The World of Children 2rd Edition by Cook – Test Bank

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Chapter 4       Physical Development in Infants and Toddlers

 

4.1       Multiple-Choice Questions

 

4.1-1. Jess is 6 months into her first pregnancy. What change did she make to improve her strength and stamina?

  1. A) enrolled in baby exercise classes
  2. B) started going to the gym 2 or 3 times per week
  3. C) modified her diet
  4. D) decorated the baby’s area with bright colors

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-1

Page Ref: 113

Topic: Physical Development in Infants and Toddlers

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: B) started going to the gym 2 or 3 times per week. Jess walks and goes to the gym two or three times per week for exercise; she wants to improve her strength and stamina to help her through labor and delivery.

 

4.1-2. In the United States, what percentage of infants is born earlier than 32 weeks of gestation?

  1. A) less than 1%
  2. B) 2%
  3. C) 5%
  4. D) more than 10%

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-2

Page Ref: 114

Topic: Infants at Risk: Prematurity and Infant Mortality

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: B) 2%

 

4.1-3. At birth, the average newborn weighs

  1. A) 6 pounds.
  2. B) 7½ pounds.
  3. C) 8 pounds.
  4. D) 9½ pounds.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-3

Page Ref: 115

Topic: Infants at Risk: Prematurity and Infant Mortality

Skill: Factual

Answer: B) 7½ pounds

 

4.1-4. Sammy is born at 35 weeks gestation. Which of the following terms best characterizes his birth?

  1. A) preterm birth
  2. B) premature birth
  3. C) full-term
  4. D) incomplete term

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-4

Page Ref: 115

Topic: Infants at Risk: Prematurity and Infant Mortality

Skill: Applied

Answer: A) preterm birth. Preterm birth is birth before 37 weeks gestation.

 

4.1-5. Although the United States ranks first in the world in health technology, it ranks _____ among industrialized countries in the rate of low-birth-weight births.

  1. A) fifth
  2. B) twelfth
  3. C) seventeenth
  4. D) twenty-first

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-5

Page Ref: 114

Topic: Infants at Risk: Prematurity and Infant Mortality

Skill: Factual

Answer: D) twenty-first

 

4.1-6. The incidence of preterm births in the United States is now at _____.

  1. A) 10%
  2. B) 12%
  3. C) 14%
  4. D) 16%

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-6

Page Ref: 114

Topic: Infants at Risk: Prematurity and Infant Mortality

Skill: Factual

Answer: B) 12%

 

4.1-7. Practicing reflexes in an exercise class for infants speeds the emergence of motor skills

  1. A) slightly.
  2. B) somewhat.
  3. C) significantly.
  4. D) tremendously.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-7

Page Ref: 140

Topic: Infants at Risk: Prematurity and Infant Mortality

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: A) slightly. Practicing reflexes speeds the emergence of motor skills only slightly, so such classes probably do more for fun and social interaction than for the motor skills.

 

4.1-8. Motor skills will develop well if typical sources of stimulation are on hand. Which of these types of stimulation will develop motor skills?

  1. A) impartial caregivers
  2. B) a safe, flat environment
  3. C) an environment with familiar objects
  4. D) objects to manipulate

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-8

Page Ref: 140

Topic: Infants at Risk: Prematurity and Infant Mortality

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: D) objects to manipulate. Typical sources of stimulation are objects to manipulate, friendly voices and faces, hugs, things to climb on, and encouragement to explore a varied environment.

 

4.1-9. Which baby is considered full term?

  1. A) the baby born at 35 weeks gestation
  2. B) the baby born at 36 weeks gestation
  3. C) the baby born at 36 weeks and 6 days gestation
  4. D) the baby born within 2 weeks of the expected due date

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-9

Page Ref: 115

Topic: Infants at Risk: Prematurity and Infant Mortality

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: D) the baby born within 2 weeks of the expected due date. A baby is full term within the window of two weeks early to two weeks late.

 

4.1-10. Infants who have experienced intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are below the ____ percentile of birth weight for gestational age.

  1. A) fifth
  2. B) tenth
  3. C) fifteenth
  4. D) twentieth

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-10

Page Ref: 115

Topic: Infants at Risk: Prematurity and Infant Mortality

Skill: Factual

Answer: B) tenth

 

4.1-11. Newborns who weigh less than 31/2 pounds at birth are best classified as being

  1. A) a preterm birth.
  2. B) at average birth weight.
  3. C) at low birth weight.
  4. D) at very low birth weight.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-11

Page Ref: 115

Topic: Infants at Risk: Prematurity and Infant Mortality

Skill: Factual

Answer: D) at very low birth weight

 

4.1-12. One possible factor in small for gestational age is

  1. A) the mother is Hispanic.
  2. B) the mother has high blood pressure.
  3. C) poor prenatal nutrition of the fetus.
  4. D) the baby was conceived just 9 months after the previous baby was born.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-12

Page Ref: 115

Topic: Infants at Risk: Prematurity and Infant Mortality

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: C) poor prenatal nutrition of the fetus. Maternal diet was poor, there were problems in the placenta, or problems in the fetus prevented it from being able to utilize nutrients.

 

4.1-13. Small for gestational age babies are

  1. A) less than 31/2 pounds at birth.
  2. B) born before 37 weeks gestation.
  3. C) below the tenth percentile for head circumference.
  4. D) below the tenth percentile of birth weight for their gestational age.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-13

Page Ref: 115

Topic: Infants at Risk: Prematurity and Infant Mortality

Skill: Factual

Answer: D) below the tenth percentile of birth weight for their gestational age

 

4.1-14. Which of the following conditions is the most likely to mean serious health risks for a child?

  1. A) preterm birth
  2. B) low birth weight
  3. C) very low birth weight
  4. D) small for gestational age

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-14

Page Ref: 115

Topic: Infants at Risk: Prematurity and Infant Mortality

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: D) small for gestational age. Something has kept them from growing as well as they should have, so they are born smaller than would be expected given their length of gestation.

 

4.1-15. Premature infants have increased risk of difficulties in respiration. What are the three main respiration problems?

  1. A) regulating sleep, awake, alert cycles
  2. B) anoxia, apnea, and respiratory distress syndrome
  3. C) brain hemorrhage, cerebral palsy, and perceptual difficulties
  4. D) poor sucking ability, circulation, and ambiguous interpersonal signals

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 4.1-15

Page Ref: 116

Topic: Infants at Risk: Prematurity and Infant Mortality

Skill: Factual

Answer: B) anoxia, apnea, and respiratory distress syndrome

 

4.1-16. Infants who experience intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are sometimes called

  1. A) premature infants.
  2. B) small for gestational age with IUGR.
  3. C) breech babies.
  4. D) small for chronological age with IUGR.

Difficulty: 2

Page Ref: 115

Question ID: 4.1-16

Topic: Infants at Risk: Prematurity and Infant Mortality

Skill: Factual

Answer: B) small for gestational age with IUGR

 

4.1-17. Lack of prenatal care consistently correlates with

  1. A) microcephaly.
  2. B) preterm birth and low birth weight.
  3. C) difficult labor and delivery.
  4. D) higher IQ.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-17

Page Ref: 116

Topic: Infants at Risk: Prematurity and Infant Mortality

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: B) preterm birth and low birth weight. Lack of prenatal care is a risk factor for premature births.

 

4.1-18. Which of the following risk factors of premature birth is controllable?

  1. A) maternal age
  2. B) membership in certain ethnic groups
  3. C) genetic background
  4. D) cigarette smoking

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-18

Page Ref: 116

Topic: Infants at Risk: Prematurity and Infant Mortality

Skill: Factual

Answer: D) cigarette smoking

 

4.1-19. The country with the lowest infant mortality rates for the selected nations in Figure 4.2 is

  1. A) Mexico.
  2. B) Iceland.
  3. C) Hungary.
  4. D) Spain.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 4.1-19

Page Ref: 116

Topic: Infants at Risk: Prematurity and Infant Mortality

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: B) Iceland. Iceland has the lowest infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births.

