The World of Psychology 7th Edition by Samuel E. Wood – Test Bank

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Test Bank For The World of Psychology 7th Edition by Samuel E. Wood 

 

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Sample Questions

 

4 States of Consciousness

 

Key: Answer, Page, Type, Learning Objective, Level

 

Type

A=Applied

C=Conceptual

F=Factual

Level

(1)=Easy; (2)=Moderate; (3)=Difficult

 

LO=Learning Objective

p=page

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

What is Consciousness?

 

Learning Objective 4.1 – How have psychologists’ views about consciousness changed since the early days of psychology?

 

  1. What term do psychologists use to designate our personal awareness of feelings, sensations,

and thoughts?

  1. a) thinking
  2. b) cognition
  3. c) conscience

Incorrect. Conscience is related to morality, not awareness.

  1. d) consciousness

Correct. Consciousness is defined as personal awareness of feelings, sensations, and thoughts.

ANS: d, p. 116, F, LO=4.1, (1)

% correct 70      a= 4  b= 21  c= 5    d= 70    r = .20

% correct 78      a= 7  b= 0    c= 15  d= 78    r = .19    

 

  1. Awareness of one’s own perceptions, thoughts, feelings, sensations and external environment is __________
  2. a) awareness.
  3. b) existence.
  4. c) consciousness.

Correct.  This is the correct definition of consciousness.

  1. d) attention.

Incorrect.  Attention is the focusing of our consciousness onto a specific stimulus or group of stimuli.

ANS: c, p. 116, F, LO=4.1, (1) 

 

  1. Consciousness is the __________
  2. a) state of arousal involving facial and bodily changes.
  3. b) awareness of ourselves and the environment.

Correct. Consciousness is defined as awareness.

  1. c) memory of personally experienced events.

Incorrect. Consciousness is more than just memory.

  1. d) intentional recollection of an item of information.

ANS: b, p. 116, C, LO=4.1, (1)

% correct 100      a= 0  b= 100  c= 0  d= 0      r = .00

 

  1. Our awareness of various mental processes, such as making decisions, daydreaming, reflecting, and concentrating, is called __________
  2. a)

Correct. Consciousness is defined as awareness.

  1. b)
  2. c)
  3. d) self-awareness.

Incorrect. This is only part of the definition of consciousness.

ANS: a, p. 116, F, LO=4.1, (1)

 

  1. Changes in awareness produced by meditation, hypnosis, and drugs are generally referred to as__________
  2. a) circadian rhythms.

Incorrect.  A circadian rhythm refers to the body’s 24-hour biological cycle.

  1. b) altered states of consciousness.

Correct. An altered state can be induced by many different forms. Sleep and daydreaming are also altered states of consciousness.

  1. c) generational states.
  2. d) quasi-consciousness.

ANS: b, p. 116, F, LO=4.1, (2) 

 

  1. What do we call a state of consciousness that can result from the use of alcohol, drugs, or hypnosis?
  2. a) daydreaming
  3. b) meditative absorption
  4. c) stream of consciousness

Incorrect. In stream of consciousness there is no shift or alteration generally caused by drugs in the pattern of consciousness.

  1. d) altered state of consciousness

Correct. The use of drugs or hypnosis “alters” our consciousness.

ANS: d, p. 116, F, LO=4.1, (2)

% correct 91      a= 2  b= 5  c= 2  d= 91      r = .37

 

  1. Mental activities that differ noticeably from normal waking consciousness are known as __________
  2. a)
  3. b) unconscious states.

Incorrect. Remember that a person’s unconscious state is not noticeable by the person.

  1. c) relaxed wakefulness.
  2. d) altered states of consciousness.

Correct. Altered states differ noticeably from normal waking consciousness.

ANS: d, pp. 116-117, C, LO=4.1, (2)

% correct 100      a= 0  b= 0  c= 0  d= 100      r = .00

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT an altered state of consciousness?
  2. a) concentration

Correct. This is a normal state of consciousness, not an altered one.

  1. b) meditation

Incorrect. This is an altered state because there is a shift in the pattern of consciousness.

  1. c) sleep
  2. d) intoxication

ANS: a, p. 116, F, LO=4.1, (2)

 

 

 

  1. Meditation, drug intoxication, sleep, and hypnosis are all types of __________
  2. a) self-awareness.

Incorrect. This is awareness in a nonaltered state.

  1. b) self-absorption.
  2. c) waking consciousness.
  3. d) altered states of consciousness.

Correct. The above are altered states of consciousness.

ANS: d, p. 116, F, LO=4.1, (1)

 

  1. U.S. psychologists did not study consciousness for many decades because of the influence of _________
  2. a) John Watson.

Correct. Watson, a behaviorist, did not feel that consciousness could be studied scientifically.

  1. b) Sigmund Freud.

Incorrect. Theorizing about different layers of consciousness was a major part of Freud’s work.

  1. c) Gestalt psychology.
  2. d) William James.

ANS: a, p. 116, F, LO=4.1, (1) 

 

Learning Objective 4.2 – What is the connection between altered states of consciousness and culture?

 

  1. Because throughout history so many cultures have found ways to induce altered states of consciousness, experts have suggested which of the following?
  2. a) Altering states have a genetic basis.
  3. b) There may be a universal human need to produce varieties of conscious experiences.

Correct. The ubiquity of altered states of consciousness across culturse suggests that it may be a universal human need.

  1. c) That there may be a global moratorium on mood altering drugs.
  2. d) Altering states may be innate.

Incorrect.  If altering consciousness was innate, it would be possible without any external “help,” such as hypnosis, meditation, or drugs.

ANS: b, pp. 117-118, C, LO=4.2, (2) 

 

  1. One religious practice from Brazil that conflicts with Western-based opinions regarding mental health is __________
  2. a) mediumship.

Correct. In this practice, specially trained “mediums” are used as a guide to communicating with the spirit world.

  1. b) peyotism.
  2. c) Jainism.

Incorrect. Jainism is a religion that comes from India and promotes harmony with all living things and creatures.

  1. d) ritual trance.

ANS: a, p. 117, F, LO=4.2, (3) 

 

  1. One argument advanced by members of the Native American Church in favor of continued peyote use is that __________
  2. a) church officials carefully regulate the dosages of the drug used during their rituals.

Correct. Peyote has been used for many generations in these churches, and they have argued that the practice should continue under carefully regulated and monitored situations.

  1. b) peyote is a relatively safe and effective means of allowing communications with the spirit world.

Incorrect. The overuse of peyote is dangerous, and is recognized as such even in churches where it is used.

  1. c) church members do not ordinarily consume enough peyote to induce hallucinations.
  2. d) other means of achieving spirituality tend to be more addictive than peyote.

ANS: a, p. 117, F, LO=4.2, (1) 

 

Circadian Rhythms

 

Learning Objective 4.3 – How do biological and environmental variables influence circadian rhythms?

 

  1. A circadian cycle is about __________ hours long.
  2. a) 5
  3. b) 12

Incorrect. This is only one-half of the cycle.

  1. c) 6
  2. d) 24

Correct. From this 24-hour cycle comes the term “about a day.”

ANS: d, p. 118, F, LO=4.3, (1)

 

  1. A biological cycle, or rhythm, that is approximately 24 hours long is called a(n) __________ cycle.
  2. a) infradian

Incorrect. Infradian means less than a day.

  1. b) circadian

Correct. The sleep–wake cycle is an example of this. It takes about 24 hours.

  1. c) diurnal
  2. d) ultradian

ANS: b, p. 118, F, LO=4.3, (1)

% correct 93      a= 7  b= 93  c= 0  d= 0      r = .33

% correct 93      a= 0  b= 93  c= 5  d= 2      r = .49

 

  1. Our sleep–wake cycle follows a(n) __________ rhythm.
  2. a) infradian

Incorrect. Infradian means less than a day.

  1. b) diurnal
  2. c) circadian

Correct. From this cycle comes the term “about a day.”

  1. d) ultradian

ANS: c, p. 118, F, LO=4.3, (1)

% correct 100      a= 0  b= 0  c= 100  d= 0      r = .00

 

  1. John has noticed that every night he awakens to go to the restroom at about 4:00 AM. This is an example of a(n) __________
  2. a) altered state of consciousness.

Incorrect. The fact that John is asleep is an altered state of consciousness, but this question asks about a cycling biological function.

  1. b) caffeine addiction.
  2. c) circadian rhythm.

Correct. John is experiencing the same biological function at approximately the same time. This demonstrates the circadian rhythm.

  1. d) sleep apnea.

ANS: c, p. 118, A, LO=4.3, (2) 

 

  1. What aspect of circadian rhythms might explain why we tend to feel so tired at night?
  2. a) body temperature bottoms out on Monday mornings
  3. b) the three biorhythm patterns converge at low points on Mondays
  4. c) heart rates typically increase at night

Incorrect. There is no evidence that heart rates increase at night. Increased heart rates might even make you less sleepy.

  1. d) there is an organ in the brain sensitive to light changes, which then affects our sleepiness

Correct. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is light sensitive and causes sleepiness when there is less light.

ANS: d, p. 119, A, LO=4.3, (3)

 

  1. The hypothalamus controls the __________
  2. a) hypnotic suggestibility ratio.
  3. b) sleep–wakefulness cycle.

Correct. The hypothalamus is involved in the sleep–wake cycle.

  1. c) frequency of nightmares.

Incorrect. The hypothalamus is not involved in dreaming.

  1. d) growth hormones that occur during sleep.

ANS: b, p. 119, F, LO=4.3, (1)

 

  1. The sleep–wakefulness cycle is ultimately controlled by the part of the brain called the __________
  2. a) optical nerve.
  3. b) frontal lobe.

Incorrect. The frontal lobe is a higher part of the brain and does not control the sleep–wake cycle.

  1. c)

Correct. This is the part of the brain that controls the sleep–wake cycle.

  1. d) median forebrain bundle.

ANS: c, p. 119, F, LO=4.3, (2)

 

  1. This structure in the brain regulates the biological clock in humans.
  2. a) hippocampus

Incorrect. The hippocampus is not involved in regulating our biological cycles.

  1. b) amygdala
  2. c) suprachiasmatic nucleus

Correct. The SCN is part of the hypothalamus and it is responsible for regulating our internal clock.

  1. d) cerebellum

ANS: c, p. 119, F, LO=4.3, (3) 

 

  1. Where is the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) located?
  2. a) thalamus
  3. b) cerebellum

Incorrect. The SCN is not located in this part of the brain.

  1. c) basal ganglia
  2. d) hypothalamus

Correct. The SCN is located in the hypothalamus.

ANS: d, p. 119, F, LO=4.3, (2)

% correct 56      a= 11  b= 19  c= 15  d= 56      r = .36

 

  1. Circadian rhythms are controlled by the __________
  2. a) pineal gland.

Incorrect. Although the pineal gland is involved in sleep, it does not control the circadian rhythm.

  1. b) suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN).

Correct. The SCN controls circadian rhythms.

  1. c)
  2. d)

ANS: b, p. 119, F, LO=4.3, (1)

 

  1. __________, a hormone involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms, is secreted by the pineal gland.
  2. a) Serotonin

Incorrect. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter, not a hormone.

  1. b) Testosterone
  2. c) Estrogen
  3. d) Melatonin

Correct. Melatonin, a hormone involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms, is secreted by the pineal gland.

ANS: d, p. 119, F, LO=4.3, (2)

% correct 75      a= 23  b= 2  c= 0  d= 75      r = .29

 

  1. SCN stands for __________
  2. a) stop control now.
  3. b) suprachiasmatic nucleus.

Correct. The suprachiasmatic nucleus is represented by the initials SCN.

  1. c) serotonin controlled nucleus.

Incorrect. SCN stands for suprachiasmatic nucleus.

  1. d) sleep control nucleus.

ANS: b, p. 119, F, LO=4.3, (1)

% correct 79      a= 0  b=79  c= 13  d= 8      r = .55

 

  1. The most significant environmental cue that plays a role in circadian rhythms is __________
  2. a) loud noise.
  3. b) extreme heat.
  4. c) hunger.

Incorrect. Hunger may operate as part of our circadian rhythm, but it does not trigger the changes that occur in that rhythmic cycle.

  1. d) bright light.

Correct. The most significant environmental cue is bright light, especially sunlight. When light is absent, it triggers the release of melatonin. This is coordinated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus.

ANS: d, p. 119, F, LO=4.3, (2) 

 

  1. The hormone melatonin reaches peak levels in the body during the __________
  2. a)

Incorrect. Light causes melatonin to decrease.

  1. b) early evening.
  2. c)
  3. d)

Correct. Melatonin is responsive to light or the lack of.

