Adler, a child who suffers from a childhood crippling disease

  1. A) will probably become neurotic.
  2. B) will probably become psychotic.
  3. C) will probably not be affected psychologically because physical and psychological issues are separate.
  4. D) may have a variety of outcomes, depending upon his or her attitude toward the disability.

Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Learning Objective: 4.2

Topic: Organ inferiority

  1. 68

 

16) A child who fights with playmates may be expressing

  1. A) organ inferiority.
  2. B) masculine protest.
  3. C) the aggressive drive.
  4. D) superiority striving.

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Learning Objective: 4.2

Topic: Aggressive drive

  1. 68

 

17) Adler’s concept of the “aggressive drive” is most closely associated with the emotion of

  1. A) guilt.
  2. B) shame.
  3. C) embarrassment.
  4. D) anger.

Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 4.2

Topic: Aggressive drive and anger

  1. 68

 

18) An inferiority complex is

  1. A) a normal stage of development.
  2. B) a result of compensation for organ inferiority.
  3. C) an unhealthy outcome.
  4. D) a sign of mental health.

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.2

Topic: Inferiority complex

  1. 66 and 67

 

 

19) Which statement most accurately compares “superiority striving” and “perfection striving,” as Adler

used these terms?

  1. A) Superiority striving is neurotic; perfection striving is healthy.
  2. B) Superiority striving is healthy; perfection striving is neurotic.
  3. C) Superiority striving and perfection striving are similar and both are neurotic.
  4. D) Superiority striving and perfection striving are similar and both are healthy.

Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.2

Topic: Superiority and perfection striving

  1. 68

 

20) Organ inferiority, the aggressive drive, masculine protest, superiority striving, and perfection striving

are

  1. A) stages that occur, one after the other, in the development of normal personality.
  2. B) stages that occur, one after the other, in the development of unhealthy personality.
  3. C) stages in the development of Adler’s thinking about personality.
  4. D) various diagnostic categories.

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.2

Topic: Adler’s evolving ideas about striving

  1. 68

 

21) In Adler’s theory, a superiority complex is

  1. A) a sign that a person has achieved a high level of mental health.
  2. B) a requirement to become a therapist.
  3. C) unhealthy.
  4. D) not mentioned.

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 4.2

Topic: Superiority complex

  1. 67 and 68

 

22) Of the following, Adler most strongly emphasized

  1. A) determinism.
  2. B) the creative self.
  3. C) spirituality.
  4. D) sexuality.

Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.2

Topic: Creative self

  1. 68

 

 

23) Imagining what would make up for the negatives in our lives is, according to Adler,

  1. A) fictional finalism.
  2. B) a neurotic defense mechanism.
  3. C) characteristic of neglected children only.
  4. D) a superiority complex.

Answer: A

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.2

Topic: Fictional finalism

  1. 68 and 69

 

24) Which phrase corresponds most closely to Adler’s concept of “fictional finalism”?

  1. A) What we think will satisfy our sense of what is lacking in our lives
  2. B) Pretending that we have finally reached the goal
  3. C) A book or journal in which we imagine the last year of life and write about it
  4. D) A false theory, which has been finally given up

Answer: A

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.2

Topic: Fictional finalism

  1. 68 and 69

 

25) A person who has a fixed, unchanging, inflexible “fictional finalism” is probably

  1. A) an artist.
  2. B) a healthy personality.
  3. C) a neurotic.
  4. D) old.

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze it

Learning Objective: 4.2

Topic: Fictional Finalism (Neurotic)

  1. 69

 

26) When considering each person’s unique style of life, Adler identified three undesirable styles and one healthy style. Which of the following represents these styles most accurately?

  1. A) Getting types represent a healthy style of life
  2. B) Ruling types want other people to take care of them
  3. C) Avoiding types seek to dominate others
  4. D) Socially useful types have a well-developed sense of “social interest”

Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.3

Topic: Styles of life

  1. 70

 

 

 

27) Adler’s term that best describes an individual’s unique personality is

  1. A) family constellation.
  2. B) style of life.
  3. C) compensation.
  4. D) social interest.

Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.3

Topic: Style of life

  1. 71

 

28) Of the following, the most important key to understanding a person, according to Adler, is contained

in his or her

  1. A) dreams.
  2. B) attitudes toward people.
  3. C) first memories.
  4. D) physical characteristics.

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.3

Topic: First memory

  1. 71

 

29) Which of these questions would Adler ask in order to understand a person?

  1. A) “At what age were you toilet trained?”
  2. B) “Do you dream in color or in black and white?”
  3. C) “What is your earliest memory?”
  4. D) “What does this inkblot look like?”

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Learning Objective: 4.3

Topic: First memory

  1. 71

 

30) Which phrase did Adler use to refer to people who do not develop in a healthy way?

  1. A) Mistaken styles of life
  2. B) Psychologically underdeveloped
  3. C) Neurotic misfits
  4. D) Retarded

Answer: A

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.3

Topic: Mistaken styles of life

  1. 70

 

 

 

 

31) People who continually put down others as worthless have

  1. A) a mistaken style of life.
  2. B) a ruling type of personality.
  3. C) a deprecation complex.
  4. D) All of the above

Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 4.3

Topic: Ruling type, mistaken style of life, depreciation complex

  1. 70

 

32) The three mistaken styles of life identified by Adler are

  1. A) gluttony, greed, and crime.
  2. B) neurosis, psychosis, and retardation.
  3. C) ruling, getting, and avoiding.
  4. D) masculine protest, aggressive drive, and organ inferiority.

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.3

Topic: Mistaken Styles of Life

  1. 70

 

33) A person who is excessively passive and dependent has probably adopted a(n) __________ style of

life.

  1. A) avoiding
  2. B) getting
  3. C) ruling
  4. D) socially useful

Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.3

Topic: Getting type

  1. 70

 

34) People who suffer from agoraphobia are __________ type people, in Adler’s typology.

  1. A) avoiding
  2. B) getting
  3. C) ruling
  4. D) socially useful

Answer: A

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Learning Objective: 4.3

Topic: Avoiding type

  1. 70

 

 

 

35) Which type of personality is most healthy, according to Adler?