 

4.1-20. The term infant mortality refers to deaths that occur

  1. A) before delivery.
  2. B) before leaving the hospital after delivery.
  3. C) before 1 year of age.
  4. D) between 1 years and 3 years.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-20

Page Ref: 115

Topic: Infants at Risk: Prematurity and Infant Mortality

Skill: Factual

Answer: C) before 1 year of age

 

4.1-21. Which of the following ethnic groups has an infant mortality rate of 13 deaths per 1,000 live births?

  1. A) Caucasians
  2. B) African Americans
  3. C) Asian Americans
  4. D) Native Americans

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 4.1-21

Page Ref: 116

Topic: Infants at Risk: Prematurity and Infant Mortality

Skill: Factual

Answer: B) African Americans

 

4.1-22. Which of the following factors is related to infant mortality?

  1. A) poor nutrition
  2. B) older mother
  3. C) hospital delivery
  4. D) Caucasian father

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-22

Page Ref: 116

Topic: Infants at Risk: Prematurity and Infant Mortality

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: A) poor nutrition

 

4.1-23. Which of the following statements about infant mortality in America is TRUE?

  1. A) The rates of infant mortality are roughly the same for Caucasian and Hispanic populations.
  2. B) Hispanic populations have the highest rate of infant mortality.
  3. C) The African American population has an infant mortality rate that is three times the national average.
  4. D) The national average rate for infant mortality is 10 deaths per 1,000 live births.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 4.1-23

Page Ref: 116

Topic: Infants at Risk: Prematurity and Infant Mortality

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: A) The rates of infant mortality are roughly the same for Caucasian and Hispanic populations. The rate for Caucasians and Hispanics in 2007 was about 5.5 deaths per 1,000 live births.

 

4.1-24. One cause of prematurity is the HELLP syndrome. The symptoms of the HELLP syndrome are

  1. A) hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low blood platelets.
  2. B) elevated liver enzymes, low blood platelets, and pulse rate.
  3. C) headache, energy loss and low pulse rate.
  4. D) hemolysis, energy loss, and low blood platelets.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 4.1-24

Page Ref: 117

Topic: Infants at Risk: Prematurity and Infant Mortality

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: A) hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low blood platelets

 

4.1-25. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (2011) reported that the United States ranked ________ for overall infant mortality rates.

  1. A) above Poland
  2. B) below Japan
  3. C) below Hungary
  4. D) equal with the United Kingdom

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 4.1-25

Page Ref: 116

Topic: Infants at Risk: Prematurity and Infant Mortality

Skill: Factual

Answer: A) above Poland

 

4.1-26. From 1990 to 2007, the percentage of women receiving prenatal care increased by _________.

  1. A) 2%
  2. B) 4%
  3. C) 8%
  4. D) 6%

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-26

Page Ref: 117

Topic: Infants at Risk: Prematurity and Infant Mortality

Skill: Factual

Answer: D) 6%.

 

4.1-27. Which of the following statements best represents the evidence of the cephalocaudal principle in newborns?

  1. A) The head represents one-fourth of a newborn’s total length but only one-eighth of an adult’s height.
  2. B) Exposure to PCBs in breast milk has been linked to a variety of neurological impairments.
  3. C) Toward the end of the first year of life, infants enjoy finger foods, such as cheese and sliced fruit.
  4. D) Babies who are breastfed are at a lower risk for a variety of infant diseases and illnesses.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 4.1-27

Page Ref: 119

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: A) The head represents one-fourth of a newborn’s total length but only one-eighth of an adult’s height. In Figure 4.3, you can see that the head represents one-fourth of the newborn’s total length but only one-eighth of the adult’s height.

 

4.1-28. The _____ and nervous system are the structures that give rise to all our thoughts, emotions, and behavior.

  1. A) heart
  2. B) liver
  3. C) kidneys
  4. D) brain

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-28

Page Ref: 119

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: D) brain

 

4.1-29. The central nervous system is comprised of

  1. A) the brain.
  2. B) the spinal cord.
  3. C) the brain and the spinal cord.
  4. D) nerve cells that innervate the major organs.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-29

Page Ref: 119

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: C) the brain and the spinal cord

 

4.1-30. Which structure does your text refer to as the “information superhighway” of the body?

  1. A) the cerebellum
  2. B) the brainstem
  3. C) the cerebral cortex
  4. D) the spinal cord

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 4.1-30

Page Ref: 119

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: D) the spinal cord

 

4.1-31. The spinal cord

  1. A) allows vast amounts of information to be exchanged between the body and the brain.
  2. B) controls automatic functions and regulates the general level of alertness.
  3. C) controls posture, body orientation, and complex muscle movements.
  4. D) is involved in organizing and planning.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-31

Page Ref: 119

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: A) allows vast amounts of information to be exchanged between the body and the brain

 

4.1-32. Which of the following structures controls breathing and heart rate?

  1. A) the spinal cord
  2. B) the cerebrum
  3. C) the brain stem
  4. D) the cerebellum

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-32

Page Ref: 119

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: C) the brain stem

 

4.1-33. The cerebellum

  1. A) allows vast amounts of information to be exchanged between the body and the brain.
  2. B) controls automatic functions and regulates the general level of alertness.
  3. C) controls posture, body orientation, and complex muscle movements.
  4. D) is used in higher-order thinking, creativity, and executive functions.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-33

Page Ref: 119-120

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: C) controls posture, body orientation, and complex muscle movements

 

4.1-34. What structure is described in your text as the “gray matter” that forms the top portion of the brain?

  1. A) cerebellum
  2. B) cerebral cortex
  3. C) brain stem
  4. D) frontal lobe

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-34

Page Ref: 120

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: B) cerebral cortex

 

4.1-35. Which of the following correctly identifies the lobes of the cerebral cortex?

  1. A) frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital
  2. B) spinal cord, brain stem, cerebellum, cerebrum
  3. C) cephalo, caudal, proximo, distal
  4. D) Broca’s area, Wernicke’s area, motor area, somatosensory area

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-35

Page Ref: 120

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: A) frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital

 

4.1-36. Why is the cerebral cortex folded in so many convolutions?

  1. A) During prenatal development, the neural tube continues to fold over and over on itself, creating a hollow, convoluted structure.
  2. B) The cerebral cortex is very thick, so the folds allow for blood and other fluids to penetrate to the inside of the brain.
  3. C) The many folds allow a greater amount of surface area to fit within the skull.
  4. D) The electrical impulses of the neurons burn away sections of the brain as they start to make their connections, making the brain look like it has folds.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 4.1-36

Page Ref: 120

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: C) The many folds allow a greater amount of surface area to fit within the skull.

 

4.1-37. The area of the cortex that processes speech input is called

  1. A) the motor area.
  2. B) Wernicke’s area.
  3. C) Broca’s area.
  4. D) the frontal lobe.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-37

Page Ref: 120

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: B) Wernicke’s area. Wernicke’s area, a small region on the temporal lobe, processes speech input.

 

4.1-38. Higher-level thinking, problem solving, and creativity occur in

  1. A) the motor area.
  2. B) Wernicke’s area.
  3. C) Broca’s area.
  4. D) the frontal lobe.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-38

Page Ref: 120

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: D) the frontal lobe. The large frontal lobe is involved in organizing, planning, higher-level thinking, problem solving, and creativity.

 

4.1-39. Broca’s area organizes

  1. A) speech output.
  2. B) speech input.
  3. C) visual input.
  4. D) memory.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-39

Page Ref: 120

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: A) speech output. Broca’s area, at the bottom of the frontal lobe, organizes articulation for speech output.

 

4.1-40. Communication throughout the nervous system is controlled by

  1. A) neurons.
  2. B) the neural tube.
  3. C) the frontal lobes.
  4. D) the brain stem.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-40

Page Ref: 120

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: A) neurons. Neurons are specialized cells that process information and allow communication in the nervous system.