ANS: d, p. 119, F, LO=4.3, (1)

% correct 55      a= 34  b= 8  c= 4  d= 55      r = .19

 

  1. When we are exposed to low levels of light the __________ begins to secrete the hormone melatonin, which acts to induce sleep.
  2. a) thyroid gland

Incorrect. The thyroid gland is involved in regulating the body’s metabolism, not its sleep activity.

  1. b) pituitary gland
  2. c) pineal gland

Correct. When stimulated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the pineal gland releases melatonin. This hormone induces drowsiness and helps us get to sleep.

  1. d) adrenal glands

ANS: c, p. 119, F, LO=4.3, (3)  

 

  1. When secreted, the hormone melatonin acts to__________
  2. a) induce hunger.
  3. b) increase alertness.

Incorrect. Melatonin helps to make us drowsy and fall asleep, not wake us up!

  1. c) induce sleepiness.

Correct. Melatonin is sometimes called the “vampire hormone,” because it is usually released when we are in darker settings.

  1. d) induce circadian rhythms.

ANS: c, p. 119, F, LO=4.3, (2) 

 

  1. Melatonin is a __________
  2. a)

Correct. Melatonin is a hormone.

  1. b) sleeping pill.

Incorrect. Melatonin is a hormone that facilitates sleep.

  1. c)
  2. d)

ANS: a, p. 119, F, LO=4.3, (1)

% correct 89      a= 89  b= 2  c= 7  d= 2      r = .43

 

  1. Melatonin is to __________ as an aspirin is to __________
  2. a) nausea; nightmare.
  3. b) nightmare; blood clots.
  4. c) insomnia; headache.

Correct. The analogy is that melatonin reduces insomnia like aspirin reduces headache pain.

  1. d) apnea; blood thinner.

Incorrect. Melatonin has no effect on apnea.

ANS: c, p. 119, C, LO=4.3, (3)

 

  1. Exposing certain bodily organs or even certain single cells from vertebrates to light sets __________
  2. a) the suprachiasmatic clock.

Incorrect. The suprachiasmatic nucleus is the part of the brain that regulates our internal clock.

  1. b) the biological clock.
  2. c) the internal clock.
  3. d) the “circadian clock”.

Correct. Light, particularly sunlight, is what gives our body information about how the circadian clock should be “set.”

ANS: d, p. 119, C, LO=4.3, (3) 

 

Learning Objective 4.4 – How do disruptions in circadian rhythms affect the body and the mind?

 

  1. A disruption in circadian rhythms that afflicts many college students is __________
  2. a) advanced sleep phase syndrome.

Incorrect. ASPS is a problem that generally tends to affect many elderly adults, not college students.

  1. b) delayed sleep phase syndrome.

Correct. Many college students with DSPS struggle to keep up in morning classes, and thus may avoid scheduling them.

  1. c) advanced waking phase syndrome.
  2. d) delayed waking phase syndrome.

ANS: b, pp. 119-120, F, LO=4.4, (2) 

 

  1. A circadian rhythm disruption that involves falling asleep early in the evening and awakening in the middle of the night is __________
  2. a) elder sleep phase syndrome.
  3. b) elder waking phase syndrome.
  4. c) advanced sleep phase syndrome.

Correct. ASPS is a problem that generally tends to affect many elderly adults.

  1. d) advanced waking phase syndrome.

Incorrect. The correct name for this pattern is advanced sleep phases syndrome (ASPS)

ANS: c, p. 120, F, LO=4.4, (2) 

 

  1. Trahn works the night shift in the city hospital. During the middle of the shift he often becomes very tired. This is when his body temperature is at its lowest, and his biological clock is telling him it is time to sleep. Trahn is affected by what psychologists call __________
  2. a) subjective night.

Correct. Subjective night is when the body is telling a person to go to sleep, regardless of what time it actually is.

  1. b) objective night.
  2. c) disruptive malaise.
  3. d) melatonin flux.

Incorrect. This is a made-up term that has no meaning. Did you fall for it?

ANS: a, p. 120, A, LO=4.4, (2) 

 

  1. If you managed a manufacturing plant that ran three rotating shifts, what could you do to help your employees remain in a more normal biological rhythm?
  2. a) keep the lighting soft to mimic the normal amount of light present at night
  3. b) provide machines with choices of many beverages with caffeine

Incorrect. Long-term use of caffeine to help counteract the effects of a disrupted circadian rhythm have been shown to increase, not decrease, the symptoms of such disruption.

  1. c) use a three-week rotational schedule

Correct. Research has found that using this sort of rotating schedule helps to avoid unnecessary disruption in employees’ biological rhythms.

  1. d) provide regular vitamin supplements, especially vitamins C and D

ANS: c, pp. 120-121, A, LO=4.4, (3) 

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a suggestion for making work shift rotations less disruptive?
  2. a) use “light mask” to reset biological clock
  3. b) move workers to a rotating three-week shift schedule
  4. c) encourage the use of the drug modafinil to aid wakefulness

Incorrect. This drug has actually been found to help increase alertness without the side effects associated with high levels of caffeine use.

  1. d) increase light exposure during the work session

Correct. Though it seems to make sense that having more light would help keep the biological clock regulated, research has not supported this as a way to help shift workers.

ANS: d, p. 121, C, LO=4.4, (2) 

 

Learning Objective 4.5 – How can research linking circadian rhythms and neurological disorders be put to practical use?

 

  1. In conducting autopsies on individuals suspected of having Alzheimer’s disease, researchers found __________
  2. a) most were missing their suprachiasmatic nucleus.
  3. b) almost a third did not have the disease.

Correct. This disturbing finding has encouraged scientists to come up with creative and better ways of diagnosing Alzheimer’s disease before death.

  1. c) they were missing portions of the hippocampus.
  2. d) most had enlarged limbic systems.

Incorrect.  There is no relationship between Alzheimer’s diseases and the size of the limbic system.

ANS: B, p. 121, F, LO=4.5, (2) 

 

  1. Many Alzheimer’s patients suffer from a phenomenon called “sundowning.” Sundowning is __________
  2. a) the tendency to forget things that occur in the morning hours.
  3. b) the tendency to want to get up and move around the house at night.
  4. c) the tendency to want to sleep as soon as the sun goes down.

Incorrect.  There is no research that suggests that Alzheimer’s patients want to go to sleep when the sun goes down as a regular symptom of the illness.

  1. d) the tendency to exhibit more symptoms of a disease in the afternoon and nighttime hours.

Correct. This tendency suggests that there are relationships between Alzheimer’s disease and the circadian rhythm. Exactly what those relationships are, however, remains to be seen.

ANS: d, p. 121, F, LO=4.5, (2) 

 

  1. Jaimie suffered a head injury as a result of a car accident. Since the accident, her sleep and waking patterns have been disrupted. Jaimie’s doctors should treat her sleep disturbances by __________
  2. a) treating Jaimie as if she were a shift worker.

Correct. Research has suggested that there is a relationship between the sleep disruptions of shift workers and of head-injury patients.

  1. b) providing Jaimie with a sedative.
  2. c) only treating Jaimie’s underlying head injury.

Incorrect. Ignoring the sleep disturbance would be medically irresponsible. Both symptoms should be treated, not just one.

  1. d) encouraging Jaimie to awaken a little earlier than usual each day.

ANS: a, p. 121, A, LO=4.5, (3) 

 

  1. One approach to distinguishing Alzheimer’s disease from other forms of senile dementia involves __________
  2. a) tracking patients’ circadian variables, such as body temperature.

Correct. The proposed relationship between these illnesses and the body’s circadian rhythms opens new doors for more accurate diagnostic techniques.

  1. b) obtaining self-reports of sleep and memory problems.
  2. c) performing CT scans of patients’ brains.
  3. d) watching for signs of sundowning and other symptoms.

Incorrect. Sundowning is a symptom of some forms of dementia, but it cannot be used to distinguish them from each other.

ANS: a, p. 121, F, LO=4.5, (2) 

 

  1. __________ refers to Alzheimer’s patients tendency to exhibit more symptoms in the afternoon and nighttime hours than in the morning hours.
  2. a) Sundowning

Correct. This is the correct definition of sundowning.

  1. b) Night terrors
  2. c) Good days

Incorrect. The correct term that refers to this tendency is sundowning.

  1. d) Circadian symptoms

ANS: a, p. 121, C, LO=4.5, (2)  

 

Sleep

 

Learning Objective 4.6 – What is the difference between the restorative and circadian theories of sleep?

 

  1. The __________ holds that being awake wears and tears on the body and brain, and sleep serves the function of restoring body and mind.
  2. a) restorative theory

Correct. This theory holds that sleep time involves microcellular repair of our body, brain, and other organs.

  1. b) circadian theory
  2. c) refractory theory
  3. d) regenerative theory

Incorrect. This sounds like the right answer, but the correct term is the restorative theory.

ANS: a, p. 122, F, LO=4.6, (1) 

 

  1. According to this theory, sleep is a means of protecting ourselves from predators.
  2. a) restorative theory

Incorrect. This theory focuses on restoration of energy and health, not evolution.

  1. b) evolutionary theory

Correct. Survival is one of the key elements of evolutionary theory.

  1. c) psychoanalytic theory
  2. d) dream theory

ANS: b, p. 122, F, LO=4.6 (1)

% correct 70      a= 15  b= 70  c= 7  d= 7      r = .19                     

 

  1. This theory is based on the premise that sleep evolved to keep humans out of harm’s way.
  2. a) restorative theory of sleep
  3. b) melatonin theory of sleep
  4. c) circadian theory of sleep

Correct. This theory suggests that in addition to regulating physical cycles and rhythms, the circadian clock helps human beings “hide” during times when dangerous predators are out and about.

  1. d) ecobehavioral theory of sleep

Incorrect.  There is no sleep theory called the ecobehavioral theory. It sounds good, though, doesn’t it?

ANS: c, p. 122, C, LO=4.6, (2) 

 

  1. According to this theory, sleep is necessary for repair of the body.
  2. a) restorative theory

Correct. Restorative theory says sleep is necessary for physical health.

  1. b) adaptive theory

Incorrect. Adaptive theory says sleep keeps animals safe from predators.

  1. c) psychoanalytic theory
  2. d) dream theory

ANS: a, p. 122, F, LO=4.6, (1)

 

  1. According to Alexander Borbely, which sleep theory is correct?
  2. a) circadian theory

Incorrect. This is only half of the correct answer.

  1. b) restorative theory
  2. c) elements of both theories are correct and apply

Correct. Borbely’s research has found support for both the circadian and the restorative theories.

  1. d) both theories are completely wrong

ANS: c, p. 122, C, LO=4.6, (2) 

 

Learning Objective 4.7 – How do NREM and REM sleep differ?

 

  1. REM sleep refers to __________
  2. a) dreamless sleep.

Incorrect. People in REM sleep have dreams.

  1. b) sleep induced by sleeping pills.
  2. c) sleep periods in which sleepwalking is likely.
  3. d) sleep periods in which a person’s eyes move rapidly.

Correct. Hence, the term rapid eye movement.

ANS: d, pp. 122-123, F, LO=4.7-4.8, (1)

% correct 100      a= 0  b= 0  c= 0  d= 100      r = .00

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a feature of NREM sleep?
  2. a) low respiration

Incorrect.  Decreased respiratory rate IS a feature of NREM sleep.

  1. b) low brain activity
  2. c) large muscles are paralyzed

Correct. This is a feature of REM, not NREM, sleep.

  1. d) growth hormone is secreted

ANS: c, pp. 122-123, F, LO=4.7, (3) 

 

  1. Brianna is in a quiet period of sleep where her heart rate and respiration are slow, and her brain activity is at its lowest point. Sleep researchers would say she is in __________
  2. a) stage 5 sleep.
  3. b) dream sleep.
  4. c) NREM sleep.

Correct. Brianna is demonstrating the features of NREM stage 4 sleep.

  1. d) REM sleep.

Incorrect.  During REM sleep the brain tends to be quite active and appears to be awake. This is why it is sometimes called “paradoxical sleep.”

ANS: c, pp. 122-123, A, LO=4.7, (2) 

 

  1. REM sleep, or ‘active sleep’ constitutes what percentage of a normal night’s sleep in adults?
  2. a) 45-50%
  3. b) 20-25%

Correct. We spend 20 to25% of our sleep time in REM sleep, though we cycle in and out of it all night long.

  1. c) 5-10%
  2. d) 65-70%

Incorrect. This estimate is far too high for the amount of sleep time spent in REM.

ANS: b, p. 122, F, LO=4.7, (2) 

 

  1. Professor Cimmerian is talking to her class about some of the characteristics of early humans. She has brought up the notion that sleep initially was engaged in largely as a function of safety and served to keep early peoples safe from predators. This describes the __________ theory of sleep.
  2. a) microsleep
  3. b) circadian

Correct. The circadian theory of sleep suggests that we sleep as an adaptive way of enhancing our survival.