  1. A) The socially useful type
  2. B) The getting type
  3. C) The ruling type
  4. D) The avoiding type

Answer: A

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.3

Topic: Socially useful and healthy

  1. 70

 

36) According to Adler, a socially useful style of life is

  1. A) impossible in modern society.
  2. B) typical of extraverts.
  3. C) a mistaken style of life.
  4. D) healthy.

Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.3

Topic: Socially useful and healthy

  1. 70

 

37) According to Adler, a person’s style of life is determined by

  1. A) parents.
  2. B) the person’s own goals.
  3. C)
  4. D) biological factors.

Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.3

Topic: Styles of life and goals

  1. 69

 

38) Adler believed that a person’s style of life was in place by age

  1. A) 2.
  2. B) 5.
  3. C) 12.
  4. D) 25.

Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.3

Topic: Developmental age for styles of life

  1. 69

 

 

 

39) Adler recommended that parents should

  1. A) indulge their children. (There’s no such thing as a spoiled child!)
  2. B) avoid pampering their children.
  3. C) teach their children about sex roles.
  4. D) punish any early signs of homosexuality.

Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 4.4

Topic: Parental advice

  1. 71

 

40) Which statement best describes the attitude of Adlerian psychologists toward parents?

  1. A) Parents can learn to be more effective through training programs.
  2. B) Parents have much less impact on their children than is generally supposed.
  3. C) Parents should limit their families to no more than two children.
  4. D) Parents know what is best for their children.

Answer: A

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Learning Objective: 4.1

Topic: Parental training programs

  1. 65 and 66

 

41) The term “family constellation” refers to

  1. A) the genetics of personality.
  2. B) the number, age, and sex of siblings.
  3. C) the fact that grandparents are also important in determining personality.
  4. D) the family’s beliefs about who is the “star.”

Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.4

Topic: Family Constellation

  1. 71

 

42) Adler called attention to the importance of

  1. A) sexuality.
  2. B) age.
  3. C) birth order and siblings.
  4. D) pets.

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 4.4

Topic: Family Constellation

  1. 71

 

 

 

 

43) Oldest children are __________ by the arrival of later children, according to Adler.

  1. A) rewarded
  2. B) made higher in status
  3. C) deprived of their pacemaker
  4. D) dethroned

Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 4.4

Topic: Family Constellation (Oldest child)

  1. 71 and 72

 

44) According to Adler, the first-born child is likely to be

  1. A) a male.
  2. B) pampered.
  3. C) neglected.
  4. D) high in social interest.

Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.4

Topic: Family Constellation (First-born)

  1. 71

 

45) Adler described the first-born child as the __________ for the second child.

  1. A) parent substitute
  2. B) role model
  3. C) pacemaker
  4. D) fantasy sexual object

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.4

Topic: Family Constellation

  1. 72

 

46) The most favorable birth order, according to Adler, is the

  1. A) first-born.
  2. B) second-born.
  3. C) youngest child.
  4. D) only child.

Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.4

Topic: Family Constellation (Second-born child)

  1. 72

 

 

 

47) Adler described the youngest child as likely to be

  1. A) pampered or spoiled.
  2. B) high in social interest.
  3. C) deformed.
  4. D) rebellious.

Answer: A

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.4

Topic: Family Constellation (Youngest child)

  1. 72

 

48) What does research reveal about the differences Adler proposed regarding birth order effects?

  1. A) Research has demonstrated that contrary to Adler’s views, parents do not treat children differently as a function of their birth order.
  2. B) Research supports Adler’s claim that second-born children are the highest achievers.
  3. C) Research has demonstrated that firstborn children are more oriented toward their parents.
  4. D) Research has not supported a firstborn child’s “dethronement” when the second child is born.

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 4.4

Topic: Research on birth order and personality

  1. 73

 

49) The effects of birth order are

  1. A) consistently found, by research, to confirm Adler’s predictions.
  2. B) universal across cultures and socioeconomic levels.
  3. C) significant for achievement, supporting Adler’s theory, but not for other aspects of personality.
  4. D) often significant in research, but with varying effects in different studies.

Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 4.4

Topic: Research on Birth order

  1. 73

 

50) Frank Sulloway examined birth-order effects in famous historical figures such as Copernicus and

Darwin. Which of the following is NOT one of the criticisms of Sulloway’s work discussed in your text?

  1. A) History and the lives of historical figures are open to multiple interpretations.
  2. B) Other empirical research demonstrated opposite findings from those of Sulloway.
  3. C) Sulloway was too empirical in his approach.
  4. D) Sulloway was biased in choosing to study the people he examined.

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 4.4

Topic: Family Constellation (Sulloway’s analysis)

  1. 72 and 73

 

51) Adler’s major criterion for psychological health is

  1. A) the absence of anxiety.
  2. B) social interest.
  3. C) high achievement in school.
  4. D) creativity.

Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.5

Topic: Psychological health and social interest

  1. 73 and 74

 

52) From Adler’s point of view,

  1. A) a healthy personality has compensated for perceived inferiorities by engaging in social interaction.
  2. B) a healthy personality is one in which inferiority had never been experienced.
  3. C) it is unnecessary to involve the notion of social interest when discussing the determinants of a healthy personality.
  4. D) compensating for a felt “plus minus” in any way possible defines a healthy personality.

Answer: A

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 4.5

Topic: Psychological health

  1. 73 and 74

 

53) According to Adler, all neurosis stems from inadequate

  1. A) ambition.
  2. B) self-confidence.
  3. C) social interest.
  4. D) intelligence.

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.5

Topic: Neurosis and inadequate social interest

  1. 74

 

54) The three major tasks of life, according to Adler, are

  1. A) school, marriage, and parenthood.
  2. B) life style, financial security, and achievement.
  3. C) self-esteem, reputation, and challenge.
  4. D) love, work, and social interaction.

Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.5

Topic: Three Tasks of Life

  1. 74 and 75

 

 

 

55) According to Adler, which of the following is one of the three tasks of life?

  1. A) Artistic achievement
  2. B) Social interaction
  3. C) Political interest
  4. D) Education

Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.5

Topic: Three Tasks of Life

  1. 74 and 75

 

56) Adler suggested that if there is a fourth life task in addition to the three he named, it is

  1. A) reproduction.
  2. B) politics.
  3. C) art.
  4. D) recreation.

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.5

Topic: Possible fourth task of life

  1. 75

 

57) Unlike Freud and Jung, Adler considered the relevance of psychoanalysis to

  1. A) schools.
  2. B) women.
  3. C) therapy.
  4. D) dreams.

Answer: A

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.1

Topic:  Adler’s theory in schools

  1. 66

 

58) Adlerian therapy aims to increase people’s

  1. A) self-disclosure.
  2. B) ambition.
  3. C) social interest.
  4. D) ability to recall dreams.

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 4.1

Topic: Adler’s theory and therapy

  1. 66

 

 

 

 

 

59) According to Adler, the key to understanding dreams is

  1. A) whether they are in color or in black and white.
  2. B) what the person ate before going to sleep.
  3. C) whether the dream includes other people or only the dreamer.
  4. D) the emotion created by the dream.

Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.1

Topic: Dreams

  1. 67

 

60) Which statement best describes Adler’s views about the mind and the body?

  1. A) They are separate. Psychology should study only the mind.
  2. B) Mental activity can be explained entirely in terms of physical changes in the body, especially the

nervous system.

  1. C) They are closely interrelated. Mental conflict can lead to physical illness.
  2. D) The body is most important. If physical health is sound, there will be no mental conflicts.

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 4.1

Topic: Relation between mind and body

  1. 67

 

True/False

 

1) Adler’s theory emphasizes the uniqueness of each person.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 4.1

Topic: Uniqueness

  1. 64

 

2) Adler’s theory was influenced by the fact that he was very healthy as a child.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.1

Topic: Biography of Alfred Adler

  1. 64

 

3) Adler thought that the impact of physical handicaps on personality depends on a child’s subjective experience.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 4.2

Topic: Organ inferiority

  1. 68

4) It is unhealthy to try to compensate for physical handicaps, according to Adler.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.2

Topic: Organ inferiority and compensation

  1. 68

 

5) Adler criticized the traditional gender roles of his culture.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.2

Topic: Gender roles

  1. 68

 

6) Adler used the terms “aggressive drive” and “perfection striving” to refer to essentially the same

psychological process.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 4.2

Topic: Adler’s Evolving Ideas about Striving to Improve

  1. 68

 

7) When inferiority feelings are not overcome and growth stagnates, they are called inferiority

complex.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.2

Topic: Inferiority complex

  1. 66 and 67

 

8) A superiority complex is a sign of mental health.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.2

Topic: Superiority complex

  1. 66 and 67

 

9) Having a fictional finalism is a sign of mental disturbance, according to Adler.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.2

Topic: Fictional Finalism

  1. 68

 

 

10) People generally have a clear, precise image of their guiding life goal, according to Adler.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.2

Topic: Fictional Finalism

  1. 68

 

11) Unity of personality is important in Adler’s theory.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.3

Topic: Unity of personality

  1. 69

 

12) Adler thought that Freud had underestimated the importance of repression.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.3

Topic: Adler vs. Freud on repression

  1. 69

 

13) Early memories provide important information about personality, according to Adler.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.3

Topic: Early memories

  1. 69

 

14) Adler believed that a person’s style of life was in place by age 4 or 5.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.3

Topic: Development of Style of Life

  1. 69

 

15) Erroneous first memories are not useful for understanding a person.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 4.3

Topic: Erroneous memories

  1. 69

 

 

 

16) Adler emphasized the uniqueness of individuals, more than their shared qualities.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.3

Topic: Uniqueness of individuals

  1. 70

 

17) Some “ruling type” people are high achievers.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 4.3

Topic: Ruling types and achievement

  1. 70

 

18) Adler thought that artists and poets were avoiding type people.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 4.3

Topic: Styles of life (Artists and poets)

  1. 70

 

19) Adler agreed with Freud that important personality developments occur early in life.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.4

Topic: Early life influence on personality

  1. 71

 

20) Adler cautioned parents to avoid either pampering or neglecting their children.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.4

Topic: Parental advice

  1. 71

 

21) Effective parenting can be taught in parenting training programs.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concept

Learning Objective: 4.1

Topic: Parenting training programs

  1. 65

 

 

 

22) Adler proposed that the firstborn child would develop the healthiest personality.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 4.4

Topic: Family Constellation (Birth order)

  1. 72

 

23) Type A personalities are most likely to be firstborn children.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 4.4

Topic: Family Constellation (Birth order)

  1. 73

 

24) According to Adler, all neurosis stems from inadequate social interest.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.5

Topic: Neurosis and inadequate social interest

  1. 74

 

25) Research, in general, confirms that social interest correlates with many positive behaviors.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.5

Topic: Social interest as a measure of psychological health

  1. 74

 

26) Work is an important task of life, according to Adler.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.5

Topic: The Three Tasks of Life (Work)

  1. 74

 

27) Adler thought that monogamy was an old-fashioned value which was not consistent with modern psychological knowledge.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.5

Topic: The Three Tasks of Life (Love)

  1. 75

 

 

 

28) Social interaction is an important task of life, according to Adler.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.5

Topic: The Three Tasks of Life (Social interaction)

  1. 75

 

29) Adler was a major contributor to school psychology.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.1

Topic: Adler and school psychology

  1. 66

 

30) In Adlerian therapy, early memories provide information about the patient’s problem.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.2

Topic: Early memories and therapy

  1. 67

 

 

Essay

 

1) Provide an Adlerian analysis of Malala Yousafzai. Make sure you talk about her early development,

the influence of her parents and their parenting styles, her fictional finalism, and how she currently meets Adler’s criteria of psychological health.

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Learning Objectives: 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, & 4.5

Topic: Applying Adler’s theory

  1. 60-63

 

2) Describe a person’s fundamental motivation, according to Adler.

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.2

Topic: Fundamental motivation

  1. 66

 

3) What is “inferiority complex”?  How is it different from a feeling of inferiority?

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 4.2

Topic: Inferiority complex vs. feelings of inferiority

  1. 66 and 67

 

 

 

4) Explain the term fictional finalism. Give an example.

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts AND Apply What You Know

Learning Objective: 4.2

Topic: Fictional Finalism

  1. 68 and 69

 

5) Explain the disagreement between Adler and Freud about the importance of the unconscious.

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 4.1

Topic: Adler vs. Freud on unconscious

  1. 64 and 65

 

6) Jean says her earliest memory is of being lost at a family picnic. Discuss this memory from the perspective of Adler’s theory.

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Learning Objective: 4.3

Topic: First memories

  1. 69 and 70

 

7) List and explain Adler’s three mistaken styles of life.