 

4.1-41. The chemical messengers that transmit the impulses from one neuron to another are called

  1. A) dendrites.
  2. B) synapses.
  3. C) neurotransmitters.
  4. D) colostrum.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-41

Page Ref: 120

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: C) neurotransmitters

 

4.1-42. The branchlike structures that receive input from other neurons are called

  1. A) dendrites.
  2. B) synapses.
  3. C) neurotransmitters.
  4. D) colostrum.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-42

Page Ref: 120

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: A) dendrites

 

4.1-43. Shannon is a year old, and she is blind. Her doctors have checked her eyes and have said that the problem is in her brain. Which part of Shannon’s brain is probably damaged?

  1. A) the frontal lobe
  2. B) the temporal lobe
  3. C) the parietal lobe
  4. D) the occipital lobe

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 4.1-43

Page Ref: 120

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Applied

Answer: D) the occipital lobe. The visual area in the back of the occipital lobe receives messages from the eyes for visual processing.

 

4.1-44. The motor area of the brain is responsible for

  1. A) involuntary muscle movements.
  2. B) voluntary muscle movements.
  3. C) articulation for speech output.
  4. D) processing of speech input.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-44

Page Ref: 120

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: B) voluntary muscle movements

 

4.1-45. The frontal lobes are responsible for

  1. A) correct posture.
  2. B) problem solving.
  3. C) body orientation.
  4. D) complex muscle movements.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-45

Page Ref: 120

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: B) problem solving

 

4.1-46. ________ carry electrical impulses that send messages to other cells.

  1. A) Dendrites
  2. B) Axons
  3. C) The colostrum
  4. D) Neurotransmitters

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-46

Page Ref: 120

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: B) Axons

 

4.1-47. The myelin sheath is responsible for

  1. A) receiving input from other neurons.
  2. B) carrying electrical impulses that send messages to other cells.
  3. C) insulating the axon.
  4. D) releasing the chemical neurotransmitters.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-47

Page Ref: 120-121

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: C) insulating the axon

 

4.1-48. The embryo folds over to form the neural tube

  1. A) once it has six layers of neurons.
  2. B) approximately 4 weeks after conception.
  3. C) approximately 10 weeks after conception.
  4. D) right after synaptogenesis is completed.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-48

Page Ref: 121

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: B) approximately 4 weeks after conception

 

4.1-49. By 20 weeks of gestation, the cerebral cortex has approximately ________ neurons, and this is the approximate number with which infants are born.

  1. A) 80 thousand
  2. B) 80 million
  3. C) 80 billion
  4. D) 80 trillion

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-49

Page Ref: 121

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: C) 80 billion

 

4.1-50. One form of neuron maturation in which dendrites and axons branch out to form an enormously large number of connections with neighboring neurons is called

  1. A) myelination.
  2. B) organogenesis.
  3. C) synaptogenesis.
  4. D) programmed cell death.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-50

Page Ref: 122

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: C) synaptogenesis

 

4.1-51. The cortex will eventually have _____ layers.

  1. A) 3
  2. B) 4
  3. C) 5
  4. D) 6

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-51

Page Ref: 121

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: D) 6

 

4.1-52. Myelination is when

  1. A) dendrites and axons branch out and form connections with neighboring neurons.
  2. B) the fatty insulation grows around the axons.
  3. C) many neurons die during periods of migration.
  4. D) specialized cells allow communication in the nervous system.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-52

Page Ref: 122

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: B) the fatty insulation grows around the axons

 

4.1-53. A type of neuron maturation in which the fatty insulation grows around the axon is called

  1. A) myelination.
  2. B) organogenesis.
  3. C) synaptogenesis.
  4. D) programmed cell death.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-53

Page Ref: 122

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: A) myelination

 

4.1-54. The cerebral cortex is made up of 4 major lobes and _____ other areas of the brain.

  1. A) 1
  2. B) 2
  3. C) 3
  4. D) 4

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-54

Page Ref: 120

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: C) 3. The cerebral cortex also contains the motor, somatosensory and visual areas of the brain.

 

4.1-55. _____ study the growth and development of the brain and nervous system.

  1. A) Pediatricians
  2. B) Neuroscientists
  3. C) Physical therapists
  4. D) Researchers

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-55

Page Ref: 142

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: B) Neuroscientists

 

4.1-56. Which of the following statements about the physical growth of newborns is FALSE?

  1. A) Newborns’ weight nearly doubles in the first month.
  2. B) Newborns spend most of their time sleeping.
  3. C) It takes time for newborns to adjust to the process of feeding.
  4. D) It takes time for newborns to adjust to life outside the womb.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-56

Page Ref: 123

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: A) Newborns’ weight nearly doubles in the first month.

 

4.1-57. At birth, the average newborn weighs 7½ pounds. How long does it take for the average newborn to double their birth weight?

  1. A) 3 months
  2. B) 4 months
  3. C) 5 months
  4. D) 7 months

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-57

Page Ref: 123

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: C) 5 months

 

4.1-58. If you want to make an educated guess about your child’s adult height, at what age is the child at the 50% mark?

  1. A) by 2 years of age
  2. B) by 4 years of age
  3. C) by 8 years of age
  4. D) by 16 years of age

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-58

Page Ref: 123

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: A) by 2 years of age. By 2 years of age, children have already attained about half of their adult height.

 

4.1-59. During the first month, newborns spend how much time asleep?

  1. A) nearly one-fourth of their time
  2. B) nearly one-third of their time
  3. C) nearly one-half of their time
  4. D) nearly two-thirds of their time

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-59

Page Ref: 123

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: D) nearly two-thirds of their time

 

4.1-60. Most infants are sleeping through the night by the time they are

  1. A) 3 months old.
  2. B) 6 months old.
  3. C) 9 months old.
  4. D) 12 months old.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-60

Page Ref: 123

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: B) 6 months old

 

4.1-61. A child of what age sleeps a total of 12 to 14 hours per day?

  1. A) a newborn infant
  2. B) a six-month old infant
  3. C) a 12-month old infant
  4. D) a toddler

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-61

Page Ref: 123

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: D) a toddler. Toddlers are still sleeping a total of 12 to 14 hours per day, and by this age have spent more of their life asleep than awake.

 

4.1-62. Research has indicated that the possible cause for SIDS is

  1. A) co-sleeping.
  2. B) low birth weight.
  3. C) poor prenatal care.
  4. D) The results are controversial.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-62

Page Ref: 125

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: D) The results are controversial.

 

4.1-63. Which of these countries avoids co-sleeping?

  1. A) China
  2. B) Guatemala
  3. C) Sweden
  4. D) United States

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-63

Page Ref: 124

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: D) United States. In the United States and many other Western nations, co-sleeping is usually avoided.

 

4.1-64. In the United States, co-sleeping tends to occur more often in families with parents who are

  1. A) upper class.
  2. B) African American.
  3. C) both employed outside the home.
  4. D) Caucasian.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-64

Page Ref: 124-125

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: B) African American. Compared to other families, co-sleeping tends to occur more often in families with parents who are African American, Hispanic, or Asian American.

 

4.1-65. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is defined as the sudden death of _____ in which the death cannot be explained.

  1. A) an infant during the first week of life
  2. B) an infant during the first month of life
  3. C) an infant under 1 year of age
  4. D) a toddler

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-65

Page Ref: 125

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: C) an infant under 1 year of age. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is defined as the sudden death of an infant less than 1 year of age in which the death cannot be explained after an autopsy, review of medical history, and thorough investigation of the death scene.

 

4.1-66. The risk of SIDS increases when infants sleep

  1. A) on a hard mattress.
  2. B) in a cold room.
  3. C) on their bellies.
  4. D) on their backs.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-66

Page Ref: 125

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: C) on their bellies. In 1992, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended that all infants be positioned on their backs for sleep.

 

4.1-67. SIDS rates are higher for

  1. A) female infants.
  2. B) male infants.
  3. C) Caucasian infants.
  4. D) Hispanic infants.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-67

Page Ref: 125

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: B) male infants

 

4.1-68. SIDS rates are highest for children of which nationality?