  1. c) restorative

Incorrect. The restorative theory of sleep suggests that we sleep so our body can repair itself at night.

  1. d) threshold

ANS: b, p. 122, A, LO=4.6, (2) 

 

  1. When awakened from REM sleep, __________ report dreaming.
  2. a) 80%

Correct. Research suggests that ALL people dream during REM, and most remember at least some of their dreams.

  1. b) 20%
  2. c) 40%
  3. c) 100%

Incorrect. All people might dream during REM sleep, but not everyone remembers their dreams.

ANS: a, p. 123, F, LO=4.7, (3) 

 

  1. REM behavior disorder results from __________
  2. a) too much sleep.
  3. b) not enough sleep.

Incorrect. REM behavior disorder results from the brain mechanisms blocking signals to the muscles.

  1. c) failure of the brain to adequately paralyze the muscles during REM sleep.

Correct. REM behavior disorder results from the failure of the brain mechanisms to block signals to the muscles.

  1. d) deterioration of the medial hypothalamus.

ANS: c, p. 123, F, LO=4.7, (3)

 

Learning Objective 4.8 – What is the progression of NREM stages and REM sleep in a typical night of sleep?

 

  1. How many stages are in REM sleep?
  2. a) one

Correct. There are four stages of NREM sleep, but only one stage of REM sleep.

  1. b) two
  2. c) three
  3. d) four

Incorrect. There are four stages of NREM sleep, but only one stage of REM sleep.

ANS: a, p. 123, F, LO=4.8, (2) 

 

  1. How many stages are there in NREM sleep?
  2. a) three
  3. b) four

Correct. There are four stages of NREM sleep, but only one stage of REM sleep.

  1. c) one

Incorrect. There are four stages of NREM sleep, but only one stage of REM sleep.

  1. d) two

ANS: b, p. 123, F, LO=4.8, (2)

 

  1. Which statement is true of sleep cycles in normal sleep?
  2. a) They last about 90 minutes, have 1 or more stages of NREM sleep followed by REM sleep.

Correct. We cycle in and out of REM and NREM sleep all night long in sleep stages that last about 90 minutes.

  1. b) They last about 90 minutes and each consists of 1 or more stages of REM sleep.

Incorrect. We cycle in and out of REM and NREM sleep all night long in sleep stages that last about 90 minutes.

  1. c) They last about 60 minutes, have 1 stage of NREM sleep followed by REM sleep.
  2. d) They last about 90 minutes and each consist of REM sleep followed by 4 stages of NREM sleep.

ANS: a, p. 123, C, LO=4.8, (3) 

 

  1. Periods of REM sleep alternate with periods of non-REM sleep in a cycle that recurs about every

__________ minutes or so.

  1. a) 30

Incorrect. See the chart on page 124.

  1. b) 90

Correct. See the chart on page 124.

  1. c) 150
  2. d) 210

ANS: b, p. 123, F, LO=4.8, (1)

% correct 78      a= 18  b= 78  c= 4  d= 0      r = .19

% correct 87      a= 11  b= 87  c= 2  d= 0      r = .25

 

  1. You see an advertisement for a method of learning a foreign language that seems simple—just put on a tape and fall asleep. The accompanying description cites proof that people can learn while asleep. Being a good psychological detective, what question would you ask about the offered proof?
  2. a) Did the individuals actually dream about the foreign language?
  3. b) What did the EEG indicate about the participants’ level of sleep?

Correct. If you know what the EEG indicates, you will know whether they were really asleep.

  1. c) Did the researchers use only long sleepers who would spend more time with the tapes?

Incorrect. The length of time asleep is irrelevant to whether they were actually sleeping.

  1. d) Were study breaks included in the tape to provide greater comprehension of the material?

ANS: b, pp. 123-124, A, LO=4.8, (3)

 

  1. You are watching sleep researchers monitor the sleep of a normal adult. The participant is

hooked up to an EEG. What brain waves would you observe as the person becomes drowsy and then

enters the first stage of sleep?

  1. a) alpha eventually replaced by delta

Incorrect. Delta waves only occur in deep sleep.

  1. b) delta eventually replaced by theta
  2. c) alpha eventually replaced by irregular

Correct. The pattern sequence goes this way.

  1. d) delta eventually replaced by beta

ANS: c, p. 123, A, LO=4.8, (2)

 

  1. What term do sleep researchers use to designate stages 1–4 of sleep?
  2. a) REM sleep

Incorrect. This sleep occurs after stages 1 through 4 and then a repetition of stage 3 and stage 2.

  1. b) Non-REM sleep

Correct. This indicates that it is non-REM sleep.

  1. c) REMN sleep
  2. d) paradoxical sleep

ANS: b, p. 123, F, LO=4.8, (1)

 

  1. If the EEG record reveals evidence of sleep spindles, you are likely to conclude that the sleeping person is in which stage of sleep?
  2. a) REM
  3. b) stage 1

Incorrect. Spindles occur in stage 2.

  1. c) stage 2

Correct. Spindles occur in stage 2.

  1. d) stage 4

ANS: c, p. 123, F, LO=4.8, (1)

% correct 55      a= 29  b= 11  c= 55  d= 5      r = .42

 

  1. Sleep spindles appear during __________ sleep.
  2. a) stage 1

Incorrect. Spindles occur during stage 2.

  1. b) REM
  2. c) stage 2

Correct. Spindles occur during stage 2.

  1. d) stage 4

ANS: c, pp. 123-124, F, LO=4.8, (1)

 

  1. Dr. Camby is in her sleep lab observing a patient in the next room. The patient is wired to an EEG machine and the readings are just beginning to register about 20% delta waves. Dr. Camby’s patient is entering __________
  2. a) REM sleep.
  3. b) stage 1 sleep.

Incorrect. During stage 1 of NREM sleep, we experience mostly irregular or alpha waves.

  1. c) stage 2 sleep.
  2. d) stage 3 sleep.

Correct. Stage 3 of NREM sleep is when we begin to register increasing amounts of delta waves.

ANS: d, p. 123, A, LO=4.8, (3) 

 

  1. Your brain waves are being monitored in a sleep laboratory. If you are in deep sleep less than an hour after falling asleep, what brain waves will be detected?
  2. a) beta
  3. b) alpha
  4. c) theta

Incorrect. Theta waves indicate the second deepest level of sleep.

  1. d) delta

Correct. Delta waves occur in stage 4 and indicate the deepest sleep.

ANS: d, pp. 123-124, F, LO=4.8, (1)

 

  1. Short, rhythmic bursts of brainwave activity that appear during stage 2 sleep are called __________
  2. a) delta waves.
  3. b) sleep spindles.

Correct. Sleep spindles are short, rhythmic bursts of brainwave activity.

  1. c) paradoxical sleep waves.
  2. d) beta waves.

Incorrect. These waves occur when you are awake and do not have spindles.

ANS: b, p. 123, F, LO=4.8, (1)

% correct 61      a= 29  b= 61  c= 5  d= 5      r = .53

 

  1. The stage of sleep in which delta waves begin to appear is __________ sleep.
  2. a) stage 1
  3. b) stage 2
  4. c) stage 3

Correct. Delta waves begin to appear in stage 3.

  1. d) stage 4

Incorrect. Delta waves begin to occur in stage 3.

ANS: c, pp. 123-124, F, LO=4.8, (1)

 

  1. The deepest stage of sleep is __________ sleep.
  2. a) stage 1
  3. b) stage 2
  4. c) stage 3

Incorrect. Stage 4 is the deepest sleep we get.

  1. d) stage 4

Correct. Stage 4 is the deepest sleep we get.

ANS: d, p. 123, F, LO=4.8, (1)

% correct 85      a= 0  b= 0  c= 15  d= 85      r = .20

 

  1. Which type of brain waves dominate slow-wave sleep?
  2. a) alpha

Incorrect. Alpha waves indicate being awake, not deep sleep.

  1. b) delta

Correct. Over half of our brain waves are delta waves during slow wave, or stage 4, sleep.

  1. c) omega
  2. d) beta

ANS: b, p. 123, F, LO=4.8, (3) 

 

  1. The brain waves that occur in stage four sleep are primarily __________
  2. a) beta waves.
  3. b) alpha waves.

Incorrect. Alpha waves indicate being awake, not stage four sleep.

  1. c) delta waves.

Correct. Over half of our brain waves are delta waves during stage four sleep.

  1. d) theta waves.

ANS: c, p. 123, F, LO=4.8, (2)  

 

  1. Stage 4 sleep is marked by __________ waves.
  2. a) alpha
  3. b) beta
  4. c) theta

Incorrect. Delta waves occur in stage 4 and indicate the deepest sleep.

  1. d) delta

Correct. Delta waves occur in stage 4 and indicate the deepest sleep.

ANS: d, p. 123, F, LO=4.8, (1)

% correct 66      a= 18  b= 11  c= 5  d= 66      r = .30

 

  1. Which device would a sleep researcher use to monitor a sleeping person’s brain waves?
  2. a) electromyograph (EMG)
  3. b) electrocardiograph (EKG)

Incorrect. The EKG is for monitoring the heart (electrocardiograph).

  1. c) electro-oculograph (EOG)
  2. d) electroencephalograph (EEG)

Correct. Electro Encephalo Graph.

ANS: d, p. 124, F, LO=4.8, (1)

% correct 81      a= 1  b= 4  c= 5  d= 81      r = .55

 

Learning Objective 4.9 – What does research tell us about the link between REM sleep and memory?

 

  1. Which of the following is likely NOT true regarding REM sleep?
  2. a) there is a relationship between REM sleep and learning

Incorrect. A loss of REM sleep can actually “short circuit” the learning process.

  1. b) REM sleep serves an information-processing function in humans
  2. c) infants show a low percentage of REM sleep.

Correct. There is no research that suggests infants get a low percentage of REM sleep.

  1. d) REM sleep helps people organize and sift through daily experience

ANS: c, p. 124, C, LO=4.9, (c) 

 

  1. Darla did not get any sleep during the previous night as she was studying for her mid-term exams. Tonight when she falls asleep she will likely experience __________
  2. a) REM rebound.

Correct. REM rebound is the increased amount of REM sleep that occurs after REM deprivation.

  1. b) NREM rebound.

Incorrect. There is no such thing as NREM rebound.

  1. c) sleep apnea.
  2. d) night terrors.

ANS: a, p. 124, A, LO=4.9, (2) 

 

  1. Jean just drove all night long and hasn’t slept for over 24 hours. When she finally gets home, Jean dreams more than she normally does. This is an example of __________
  2. a) sleep cycles.

Incorrect. A sleep cycle is the normal progress in and out of REM and NREM sleep throughout the night.

  1. b) REM sleep.
  2. c) NREM sleep.
  3. d) REM rebound.

Correct. REM rebound is the increased amount of REM sleep that occurs after REM deprivation.

ANS: d, p. 124, A, LO=4.9, (1) 

 

  1. Which of the following is CORRECT concerning REM deprivation?
  2. a) REM deprivation results in long-term mental illness.

Incorrect. There is no scientific evidence suggesting REM deprivation causes mental illness.

  1. b) REM deprivation only occurs among the elderly.
  2. c) REM deprivation leads to increased amounts of REM sleep on subsequent nights of sleep.

Correct. Research found REM-deprived subjects increasing REM sleep when they slept again.

  1. d) REM deprivation can lead to visual impairments.

ANS: c, p. 124, F, LO=4.9, (1)

% correct 78      a= 15  b= 7  c= 78  d= 0      r = .43

 

Learning Objective 4.10 – How do age and individual differences influence people’s sleep patterns?

 

  1. Which statement is correct concerning how much sleep people need?
  2. a) most people need at least 10 hours
  3. b) men need more sleep than women
  4. c) most people need between 7 and 8 hours of sleep

Correct. Research supports the idea that humans need about 7 to 8 hours of sleep.

  1. d) women need more sleep than men

Incorrect. There is no research supporting the idea that women need more sleep than men.

ANS: c, p. 125, F, LO=4.10, (2)

 

  1. According to a longitudinal sleep study begun in 1982, people sleeping this average number of hours per night are much less likely to have died.
  2. a) 6
  3. b) 8
  4. c) 9

Incorrect. Despite common misconception, getting more than 8 hours of sleep per night is probably not healthy.

  1. d) 7

Correct. This research suggests that 7 to 8 hours of sleep per night is optimal.

ANS: d, p. 125, F, LO=4.10, (3) 

 

  1. Of the following, who has the longest average sleep time?
  2. a) teenagers
  3. b) children aged 6 to puberty
  4. c) newborns

Correct. The average newborn requires 16 to 18 hours of sleep per day.

