Test Bank Of Psychologist as Detective The An Introduction to Conducting Research in Psychology 6th Edition By Smith & Davis

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Test Bank × of Psychologist as Detective The An Introduction to Conducting Research in Psychology 6th Edition By Smith & Davis

 

 

CHAPTER 3: QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHODS

 

Activities/Assignments

 

Qualitative Research Activities. Fontes and Piercy (2000) describe several exercises that they utilize in their qualitative research methods courses. For example, they introduce focus groups by having several class members engage in a “minifocus” group on the topic of effective teaching techniques. They also discuss techniques for discussing ethics in qualitative research as well as ways to “defend” qualitative research against people who may be biased toward quantitative research.

 

Fontes, L. A., & Piercy, F. P. (2000). Engaging students in qualitative research through experiential class activities. Teaching of Psychology, 27, 174-179.

 

Article Review. The Article Review for Chapter 4 is by Rosenhan (1973). In this study, Rosenhan and other confederates went to a mental hospital and claimed to be hearing voices. After being admitted to the hospital, they ceased to pretend to hear voices and acted normally. Rosenhan reported that none of the pseudopatients were discovered by the hospital staff, although some fellow patients seemed to doubt their legitimacy. In the article, Rosenhan discussed the experiences of being in a psychiatric institution, including feelings of powerlessness and depersonalization. You might also consider having students read a criticism of this article (e.g., Spitzer, 1975) and debate the merits of the criticisms.

 

Rosenhan, D. L. (1973). On being sane in insane places. Science, 179, 250-258.

Spitzer, R.L. (1975) On pseudoscience in science, logic in remission, and psychiatric diagnosis: A critique of Rosenhan’s “On being sane in insane places.” Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 84, 442-452.


Chapter 3: Qualitative Research Methods

 

Article Review

 

Read the following article and answer the questions that follow:

 

Rosenhan, D. L. (1973). On being sane in insane places. Science, 179, 250-258.

 

 

  1. Which method is used in this study (e.g., case study, naturalistic observation, participant observation with “participant as observer,” participant observation with “observer as participant”)? How do you know?

 

ANSWER: Participant observation. The pseudopatients (including the author) infiltrated a psychiatric hospital and played the part of a patient. The observers became part of the group being studied, which makes it participant observation.

 

In addition, the research is best characterized as “participant as observer” instead of “observer as participant” because the pseudopatients actually became a part of the mental hospital culture (as opposed to simply observing and taking notes).

 

  1. Describe any deception in this study.

 

ANSWERS: The pseudopatients claimed to be hearing voices, which was not true. The pseudopatients did not tell their doctors or other patients the truth while in the hospital.

 

  1. Do you think the deception was necessary? Why or why not?

 

Answers by students will vary.

 

  1. If you were a member of an IRB, would you have approved this study? Why or why not?

 

Answers by students will vary.

 

  1. What weaknesses do you see in this study?

 

Answers by students will vary. Some criticisms of this study, however, include the following: (1) It may not be fair to fault the doctors for diagnosing these individuals with schizophrenia; they were, in fact, claiming to hear voices and it is not normal for people to fake auditory hallucinations. (2) The psuedopatients could not be blind to the purpose of the study – perhaps there was some bias.

 

 

 


Test Bank

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. Historically, psychology has been a discipline of ___________ research.
    1. qualitative
    2. experimental
    3. non-experimental
    4. survey

 

ANSWER: b (p. 51)

 

  1. Qualitative research is classified as ___________ research.
    1. survey
    2. experimental
    3. non-experimental
    4. ex post facto

 

ANSWER: c (p. 51)

 

  1. Qualitative research began in which of the following disciplines?
    1. psychology
    2. sociology
    3. anthropology
    4. Both (b) and (c) are correct.
    5. All of the above.

 

ANSWER: d (p. 52)

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of qualitative research?
    1. It examines the basic parts or elements of a social situation instead of the whole situation.
    2. It uses words instead of statistics.
    3. It is conducted in a natural setting.
    4. All of the above are characteristics of qualitative research.

 

ANSWER: a (p. 52)

 

  1. Which of the following is a characteristic of qualitative research?
    1. It is more likely to examine animal interactions than human interactions.
    2. It is uses statistics to summarize findings.
    3. It begins with an experimental hypothesis and tests that hypothesis.
    4. It develops a holistic portrayal of the problem.

 

ANSWER: d (p. 52)

 

  1. Qualitative research is most likely to be conducted in a ___________ setting.
    1. controlled
    2. laboratory
    3. natural
    4. Both (a) and (b) are correct.

 

ANSWER: c (p. 52)

 

  1. How do qualitative researchers attempt to understand behavior?
    1. They isolate one or more variables of interest and examine those variables in depth.
    2. They examine two variables of interest to determine how those variables are related to each other.
    3. They utilize advanced statistical techniques to determine how several independent variables affect several dependent variables.
    4. They develop a complete narrative description of behavior.