  1. A) Native American
  2. B) Caucasian
  3. C) European
  4. D) Hispanic

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-68

Page Ref: 125

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: A) Native American. SIDS rates are higher for male infants and infants who are African American or Native American.

 

4.1-69. Most SIDS deaths occur

  1. A) during the first week of life.
  2. B) during the first month of life.
  3. C) between 1 month and 3 months of age.
  4. D) between 3 months and 12 months of age.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-69

Page Ref: 125

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: C) between 1 month and 3 months of age. Although SIDS is the leading cause of death for infants between 1 month and 1 year of age, most SIDS deaths occur between 1 and 3 months of age.

 

4.1-70. The American Academy of Pediatrics suggests that infants should

  1. A) sleep on their bellies.
  2. B) co-sleep with one or both parents.
  3. C) co-sleep with one or more siblings.
  4. D) sleep in their own crib placed near to the parents.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-70

Page Ref: 125

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: D) sleep in their own crib placed near to the parents. The American Academy of Pediatrics suggests that infants should sleep on their backs and in their own crib placed near to the parents.

 

4.1-71. Before babies are born, neurons proliferate at a tremendous rate, and these cells migrate to their final locations. Which of the following occurs during neuronal migration?

  1. A) programmed cell death
  2. B) organogenesis
  3. C) the creation of cell bodies
  4. D) the formation of the neural tube

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 4.1-71

Page Ref: 122

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: A) programmed cell death. During migration and during periodical heavy synaptogenesis, about half of our neurons die in a process called programmed cell death.

 

4.1-72. The process by which many neurons die during periods of migration is called

  1. A) myelination.
  2. B) organogenesis.
  3. C) synaptogenesis.
  4. D) programmed cell death.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-72

Page Ref: 122

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: D) programmed cell death

 

4.1-73. The _____ is probably one of the last areas in the brain to be completely myelinated.

  1. A) parietal lobe
  2. B) occipital lobe
  3. C) temporal lobe
  4. D) frontal lobe

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-73

Page Ref: 122

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: D) frontal lobe. Some areas in the frontal lobe are still forming myelin all the way into our early 20s.

 

4.1-74. Researchers found that listening to a Mozart sonata improved college students’ spatial-reasoning IQ scores by 8 to 9 points for

  1. A) 10 to 15 minutes.
  2. B) 1 hour.
  3. C) 1 day.
  4. D) the rest of the students’ lives.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-74

Page Ref: 123

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: A) 10 to 15 minutes

 

4.1-75. The main benefit of initial breastfeeding is to

  1. A) increase the baby’s weight after birth.
  2. B) pass antibodies from the mother to the baby.
  3. C) increase the attachment between mother and baby.
  4. D) decrease the milk production for the mother.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-75

Page Ref: 125

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: B) pass antibodies from the mother to the baby. Colostrum contains important antibodies that are passed to the newborn.

 

4.1-76. Which of the following conclusions about infant feeding and nutrition did the American Academy of Pediatrics (2005) make?

  1. A) Infants should not be given breast milk because of its high fat content.
  2. B) Infants should only be fed twice daily to reduce the American obesity problem.
  3. C) Formula is the best form of nutrition, as it contains added nutrients that babies need.
  4. D) Human breast milk provides the best form of nutrition for most infants.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-76

Page Ref: 126

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: D) Human breast milk provides the best form of nutrition for most infants.

 

4.1-77. The thick yellowish substance in breast milk that contains important antibodies that are passed on to the newborn is called

  1. A) weaning milk.
  2. B) colostrum.
  3. C) organogenesis.
  4. D) synaptogenesis.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-77

Page Ref: 125

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: B) colostrum

 

4.1-78. Which of the following statements about the first few days of breastfeeding is TRUE?

  1. A) After about three days, mothers produce a higher volume of milk.
  2. B) Breast milk is thicker than colostrum.
  3. C) Mothers produce the highest amount of milk on the day of their delivery.
  4. D) Breastfeeding should not begin until after the first week after delivery.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-78

Page Ref: 125-126

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: A) After about three days, mothers produce a higher volume of milk.

 

4.1-79. Babies who are breastfed are at lower risk for

  1. A) blood clots.
  2. B) diarrhea.
  3. C) jaundice.
  4. D) toothache.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-79

Page Ref: 126

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: B) diarrhea. Babies who are breastfed are at lower risk for a variety of conditions including diarrhea, respiratory infections, ear infections, diabetes, lymphoma, and SIDS.

 

4.1-80. One health benefit for the mother who breastfeeds is

  1. A) slower recovery of the uterus.
  2. B) slower return to prepregnancy weight.
  3. C) reduced risks of ovarian and breast cancers.
  4. D) regular ovulation occurs sooner.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-80

Page Ref: 126

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: C) reduced risks of ovarian and breast cancers. There are also important health benefits for the mother: faster recovery of the uterus, less blood loss after delivery, earlier return to prepregnancy weight, reduced risks of ovarian and breast cancer, and a delay in the next ovulation.

 

4.1-81. Which of the following statements about infant nutrition is FALSE?

  1. A) During the first six months after birth, infants need nutritional supplements for optimal growth.
  2. B) From 6 months to 12 months of age, iron-rich solid foods should be introduced gradually.
  3. C) Breastfeeding should begin preferably within the first hour after birth.
  4. D) Breastfeeding should continue at least until the infant is 12 months of age.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-81

Page Ref: 126

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: A) During the first six months after birth, infants need nutritional supplements for optimal growth.

 

4.1-82. In the United States, how many mothers have breastfed their babies at some point?

  1. A) more than 75%
  2. B) 75%
  3. C) 50%
  4. D) less than 50%

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-82

Page Ref: 127

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: B) 75%

 

4.1-83. Which of the following populations are the least likely to breastfeed?

  1. A) married women
  2. B) younger mothers
  3. C) upper-income mothers
  4. D) highly educated mothers

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-83

Page Ref: 127

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: B) younger mothers

 

4.1-84. The World Health Organization (2011) reported that in Sri Lanka, ________ of infants are exclusively breastfed until 6 months of age.

  1. A) 5%
  2. B) 30%
  3. C) 58%
  4. D) 76%

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 4.1-84

Page Ref: 127

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: D) about 76%

 

4.1-85. Infant formula is recommended instead of breastfeeding if the mother has

  1. A) hepatitis B.
  2. B) a cold.
  3. C) a tension headache.
  4. D) low blood pressure.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-85

Page Ref: 128

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: A) hepatitis B. Mothers with conditions such as tuberculosis, hepatitis B, and chicken pox should consult their doctors before breastfeeding.

 

4.1-86. Sammy is eight months old. Which of the following best describes what his eating habits should look like?

  1. A) exclusively breast milk
  2. B) some breast milk and some baby cereal, fruits, and mild-flavored vegetables
  3. C) no breast milk, some baby cereal, fruits and vegetables, and some solid finger foods
  4. D) exclusively solid finger foods, such as cheese, plain crackers, sliced fruits, and cooked vegetables

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-86

Page Ref: 128

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Applied

Answer: B) some breast milk and some baby cereal, fruits, and mild-flavored vegetables. After 6 months, baby cereals, mild-flavored vegetables, and fruits are good choices for first solid foods that can be added to the diet.

 

4.1-87. By _______ of age, children are able to have meals at the table, eating most of the same foods as the rest of the family.

  1. A) 6 months
  2. B) 1 year
  3. C) 18 months
  4. D) 2 years

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-87

Page Ref: 128

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: D) 2 years

 

4.1-88. The ability to see fine detail is called

  1. A) myelination.
  2. B) visual acuity.
  3. C) synaptogenesis.
  4. D) organogenesis.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-88

Page Ref: 129

Topic: Sensory Capabilities

Skill: Factual

Answer: B) visual acuity

 

4.1-89. Connor’s parents took him to visit the eye doctor. They were told that he has fairly poor vision. His optometrist said that Connor needs to be 20 feet away to read what someone with normal vision could read from 120 feet away. Which of the following summarizes Connor’s vision?