  1. d) people over age 65

Incorrect. Though the elderly probably need more sleep, they tend to average fewer than 7 to 8 hours of sleep per night.

ANS: c, p. 125, F, LO=4.10, (1) 

 

  1. What tends to happen to our patterns of sleep as we move into older adulthood?
  2. a) we sleep more

Incorrect. Though this would seem to be the case, research suggests that we sleep less as we age.

  1. b) our sleep doesn’t change
  2. c) we sleep less

Correct. As we age, the number of hours of sleep that we get per day decreases.

  1. d) we experience less REM sleep

ANS: c, p. 125, F, LO=4.10, (2) 

 

  1. Who has the highest percentage of REM and slow-wave sleep?
  2. a) teenagers
  3. b) young adults
  4. c) the elderly

Incorrect. The highest percentage of REM and slow-wave sleep happens in infancy.

  1. d) infants

Correct. Infants have the highest percentage of both REM and slow-wave sleep, though the exact reasons for this are not well-understood.

ANS: d, p. 125, F, LO=4.10, (2) 

 

  1. Who is likely to live the longest?
  2. a) Fred, who sleeps 4 hours per night
  3. b) Lyle, who sleeps 10 hours per night

Incorrect. Many people think “more is better” when it comes to sleep. This is far from true!

  1. c) Simon, who sleeps 7 hours per night

Correct. Research suggests that 7 to 8 hours of sleep per night is optimal.

  1. d) Bernard, who sleeps 9 hours per night

ANS: c, p. 125, A, LO=4.10, (2) 

 

Learning Objective 4.11 – How does sleep deprivation affect behavior and neurological functioning?

 

  1. Sid is taking part in research on the effects of sleep deprivation; he has been without sleep for 75 hours. Right now researchers have asked him to sit in front of a computer screen and hit a button each time he sees the letter S on the screen. A few days ago, Sid was a whiz at this task; however, he is doing very poorly today. How are sleep researchers likely to explain Sid’s poor performance?
  2. a) Due to the sleep deprivation, Sid does not understand the task

Incorrect. Sleep deprivation will not completely cause a lack of understanding.

  1. b) Microsleeps are occurring due to the sleep deprivation and he is asleep for brief periods of time

Correct. Microsleeps occur causing a block-out during that time.

  1. c) He is determined to ruin the research because of the suffering he is enduring at the hands of the researchers
  2. d) He is probably dreaming that he is somewhere else and has no interest in responding to the “here and now”

ANS: b, p. 126, A, LO=4.11, (3)

 

  1. According to research on sleep deprivation, a moderate amount of sleep loss __________
  2. a) can still be a problem.

Correct. Even moderate loss of sleep can cause serious problems in behavioral function.

  1. b) is not a problem at all.

Incorrect. Even moderate loss of sleep can cause serious problems in behavioral function.

  1. c) only is a problem for women, not men.
  2. d) does not affect people older than age 50.

ANS: a, p. 126, F, LO=4.11 (2)

 

  1. All of the following result from sleep deprivation EXCEPT __________
  2. a) lapses in attention.
  3. b)

Incorrect. This is a definite symptom of sleep deprivation.

  1. c)

Correct. This is not listed as a symptom of sleep deprivation.

  1. d) cognitive impairment.

ANS: c, p. 126, F, LO=4.11, (1)

 

  1. Research shows that sleep deprivation __________
  2. a) has a negative impact on mood but no effect on alertness or performance.
  3. b) has a negative impact on alertness but no effect on mood or performance.

Incorrect. Mood and performance also suffer when we are sleep deprived.

  1. c) has a negative impact on alertness and mood but no effect on performance.
  2. d) has a negative impact on mood, alertness and performance.

Correct. All of these functions are impacted by a lack of adequate sleep.

ANS: d, p. 126, F, LO=4.11, (2) 

 

  1. These last from 2 to 3 seconds and occur frequently in people who try to stay awake for long periods of time.
  2. a) nods
  3. b) microsleeps

Correct. Microsleeps occur when our body is sleep-deprived, and seem to be an attempt to “catch up” on sleep.

  1. c) mini-naps

Incorrect. Naps are a voluntary sleep activity. Microsleeps are involuntary.

  1. d) sleep fantasies.

ANS: b, p. 126, F, LO=4.11, (2)

 

  1. This portion of the brain is nearly inactive in people deprived of sleep.
  2. a) parietal lobe

Incorrect. The parietal lobes of sleep-deprived individuals increase in activity.

  1. b) frontal lobe
  2. c) occipital lobe
  3. d) temporal lobe

Correct. Neurological research has found that the temporal lobe activity diminishes with sleep deprivation.

ANS: d, p. 126, F, LO=4.11, (3) 

 

  1. Dr. Khan has been on call at St. Joseph’s emergency room for the past thirty-six hours, and because of a schedule mix-up still has another eight to go. What area in Dr. Khan’s brain will likely have increased activity levels in compensation for his sleep-deprived state?
  2. a) parietal lobe

Correct. The parietal lobes of sleep-deprived individuals increase in activity.

  1. b) temporal lobe

Incorrect. Neurological research has found that the temporal lobe activity diminishes with sleep deprivation.

  1. c) occipital lobe
  2. d) caudate nucleus

ANS: a, p. 126, A, LO=4.11, (3) 

 

Learning Objective 4.12 – What are the various disorders that can trouble sleepers?

 

  1. __________ are sleep disturbances in which behaviors and physiological states that normally occur only in the waking state, take place during sleep.
  2. a) Insomnias
  3. b) Parasomnias

Correct. This is an accurate definition of a parasomnia.

  1. c) Nightmares

Incorrect. A nightmare is a type of parasomnia, but it is not the best answer to this question.

  1. d) Apneas

ANS: b, pp. 126-127, F, LO=4.12, (2) 

 

  1. Edward sometimes gets up and goes to the refrigerator while asleep. This is an example of __________
  2. a) insomnia.
  3. b) a parasomnia.

Correct. Edward is demonstrating the parasomnia called somnambulism, or “sleep walking.”

  1. c) a nightmare.
  2. d) apnea.

Incorrect. Sleep apnea is a dyssomnia that involves interruption of breathing during sleep.

ANS: b, pp. 126-127, A, LO=4.12, (2) 

 

  1. What would you expect to see on the EEG record of a person who is engaged in an episode of sleepwalking?
  2. a) paradoxical sleep waves
  3. b) very large sleep spindles

Incorrect. These are not present in deep sleep and that’s when people sleepwalk.

  1. c) evidence of deep sleep (stage 4)

Correct. Sleepwalking occurs in stage 4.

  1. d) a record that is virtually the same as a daydreaming person

ANS: c, pp. 126-127, F, LO=4.12, (2)

 

  1. Judith is startled when her 6-year-old daughter, Laura, sleepwalks into the family room. It is most likely that Laura is experiencing the __________ stage of the sleep cycle.
  2. a) REM
  3. b) first
  4. c) third

Incorrect. Sleepwalking occurs in stage 4.

  1. d) fourth

Correct. Sleepwalking occurs in stage 4.

ANS: d, pp. 126-127, A, LO=4.12, (2)

 

  1. Each of the following is a sleep disorder EXCEPT __________
  2. a)

Incorrect. This is a sleep disorder in which one falls asleep without warning.

  1. b) REM rebound.

Correct. This is related to lack of dreaming.

  1. c)
  2. d) night terrors.

ANS: b, pp. 126-128, F, LO=4.12, (1)

 

  1. Sleepwalking occurs __________
  2. a) primarily during REM sleep.
  3. b) primarily during NREM Stage 4 sleep.

Correct. This event occurs in stage 4, which is NREM sleep.

  1. c) equally as often in REM and NREM sleep.
  2. d) only in REM sleep.

Incorrect. This event occurs in stage 4, which is NREM sleep.

ANS: b, pp. 126-127, F, LO=4.12, (1)

 

  1. While in a deep sleep, Bobby sometimes becomes violent and thrashes around. If someone is sleeping with him, he sometimes hits or elbows them. He even dented the wall next to his bed with his elbow.  Bobby might have a condition known as __________
  2. a) sleep apnea.
  3. b) narcolepsy.
  4. c) REM sleep behavior disorder.

Correct. These behaviors are consistent with a rare condition known as REM Sleep Behavior Disorder.

  1. d) sleep terrors.

Incorrect. A sleeper with Sleep Terrors will wake in a state of panic.

ANS: c, p. 127,  A, LO=4.12, (3) 

 

  1. These generally begin with a piercing scream.
  2. a) parasomnias
  3. b) sleep terrors

Correct. Sleep terrors may start with a scream and then escalate to a state of panic during sleep.

  1. c) somnambulism
  2. d) somniloquy

Incorrect. Somniloquy is a fancy way of saying “sleep talking.”

ANS: b, p. 127, C, LO=4.12, (2) 

 

  1. Which of the following statements is TRUE?
  2. a) Night terrors are a rare disorder.

Correct. Night terrors only affect about 5% of children, and it is usually not a serious problem.

  1. b) Nightmares, but not night terrors, suggest some psychological problems.
  2. c) Night terrors, but not nightmares, suggest some psychological problems.
  3. d) Both nightmares and night terrors suggest psychological problems.

Incorrect. Neither of these sleep problems is associated with other problems.

 ANS: a, p. 127, F, LO=4.12, (2)

% correct 53      a= 53  b= 4  c= 35  d= 9      r = .53

 

  1. A __________ is a very frightening dream that occurs during REM sleep.
  2. a) nightmare

Correct. Nightmares are different than sleep terrors, because they are actual dreams.

  1. b) sleep terror

Incorrect. A sleep terror is a stage four event that is not related to dreaming.

  1. c) night terror
  2. d) narcoleptic fit

ANS: a, p. 127, F, LO=4.12, (1) 

 

  1. This can occur during any sleep stage.
  2. a) sleep terrors
  3. b) narcolepsy
  4. c) somnambulism

Incorrect. Sleep walking is a stage four sleep disorder.

  1. d) somniloquy

Correct. There is no research that has found that sleep talking is related to a specific sleep stage.

ANS: d, p. 127, C, LO=4.12, (3) 

 

  1. To treat your sleep problem you are told that you should not nap, you should set your alarm clock to wake up at the same time each day, and you should get out of bed if you cannot sleep. What sleep disorder have you been experiencing?
  2. a) enuresis
  3. b) narcolepsy

Incorrect. Narcolepsy occurs when you fall asleep without warning.

  1. c) insomnia

Correct. Advice such as not napping, setting the alarm clock to wake up at the same time each day, and getting out of bed if not able to sleep is given to people with insomnia.

  1. d) REM sleep behavior disorder

ANS: c, p. 127, A, LO=4.12, (2)

% correct 92      a= 3  b= 0  c= 92  d= 5      r = .21

 

  1. Sleep research supports three “helpful hints” to avoid insomnia. Which of the following statements is NOT a helpful hint?
  2. a) get regular exercise
  3. b) make your bed as comfortable as possible
  4. c) try to nap as much as possible.

Correct. This is not one of the helpful hints.

  1. d) it is better to go to bed at about the same time every night.

Incorrect. This actually IS one of the helpful hints.

ANS: c, p. 127, C, LO=4.12, (2)

% correct 86      a= 7  b= 5  c= 86  d= 0      r = .21

  1. Sleep research supports three of the following helpful hints. Which statement is NOT accurate?
  2. a) Avoid the use of sleep medications unless absolutely necessary.

Incorrect. This actually IS one of the helpful hints.

  1. b) Avoid eating and drinking excessively just before going to bed.
  2. c) Sleeping pills help cure insomnia.

Correct. This is not one of the helpful hints.

  1. d) It is better to go to bed at about the same time every night.

ANS: c, p. 127, C, LO=4.12, (2)

 

  1. Mary is suffering from insomnia. Which piece of advice would you give to help her deal with it?
  2. a) take sleeping pills
  3. b) mix up which time you go to bed so that your body doesn’t get into a routine
  4. c) try to stay awake until you are as tired as you can imagine, and only then should you go to bed

Incorrect. This tends to lead to more insomnia.

  1. d) establish a “going to bed” routine that relaxes you

Correct. Mary should “learn,” through classical conditioning that the routine should trigger the onset of sleep.

ANS: d, p. 127, A, LO=4.12, (2)

 

  1. If you have been waking up too early for several weeks, you are probably suffering from __________
  2. a)

Correct. Waking up too early is one form of insomnia.

  1. b)

Incorrect. This is a category, not a legitimate disorder.

  1. c)
  2. d) reverse insomnia.

ANS: a, p. 128, F, LO=4.12, (2)

 

  1. A sleep disorder characterized by difficulty in falling asleep or remaining asleep throughout the night is _________
  2. a)
  3. b)
  4. c)

Incorrect. This occurs when you fall asleep without warning.