 

ANSWER: d (p. 52)

 

  1. Qualitative reports differ from the traditional experimental reports in that qualitative reports are more likely to ____________________ than experimental reports.
    1. use statistics
    2. use scientific jargon
    3. have a traditional Results section
    4. be personal

 

ANSWER: d (p. 52)

 

  1. Clara has written a research report that contains little scientific jargon but several emotional words. Clara has most likely engaged in
    1. a reliability analysis.
    2. correlational research.
    3. quantitative research.
    4. qualitative research.

 

ANSWER: d (p. 52)

 

  1. Qualitative researchers are likely to ask about the ___________ of their data.
    1. trustworthiness
    2. validity
    3. reliability
    4. Both (b) and (c) are correct.

 

ANSWER: a (p. 53)

 

  1. Reliability refers to the extent to which
    1. the data measure what they are supposed to measure.
    2. repeated measurements yield consistent results.
    3. the qualitative research has created a complete description of the behavior.
    4. the research report can be confirmed by others.

 

ANSWER: b (p. 53)

 

  1. If a researcher wishes to examine the extent to which the data measure what they are supposed to measure, the researcher is interested in
    1. validity.
    2. reliability.
    3. confirmability.
    4. credibility.

 

ANSWER: a (p. 53)

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a way that trustworthiness is measured?
    1. confirmability
    2. reliability
    3. dependability
    4. credibility

 

ANSWER: b (p. 53)

 

  1. ____________ refers to the extent to which a qualitative research report is accurate and unbiased.
    1. Credibility
    2. Dependability
    3. Confirmability
    4. Transferability

 

ANSWER: c (p. 53)

 

  1. Dr. Martin, a qualitative researcher, had one of his colleagues carefully read a draft of his research report to point out any inconsistencies or contradictions. Dr. Martin is examining the __________ of his research.
    1. confirmability
    2. credibility
    3. dependability
    4. transferability

 

ANSWER: a (p. 53)

 

  1. If a qualitative researcher is concerned about whether her subjective bias has entered into the research process, she is concerned about the _________ of her data.
    1. dependability
    2. transferability
    3. credibility
    4. confirmability

 

ANSWER: d (p. 53)

 

  1. ___________ refers to the extent to which a qualitative researcher believes that the same results would be produced if the study were replicated.
    1. Credibility
    2. Dependability
    3. Confirmability
    4. Transferability

 

ANSWER: b (p. 53)

 

  1. Dependability in qualitative research is analogous to ___________ in quantitative research.
    1. external validity
    2. internal validity
    3. construct validity
    4. reliability

 

ANSWER: d (p. 53)

 

  1. Marianne wishes to determine if her qualitative research project would produce the same results if it was conducted in a different context. Marianne is most concerned about
    1. dependability.
    2. transferability.
    3. credibility.
    4. confirmability.

 

ANSWER: a (p. 53)

 

  1. The accuracy of the identification and description of the subject of study in a qualitative research project is known as
    1. transferability.
    2. dependability.
    3. credibility.
    4. confirmability.

 

ANSWER: c (p. 53)

 

  1. Rebecca is concerned with knowing if she is actually studying the topic that she intends to study in her qualitative research project. Rebecca is most concerned with
    1. dependability.
    2. transferability.
    3. confirmability.
    4. credibility.

 

ANSWER: d (p. 53)

 

  1. The best way to assess a qualitative research study’s credibility would be to
    1. conduct a reliability analysis using advanced statistical techniques.
    2. conduct a validity analysis using advanced statistical techniques.
    3. have other researchers read a draft of your report.
    4. have the participants read a draft of your report.

 

ANSWER: d (p. 53)

 

  1. ___________ refers to the extent to which the results of a qualitative research project can be generalized to other settings and groups.
    1. Confirmability
    2. Transferability
    3. Dependability
    4. Credibility

 

ANSWER: b (p. 54)

 

  1. Researchers make a judgment regarding the transferability of results based on
    1. the results of a statistical analysis.
    2. the extent to which the research report is thorough and clear.
    3. the results of open coding.
    4. a dependability analysis.

 

ANSWER: b (p. 54)

 

  1. If researchers are neutrally observing behavior in the real world, they are engaging in
    1. participant observation.
    2. naturalistic observation.
    3. ethnography.
    4. an experiment.

 

ANSWER: b (p. 54)

 

  1. ___________ refers to research in which the observer becomes part of the group being studied.
    1. Naturalistic observation
    2. Participant observation
    3. Archival research
    4. Correlational research

 

ANSWER: b (p. 55)

 

  1. When a researcher becomes immersed in an entire culture for a lengthy period of time, it is called a(n)
    1. experiment.
    2. naturalistic observation.
    3. ethnographic inquiry.
    4. archival study.