  1. A) 20/120
  2. B) 120/20
  3. C) 20/100
  4. D) 100/20

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-89

Page Ref: 129

Topic: Sensory Capabilities

Skill: Applied

Answer: A) 20/120. A person with 20/40 vision would need to be 20 feet away to read what someone with normal vision could read from 40 feet away.

 

4.1-90. It is estimated that the visual acuity of newborns is between

  1. A) 20/20 and 20/150.
  2. B) 20/40 and 1/64.
  3. C) 20/150 and 20/600.
  4. D) 20/600 and 20/800.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-90

Page Ref: 129

Topic: Sensory Capabilities

Skill: Factual

Answer: C) 20/150 and 20/600

 

4.1-91. Researchers believe that infants have 20/20 vision

  1. A) at birth.
  2. B) by 3 months.
  3. C) by 3 months to 6 months.
  4. D) by 6 to 12 months.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-91

Page Ref: 129

Topic: Sensory Capabilities

Skill: Factual

Answer: D) by 6 to 12 months

 

4.1-92. In visual acuity tasks, infants prefer to look at

  1. A) the stripes more than the gray square.
  2. B) the gray square more than the stripes.
  3. C) the circles rather than the squares.
  4. D) the squares rather than the circles.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-92

Page Ref: 129

Topic: Sensory Capabilities

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: A) the stripes more than the gray square. When infants can see the stripes, they tend to prefer to look at the stripes over the gray square.

 

4.1-93. It is safe to say that color vision is relatively mature by

  1. A) 2 months of age.
  2. B) 6 months of age.
  3. C) 12 months of age.
  4. D) 18 months of age.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-93

Page Ref: 130

Topic: Sensory Capabilities

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: B) 6 months of age

 

4.1-94. Research has indicated that color vision is relatively mature in infants by the age of ________.

  1. A) 3 months
  2. B) 6 months
  3. C) 9 months
  4. D) 12 months

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-94

Page Ref: 130

Topic: Sensory Capabilities

Skill: Factual

Answer: B) 6 months

 

4.1-95. Which of the following statements is a conclusion that can be drawn from the research on young infants’ auditory capabilities?

  1. A) The auditory system is not functional before birth.
  2. B) By 2 months of age, infants are capable of responding to a broad range of sounds.
  3. C) By 6 months of age, infants easily distinguish among rattles, voices, and other environmental noises.
  4. D) Newborns are able to detect a 0.5 percent frequency change, easily hearing the softest whisper.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-95

Page Ref: 130

Topic: Sensory Capabilities

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: C) By 6 months of age, infants easily distinguish among rattles, voices, and other environmental noises. By 6 months of age, infants respond to a broad range of sounds including rattles, voices, songs, and many other environmental noises.

 

4.1-96. In infants, heart rate deceleration indicates

  1. A) sleepiness.
  2. B) boredom.
  3. C) engrossed attention.
  4. D) heightened alarm.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-96

Page Ref: 130

Topic: Sensory Capabilities

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: C) engrossed attention

 

4.1-97. At what age can infants recognize their own names being spoken amid other names, but only if their name is spoken more loudly than the other words?

  1. A) 1 month of age
  2. B) 2 months of age
  3. C) 3 months of age
  4. D) 5 months of age

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-97

Page Ref: 130

Topic: Sensory Capabilities

Skill: Factual

Answer: D) 5 months of age

 

4.1-98. Researchers have devoted extensive study to infant reactions to smell. Their research has shown that breastfed infants

  1. A) prefer the smell of their mothers more than other women.
  2. B) prefer the smell of their fathers over other men.
  3. C) prefer the smell of their fathers over their mothers.
  4. D) are unable to show a preference for smell.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-98

Page Ref: 131

Topic: Sensory Capabilities

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: A) prefer the smell of their mothers more than other women. At the age of 2 weeks, breastfed infants turned their heads toward the smell of their mothers more than to the smell of unfamiliar females.

 

4.1-99. Infants as young as 3 or 4 days prefer the smell of

  1. A) formula milk over breast milk.
  2. B) breast milk over formula milk.
  3. C) cow’s milk over formula milk.
  4. D) cow’s milk over breast milk.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-99

Page Ref: 131

Topic: Sensory Capabilities

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: B) breast milk over formula milk. Infants as young as 3 to 4 days of age prefer the smell of breast milk to that of formula milk, regardless of whether they are breastfed or bottle-fed.

 

4.1-100. Which of the following tastes causes babies to spit?

  1. A) sweet
  2. B) sour
  3. C) bitter
  4. D) salty

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-100

Page Ref: 132

Topic: Sensory Capabilities

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: C) bitter. A bitter taste causes newborns to spit and make a face that indicates disgust and rejection.

 

4.1-101. Which of the following tastes causes babies to purse their lips and wrinkle their nose?

  1. A) sweet
  2. B) sour
  3. C) bitter
  4. D) salty

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-101

Page Ref: 132

Topic: Sensory Capabilities

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: B) sour. With a sour taste, they purse their lips and wrinkle their noses.

 

4.1-102. Newborns show some rejection in response to the aroma of

  1. A) bananas.
  2. B) vanilla.
  3. C) butter.
  4. D) fishy odors.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-102

Page Ref: 131

Topic: Sensory Capabilities

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: D) fishy odors. Newborns show positive responses to bananas and butter, positive or indifference to vanilla, some rejection to fishy odors and complete disgust to rotten eggs.

 

4.1-103. Which taste preference does not usually develop until 4 months of age?

  1. A) sweet
  2. B) sour
  3. C) salty
  4. D) bitter

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-103

Page Ref: 132

Topic: Sensory Capabilities

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: C) salty. Reaction to salty flavors develops later, usually by 4 months of age.

 

4.1-104. The “visual cliff” is used to assess ________ in infants.

  1. A) visual acuity
  2. B) color vision
  3. C) depth perception
  4. D) photopigmentation

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-104

Page Ref: 130

Topic: Sensory Capabilities

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: C) depth perception. A “visual cliff” was used in the classic study of depth perception by Gibson and Wack (1960).

 

4.1-105. Researchers demonstrated that infants just under _____ months of age could see the difference between the deep and solid sides of a visual cliff.

  1. A) 2
  2. B) 3
  3. C) 4
  4. D) 5

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-105

Page Ref: 130

Topic: Sensory Capabilities

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: A) 2. A decade later, researchers demonstrated that infants just under 2 months of age could see the difference between the deep and solid sides.

 

4.1-106. ________ is/are involuntary movements that are elicited by environmental stimuli.

  1. A) Motor cortex
  2. B) Reflexes
  3. C) Gross motor skill
  4. D) Fine motor skills

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-106

Page Ref: 133

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Factual

Answer: B) Reflexes

 

4.1-107. Nia just gave birth to her son, Kevin. As Nia gets ready to breastfeed her son, her nipple grazes Kevin’s cheek. Kevin instantly turns toward the nipple. This is an example of

  1. A) the rooting reflex.
  2. B) the sucking reflex.
  3. C) the feeding reflex.
  4. D) the postural reflex.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-107

Page Ref: 133

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Applied

Answer: A) the rooting reflex. If you touch a newborn’s cheek, the infant’s head will turn in the direction of the touch.

 

4.1-108. Which of the following is a function of reflexes?

  1. A) Reflexes are voluntary movements.
  2. B) Reflexes are elicited by external stimuli.
  3. C) Reflexes serve as protective mechanisms.
  4. D) Reflexes allow the spinal cord to communicate with the brain.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-108

Page Ref: 133

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Factual

Answer: B) Reflexes are elicited by external stimuli.

 

4.1-109. The sucking reflex occurs whenever

  1. A) an infant is hungry.
  2. B) the brain is mature enough to have control over this reflex.
  3. C) something touches an infant’s lips.
  4. D) liquid enters an infant’s mouth.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-109

Page Ref: 133

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Factual

Answer: C) something touches an infant’s lips

 

4.1-110. The Moro reflex is also known as the

  1. A) parachute reflex.
  2. B) startle reflex.
  3. C) environmental factor.
  4. D) perimeter response.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-110

Page Ref: 133

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Factual

Answer: B) startle reflex

 

4.1-111. Curtis is frightened by a loud noise in his crib. He extends his arms and legs outward and spreads his fingers and toes. What reflex is Curtis demonstrating?