  1. d)

Correct.  Insomnia is characterized by difficulty in falling asleep or remaining asleep.

ANS: d, p. 128, F, LO=4.12, (1)

% correct 93      a= 0  b= 0  c= 7  d= 93      r = .24

 

  1. Excessive daytime sleepiness and sudden, uncontrollable attacks of REM sleep are symptoms of __________
  2. a) sleep apnea.
  3. b) somniloquy.
  4. c) somnambulism.

Incorrect. Somnambulism, or sleep-walking, does not cause someone to fall asleep randomly and uncontrollably.

  1. d) narcolepsy.

Correct. Narcolepsy is a very dangerous illness that causes people to fall asleep at random times throughout the day.

ANS: d, p. 128, F, LO=4.12, (1) 

 

  1. __________ is caused by an abnormality in the part of the brain that regulates sleep, and it appears to have a genetic component.
  2. a) Sleep terror
  3. b) Somniloquy

Incorrect. The best answer to this question is narcolepsy.

  1. c) Sleep apnea
  2. d) Narcolepsy

Correct. Narcolepsy appears to run in families and involves an irregularity in the brain.

ANS: d, p. 128, F, LO=4.12, (1) 

 

  1. This disorder afflicts over 1 million Americans, mostly obese men.
  2. a) sleep apnea

Correct. While sleep apnea is not exclusive to heavy individuals, being obese and male are two risk factors for this illness.

  1. b) insomnia

Incorrect. Insomnia affects far more than 1 million Americans, and is not exclusive to obese men.

  1. c) narcolepsy
  2. d) sleeptalking

ANS: a, p. 128, F, LO=4.12, (1) 

 

  1. __________ consists of periods during sleep when breathing stops, and the individual must awaken briefly in order to breath.
  2. a) Sleep apnea

Correct. This is the definition of sleep apnea.

  1. b) Insomnia
  2. c) Narcolepsy
  3. d) Somnambulism

Incorrect. Somnambulism is sleep walking. The correct answer to this question is sleep apnea.

ANS: a, p. 128, F, LO=4.12, (1) 

 

  1. People who suffer from sleep apnea may partially awaken as many as __________ times a night.
  2. a) 100

Incorrect. In very severe cases, a person with sleep apnea may wake up 800 or more times per night.

  1. b) 300
  2. c) 500
  3. d) 800

Correct. In severe cases, sleep apnea can cause this high frequency of night-waking.

ANS: d, p. 128, F, LO=4.12, (2) 

 

  1. Roger’s breathing sometimes stops when he is asleep, and he must wake up to begin breathing properly. He also snores quite a lot at night and is usually sleepy during the day. It is likely that Roger suffers from a condition called __________
  2. a) narcolepsy.
  3. b) sleep apnea.

Correct. These are all symptoms of sleep apnea.

  1. c) insomnia.
  2. d) cataplexy.

Incorrect. Cataplexy is the physical “limpness” that occurs when a person with narcolepsy falls asleep. It is marked by a loss of muscular control

ANS: b, p. 128, A, LO=4.12, (1) 

 

  1. Who is LEAST likely to suffer from insomnia?
  2. a) a man in his 20’s

Correct. Men in this age group have the fewest number of reported cases of insomnia.

  1. b) a woman
  2. c) a person suffering from a psychiatric disorder
  3. d) an older person

Incorrect. Not only do older individuals get less sleep, but they have more difficulty getting to sleep and staying asleep.

ANS: a, p. 128, F, LO=4.12, (1) 

 

  1. Approximately __________ adults in the United States suffer from insomnia.
  2. a) 1 in 10
  3. b) 1 in 20

Incorrect. The number of adults in the U.S. who deal with insomnia is far greater than 5%.

  1. c) 1 in 5
  2. d) 1 in 3

Correct. Research finds that approximately one-third of adults in the U.S. struggle with insomnia.

ANS: d, p. 128, F, LO=4.12, (3)  

 

  1. Approximately __________ adults in the United States suffer from chronic insomnia.
  2. a) 1 in 10

Correct. The number of adults who experience ongoing chronic insomnia is about 10%.

  1. b) 1 in 20
  2. c) 1 in 5
  3. d) 1 in 3

Incorrect. 1 in 3 adults in the U.S. suffer with insomnia, but many experience “transient” insomnia.

ANS: a, p. 128, F, LO=4.12, (2) 

 

  1. The difference between insomnia and apnea is that __________
  2. a) apnea affects primarily the elderly, whereas insomnia is characteristic of children.
  3. b) insomnia is treatable but apnea is not.

Incorrect. Both of these disorders are treatable.

  1. c) insomnia is characterized by sleeplessness, whereas apnea is characterized by breathing difficulties.

Correct. Insomnia is characterized by sleeplessness but apnea refers to breathing difficulties.

  1. d) apnea is a precursor to narcolepsy, whereas insomnia is not.

ANS: c, p. 128, C, LO=4.12, (2)

 

  1. __________ is a disorder in which breathing briefly stops during sleep, causing the person to choke,

gasp, and momentarily awaken.

  1. a) Sleep apnea

Correct. Sleep apnea is defined as a disorder in which breathing briefly stops during sleep.

  1. b) Insomnia
  2. c) Narcolepsy

Incorrect. This occurs when you fall asleep without warning.

  1. d) Non-REM sleep

ANS: a, p. 128, F, LO=4.12, (1)

% correct 100      a= 100  b= 0  c= 0  d= 0      r = .00

 

  1. A student nurse looks at a patient’s chart and does not understand the meaning of serious sleep apnea, so she asks the head nurse for assistance. How might the head nurse describe this condition?
  2. a) The patient is mentally ill and tends to try to suffocate himself at times.
  3. b) The patient cannot sleep unless he has several pillows he uses to deaden sounds that might awaken him.
  4. c) The patient appears to awaken throughout the night and start walking, but he will not respond to

commands.

Incorrect. This description defines sleepwalking and has nothing to do with apnea.

  1. d) The patient has a potentially life-threatening condition in which air does not flow into or out of his nose or

mouth for periods of time while he is asleep.

Correct. This description defines sleep apnea.

ANS: d, p. 128, A, LO=4.12, (3)

% correct 98      a= 0  b= 2  c= 0  d= 98      r = .29

 

  1. Sleep apnea is a disorder characterized by __________
  2. a) difficulty falling or remaining asleep.
  3. b) nodding off without warning in the middle of the day.

Incorrect. This description defines narcolepsy and has nothing to do with apnea.

  1. c) difficulty breathing while asleep.

Correct. This description defines sleep apnea.

  1. d) experiencing temporary paralysis immediately after waking up from sleep.

ANS: c, p. 128, F, LO=4.12, (1)

 

  1. Your friend has experienced excessive daytime sleepiness. He is laughing with you and suddenly falls to the ground. Your friend is probably suffering from __________
  2. a)

Correct. Narcolepsy is characterized by sudden sleep.

  1. b)
  2. c) REM rebound.
  3. d) sleep apnea.

Incorrect. Sleep apnea is when you have breathing difficulties while sleeping.

ANS: a, p. 128, A, LO=4.12, (2)

% correct 96      a= 96  b= 0  c= 0  d= 4      r = .57

 

  1. You are telling a joke to your friend who is laughing uproariously and then suddenly collapses

to the floor. You are not surprised to later learn that he has a sleep disorder known as ­­­__________

  1. a)

Incorrect. This is bed wetting.

  1. b)

Correct. Narcolepsy is characterized by sudden sleep.

  1. c) sleep terror.
  2. d) daytime insomnia.

ANS: b, p. 128, A, LO=4.12, (2) 

% correct 100      a= 0  b= 100  c= 0  d= 0      r = .00

 

  1. Which of the following statements might help you determine if an individual has narcolepsy?
  2. a) “I have difficulty getting to sleep.”

Incorrect. This describes insomnia.

  1. b) “I don’t have an adverse reaction to sleeping pills.”
  2. c) “I sometimes fall into a deep sleep in the middle of a conversation.”

Correct. Narcolepsy is characterized by sudden sleep.

  1. d) “When I get up in the morning, I have the feeling that I had really bad nightmares.”

ANS: c, p. 128, C, LO=4.12, (3)

 

  1. Narcolepsy occurs when __________
  2. a) REM sleep intrudes into wakefulness.

Correct. Narcolepsy is characterized by REM intrusion.

  1. b) NREM sleep intrudes into wakefulness.

Incorrect. This is not the cause since there is a transition to this type of sleep.

  1. c) inadequate sleep occurs over a period of weeks.
  2. d) inadequate levels of stage 4 sleep cause neurological damage.

ANS: a, p. 128, F, LO=4.12, (2)

 

  1. Which of the following conditions would you least like the pilot flying your airplane to have?
  2. a) enuresis

Incorrect. This is bed-wetting and should not interfere with flying.

  1. b) narcolepsy

Correct. Narcolepsy is characterized by sudden sleep, which might cause the pilot to lose control of the plane.

  1. c) sleep terror
  2. d) daytime insomnia

ANS: b, p. 128, C, LO=4.12, (2)

 

Dreams

 

Learning Objective 4.13 – What have researchers learned about dreams, their content, their biological basis, and their controllability?

 

  1. Dreams that occur during __________ sleep are less storylike, and less memorable than dreams that occur during __________ sleep.
  2. a) REM; NREM

Incorrect. This is the opposite of the correct answer.

  1. b) Pre-REM; NREM
  2. c) NREM; REM

Correct. NREM dreams have less of a story-esque quality to them and are more difficult to remember, probably because of the lower overall activity of the brain.

  1. d) QREM; REM

ANS: c, p. 129, F, LO=4.13, (2) 

 

  1. Griffith and others (1958) surveyed 250 college students about their dreams. Which of the following was not a common theme of dreams reported by these participants?
  2. a) being attacked
  3. b) falling
  4. c) studying

Correct. As you might expect, college students were found to frequently dream about studying.

  1. d) eating

Incorrect. Eating was not a commonly reported theme of these participants’ dreams.

ANS: c, p. 129, F, LO=4.13, (3) 

 

  1. In lucid dreams, people __________
  2. a) try to interpret the hidden meaning of a dream.

Incorrect. Lucid dreaming refers to the awareness that a dream is taking place while it is occurring. It has nothing to do with interpretation of the symbols of that dream.

  1. b) attempt to change their own behavior in a dream.
  2. c) attempt to remember the details of their dreams.
  3. d) attempt to influence the content of their own dreams.

Correct. During a lucid dream, a person will be aware that they are dreaming, and will try to actively change the content of that dream.

ANS: d, p. 130, C, LO=4.13, (2) 

 

Learning Objective 4.14 – How do the views of contemporary psychologists concerning the nature of dreams differ from those of Freud?

 

  1. Freud believed that dreams __________
  2. a) stem from unconscious sexual and aggressive desires and wishes.

Correct. Freud said dreams were the fulfillment of wishes.

  1. b) are sexual perversions.

Incorrect. Freud said dreams were the fulfillment of wishes.

  1. c) are reflections of consciousness.
  2. d) are ways to solve problems.

ANS: a, p. 130, F, LO=4.14,  (1)

 

  1. Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of dreaming states that __________
  2. a) the purpose of dreaming is to satisfy unconscious destructive and sexual desires and wishes.

Correct. Freud said dreams were the fulfillment of wishes.

  1. b) there is no purpose to dreaming; dreams occur because of random brain stem signals.

Incorrect. Freud said dreams were the fulfillment of wishes.

  1. c) the purpose of dreaming is to make sense of the random firing of neurons during sleep.
  2. d) dreaming is a by-product of a process of eliminating or strengthening neural connections.

ANS: a, p. 130, F, LO=4.14,  (1)

 

  1. __________ believed that dreams function to satisfy unconscious sexual and aggressive wishes.
  2. a) Hobson

Incorrect. Hobson, along with McCarley, is a theorist who believed that dreams are the brain’s attempt to make sense of random neural activity.

  1. b) McCarley
  2. c) Freud

Correct. Freud frequently spoke about sex and aggression in human beings, so it is not surprising that this part of his theory extended to dreams as well.

  1. d) Webb

ANS: c, p. 130, F, LO=4.14, (1)  

 

  1. Of the following, which WOULD Freud consider to be representative of the female sex organ in dreams?
  2. a) a gun
  3. b) a tree trunk
  4. c) a closed umbrella

Incorrect. The phallic shape of a closed umbrella might represent a penis to Freud, though an open umbrella might represent a vagina.

  1. d) a cupboard

Correct. Any wide-open space would represent a vagina to Sigmund Freud.