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.3

Topic: Mistaken Styles of Life

  1. 69 and 70

 

8) How do parents contribute to their children’s personality development, according to Adler? What parental behaviors does he warn against?

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.4

Topic: Parental behavior and personality development

  1. 71

 

9) Explain how birth order influences personality, according to Adler.

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.4

Topic: Family Constellation (birth order)

  1. 71 and 72

 

10) Discuss the research on Adler’s birth order theory.

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 4.4

Topic: Research on birth order

  1. 72 and 73

 

11) Describe a mentally healthy personality, according to Adler.

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.5

Topic: Psychological health

  1. 73–75

 

12) Describe Adler’s contributions to school psychology.

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 4.1

Topic:  Adler and school psychology

  1. 66

 

13) Describe Adler’s approach to psychotherapy.

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 4.1

Topic: Adler and psychotherapy

  1. 66

 

 

Name:________________________________

 

Chapter 4—Quick Quiz

 

 

1) Adler’s theory is called

  1. A) psychoanalysis.
  2. B) social analysis.
  3. C) individual psychology.
  4. D) learning theory.

 

2) A person who cannot successfully compensate for inferiority, in Adler’s theory, develops a(n)

  1. A) inferiority complex.
  2. B) fictional finalism.
  3. C) aggressive drive.
  4. D) phobia.

 

3) Imagining what would make up for the negatives in our lives is, according to Adler,

  1. A) fictional finalism.
  2. B) a neurotic defense mechanism.
  3. C) characteristic of neglected children only.
  4. D) a superiority complex.

 

4) Of the following, the most important key to understanding a person, according to Adler, is contained in

his or her

  1. A) dreams.
  2. B) attitudes toward people.
  3. C) first memories.
  4. D) physical characteristics.

 

5) The three mistaken styles of life identified by Adler are

  1. A) gluttony, greed, and crime.
  2. B) neurosis, psychosis, and retardation.
  3. C) ruling, getting, and avoiding.
  4. D) masculine protest, aggressive drive, and organ inferiority.

 

6) According to Adler, a person’s style of life is determined by

  1. A) parents.
  2. B) the person’s own choices.
  3. C) early experience.
  4. D) biological factors.

 

 

7) The term “family constellation” refers to

  1. A) the genetics of personality.
  2. B) the number, age, and sex of siblings.
  3. C) the fact that grandparents are also important in determining personality.
  4. D) the family’s beliefs about who is the “star.”

 

 

8) Adler’s major criterion for psychological health is

  1. A) the absence of anxiety.
  2. B) social interest.
  3. C) high achievement in school.
  4. D) creativity.

 

9) The three major tasks of life, according to Adler, are

  1. A) school, marriage, and parenthood.
  2. B) life style, financial security, and achievement.
  3. C) self-esteem, reputation, and challenge.
  4. D) love, work, and social interaction.

 

10) Adler can be considered a pioneer in the field of

  1. A) ecology.
  2. B) psychosomatic medicine.
  3. C) gerontology.
  4. D) the heredity of personality.

 

Answer Key

Chapter 4 – Quick Quiz

 

1) Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.1

Topic: Individual psychology

  1. 64

 

2) Answer: A

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 4.2

Topic: Inferiority complex

  1. 66 and 67

 

3) Answer: A

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.2

Topic: Fictional Finalism

  1. 68 and 69

 

4) Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.3

Topic: First memory

  1. 71

 

5) Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.3

Topic: Mistaken Styles of Life

  1. 70

 

6) Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.3

Topic: Styles of Life

  1. 69

 

7) Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.4

Topic: Family Constellation

  1. 71

 

8) Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.5

Topic: Psychological health (Social interest)

  1. 73 and 74

 

9) Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 4.5

Topic: The Three Tasks of Life

  1. 74 and 75

 

10) Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 4.1

Topic: Relationship between mind and body

  1. 67

Theories of Personality, 7e (Cloninger)

Chapter 6

 

Multiple Choice

 

 

1) In what area did Horney most strongly disagree with psychoanalysis?

  1. A) The importance of the unconscious
  2. B) The importance of early experience
  3. C) The role of sexual conflict in personality
  4. D) The importance of the parent–child relationship

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.1

Topic: Horney’s disagreement with psychoanalysis

  1. 104

 

2) Horney’s interpersonal psychoanalytic theory proposed that

  1. A) parental love in childhood was essential for healthy development.
  2. B) parental neglect and rejection increased a child’s independence and resilience.
  3. C) basic anxiety was due to a fear of punishment.
  4. D) basic hostility was due to innate aggressive drives.

Answer: A

Difficulty level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning objective: 6.2

Topic: Parental love, basic anxiety and hostility

  1. 99, 105

 

3) Horney’s most important contribution to psychoanalysis was

  1. A) her stance that defense mechanisms help people effectively resolve repressed conflict.
  2. B) her recognition that culture contributes to mental health problems by encouraging neurotic tendencies.
  3. C) her emphasis on the influence of inadequate parent–teen relationships on adult personality.
  4. D) all of the above

Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 6.1

Topic: Horney’s contribution to psychoanalysis (Culture)

  1. 101

 

 

 

4) What social change had a major impact on Horney’s life?

  1. A) The rise of Nazi forces
  2. B) Increasing religious conflict
  3. C) Increasing opportunities for women
  4. D) The decline of agriculture

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.1

Topic: The Life of Karen Horney

  1. 103

 

5) A patient undergoing psychotherapy with Horney’s approach would

  1. A) be encouraged to explore a blocked libido with the intent of releasing it.
  2. B) spend time describing past conflicts rather than focusing on the present.
  3. C) be challenged to confront the idealized self and recognize a realistic self-concept.
  4. D) employ all of the above techniques.

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Learning Objective: 6.1

Topic: Horney’s Approach to Therapy (Idealized and real self)

  1. 104–105

 

6) According to Horney, the two most important emotions in infancy that influence later personality development are

  1. A) hope and trust.
  2. B) anxiety and hostility.
  3. C) depression and joy.
  4. D) fear and love.

Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.2

Topic: Topic: Basic anxiety and basic hostility

  1. 105

 

7) Which of the following is not one of the three interpersonal orientations described by Horney?

  1. A) Moving against
  2. B) Moving away
  3. C) Moving alongside
  4. D) Moving toward

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.2

Topic: Interpersonal orientations

  1. 105

 

 

 

8) When describing interpersonal orientations, Horney proposed three corresponding neurotic solutions. These include all of the following except

  1. A) the self-effacing solution.
  2. B) the expansive solution.
  3. C) the resignation solution.
  4. D) the defiant solution.

Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.2

Topic: Interpersonal orientations (Three Neurotic Solutions)

  1. 105

 

9) Research utilizing the Horney-Coolidge Measure of Interpersonal Orientations has found that

  1. A) the three orientations proposed by Horney relate to diagnosis of personality disorders.
  2. B) detachment scores correspond with moving against people.
  3. C) aggression scores correspond with moving away from people.
  4. D) all of the above are true.

Answer: A

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.2

Topic: Research findings (Interpersonal Orientations and personality disorders)

  1. 106 (Table 6.2)

 

10) According to Horney, people who are compliant with others’ needs, constantly seeking affection and approval, are

  1. A) high in social interest.
  2. B) likely to be aware of their own hostility.
  3. C) disproportionately focused on “moving toward.”
  4. D) emotionally healthy.

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.2

Topic: Moving toward People: The Self-Effacing Solution (Compliant type)

  1. 105–106

 

11) A person who adopts the “expansive solution” is a(n)

  1. A) moving toward type person.
  2. B) moving against type person.
  3. C) moving away type person.
  4. D) emotionally healthy person.

Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 6.2

Topic: Moving against People: The Expansive Solution

  1. 105–106

 

 

 

12) A person who adopts the “resignation solution” is a(n)

  1. A) moving toward type person.
  2. B) moving against type person.
  3. C) moving away type person.
  4. D) emotionally well-balanced person.

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 6.2

Topic: Moving Away from People: The Resignation Solution

  1. 107

 

13) Parental neglect and rejection makes a child angry according to Horney, leading to a dilemma for the child as to whether to express their anger or not. Horney called this

  1. A) basic evil.
  2. B) basic anxiety.
  3. C) basic hostility.
  4. D) basic conflict.

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.2

Topic: Basic Hostility

  1. 105

 

14) If a child does not feel loved and safe, he/she feels vulnerable. The term used by Horney to describe this is

  1. A) basic evil.
  2. B) basic anxiety.
  3. C) basic hostility.
  4. D) basic conflict.

Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.2

Topic: Basic Anxiety

  1. 105

 

15) The appeal of mastery is related to

  1. A) the self-effacing solution.
  2. B) the expansive solution.
  3. C) the resignation solution.
  4. D) none of the above.

Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 6.2

Topic: Moving Against People: The Expansive Solution (Mastery)

  1. 105 (table), 106

 

16) The appeal of love is related to

  1. A) the self-effacing solution.
  2. B) the expansive solution.
  3. C) the resignation solution.
  4. D) none of the above

Answer: A

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 6.2

Topic: Moving Toward People: The Self-Effacing Solution (Love)

  1. 105 (table), 106

 

17) The “detached” personality is related to

  1. A) the self-effacing solution.
  2. B) the expansive solution.
  3. C) the resignation solution.
  4. D) none of the above

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.2

Topic: Moving Away from People: The Resignation Solution (Detached)

  1. 105 (table), 107

 

18) The “aggressive” personality is related to

  1. A) the self-effacing solution.
  2. B) the expansive solution.
  3. C) the resignation solution.
  4. D) none of the above

Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.2

Topic: Moving Against People: The Expansive Solution (Aggressive type)

  1. 105 (table), 106

 

19) A healthy person, according to Horney,

  1. A) moves toward people.
  2. B) moves against people.
  3. C) moves away from people.
  4. D) all of the above

Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.2

Topic: Healthy Use of Interpersonal Orientations

  1. 107

 

 

 

 

20) In Horney’s theory, “adjustment techniques” refer to

  1. A) aligning your body posture to present a more confident sense of self.
  2. B) the use of defense mechanisms.
  3. C) the conscious decision to adapt or adjust to challenges.
  4. D) making modifications in lifestyle when a relationship breaks up.

Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.3

Topic: Adjustment techniques to basic anxiety (defense mechanisms)

  1. 107

 

21) The growth potential within a person belongs to the __________ (in Horney’s theory).

  1. A) anticipated self
  2. B) idealized self
  3. C) social self
  4. D) real self

Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.3

Topic: Adjustments to Basic Anxiety (Real self)

  1. 108

 

22) A very high degree of emphasis on the idealized self is, according to Horney,

  1. A) a sign of mental health.
  2. B) typical of men but not of women.
  3. C) typical of women but not of men.
  4. D) neurotic.

Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 6.3

Topic: Adjustments to Basic Anxiety (Idealized self)

  1. 108

 

23) Which of the following is not one of Horney’s “major attempts at solution?”

  1. A) Eclipsing the conflict
  2. B) Detachment
  3. C) Externalization
  4. D) Rationalization

Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.3

Topic: Four Major Adjustments to Basic Anxiety

  1. 107–108

 

 

 

24) Horney described some people as over-valuing the idealized self. The term for this is “the tyranny of the __________.”

  1. A) shoulds
  2. B) idealized self
  3. C) conscience
  4. D) neurotic ideal

Answer: A

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.3

Topic: The Tyranny of the Shoulds

  1. 108

 

25) Horney used the term __________ to refer to projection of inner conflicts onto the outside world.

  1. A) detachment
  2. B) transference
  3. C) moving away
  4. D) externalization

Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.3

Topic: Externalization

  1. 108

 

26) According to Horney, the four major adjustment strategies

  1. A) eliminate neurosis.
  2. B) are signs of psychosis.
  3. C) create the appearance of harmony without solving the neurotic problem.
  4. D) are more commonly used by women than by men.

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.3

Topic: Four Major Adjustments to Basic Anxiety

  1. 107–108

 

27) Blind spots prevent us from

  1. A) detecting dangers in the world.
  2. B) realizing how little our parents really loved us.
  3. C) seeing our own faults.
  4. D) experiencing jealousy.

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understanding the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.3

Topic: Secondary Adjustment Techniques (Blind spots)

  1. 108–109

 

 

 

28) By using the defense mechanism of compartmentalization, people

  1. A) become rigidly compulsive.
  2. B) engage in incompatible behaviors, but each at a different time, in a different setting.
  3. C) project their conflicts onto other people.
  4. D) think they are always right.

Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 6.3

Topic: Secondary Adjustment Techniques (Compartmentalization)

  1. 109

 

29) In the defense mechanism of __________, a person gives socially acceptable reasons for behavior, though they may not be the true reasons.