  1. A) the rooting reflex
  2. B) the grasping reflex
  3. C) the Moro reflex
  4. D) the swimming reflex

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-111

Page Ref: 133

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Applied

Answer: C) the Moro reflex. When startled, the newborn extends her arms and legs and spreads her fingers. The newborn is demonstrating the Moro reflex.

 

4.1-112. Which of the following assessment measures, designed to assess the health of infants, measures some 20 different reflexes?

  1. A) the Apgar Test
  2. B) the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale
  3. C) the Reflex Aptitude Assessment Scale
  4. D) the Primitive, Postural, Locomotor Test

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 4.1-112

Page Ref: 133

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Factual

Answer: B) the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale

 

4.1-113. Anthony’s grandfather puts his index finger in Anthony’s hand; Anthony curls his whole hand around his grandfather’s finger. What reflex is Anthony demonstrating?

  1. A) the Moro reflex
  2. B) the rooting reflex
  3. C) the holding reflex
  4. D) the grasping reflex

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 4.1-113

Page Ref: 133

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Applied

Answer: D) the grasping reflex. Put your finger in the palm of a newborn’s hand, and the strength of the infant’s grip will surprise you.

 

4.1-114. The involuntary reflexes tend to disappear around

  1. A) birth.
  2. B) 4 months.
  3. C) 8 months.
  4. D) 1 year.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-114

Page Ref: 133

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Factual

Answer: B) 4 months

 

4.1-115. Charles was given a measure of “reflex irritability” when he was born. Which of the following tests was he most likely given?

  1. A) the Apgar Test
  2. B) the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale
  3. C) the Reflex Aptitude Assessment Scale
  4. D) the Primitive, Postural, Locomotor Test

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-115

Page Ref: 133

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Applied

Answer: A) the Apgar Test. The Apgar Test is given at 1 minute and 5 minutes after birth.

 

4.1-116. ________ is/are the process of coordinating movements with the large muscles in the body.

  1. A) Primitive reflexes
  2. B) Fine motor development
  3. C) Locomotor reflexes
  4. D) Gross motor development

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-116

Page Ref: 134

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Factual

Answer: D) Gross motor development

 

4.1-117. Twelve-month-old Karen is taking her first steps. The muscles that control her legs are coordinated by

  1. A) primitive reflexes.
  2. B) fine motor development.
  3. C) locomotor reflexes.
  4. D) gross motor development.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-117

Page Ref: 134

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Applied

Answer: D) gross motor development. Gross motor development is the process of coordinating movements with the large muscles in the body.

 

4.1-118. ________ is/are the process of coordinating intricate movements with smaller muscles.

  1. A) Primitive reflexes
  2. B) Fine motor development
  3. C) Locomotor reflexes
  4. D) Gross motor development

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-118

Page Ref: 134

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Factual

Answer: B) Fine motor development

 

4.1-119. Lily picks up a Cheerio from table on her high chair. The muscles that control her fingers are coordinated by

  1. A) primitive reflexes.
  2. B) fine motor development.
  3. C) locomotor reflexes.
  4. D) gross motor development.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-119

Page Ref: 134

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Applied

Answer: B) fine motor development. Fine motor development is the process of coordinating intricate movements with smaller muscles.

 

4.1-120. By 1 month of age, infants are able to

  1. A) hold their head up.
  2. B) roll over from front to back.
  3. C) sit up without support.
  4. D) crawl.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-120

Page Ref: 134

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Factual

Answer: A) hold their head up

 

4.1-121. Most infants are able to sit upright without support by

  1. A) 1 month.
  2. B) 3 months.
  3. C) 6 months.
  4. D) 7 months.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-121

Page Ref: 134

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Factual

Answer: C) 6 months

 

4.1-122. Which of the following places gross motor development tasks in their proper order?

  1. A) hold head up, sit upright, roll over, crawl
  2. B) hold head up, roll over, sit upright, crawl
  3. C) roll over, hold head up, sit upright, crawl
  4. D) hold head up, roll over, crawl, sit upright

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-122

Page Ref: 134

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Factual

Answer: B) hold head up, roll over, sit upright, crawl

 

4.1-123. Most infants take their first unaided steps around

  1. A) 7 months.
  2. B) 9 months.
  3. C) 12 months.
  4. D) 15 months.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-123

Page Ref: 134-135

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Factual

Answer: C) 12 months

 

4.1-124. Which of the following best explains the effects of the cephalocaudal principle on gross motor development?

  1. A) At first, infants reach with their arms, then they grasp with their fingers.
  2. B) First, infants can hold their heads upright, and then they can roll over.
  3. C) Infants can put their foot in their own mouth.
  4. D) Infants exhibit a number of reflexes, including Moro, stepping, and parachute reflexes.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 4.1-124

Page Ref: 134

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: B) First, infants can hold their heads upright, and then they can roll over. By 1 month of age, the muscles in infants’ necks are strong enough to allow the infants to hold their heads upright. Infants can roll over by 3 months of age.

 

4.1-125. Which of the following is an example of the effects of the proximodistal principle on fine motor development?

  1. A) At first, infants reach with their arms, then they grasp with their fingers.
  2. B) First, infants can hold their heads upright, and then they can roll over.
  3. C) Infants can put their foot in their own mouth.
  4. D) Infants exhibit a number of reflexes, including Moro, stepping, and parachute reflexes.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-125

Page Ref: 135

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: A) At first, infants reach with their arms, then they grasp with their fingers. At first, they reach with their arms, next come the fine motor skills of grasping with the hands and fingers.

 

4.1-126. Voluntary control over the upper arm is shown by

  1. A) birth.
  2. B) 4 to 5 months.
  3. C) 6 to 9 months.
  4. D) approximately 1 year.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-126

Page Ref: 135

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Factual

Answer: B) 4 to 5 months

 

4.1-127. The palmar grasp occurs when

  1. A) infants use the thumb and opposite forefinger to pick up an object.
  2. B) infants pull an object to themselves using their open palm.
  3. C) infants wrap all four fingers and the thumb around an object to pick it up.
  4. D) infants extend their arms and legs outward and spread their fingers and toes.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-127

Page Ref: 135

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Factual

Answer: C) infants wrap all four fingers and the thumb around an object to pick it up

 

4.1-128. Cameron, who is 11 months old, sees a bug on the ground outside. He picks it up using his thumb and forefinger. Which type of grasp is he using?

  1. A) palmar grasp
  2. B) pincer grasp
  3. C) tripod grasp
  4. D) grasping reflex

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-128

Page Ref: 135

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Applied

Answer: B) pincer grasp. By 10 months, infants show the more advanced pincer grasp, using the thumb and the opposite forefinger.

 

4.1-129. A child who holds a writing tool between the forefinger and thumb and steadies their hand on the writing surface is demonstrating the

  1. A) palmar grasp.
  2. B) pincer grasp.
  3. C) tripod grasp.
  4. D) grasping reflex.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-129

Page Ref: 135-136

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: C) tripod grasp. Later, children begin using the more precise tripod grasp for holding pencils and other writing implements. They hold the writing tool between the forefinger and thumb, and steady the bottom of their hand on the writing surface.

 

4.1-130. What percentage of infants will not walk proficiently until 15 months of age?

  1. A) 10%
  2. B) 15%
  3. C) 20%
  4. D) 25%

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-130

Page Ref: 135

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Factual

Answer: A) 10%

 

4.1-131. The process of coordinating movements with the large muscles of the body is referred to as

  1. A) gross motor development.
  2. B) fine motor development.
  3. C) cephalocaudal development.
  4. D) proximidistal development

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-131

Page Ref: 134

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Factual

Answer: A) gross motor development

 

4.1-132. The dynamic systems theory attributes motor development to

  1. A) neurological development and maturation of cognitive systems.
  2. B) parental encouragement.
  3. C) opportunities to exercise.
  4. D) an interplay of all of the above.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-132

Page Ref: 136-137

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Factual

Answer: D) an interplay of all of the above

 

4.1-133. The youngest children a physical therapist would treat are

  1. A) fetuses.
  2. B) premature infants.
  3. C) full-term infants.
  4. D) toddlers.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-133

Page Ref: 135

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: B) premature infants. The youngest children I treat are premature infants, and the oldest may be up to 16 or 17 years old.