ANS: d, p. 130, F, LO=4.14, (1) 

 

  1. What two categories of dream content did Sigmund Freud describe?
  2. a) poetic and realistic
  3. b) literal and symbolic
  4. c) latent and manifest

Correct. Freud developed these categories of latent and manifest content.

  1. d) delusional and hallucinatory

Incorrect. Freud did not think dreams were delusions or hallucinations. He thought they were symbolic.

ANS: c, p. 130, F, LO=4.14, (1)

 

  1. Interpretation of the __________ content of a dream is expected to reveal the __________ content.
  2. a) latent; manifest

Incorrect. Freud said latent was hidden interpretation and manifest was what was dreamed.

  1. b) manifest; latent

Correct. Freud developed these categories of latent and manifest content.

  1. c) manifest; sublimated
  2. d) metaphorical; denotative

ANS: b, p. 130, C, LO=4.14, (2)

% correct 61      a= 28  b= 61  c= 5  d= 5      r = .21

 

  1. According to Sigmund Freud, the important underlying meaning of our dreams is found in the __________
  2. a) deep content.
  3. b) latent content.

Correct. The definition of latent is “hidden.”

  1. c) manifest content.

Incorrect. This would be the surface meaning.

  1. d) subliminal content.

ANS: b, p. 130, F, LO=4.14, (2)

% correct 63      a= 13  b= 63  c= 0  d= 24      r = .45

 

  1. A newspaper advertisement describes a book that offers interpretations of dreams. In attempting

to tell readers the meaning of the symbols of their dreams, the author intends to describe the __________

  1. a) deep content.
  2. b) latent content.

Correct. The definition of latent is “hidden.”

  1. c) manifest content.

Incorrect. This would be the surface meaning.

  1. d) subliminal content.

ANS: b, p. 130, C, LO=4.14, (3)

 

  1. A client tells his therapist about a dream in which he drives his wife to the airport where she boards a plane. As the plane takes off, he is smiling. The therapist says the dream suggests a desire for a divorce. The therapist’s interpretation represents what Sigmund Freud called the dream’s __________
  2. a) deep content.
  3. b) latent content.

Correct. Latent (hidden) content refers to the meaning of the dream.

  1. c) manifest content.

Incorrect. Manifest content has to do with what actually happens in a dream, not with its meaning. 

  1. d) subliminal content.

ANS: b, p. 130, A, LO=4.14, (3)

% correct 58      a= 4  b= 58  c= 26  d= 12      r = .42

 

  1. According to Freud, the visible, or directly observable, content of a dream is its ________ content.
  2. a) primary
  3. b) manifest

Correct. This content would be the surface meaning, that is, directly observable.

  1. c) secondary
  2. d) latent

Incorrect. The definition of latent is “hidden,” that is, not observable.

ANS: b, p. 130, F, LO=4.14, (1)

 

  1. A client tells his therapist about a dream of riding on a train with his boss. At the end of the journey, the boss gets off the train at a terminal. The content of this dream, as related by the client to the therapist, is what Freud called its __________
  2. a) primary content.
  3. b) manifest content.

Correct. This content would be the surface meaning.

  1. c) secondary content.
  2. d) latent content.

Incorrect. The definition of latent is “hidden,” that is, not observable.

ANS: b, p. 130, A, LO=4.14, (3)

% correct 58      a= 5  b= 58  c= 9  d= 28      r = .42

 

  1. A client tells his therapist about a dream of riding on a train with his boss. At the end of the journey, the boss gets off the train at a terminal. The therapist suggests that the “terminal” in the dream indicates an unconscious desire by the client to “terminate” his boss. This desire to terminate the boss, if it exists, would reflect what Freud called the __________ content of the dream.
  2. a) primary
  3. b) manifest

Incorrect. He was interpreting the meaning and this makes it latent.

  1. c) secondary
  2. d) latent

Correct. The definition of latent is “hidden,” that is, not observable.

ANS: d, p. 130, A, LO=4.14, (3)

 

  1. Calvin Hall found that most dreams are about __________
  2. a)
  3. b) everyday concerns.

Correct. Hall examined over 10,000 dreams and found that most were about everyday concerns.

  1. c) bizarre events.

Incorrect. Hall examined over 10,000 dreams and found that most were about everyday life.

  1. d)

ANS: b, pp. 130-131, F, LO=4.14, (1)

 

  1. The best adjectives associated with the activation-synthesis hypothesis are __________
  2. a) bizarre, meaningless, and random.

Correct. Bizarre, meaningless, and random reflect the nature of the activation-synthesis hypothesis since dreams are totally the result of brain activity.

  1. b) unconscious, symbolic, and meaningful.

Incorrect. These adjectives would be associated with Freud’s theory.

  1. c) meaningful, problem oriented, and historical.
  2. d) intelligent, free, and neurotic.

ANS: a, p. 131, C, LO=4.14, (2)

 

  1. This hypothesis suggests that dreams are simply the brain’s attempt to make sense of the random firing of brain cells during REM sleep.
  2. a) REM regeneration hypothesis
  3. b) activation-synthesis hypothesis

Correct. This is the theory of Hobson and McCarley, which has been questioned over the years.

  1. c) dopaminergic hypothesis

Incorrect. The dopamine hypothesis relates to schizophrenia, not to dreams.

  1. d) Freudian cathartic hypothesis

ANS: b, p. 131, F, LO=4.14, (1) 

 

Meditation and Hypnosis

 

Learning Objective 4.15 – What are the benefits of meditation?

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a benefit of meditation?
  2. a) lowered blood pressure
  3. b) higher IQ

Correct. The benefits of meditation are physical, not intellectual.

  1. c) lower cholesterol levels

Incorrect. There is evidence that those who regularly engage in meditation can lower cholesterol levels.

  1. d) improved cardiovascular health

ANS: b, p. 132, F, LO=4.15, (1) 

 

  1. Meditation may have an effect on all of the following EXCEPT __________
  2. a) kidney functioning.

Correct. Meditation has not been found to improve kidney functioning.

  1. b) blood pressure.
  2. c) cholesterol levels.

Incorrect. Meditation has been found to result in lower cholesterol levels in some individuals.

  1. d) cardiovascular health.

ANS: a, p. 132, F, LO=4.15, (2) 

 

Learning Objective 4.16 – What are the effects of hypnosis, and how do theorists explain them?

 

  1. Hypnosis has been used with some success in several different aspects, but has proven to be of no use at all in helping people to __________
  2. a) overcome pain.

Incorrect. Hypnosis as a form of analgesia has been found to be effective.

  1. b) reduce high blood pressure.
  2. c) overcome drug addiction.

Correct. Though many believe that it does, hypnosis has not been found to be effective in overcoming drug, alcohol, or nicotine addiction.

  1. d) control asthma.

ANS: c, p. 133, F, LO=4.16, (3) 

 

  1. The __________ maintains that hypnosis works by causing a split between the planning and monitoring aspects of consciousness.
  2. a) sociocognitive theory of hypnosis

Incorrect. The sociocognitive theory suggests that a person who is “hypnotized” is merely playing the role that (s)he thinks is expected to be played.

  1. b) neodissociation theory of hypnosis

Correct. This model suggests that hypnosis represents a “splitting” from one’s self, at least for a short amount of time.

  1. c) theory of dissociated control
  2. d) theory of preconscious arousal

ANS: b, p. 133, F, LO=4.16, (3) 

 

  1. Which of the following statements is correct concerning hypnosis?
  2. a) The hypnotist is always in control.

Incorrect. Actually, the person under hypnosis is the one really in control.

  1. b) A hypnotized person is in an involuntary condition of suggestion.
  2. c) People will do things they would not ordinarily do when under hypnosis.
  3. d) A person who is under hypnosis is really in control of his or her behavior.

Correct. People who are hypnotized are in control of their actions.

ANS: d, p. 133, F, LO=4.16, (3)

% correct 50      a= 3  b= 42  c= 5  d= 50      r = .28

 

  1. Which of the following people will be helped by hypnosis?
  2. a) Jeff, who would like to run faster
  3. b) Celia, who wants a better memory

Incorrect. Hypnosis cannot reliably enhance accuracy of memory.

  1. c) Kiesha, who wants to remember what happened to her when she was 4 years old
  2. d) Carlos, who wants to stop thinking about his foot pain

Correct. Hypnosis has been shown to relieve pain.

ANS: d, p. 133, A, LO=4.16, (2)

% correct 70      a= 0  b= 2  c= 28  d= 70      r = .20

 

  1. How does Ernest Hilgard explain pain reduction through hypnosis?
  2. a) Hypnosis increases dopamine levels in the body.
  3. b) People merely play the role of the hypnotized person and attempt to ignore the pain.

Incorrect. Hilgard did not believe this and there is no evidence that it happens.

  1. c) Hypnotized individuals dissociate the experience so part of the mind is unaware of the pain.

Correct. Hilgard believed that we make this dissociation when we are hypnotized.

  1. d) Hypnosis results in an altered state of consciousness that alters brain waves in regions of the brain

responsible for the perception of pain.

ANS: c, p. 133, C, LO=4.16, (3)

 

  1. How does Ernest Hilgard explain hypnosis?
  2. a) Hypnosis increases dopamine levels in the body.
  3. b) People merely fake being hypnotized.
  4. c) Hypnotized individuals dissociate the conscious mind into an “immediate” part and a “hidden observer”

part.

Correct. Hilgard believed that we make this dissociation when we are hypnotized.

  1. d) Hypnosis results in an altered state of consciousness that alters brain waves in regions of the brain.

Incorrect. Hilgard did not believe this and there is no evidence that it happens.

ANS: c, p. 133, F, LO=4.16, (3)

 

  1. The idea of a “hidden observer” part of the mind was suggested by __________
  2. a)

Incorrect. Although Freud used hypnosis, he did not suggest there was a “hidden observer.”

  1. b)
  2. c)

Correct. Hilgard developed the “hidden observer” idea.

  1. d)

ANS: c, p. 133, F, LO=4.16, (1)

 

  1. You meet a psychologist who says she views hypnosis from the social-cognitive perspective. Which of the following is the best description of what her view of hypnosis would be?
  2. a) there is no hypnotized person role; hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness
  3. b) there is no hypnotized person role; hypnosis is not an altered state of consciousness
  4. c) people play the role of a hypnotized person; hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness

Incorrect. Although this position says we play a role, it also says there is no altered state.

  1. d) people play the role of a hypnotized person; hypnosis is not an altered state of consciousness

Correct. The social-cognitive view suggests we play a role.

ANS: d, p. 133, A, LO=4.16, (3)

 

  1. Social-cognitive theory of hypnosis suggests that __________
  2. a) hypnosis increases dopamine levels in the body.
  3. b) people merely are playing a role.

Correct. The social-cognitive view suggests we play a role.

  1. c) hypnotized individuals dissociate the conscious mind into an “immediate” part and a “hidden observer”

part.

Incorrect. This is the view of Hilgard who was not a social-cognitive psychologist.

  1. d) hypnosis results in an altered state of consciousness that alters brain waves in regions of the brain.

ANS: b, p. 133, F, LO=4.16, (2)

 

Psychoactive Drugs

 

Learning Objective 4.17 – How do drugs affect the brain’s neurotransmitter system?

 

  1. Psychoactive drugs are __________
  2. a) drugs that speed up activity in the central nervous system.
  3. b) drugs capable of influencing perception, mood, cognition, or behavior.

Correct. Chemicals that can alter consciousness, perception, mood, and behavior are called psychoactive.

  1. c) drugs that slow down activity in the central nervous system.

Incorrect. Psychoactive drugs do not necessarily slow down the CNS. They alter perception.

  1. d) drugs derived from the opium poppy that relieve pain and produce euphoria.

ANS: b, p. 134, F, LO=4.17, (1)

 

  1. Any drug that alters mood, perception, or thought is called a(n) __________
  2. a) psychoactive drug.

Correct. Psychoactive drugs, also called controlled substances, have these effects.

  1. b) illegal drug.

Incorrect. There are many psychoactive drugs that are completely legal. Caffeine and nicotine are two examples.

  1. c) illicit drug.
  2. d) narcotic.

ANS: a, p. 134, F, LO=4.17, (1) 

 

  1. Chemicals that can alter consciousness, perception, mood, and behavior are called __________
  2. a) legal drugs.
  3. b) illegal drugs.

Incorrect. Most psychoactive drugs are not illegal.

  1. c)
  2. d) psychoactive drugs.

Correct. Chemicals that can alter consciousness, perception, mood, and behavior are called psychoactive.

ANS: d, p. 134, F, LO=4.17, (1)

% correct 95      a= 0  b= 2  c= 4  d= 95      r = .49

 

  1. Which of the following is a side effect of opiate abuse?
  2. a) the brain gets flooded with GABA
  3. b) heart rates will zoom

Incorrect. This is a side effect of stimulant use, particularly cocaine or amphetamines.