  1. A) self-control
  2. B) self-presentation
  3. C) elusiveness
  4. D) rationalization

Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.3

Topic: Secondary Adjustment Techniques (Rationalization)

  1. 109

 

30) People who never experience much emotion, whether anger, rage, sexual excitement, or other emotions, are probably __________, according to Horney.

  1. A) mentally healthy
  2. B) “moving against” types
  3. C) using excessive self-control
  4. D) using rationalization

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.3

Topic: Secondary Adjustment Techniques (Excessive self-control)

  1. 109

 

31) People who use the defense mechanism of elusiveness

  1. A) declare dogmatically that their position is the correct one.
  2. B) tend to be artistic.
  3. C) avoid commitment to any particular position.
  4. D) deny moral values.

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.3

Topic: Secondary Adjustment Techniques (Elusiveness)

  1. 109

 

 

 

32) Horney described the primary neurotic conflict of her time as the conflict between

  1. A) love and hate.
  2. B) competitiveness and cooperation.
  3. C) competitiveness and love.
  4. D) men and women.

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.4

Topic: Primary conflict (competitiveness and love)

  1. 109

 

33) Horney was particularly interested in the impact of culture on __________.

  1. A) education
  2. B) occupational choice
  3. C) violence
  4. D) gender roles

Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.4

Topic: Culture and Gender Roles

  1. 110

 

34) According to Eagly’s social role theory, differences between men and women can be explained in

terms of

  1. A) sex hormones.
  2. B) cultural expectations.
  3. C) physical strength.
  4. D) intelligence.

Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.4

Topic: Gender Roles (Social Role Theory)

  1. 110

 

35) Culture, according to Horney, encourages women to develop

  1. A) fear of success.
  2. B) fear of failure.
  3. C) fear of relationships.
  4. D) fear of men.

Answer: A

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.4

Topic: Gender Roles (Fear of Success)

  1. 110 (table)

 

 

 

36) According to research by Brems and Johnson (1990), the Bem Sex-Role Inventory scale for Femininity is very highly correlated with a measure of

  1. A) intelligence.
  2. B) masochism.
  3. C) interpersonal potency.
  4. D) interpersonal sensitivity.

Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 6.4

Topic: Gender Roles (Research on Femininity and Interpersonal Sensitivity)

  1. 110 (table)

 

37) In response to Freud’s assertion that women experience penis envy, Horney replied that

  1. A) men also experience penis envy.
  2. B) women outgrow penis envy when they get married.
  3. C) men experience breast envy.
  4. D) men experience womb envy.

Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.4

Topic: Womb Envy vs. Penis Envy

  1. 110 (table)

 

38) Research on the relationship between sex role orientation and mental health shows that

  1. A) psychological masculinity is associated with higher mental health in men, but not in women.
  2. B) psychological femininity is associated with higher mental health in women, but not in men.
  3. C) psychological masculinity is associated with higher mental health in both sexes.
  4. D) psychological femininity is associated with higher mental health in both sexes.

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 6.4

Topic: Gender Roles (Research on Psychological Masculinity and Mental Health)

  1. 110 (table)

 

39) Cross-cultural research suggests that people value their achievement goals particularly in __________ cultures.

  1. A) collectivist
  2. B) individualistic
  3. C) Latin American
  4. D) traditional

Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.4

Topic: Achievement goals and culture

  1. 110

 

 

 

40) Which of the following statements would Horney most likely reject regarding therapy?

  1. A) Counselors can be biased in their work with clients because of their own ethnic background.
  2. B) Counselors can be biased in their work with clients because of their own sexual orientation.
  3. C) Therapists are uninfluenced by culture.
  4. D) Analysis is valuable.

Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 6.4

Topic: Influence of culture on therapy

  1. 111

 

41) There would be less neurosis, according to Horney’s theory, if

  1. A) people ate more well-balanced diets.
  2. B) parents expressed more warmth and affection to their children.
  3. C) society was more permissive about sex.
  4. D) schools were less rigidly structured.

Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 6.4

Topic: Parental Behavior and Healthy Personality Development

  1. 111

 

42) In psychoanalysis, relationship partners are referred to as objects that can satisfy libidinal desires. The term often used for this is

  1. A) Object permanence
  2. B) Object relations
  3. C) Object love
  4. D) Object adoption

Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.5

Topic: Object Relations

  1. 112–113

 

43) The relational model would suggest that early relationships

  1. A) are important because children do not yet have a sense of themselves as separate persons.
  2. B) are the basis for developing internal representations of self and others.
  3. C) prepare individuals for the expectation of love or rejection from others.
  4. D) All of the above

Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.5

Topic: Importance of early relationships

  1. 112–113

 

 

 

44) When comparing the relational approach to therapy with Freud’s psychoanalytic approach, we see that the relational perspectives

  1. A) place greater emphasis on the interaction with the therapist itself.
  2. B) claim that therapists’ behavior influences what happens in therapy sessions.
  3. C) suggest that the patient–therapist relationship provides an opportunity for the client to transform old maladaptive relationships patterns.
  4. D) all of these are consistent with the relational approach

Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the concepts

Learning Objective: 6.5

Topic: Relational approach vs. Freudian approach to therapy

  1. 115

 

45) Research using Ainsworth’s strategy of observing infants in the presence of a stranger

  1. A) is consistent with Horney’s model of interpersonal orientations.
  2. B) disconfirms Horney’s model of interpersonal orientations.
  3. C) shows that all infants are frightened of strangers.
  4. D) shows that infants raised by neurotic parents prefer a stranger to their biological mothers.

Answer: A

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 6.6

Topic: Infant Attachment (Correspondence of Horney’s model with Ainsworth’s research)

  1. 116 (Table 6.5)

 

46)  From Bowlby’s perspective, attachment is based on

  1. A) a learning model, governed by reinforcement histories.
  2. B) instinct, which functions in an evolutionary sense to ensure the infant’s survival.
  3. C) social-exchange, in which both the infant and the caregiver benefit.
  4. D) cultural norms.

Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the concepts

Learning Objective: 6.6

Topic: Infant Attachment (Bowlby)

  1. 116

 

47) Children are likely to grow up with secure attachment if their parents are

  1. A) psychologically healthy.
  2. B) warm and protective.
  3. C) responsive to the needs of the child.
  4. D) all of the above

Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 6.6

Topic: Parental behavior and secure attachment style

  1. 116–117

 

 

 

48) Research on adult attachment finds that

  1. A) childhood attachment influences love relationships in adulthood.
  2. B) childhood attachment does not predict adult attachment.
  3. C) Horney’s theory was fundamentally wrong about attachment.
  4. D) attachment is important for understanding female personality, but not male personality.

Answer: A

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 6.6

Topic: Adult Attachments and Relationships

  1. 116–117

 

49) Sperling et al.’s (1992) style of _______________________ adult attachment is consistent with Horney’s interpersonal orientation of ______________________.

  1. A) hostile; moving against
  2. B) avoidant; moving against
  3. C) dependent; moving away
  4. D) hostile; moving away

Answer: A

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 6.6

Topic: Attachment Styles and Interpersonal Orientations

  1. 116–117 (Table 6.6)

 

50) Hazen and Shaver (1987) proposed a model of adult attachments style that includes the following types:

  1. A) Secure, hostile, and dependent
  2. B) Avoidant, anxious-ambivalent, and secure
  3. C) Dependent, anxious-ambivalent, and hostile
  4. D) Secure, hostile, and anxious-ambivalent

Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.6

Topic: Attachment styles (Hazen and Shaver)

  1. 116–117

 

 

 

True/False

 

1) According to the text, Marilyn Monroe’s analyst apparently did not confront her neurotic needs as Horney’s theory suggests he should have.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 6.1

Topic: Application of Horney’s interpersonal psychoanalysis to Marilyn Monroe

  1. 101

 

2) Horney challenged the psychoanalytic idea that the unconscious has powerful effects on experience.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.1

Topic: Horney’s views on the unconscious

  1. 104

 

3) According to Horney, young children experience a fundamental conflict between dependency and hostility.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.2

Topic: Fundamental conflict in childhood

  1. 105

 

4) People who adopt the self-effacing solution are seeking to be loved.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.2

Topic: Self-effacing solution

  1. 105 (table), 106

 

5) People who adopt the expansive solution are moving toward others.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 6.2

Topic: Expansive Solution

  1. 105 (table), 106

 

6) The Horney-Coolidge Type Indicator assesses Horney’s three interpersonal orientations.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.2

Topic: Horney-Coolidge Type Indicator

  1. 106 (Table 6.2)

7) The self-effacing solution is also called the “compliant” personality

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.2

Topic: The Self-Effacing Solution

  1. 105 (table), 106

 

8) The expansive solution is also called the “detached” personality

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.2

Topic: Expansive Solution

  1. 105 (table), 106

 

9) The “aggressive” personality is related to the expansive solution in Horney’s theory.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.2

Topic: Aggressive Personality and Expansive Solution

  1. 105 (table), 106

 

10) People who adopt the resignation solution live by the motto, “If you love me, you will not hurt me.”

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 6.2

Topic: Resignation Solution

  1. 105 (table), 107

 

11) Assertive behavior corresponds to what Horney called “adequate aggressiveness.”

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 6.2

Topic: Healthy Versus Neurotic Use of Interpersonal Orientations

  1. 107

 

12) Horney’s four major adjustment strategies, when followed conscientiously, eliminate neurosis.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 6.3

Topic: Healthy adjustment techniques to basic anxiety

  1. 107

 

 

 

 

13) A “moving against” type person eclipses dependency.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 6.3

Topic: Major Adjustments to Basic Anxiety (Eclipsing the Conflict)

  1. 107–108

 

14) A “moving away” type person uses the major adjustment strategy of detachment.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 6.3

Topic: Major Adjustments to Basic Anxiety (Detachment)

  1. 108

 

15) Neurotic people turn away from the real self.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 6.3

Topic: Neurotic People and Idealized vs. Real Self

  1. 108

 

16) According to Horney, mentally healthy people constantly remind themselves what sort of person they should be.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.3

Topic: Mentally Healthy people and Tyranny of the Shoulds

  1. 108

 

17) The defense mechanism of projection is a kind of externalization.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.3

Topic: Projection and Externalization

  1. 108

 

18) High levels of self-control can be neurotic, according to Horney.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 6.3

Topic: Secondary Adjustment Techniques (Excessive Self-Control)

  1. 109

 

 

 

19) Consider the joke about the neighbor who said he didn’t borrow a bucket; besides, it was leaking when he borrowed it; besides, he already returned it.  This joke illustrates the defense mechanism of elusiveness.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Learning Objective: 6.3

Topic: Secondary Adjustment Techniques (Elusiveness)

  1. 109

 

20) Horney agreed with Freud that personality is affected by biology.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.4

Topic: Horney’s views on biology and personality

  1. 101, 109

 

21) Horney thought Freud had underestimated the extent to which personality is influenced by culture.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 6.4

Topic: Horney’s views on culture and personality

  1. 109–111

 

22) According to Horney, culture, rather than biology, defines what is masculine and what is feminine.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.4

Topic: Gender Roles (Culture vs. biology defined)

  1. 110

 

23) Research confirms the hypothesis that traditionally feminine women are more mentally healthy than are nontraditional women.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.4

Topic: Gender Roles (Mental Health)

  1. 110 (table)

 

24) Individualism contributes to the sort of achievement conflicts described by Horney.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 6.4

Topic: Culture and achievement conflicts

  1. 110–111

 

25) The relational approach to therapy emphasizes interpersonal relationships, particularly with the father.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.5

Topic: Relational approach within psychoanalytic theory

  1. 112

 

26) The relational model was presented by Horney and others as an alternative Freud’s drive model.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.5

Topic: Relational approach within psychoanalytic theory

  1. 112

 

27) The goal of Horney’s therapy is to make a person more like the idealized self.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 6.1

Topic: Goals of therapy (Idealized vs. real self)

  1. 104–105

 

28) One of the goals Horney described for psychoanalysis was to help people to be better parents.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.4

Topic: Horney’s goals for helping parents

  1. 111

 

29) If their parents were divorced, children are at increased risk for problems with attachment.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.6

Topic: Attachment in Infancy and Adulthood: Longitudinal Studies on Attachment (Divorce)

  1. 118

 

30) Because attachment issues cause major personality change in young adulthood, it is not possible to predict patterns of attachment in middle age from earlier attachment.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.6

Topic: Attachment in Infancy and Adulthood: Longitudinal Studies on Attachment

  1. 117–118

 

 

 

Essay Questions

 

1) Using Horney’s theories of personality, explain Marilyn Monroe’s often neurotic and self-destructive behavior.