 

4.1-134. _____ motivate(s) infants to raise their heads.

  1. A) Neurological development
  2. B) Parental encouragement
  3. C) Opportunities to exercise
  4. D) Maturation of cognitive systems

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-134

Page Ref: 137

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Factual

Answer: B) Parental encouragement

 

4.1-135. _____ give(s) babies the muscle strength they need to lift and control their growing limbs.

  1. A) Neurological development
  2. B) Parental encouragement
  3. C) Opportunities to exercise
  4. D) Maturation of cognitive systems

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-135

Page Ref: 137

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Factual

Answer: C) Opportunities to exercise

 

4.1-136. _____ help(s) babies figure out how to coordinate their movements.

  1. A) Neurological development
  2. B) Parental encouragement
  3. C) Opportunities to exercise
  4. D) Maturation of cognitive systems

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-136

Page Ref: 137

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Factual

Answer: D) Maturation of cognitive systems

 

4.1-137. _____ give(s) infants the ability to exert voluntary control over their muscles.

  1. A) Neurological development
  2. B) Parental encouragement
  3. C) Opportunities to exercise
  4. D) Maturation of cognitive systems

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-137

Page Ref: 136

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Factual

Answer: A) Neurological development

 

4.1-138. In _____, mothers often stretch their infant’s muscles by suspending them by their arms or legs.

  1. A) Brazil
  2. B) Chile
  3. C) Mali
  4. D) North America

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-138

Page Ref: 137

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: C) Mali. In Mali, mothers often stretch their infant’s muscles by suspending them by their arms or legs and they encourage infants to sit and stand at an early age.

 

4.1-139. Some _____ cultures emphasize physical stimulation, and infants who are raised in these cultures are typically ahead of North American infants in major milestones such as sitting up and walking.

  1. A) South American
  2. B) Brazilian
  3. C) African
  4. D) Hopi Indian

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-139

Page Ref: 137

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: C) African

 

4.1-140. _____ mothers reportedly believe that sitting and standing positions can cause damage to the legs and spines of young infants.

  1. A) South American
  2. B) Brazilian
  3. C) African
  4. D) Hopi Indian

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-140

Page Ref: 137

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: B) Brazilian. Many Brazilian mothers reportedly believe that sitting and standing positions can cause damage to the legs and spines of young infants, so they rarely allow their infants to sit or play on the floor by themselves.

 

4.1-141. In some _____ cultures, mothers are more protective of young infants and tend to limit their infants’ opportunities to explore and exercise their motor skills.

  1. A) South American
  2. B) Brazilian
  3. C) African
  4. D) Hopi Indian

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-141

Page Ref: 137

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: A) South American. In some South American cultures, mothers are more protective of young infants and tend to limit their infants’ opportunities to explore and exercise their motor skills.

 

4.1-142. Dennis & Dennis’ (1939/1991) research on the Hopi Indian tribe found that the use of cradle boards ________ compared to infants who had not been confined by a cradle board.

  1. A) delayed the onset of walking by two or more months
  2. B) caused a higher rate of mild to moderate deformities in the lower extremities
  3. C) resulted in an increased rapidity of the onset of walking by two or more months
  4. D) showed very little difference in the onset of walking

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-142

Page Ref: 137-138

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Factual

Answer: D) showed very little difference in the onset of walking

 

4.1-143. According to _____, motor skills emerge from complex interactions among neurological development, physical growth, learning, and motivation.

  1. A) cephalocaudal theory
  2. B) proximodistal theory
  3. C) dynamic systems theory
  4. D) reflexes theory

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 4.1-143

Page Ref: 141

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Factual

Answer: C) dynamic systems theory

 

4.1-144. Which of the following statements about Schum et al.’s (2002) study on potty training is FALSE?

  1. A) It found that boys achieve an interest in using the toilet and staying dry through the night an average of two months earlier than girls.
  2. B) It found that at least half of girls showed an interest in using the toilet by 24 months of age.
  3. C) It noted that the average age of daytime dryness was about 24 months during the 1950s.
  4. D) It showed that many of the African American toddlers in their sample began potty training before 15 months.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-144

Page Ref: 138

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: A) It found that boys achieve an interest in using the toilet and staying dry through the night an average of two months earlier than girls. Boys achieved these milestones about 2 months later than girls.

 

4.1-145. A child is ready to begin toilet training if the child is able to stay dry

  1. A) 2 or 3 hours during the day.
  2. B) 4 hours during the day.
  3. C) during naptime, no matter how long it lasts.
  4. D) all night.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-145

Page Ref: 138

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: A) 2 or 3 hours during the day. It helps if the child is able to follow simple instructions and can stay dry for at least 2 or 3 hours during the day.

 

4.1-146. Toilet training develops from an interaction of physical maturity, cognitive understanding, cues and feedback from the environment and

  1. A) bribing.
  2. B) spanking.
  3. C) motivation.
  4. D) punishing.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-146

Page Ref: 138

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Factual

Answer: C) motivation

 

4.1-147. A 2-year-old is not ready to be toilet trained if they

  1. A) ask to wear underwear.
  2. B) request to be changed.
  3. C) show awareness of having soiled diapers.
  4. D) show fear of bodily functions.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-147

Page Ref: 138

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: D) show fear of bodily functions. This is not the time to engage in a major power struggle with a testy two-year-old, and children are not ready if they show fear of the potty or fear of bodily functions.

 

4.1-148. At least half of girls stayed dry during the day and night by _____ months.

  1. A) 24
  2. B) 30
  3. C) 34
  4. D) 36

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.1-148

Page Ref: 138

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Factual

Answer: C) 34

 

4.1-149. At least half of boys stayed dry during the day and night by _____ months.

  1. A) 24
  2. B) 30
  3. C) 34
  4. D) 36

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.1-149

Page Ref: 138

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Factual

Answer: D) 36

 

4.2       True/False Questions

 

4.2-1. Prematurity is one of the biggest threats faced by infants in our country.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.2-1

Page Ref: 115

Topic: Infants at Risk: Prematurity and Infant Mortality

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: TRUE

 

4.2-2. The rates of both preterm and low-birth-weight births are decreasing in the United States.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.2-2

Page Ref: 115

Topic: Infants at Risk: Prematurity and Infant Mortality

Skill: Factual

Answer: FALSE

 

4.2-3. The United States has the lowest rate of infant mortality in the industrialized countries.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.2-3

Page Ref: 114

Topic: Infants at Risk: Prematurity and Infant Mortality

Skill: Factual

Answer: FALSE

 

4.2-4. Experts agree that the steps that would reduce rates of prematurity and low birth weight would have no effect on the rates of infant mortality.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.2-4

Page Ref: 117

Topic: Infants at Risk: Prematurity and Infant Mortality

Skill: Factual

Answer: FALSE

 

4.2-5. The number of Hispanic and African American women receiving prenatal care increased between 1990 and 2005.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.2-5

Page Ref: 117

Topic: Infants at Risk: Prematurity and Infant Mortality

Skill: Factual

Answer: TRUE

 

4.2-6. Synaptogenesis is a form of neuron maturation in which dendrites and axons branch out to form an enormously large number of connections with neighboring neurons.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.2-6

Page Ref: 122

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: TRUE

 

4.2-7. At birth, the head represents about one-fourth of the newborn’s total length.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.2-7

Page Ref: 119

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: TRUE

 

4.2-8. The cerebellum is one of the lobes of the cerebral cortex.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.2-8

Page Ref: 119-120

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: FALSE

 

4.2-9. The brain produces, on average, half a million neurons per minutes after neurons begin to form in week 7.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 4.2-9

Page Ref: 121

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: TRUE

 

4.2-10. Myelination is the process through which unused synapses are lost or “pruned.”