  1. c) natural endorphin production will be suppressed

Correct. Opiates, which mimic the function of endorphins, causes a reduction in natural endorphin production.

  1. d) blood pressure will increase dramatically

ANS: c, p. 135, F, LO=4.17, (3) 

 

  1. Stimulants such as amphetamines mimic the effects of __________
  2. a) epinephrine.

Correct. Epinephrine is a neurotransmitter that helps to activate the human nervous system. In this way, it is similar to the effects of amphetamines.

  1. b) endorphins.

Incorrect Endorphins are pain-killing neurotransmitters. They do not have the same effect as stimulants.

  1. c) GABA.
  2. d) serotonin.

ANS: a, p. 135, F, LO=4.17, (2) 

 

Learning Objective 4.18 – How do stimulants affect behavior?

 

  1. Drugs that speed up the functioning of the nervous system are called __________
  2. a)

Correct. Stimulants speed up the processes of the nervous system.

  1. b)
  2. c)

Incorrect. Narcotics slow down the nervous system.

  1. d)

ANS: a, p.  135, F, LO=4.18, (1)

% correct 96      a= 96  b= 2  c= 2  d= 0      r = .42

 

  1. When amphetamines are abused, the resulting effects may include __________
  2. a) confusion, disorganized behavior, fear, delusions, and hallucinations.

Correct. Amphetamines cause all of these symptoms.

  1. b) increased appetite, sleepiness, and euphoria.

Incorrect. Amphetamines rarely increase appetite.

  1. c) heart disease, high blood pressure, impaired circulation, and erectile problems in men.
  2. d) restlessness, insomnia, muscle tension, heartbeat irregularities, and high blood pressure.

ANS: a, p. 136, F, LO=4.18, (2)

 

  1. Nicotine is a __________
  2. a)

Correct. Nicotine causes your CNS (central nervous system) to increase firing.

  1. b)

Incorrect. Nicotine is just the opposite.

  1. c)
  2. d) psychogenic drug.

ANS: a, p. 136, F, LO=4.18, (1)

% correct 86      a= 86  b= 7  c= 4  d= 4      r = .52

 

  1. Caffeine is a __________
  2. a)

Correct. Caffeine causes the central nervous system to increase activity.

  1. b)
  2. c)

Incorrect. Narcotics are depressants and also are controlled substances.

  1. d) psychogenic drug.

ANS: a, p. 135, F, LO=4.18, (1)

% correct 100      a= 100  b= 0  c= 0  d= 0      r = .00

 

  1. Cal is extremely edgy. He paces around his hotel room and every few minutes ducks over to the window and sneaks a look through the curtains. He is muttering to himself and tugging at his hair. His body feels clammy. His skin is crawling and his heart is pounding. He can’t shake the idea that people are waiting for him outside, that maybe soon they’ll be coming in to get him. What drug are these symptoms indicative of?
  2. a) marijuana
  3. b) barbiturates

Incorrect. Barbiturates are depressants, and in high doses would cause a person to become very relaxed, slow-moving, and possibly unconscious.

  1. c) amphetamines

 Correct. In high doses, amphetamines can cause fear, confusion, suspiciousness, and delusions, among other symptoms.

  1. d) hallucinogens

ANS: c, p. 136, A, LO=4.18, (2)  

 

  1. Animals are most easily addicted to which type of drug?
  2. a) opium
  3. b) barbiturates
  4. c) cocaine

Cocaine. Animals become addicted to cocaine more readily than any other drug.

  1. d) caffeine

Incorrect. Animals become addicted to cocaine more readily than any other drug.

ANS: c, p. 136, F, LO=4.18, (2) 

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a likely complication from abuse of cocaine over time?
  2. a) heart attacks
  3. b) strokes

Incorrect. Prolonged use of cocaine can cause a risk of stroke even in healthy, young individuals.

  1. c) hallucinations

Correct. Prolonged use of cocaine is not known to cause hallucinations.

  1. d) heart palpitations

ANS: c, p. 136, F, LO=4.18, (2) 

 

  1. The stimulant derived from coca leaves is known as __________
  2. a) cocaine.

Correct. Cocaine is a fine white powder that comes from pounding the leaves of the coca plant.

  1. b) caffeine.
  2. c) amphetamine

Incorrect. Cocaine and amphetamines are both stimulants, but they are not the same drug.

  1. d) ephedrine.

ANS: a, p. 136, F, LO=4.18, (1) 

 

  1. Which of the following substances is NOT a stimulant?
  2. a) nicotine

Incorrect.  Nicotine is a stimulant that is most often inhaled through cigarettes or cigars.

  1. b) cocaine
  2. c) alcohol

Correct. Alcohol is categorized as a depressant, not a stimulant.

  1. d) caffeine

ANS: c, p. 136, F, LO=4.18, (2)  

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a form of depressants?
  2. a) cocaine

Correct. Cocaine is a stimulant.

  1. b) tranquilizers
  2. c) alcohol

Incorrect. Although many mistake alcohol to be a stimulant, it is, in fact, a depressant.

  1. d) barbiturates

ANS: a, pp. 136-137, F, LO=4.18-4.19, (1)  

 

Learning Objective 4.19 – What are the effects of depressants?

 

  1. One major danger of barbiturates is __________
  2. a)

Incorrect. Barbiturates are major depressants.

  1. b)
  2. c) drug interaction.

Correct. Using barbiturates with another drug such as alcohol has an often deadly consequence.

  1. d)

ANS: c, p. 137, F, LO=4.19, (2)

% correct 58      a= 37  b= 3  c= 58  d= 3      r = .31

 

  1. Which of the following is classified as a depressant?
  2. a) cocaine
  3. b) alcohol

Correct. Alcohol is a depressant.

  1. c) heroin

Incorrect. Heroin is a narcotic.

  1. d) marijuana

ANS: b, p. 137, F, LO=4.19, (1)

 

  1. Drugs derived from opium are called __________
  2. a)
  3. b)

Incorrect. Depressants are made from many different materials and chemicals.

  1. c)

Correct. Narcotics are a class of drugs that suppress pain and stimulate receptor sites for endorphins.

  1. d)

ANS: c, p. 137, F, LO=4.19, (1)

 

  1. Morphine, codeine, and heroin __________
  2. a) are stimulants.
  3. b) are derived from opium.

Correct. All these drugs have the same roots.

  1. c) are often used to treat ADHD.

Incorrect. These drugs would never be used to treat ADHD.

  1. d) increase the action of the central nervous system.

ANS: b, p. 137, F, LO=4.19, (1)

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a manner by which depressants exert their effects?
  2. a) depressing the central nervous system

Incorrect. Slowing down the activity of the central nervous system is precisely how depressants work.

  1. b) slowing down body functions
  2. c) reducing sensitivity to outside stimulation
  3. d) paralyzing the intestinal muscles

Correct. A reduction in the motion of intestinal muscles is an effect of narcotics, but not all depressant medications.

ANS: d, p. 137, F, LO=4.19, (2) 

 

  1. Which of the following drugs is classified as a narcotic?
  2. a) heroin

Correct. Heroin, which is derived from morphine, is a narcotic drug.

  1. b) cocaine
  2. c) LSD
  3. d) valium

Incorrect. Valium is a depressant, but it is a benzodiazepine, not a narcotic.

ANS: a, p. 137, F, LO=4.19, (2) 

 

  1. Derivatives of the opium poppy are used medically to curb __________
  2. a) pain and/or diarrhea.

Correct. The paralyzing effect that opium has on the intestines makes it useful for treating severe cases of diarrhea.

  1. b) cravings for alcohol and/or nicotine.
  2. c) nausea.
  3. d) depression and/or narcolepsy.

Incorrect. There is no medically indicated use of opium derivatives that treats depression or narcolepsy.

ANS: a, p. 137, F, LO=4.19, (2) 

 

  1. __________ is a derivative of morphine that is highly addictive.
  2. a) Ecstasy
  3. b) Codeine

Incorrect. Codeine is derived from opium, not from morphine.

  1. c) Mescaline
  2. d) Heroin

Correct. Heroin, one of the most addictive drugs out there, is derived from morphine.

ANS: d, p. 137, F, LO=4.19, (2) 

 

Learning Objective 4.20 – What are the effects of hallucinogens?

 

  1. Which hallucinogen has caused controversy because of legalization attempts due to its purported medical benefits?
  2. a) heroin

Incorrect. There is no currently accepted medical use for heroin.

  1. b) marijuana

Correct. Different groups (NIDA, FDA) have taken different positions on the medical benefits (or lack thereof) of marijuana.

  1. c) LSD
  2. d) barbiturates

ANS: b, p. 138, F, LO=4.20, (1)  

 

  1. The textbook classifies marijuana as a(n) __________
  2. a) stimulant.
  3. b) narcotic.

Incorrect. Marijuana is not a narcotic, as it is not derived from the opium poppy.

  1. c) hallucinogen.

Correct. Marijuana has the potential to cause effects similar to stimulants and depressants, but its major classification is as a hallucinogen.

  1. d) depressant.

ANS: c, p. 138, F, LO=4.20, (1)  

 

  1. A 17-year longitudinal study of Costa Rican men suggests that long-term marijuana use has a negative impact on __________
  2. a) metabolic rate.

Incorrect. There is no known relationship between marijuana use and metabolic rate.

  1. b) short-term memory.

Correct. This study, published in 1996, found decreased short-term memory and ability to focus in long-term  marijuana smokers.

  1. c) long-term memory.
  2. d) sensory memory.

ANS: b, p. 138, F, LO=4.20, (3) 

 

  1. Marijuana has been found effective for treating all of the following except __________
  2. a) glaucoma.
  3. b) nausea in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.
  4. c) weight loss in some AIDS patients.

Incorrect. There is some evidence that marijuana may help reduce nausea and weight loss in some AIDS patients.

  1. d) cataracts in the elderly.

Correct. Marijuana is not useful for the treatment of cataracts in any age individual.

ANS: d, p. 138, F, LO=4.20, (2) 

 

  1. Which of the following drugs IS linked to the development of a syndrome called hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD)?
  2. a) LSD

Correct. It is impossible to predict which people using LSD will develop HPPD, but there is a relationship between the drug and the condition.

  1. b) MDMA

Incorrect. MDMA, or ecstasy, does not cause HPPD.

  1. c) marijuana
  2. d) heroin

ANS: a, p. 138, F, LO=4.20, (2) 

 

  1. A flashback is a brief recurrence of a previously experienced altered state associated with the use of __________
  2. a) LSD.

Correct. A flashback, or ‘trip,’ is experienced when one takes LSD.

  1. b) MDMA.

Incorrect. Those who are intoxicated with MDMA may have hallucinations, but they will not have reoccurrences of them after the drug is out of their system.

  1. c) marijuana.
  2. d) heroin.

ANS: a, p. 138, F, LO=4.20, (1) 

 

  1. Which of the following pairs belong together?
  2. a) LSD; tetrahydrocannabinol
  3. b) marijuana; psilocybin
  4. c) MDMA; acetylcholine

Incorrect. MDMA is ecstasy and acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that is not associated with it.

  1. d) marijuana; tetrahydrocannabinol

Correct. THC is the active ingredient in marijuana.

ANS: d, p. 138, C, LO=4.20,  (3)

% correct 89      a= 3  b= 5  c= 3  d= 89      r = .38

 

  1. Which of the following types of drugs cannot be detected using standard drug tests, and therefore are becoming more popular?
  2. a) marijuana

Incorrect. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the ingredient in marijuana, remains in the body for days and even weeks.

  1. b) “designer” drugs

Correct. Designer drugs are metabolized by the body differently and as a result are not detected by convential drug tests.

  1. c) nicotine
  2. d) narcotics

ANS: b, pp. 138-139, F, LO=4.20, (2)

 

  1. MDMA, or methylene-dioxy-methamphetamine, is the chemical name for which popular street drug?
  2. a) LSD
  3. b) slippies

Incorrect. MDMA is the chemical name for Ecstasy.

  1. c) Ecstasy

Correct. MDMA is the chemical name for Ecstasy.

  1. d) hashish

ANS: c, pp. 138-139, F, LO=4.20, (1)

 

  1. Chavonne has recently ingested a large dose of a popular designer drug. The drug is causing her to hallucinate, experience a wonderful “euphoric” state of consciousness, and lose her social and sexual inhibitions. The drug she has most likely taken is __________
  2. a) Ecstasy.

Correct. Ecstasy causes euphoria and a loss of social and sexual inhibitions.

  1. b) marijuana.
  2. c) PCP.
  3. d) LSD.

Incorrect. LSD produces extreme perceptual and emotional changes, including visual hallucinations and feelings of panic.