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Learning Objective: 6.1

Topic: Application of Horney’s theory to Marilyn Monroe

  1. 99–102

 

2) Discuss the Horney-Coolidge Type Indicator (HCTI) and its correlation to personality disorders and the three orientations suggested by Horney.

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Learning Objective: 6.2

Topic: Horney-Coolidge Type Indicator (HCTI) and orientations

  1. 106 (Table 6.2)

 

3) Describe the emotional conflicts of early life, according to Horney’s theory.

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.2

Topic: Emotional conflicts (Basic anxiety, basic hostility and interpersonal orientations)

  1. 105–107

 

4) List and describe Horney’s three interpersonal orientations.

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.2

Topic: Interpersonal orientations

  1. 105–107

 

5) Explain the terms “self-effacing solution,” “expansive solution,” and “resignation solution” in relation to the three interpersonal orientations.

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.2

Topic: Three neurotic solutions and interpersonal orientations

  1. 105–107

 

6) Explain the difference between healthy and neurotic use of the interpersonal orientations.

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.2

Topic: Topic: Healthy Versus Neurotic Use of Interpersonal Orientations

  1. 107

 

 

 

 

7) Describe the neurotic’s attitude toward the real self, according to Horney’s theory.  How is this different from the attitude of a healthy person toward the real self?

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 6.3

Topic: Comparing the Idealized to Real Self in Neurotic vs. Healthy Person

  1. 108

 

8) Explain and give examples of these defense mechanisms:  blind spots; rationalization; and  elusiveness.

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.3

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Topic: Secondary Adjustment Techniques (Defense mechanisms)

  1. 108–109

 

9) Discuss Horney’s ideas about cultural determinants of personality and neurosis.

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Learning Objective: 6.4

Topic: Cultural determinants of personality development

  1. 109–111

 

10) Explain what is meant by “fear of success.”  How did Horney’s theory contribute to this concept?

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts and Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 6.4

Topic: Gender Roles (Fear of Success)

  1. 110 (table)

 

11) Explain what Horney meant by “womb envy.”

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 6.4

Topic: Gender Roles (Womb Envy)

  1. 110 (table)

 

12) What is the relational approach within psychoanalytic theory? Compare and contrast its major emphasis with those of Freud and Horney.

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts and Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 6.5

Topic: Relational approach within psychoanalytic theory

  1. 112–115

 

13) Discuss the development and importance of the sense of self in relationships from the relational theory standpoint.

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 6.5

Topic: Relational approach within psychoanalytic theory: The Sense of Self in Relationships

  1. 113–114

14) Discuss the impact of narcissism on individuals and relationships from a relational approach.

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Learning Objective: 6.5

Topic: Narcissism and the Relational approach within psychoanalytic theory

  1. 114–115

 

15) Discuss research on infant and adult attachment from the perspective of Horney’s theory and the relational approach.

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.6

Topic: Infant and adult attachment in relationships

  1. 116–117

 

 

 

Name:________________________________

 

Chapter 6—Quick Quiz

 

  1. Which word best summarizes the attitude of the psychoanalytic community toward Horney?
  2. A) jealousy
  3. B) admiration
  4. C) hostility
  5. D) gratitude

 

  1. According to Horney, the two most important emotions in infancy that influence later development are
  2. A) hope and trust.
  3. B) anxiety and hostility.
  4. C) depression and joy.
  5. D) fear and love.

 

  1. Which of the following is not one of the three interpersonal orientations described by Horney?
  2. A) moving against
  3. B) moving away
  4. C) moving alongside
  5. D) moving toward

 

  1. Which interpersonal orientation(s) does a healthy person use, according to Horney?
  2. A) moving toward, but not against or away
  3. B) moving away, but not toward or against
  4. C) moving against, but not toward or away
  5. D) moving toward, against, and away

 

  1. A person who adopts the “self-effacing solution”
  2. A) is mentally healthy.
  3. B) is a “moving toward” type person.
  4. C) is a “moving away” type person.
  5. D) is a “moving against” type person.

 

  1. A “moving away” type person uses the major adjustment strategy of
  2. A) eclipsing.
  3. B) detachment.
  4. C) externalization.
  5. D) compensation.

 

  1. According to Horney, the four major adjustment strategies
  2. A) eliminate neurosis.
  3. B) are signs of psychosis.
  4. C) create the appearance of harmony without solving the neurotic problem.
  5. D) are more commonly used by women than by men.

 

 

  1. According to Horney, differences between males and females are
  2. A) primarily due to biological causes.
  3. B) primarily due to lack of communication.
  4. C) primarily due to cultural forces.
  5. D) not very great, when we really get to know people.

 

  1. In response to Freud’s assertion that women experience penis envy, Horney replied that
  2. A) men also experience penis envy.
  3. B) women outgrow penis envy when they get married.
  4. C) men experience breast envy.
  5. D) men experience womb envy.

 

  1. Children are likely to grow up with secure attachment if their parents are
  2. A) psychologically healthy.
  3. B) warm and protective.
  4. C) responsive to the needs of the child.
  5. D) all of the above

 

Answer Key

Chapter 6—Quick Quiz

 

  1. Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.1

Topic: Attitude of the psychoanalytic community toward Horney

  1. 103

 

  1. Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.2

Topic: Two most important emotions in infancy

  1. 105

 

  1. Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.2

Topic: Three interpersonal orientations

  1. 105

 

  1. Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.2

Topic: Healthy versus Neurotic Use of Interpersonal Orientations

  1. 105

 

  1. Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

Learning Objective: 6.2

Topic: Moving Toward People: The Self-Effacing Solution

  1. 105–106

 

  1. Answer: B

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.3

Topic: Four Major Adjustments to Basic Anxiety (Detachment)

  1. 108

 

 

 

  1. Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.3

Topic: Four Major Adjustments to Basic Anxiety

  1. 107–108

 

  1. Answer: C

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 6.4

Topic: Cultural influence on Gender Roles

  1. 110

 

  1. Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 6.4

Topic: Gender Roles (Womb Envy vs. Penis Envy)

  1. 110 (table)

 

  1. Answer: D

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Evaluate It

Learning Objective: 6.6

Topic: Parental behavior and attachment

  1. 116–117

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