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.2-10

Page Ref: 122

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: FALSE

 

4.2-11. Babies lose roughly half of their neurons before they are born.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 4.2-11

Page Ref: 122

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: TRUE

 

4.2-12. Worldwide, there is a push to increase breastfeeding rates, especially in poor countries.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.2-12

Page Ref: 127

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: TRUE

 

4.2-13. The auditory system is functional before birth.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.2-13

Page Ref: 130

Topic: Sensory Capabilities

Skill: Factual

Answer: TRUE

 

4.2-14. When babies are born, they can turn their heads in the direction of interesting sounds.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.2-14

Page Ref: 132

Topic: Sensory Capabilities

Skill: Factual

Answer: TRUE

 

4.2-15. Control over the motor movements of the hands and fingers come much earlier than control over the gross motor movements of the elbows, arms, and shoulders.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.2-15

Page Ref: 134

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Factual

Answer: FALSE

 

4.2-16. Cells and connections in the part of the brain that controls muscle movements in the head and upper body tend to mature first.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.2-16

Page Ref: 136

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Factual

Answer: TRUE

 

4.2-17. Culture differences in the early experiences of infants appear to have some impact on how quickly infants attain certain developmental milestones.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.2-17

Page Ref: 137-138

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: TRUE

 

4.2-18. Most toddlers gain voluntary control and coordination over the muscles that control their bladder and bowel movements by the time that they are 12 to 15 months.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.2-18

Page Ref: 138

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Factual

Answer: FALSE

 

4.3       Short Answer Questions

 

4.3-1. Newborns who weigh less than ________ are classified as being at very low birth weight.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.3-1

Page Ref: 115

Topic: Infants at Risk: Prematurity and Infant Mortality

Skill: Factual

Answer: 31/2 pounds

 

4.3-2. Dharma was born at the sixth percentile for her birth weight compared to her gestational age. Which term would best describe her level of prematurity?

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 4.3-2

Page Ref: 115

Topic: Infants at Risk: Prematurity and Infant Mortality

Skill: Applied

Answer: small for gestational age with IUGR

 

4.3-3. ________ are specialized cells that process information and allow communication in the nervous system.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.3-3

Page Ref: 120

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: Neurons

 

4.3-4. Wernicke’s area is responsible for ________.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.3-4

Page Ref: 120

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: processing speech input

 

4.3-5. About four weeks after conception, the ________ forms and will later develop into the central nervous system.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.3-5

Page Ref: 121

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: neural tube

 

4.3-6. Synaptogenesis is one form of neuron ________.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 4.3-6

Page Ref: 122

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: maturation

 

4.3-7. The process by which many neurons die during periods of cell migration is known as ________.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.3-7

Page Ref: 122

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: programmed cell death

 

4.3-8. The average newborn weighs ________.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.3-8

Page Ref: 123

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: 71/2 pounds

 

4.3-9. The thick, yellowish substance in breast milk that contains important antibodies is called ________.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.3-9

Page Ref: 125

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: colostrum

 

4.3-10. ________ is the process of coordinating intricate movements with smaller muscles.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.3-10

Page Ref: 134

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Factual

Answer: Fine motor development

 

4.4       Essay Questions

 

4.4-1. Although it is not possible to prevent all of the problems that newborns face, researchers have identified a number of options for increasing the likelihood of having a healthy baby. Discuss at least three things that pregnant women can do to increase their chances of having a healthy baby.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 4.4-1

Page Ref: 117-118

Topic: Infants at Risk: Prematurity and Infant Mortality

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: Students’ answers will vary depending upon which of the activities they wish to discuss.

 

4.4-2. At the microscopic level, communication through the nervous system is controlled by specialized cells called neurons. Explain the process that has to take place in order for a neuron to receive information from and send information to neighboring cells.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 4.4-2

Page Ref: 120-122

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Factual

Answer: Students’ answers will vary but should demonstrate an understanding of the basic parts of the neuron, as well as the process of sending electrical impulses through the neuron and chemical messengers (neurotransmitters) between neurons.

 

4.4-3. Sonja is about to give birth to her child. In preparation for his arrival, Sonja has been contemplating whether or not she wants to breastfeed. Compose an essay in which you describe for Sonja the positive benefits of breastfeeding, as well as addressing any reasons or situations that may warrant a decision not to breastfeed.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.4-3

Page Ref: 125-128

Topic: Growth of the Brain and Body

Skill: Applied

Answer: Babies who are breastfed are at lower risk for a variety of conditions.

 

4.4-4. Research on young infants’ auditory capabilities has given us the opportunity to begin to understand the development of infants’ hearing capacity before and after birth. Describe what babies can hear prenatally and how that hearing continues to develop after birth.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.4-4

Page Ref: 130-131

Topic: Sensory Capabilities

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: Students’ answers will vary depending upon which of the characteristics of early auditory perception they choose to discuss.

 

4.4-5. One of the fundamental questions in infant sensory research is how infants perceive depth. Explain what a “visual cliff” is and how researchers are able to use a visual cliff to explain the ways in which infants perceive depth.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.4-5

Page Ref: 130

Topic: Sensory Capabilities

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: Students’ answers will vary but should include an understanding of the fact that when infants are able to perceive depth, they will not cross the visual cliff.

 

4.4-6. Esther Thelen and her colleagues have proposed a dynamic systems theory to describe the myriad interactive processes that are involved in motor development. In this theory, coordinated movements such as reaching, crawling, walking, and throwing are dynamic actions that emerge from the complex interplay of individual muscles, nerve pathways, physical growth learning, and motivation. They have outlined four factors that all work in concert to propel the child toward increased strength and coordination. Name at least two of those factors and describe how that factor impacts the motor milestones.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 4.4-6

Page Ref: 136-137

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: The four factors are neurological development, parental encouragement, opportunities to exercise and maturation of cognitive systems.

 

4.4-7. Watching infants and toddlers move through the motor milestones is thrilling. Parents also celebrate a much less glamorous milestone: When their toddlers become toilet trained. Discuss the process of toilet training. Be sure to include the average age that toilet training occurs, along with the physical and cognitive factors that must be in place before potty training can be successful.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 4.4-7

Page Ref: 138-139

Topic: Motor Development

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: Students’ answers will vary but should include an understanding that toddlers gain voluntary control over the muscles that control their bladder and bowel movements by the time they are 18 to 24 months old. They should also address physical readiness (such as being able to walk well enough that they can get to the potty), emotional readiness (such as not being afraid of the potty) and cognitive readiness (such as an awareness of having soiled diapers).

 

  • MyDevelopmentLab Questions

 

4.5-1. Newborns are totally dependent, reflexive organisms. Describe the cognitive and perceptual milestones the typical 1-week-old infant would have.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 4.5-1

Page Ref: MDL

Topic: Infant’s Perceptual & Cognitive Milestones

Skill: Applied

Answer: What they see is limited to patterns and light and dark. They can distinguish location and pitch and volume of sound and will grasp an object if they touch it accidentally.

 

4.5-2. Ninety percent of all the brain neurons are developed during the prenatal period. All of the components needed for optimal fetal brain development are contained in the

  1. A) prenatal nutrition provided by the mother.
  2. B) exchange of blood through the placenta.
  3. C) amniotic fluid.
  4. D) oxygen and fetal waste as it is exchanged.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 4.5-2

Page Ref: MDL

Topic: Dendritic Spreading: Forming Interconnections in the Brain

Skill: Factual

Answer: A) prenatal nutrition provided by the mother

 

4.5-3. Within the ends of axons of a neuron are _____ known as neurotransmitters.

  1. A) dendrites
  2. B) chemical substances
  3. C) synapses
  4. D) reflexes

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 4.5-3

Page Ref: MDL

Topic: Neuronal Transmission

Skill: Factual

Answer: B) chemical substances

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