ANS: a, p. 139, A, LO=4.20, (2)

 

Learning Objective 4.21 – What are some risk and protective factors for substance abuse?

 

  1. Lying directly behind your eye sockets, this brain structure is anatomically connected to the association areas for all five of your senses.
  2. a) orbitofrontal cortex

Correct. This area of the brain is called the orbitofrontal cortex.

  1. b) thalamus

Incorrect. The orbitofrontal cortex is connected to the thalamus.

  1. c) hypothalamus
  2. d) amygdala

ANS: a, p. 140, F, LO=4.21, (3)  

 

  1. Illicit drug use reached its lowest point among 12th graders in __________
  2. a) 1972.
  3. b) 1982.
  4. c) 1992.

Correct. According to research conducted in 2008, 1992 was when 12th grade drug use bottomed out.

  1. d) 2002.

Incorrect. Unfortunately, illicit 12th grade drug use in 2002 was higher than it was just a decade before.

ANS: c, p. 141, F, LO=4.21, (3) 

 

Learning Objective 4.22 – What is the difference between physical and psychological drug dependence?

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT one of the four (4) factors that influence the addictive potential of a drug?
  2. a) how much discomfort is experienced when the drug is discontinued

Incorrect. This factor is directly related to the physical addiction symptom of withdrawal.

  1. b) how many areas of the brain are impacted by the drug

Correct. This is not one of the four factors identified in the textbook as being related to the addictive potential of a drug.

  1. c) how fast the effects of the drug are felt
  2. d) how long the pleasurable effects last

ANS: b, p. 142, C, LO=4.22, (3) 

 

  1. Which of the following indicators reflects the possibility of physical dependence?
  2. a) obsessing about a drug
  3. b) getting caught with a drug
  4. c) abusing a drug

Incorrect. Abuse is defined by overuse, not necessarily physical dependence.

  1. d) drug tolerance

Correct. Tolerance is one indicator of physical dependence.

ANS: d, pp. 142-143, F, LO=4.22, (1)

% correct 65      a= 12  b= 0  c= 23  d=65      r = .36

 

  1. __________ occurs because the brain adapts to the presence of drugs by responding less intensely to them.
  2. a) Drug tolerance

Correct. Once tolerance occurs, it will take more and more of the same drug to achieve the same effect.

  1. b) Habituation
  2. c) Psychological dependence
  3. d) Withdrawal symptoms

Incorrect. Withdrawal occurs when the brain and body have come to crave the presence of a substance that is absent.

ANS: a, pp. 142-143, F, LO=4.22, (2) 

 

  1. The need to take a drug in order to avoid withdrawal symptoms is called __________
  2. a) a craving.
  3. b)

Incorrect. Tolerance is defined as needing more and more of a drug over time to achieve a high.

  1. c) obsessive compulsion.
  2. d) physical dependence.

Correct. Withdrawal is an indicator of physical dependence.

ANS: d, pp. 142-143, F, LO=4.22, (1)

% correct 93      a= 0  b= 7  c= 0  d= 93      r = .19

% correct 89      a= 5  b= 5  c= 1  d= 89      r = .20

 

  1. Russell needs more of the drug he has been using to get the normal high he got when he first started. Russell is experiencing __________
  2. a) drug tolerance.

Correct. The phenomenon of needing more and more of a drug as time goes on is called drug tolerance.

  1. b) drug detoxification.
  2. c)

Incorrect. Withdrawal occurs when you stop getting the drug you have been using.

  1. d)

ANS: a, pp. 142-143, A, LO=4.22, (2)

% correct 95      a= 95  b= 3  c= 3  d= 0      r = .18

 

  1. After taking a drug for several years, Bruce decides to quit taking the drug. He begins to experience a variety of physical symptoms, psychological symptoms such as irritability, and a strong craving for the substance. What term is used to describe what Bruce is experiencing?
  2. a) tolerance

Incorrect. Drug tolerance occurs when, over time, one needs more and more of a drug to get high.

  1. b) physical dependence
  2. c) withdrawal

Correct. Withdrawal occurs when one stops using a drug and is characterized by irritability, nausea, and other symptoms.

  1. d) drug intoxication

ANS: c, p. 143, A, LO=4.22, (2)

 

  1. Withdrawal symptoms from tranquilizers are likely to cause a person to feel __________
  2. a) nervous and agitated.

Correct. It is common for the withdrawal symptom of a drug to be the opposite of the effect normally produced by the ingestion of that same drug.

  1. b) exhausted and depressed.

Incorrect. These are symptoms of stimulant withdrawal.

  1. c) angry and suspicious.
  2. d) hungry and lethargic.

ANS: a, p. 143, C, LO=4.22, (2) 

 

  1. Cindy is exhausted and depressed after having started treatment for her abuse of drugs. It is likely that Cindy abused which kind of drugs?
  2. a) depressants

Incorrect. The symptoms of depressant withdrawal are likely to make a person feel nervous and agitated.

  1. b) stimulants

Correct. It is common for the withdrawal symptom of a drug to be the opposite of the effect normally produced by the ingestion of that same drug.

  1. c) narcotics
  2. d) hallucinogens

ANS: b, p. 143, C, LO=4.22, (3) 

 

  1. Ward notices that as his supply of marijuana decreases he starts thinking more and more about where he can get another supply as well as feeling nervous and anxious. This is an example of __________
  2. a)
  3. b)
  4. c) physiological dependence.

Incorrect. Physical dependence causes physical symptoms.

  1. d) psychological dependence.

Correct. He is thinking and feeling things about his drug. These are psychological issues.

ANS: d, pp. 143-144, A, LO=4.22, (2)

% correct 63      a= 11  b= 0  c= 25  d= 63      r = .19

 

Learning Objective 4.23 – What are the pros and cons of using herbal remedies?

 

  1. Herbal remedies are __________
  2. a) rarely subjected to placebo-controlled effectiveness studies.

Correct. This is why it is difficult to truly know how effective (or safe or dangerous) some herbal remedies truly are.

  1. b) more effective than many prescription medications.

Incorrect. This may be true in some cases, but there is no true science to support this claim.

  1. c) regulated by the same government agency that regulates prescription drugs.
  2. d) generally ineffective for most problems.

ANS: a, p. 144, F, LO=4.23, (2) 

 

  1. Herbs such as kava can __________
  2. a) act as a calmative and a sleep aid.

Correct. When taken correctly, kava can act in these fashions.

  1. b) damage your kidneys and spleen.

Incorrect. Kava can be toxic to the liver, not the kidneys or spleen.

  1. c) act as a stimulant and appetite suppressant.
  2. d) reduce your interest in sexual activity.

ANS: a, p. 144, F, LO=4.23, (4) 

 

  1. Herbal remedies and other supplements are regulated in the U.S. __________
  2. a) as foods.

Correct. Because of this, it is difficult for consumers to know exactly what is in the herbal remedies that are sold.

  1. b) as drugs.

Incorrect. Herbal remedies are not subject to the close scrutiny that is applied to drugs and medications.

  1. c) as illegal substances.
  2. d) as manufactured objects.

ANS: a, p. 144, F, LO=4.23, (2) 

 

TRUE OR FALSE

 

  1. Altered states of consciousness can only be produced by drug consumption or by meditation.

ANS: F, p. 116, LO=4.1

 

  1. The use of an hallucinogenic drug called peyote has long been a tradition of many Hispanic-American communities in the United States.

ANS: F., P. 117, LO=4.2

 

  1. The hormone melatonin is vitally involved in inducing sleep.

ANS: T, p. 119, LO=4.3

 

  1. Research examining the link between circadian rhythms and neurological disorders may lead to new ways of diagnosing Alzheimer’s disease.

ANS: T, p. 121, LO=4.5

 

  1. The restorative theory of sleep states that sleep evolved to keep humans out of harm’s way during dark nights.

ANS: F, p. 122, LO=4.6

 

  1. Research has conclusively found that males who wake up with an erection do so because they were having a dream involving sexual activity or content.

ANS: F, p. 123, LO=4.7

 

  1. 7. In males suffering from impotence, the presence of an erection during REM sleep indicates that the impotence is psychological.

ANS: T, p. 123, LO=4.7

 

  1. Almost everyone goes through the same cycles of sleep.

ANS: T, p. 123, LO=4.8

 

  1. The shift from alpha waves to delta waves during REM sleep is referred to as REM rebound.

ANS: F, p. 124, LO=4.9

 

  1. When people are deprived of REM sleep due to general sleep loss, they will spend more time in REM sleep afterward.

ANS: F, p. 124, LO=4.9

 

  1. People who average 7 hours of sleep per night will, on average, outlive those who average 9 or more hours of sleep per night.

ANS: T, p. 125, LO=4.10

 

  1. In the United States, children between six years of age and puberty average nearly 10-11 hours of sleep per night.

ANS: T, p. 125, LO=4.10

 

  1. Research has found that after moderate sleep deprivation of only 12 to 14 hours, some individuals begin to experience minor hallucinations.

ANS: F, p. 126, LO=4.11

 

  1. Most sleepwalking occurs during REM sleep.

ANS: F, pp. 126-127, LO=4.12

 

  1. Neither frequent nightmares nor night terrors are evidence of psychological problems.

ANS: F, p. 127, LO=4.12

 

  1. To treat your sleep problem you are told that you should not nap, you should set your alarm clock to wake up at the same time each day, and you should get out of bed if you cannot sleep. You have insomnia.

ANS: T, p. 127, LO=4.12

 

  1. A sleep disorder characterized by difficulty in falling asleep or remaining asleep throughout the night is called sleep apnea.

ANS: F, p. 128, LO=4.12

 

  1. Sigmund Freud was interested in how dreams affected the stages of sleep.

ANS: F, p. 130, LO=4.14

 

  1. Sigmund Freud said that the key to analyzing a dream will be found in the manifest content.

ANS: F, p. 130, LO=4.14

 

  1. The idea of a “hidden observer” part of the mind was suggested by Ernest Hilgard.

ANS: T, p. 133, LO=4.16

 

  1. Amphetamines increase alertness by stimulating the release of dopamine in the frontal cortex.

ANS: T, p. 136, LO=4.18

 

  1. Nicotine is a stimulant.

ANS: T, p. 136, LO=4.18

 

  1. Russell needs more of the drug he has been using to get the normal high he used to get when he first started. Russell is experiencing flashbacks.

ANS: F, pp. 142-143, LO=4.22

 

  1. Withdrawal symptoms, both physical and psychological, are usually the exact opposite of the effects produced by the drug the person is addicted to.

ANS: T, p. 143, LO=4.22

 

  1. Physical addiction is more difficult to combat than psychological dependence.

ANS: F, p. 143, LO=4.22

 

  1. About 25% of college students use herbal supplements.

ANS: F, p. 144, LO=4.23

 

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. What does it mean to be conscious?
  2. 116, LO=4.1

 

  1. What is the role of melatonin in the sleep process?

p.119, LO=4.3

 

  1. Why do people sleep?
  2. 122, LO=4.6

 

  1. What is REM behavior disorder?
  2. 123, LO=4.7

 

  1. What happens in stage 4 sleep?
  2. 123-124, LO=4.8

 

  1. Differentiate between sleep terrors and nightmares.
  2. 127, LO=4.12

 

  1. Describe the symptoms of insomnia.
  2. 128, LO=4.12

 

  1. Differentiate between the manifest and latent content of dreams.
  2. 130, LO=4.14

 

  1. How does the activation-synthesis hypothesis of dreaming work?
  2. 131, LO=4.14

 

  1. What does it mean to be hypnotized?
  2. 132-133, LO=4.16

 

  1. Is hypnosis a viable treatment for some problems?
  2. 132-133, LO-4.16

 

  1. Describe some dangers associated with stimulants.
  2. 135-136, LO=4.18

 

  1. What are the symptoms and side-effects of marijuana use and abuse?
  2. 136, LO=4.20

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Discuss the brain’s internal timer. What are some of the brain structures involved with our sense of time, and how accurate is our sense of time’s passage.
  2. 119, LO=4.3

 

  1. List and describe the different stages of sleep. What position do you hold regarding the purpose of sleep and its stages?
  2. 122-124, LO=4.6-4.8

 

  1. What are some of the functions suggested for REM sleep?
  2. 124, LO=4.9

 

  1. Compare and contrast two theories of dreams. Which one do you believe makes more sense and why? What is your theory of dreams?
  2. 129-131, LO=4.13-4.14

 

  1. Should marijuana be legalized? What are the pros and cons of this issue? Include research cited in your text to support your position.
  2. 138, LO=4.20

 

  1. What are the main differences between physical dependence and psychological dependence? Give examples of both types of dependence.
  2. 142-144, LO=4.22

 

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