 

ANSWER: c (p. 55)

 

  1. Dr. Jones spends two years immersed in the Yoruba tribe in Nigeria in order to better understand cross-cultural differences in child-rearing. Dr. Jones is engaged in what kind of research?
    1. Naturalistic observation
    2. Ethnographic inquiry
    3. Archival research
    4. Case study

 

ANSWER: b (p. 55)

 

  1. Jessica wishes to understand the motivations of people who join the Hare Krishna group, so she joins and immerses herself in the group. Jessica has conducted what kind of research?
    1. Naturalistic observation
    2. Archival research
    3. Correlational research
    4. Participant observation

 

ANSWER: d (p. 55)

 

  1. Which of the following is a drawback to the participant observation method?
    1. It may take a long time for the researcher to become accepted in the group.
    2. It is not possible to make causal statements.
    3. The researcher may lose his/her objectivity.
    4. All of the above.

 

ANSWER: d (pp. 55-56)

 

  1. A researcher who becomes part of a group by working and interacting extensively with others is called a(n)
    1. observer as participant.
    2. participant as observer.
    3. clinical researcher.
    4. naturalistic observer.

 

ANSWER: b (p. 55)

 

  1. In one study, researchers studied a Christian school by sitting in the back of the classroom and taking notes without interacting much with anyone. The researcher would be referred to as a(n)
    1. observer as participant.
    2. participant as observer.
    3. clinical researcher.
    4. naturalistic observer.

 

ANSWER: a (p. 55)

 

  1. Which of the following is an advantage of participant observation?
    1. The researcher is able to make cause-and-effect statements.
    2. The researcher is able to gather more in-depth information than is usually the case with other methods.
    3. The researcher is able to control many extraneous variables.
    4. All of the above.

 

ANSWER: b (p. 55)

 

  1. Amanda conducts a study with 8 teenagers who meet for about an hour to discuss bullying in high schools. Amanda is using which type of research method?
    1. Case study
    2. Naturalistic observation
    3. Focus group
    4. Participatory action research

 

ANSWER: c (p. 56)

 

  1. Which of the following is FALSE regarding focus groups?
    1. The group consists of 7-10 participants.
    2. The group members typically know each other beforehand.
    3. The moderator prepares 6-10 key questions to guide the conversation.
    4. The group typically meets for about 1 to 1 ½ hours.

 

ANSWER: b (p. 56)

 

  1. Which of the following is FALSE regarding interviews?
    1. Interviews can be structured or unstructured.
    2. Interviews can be recorded in any number of ways, such as written notes, audio recordings, or video recording.
    3. Interviews must follow a predetermined script in order to be considered scientifically valid.
    4. Interviews can be either the primary or secondary research method.

 

ANSWER: c (p. 56)

  1. Joanna is conducting interviews with students who have various disabilities. She allows each student to discuss whatever he or she wants in these interviews; she doesn’t have a preset list of questions. Joanna is doing a(n)
    1. structured interview.
    2. unstructured interview.
    3. historiography.
    4. artifact analysis.

 

ANSWER: b (p. 56)

 

  1. James is conducting interviews with students who have dropped out of school. He asks each student the same set of questions in an effort to determine what factors are important in terms of why students drop out. James is doing a(n)
    1. symbolic interaction study.
    2. naturalistic observation.
    3. unstructured interview.
    4. structured interview.

 

ANSWER: d (p. 56)

 

  1. Which of the following is a disadvantage of an unstructured interview?
    1. It can be difficult to analyze across multiple respondents.
    2. So many respondents are required in unstructured interviews that it is very time consuming and costly.
    3. Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) are typically opposed to unstructured interviews.
    4. All of the above are disadvantages of unstructured interviews.

 

ANSWER: a (p. 56)

 

  1. Researchers who use the narrative approach use which of the following sources to conduct their studies?
    1. biographies
    2. personal experiences
    3. oral histories
    4. All of the above.

 

ANSWER: d (p. 56)

 

  1. If a researcher is gathering and interpreting stories that individuals use to describe their lives, that researcher is using which approach?
    1. artifact analysis
    2. historiography
    3. narrative study
    4. symbolic interaction

 

ANSWER: c (p. 56)

 

  1. When a researcher examines respondents’ speech patterns, he or she is using which approach?
    1. narrative analysis
    2. symbolic interaction
    3. artifact analysis
    4. participant observation

 

ANSWER: a (p. 56)

 

  1. Pete conducts numerous interviews and engages in several observations of a gifted third-grader in order to better understand the adjustment of gifted children to public schools. Pete has conducted a(n)
    1. case study.
    2. experiment.
    3. participant observation.
    4. ethnographic inquiry.

 

ANSWER: a (p. 56)

 

  1. One strength of the case study method is that
    1. researchers can understand the causes of behavior.
    2. the results exhibit high generalizability.
    3. the research often leads to ideas for future research.
    4. All of the above are strengths of the case study method.

 

ANSWER: c (p. 57)

 

  1. All of the following are weaknesses of the case study method EXCEPT:
    1. It is difficult to generalize the results to other people.
    2. The researcher cannot establish cause-and-effect relationships.
    3. The individual under investigation may not be representative of others within the same population.
    4. Too many extraneous variables are controlled.

 

ANSWER: d (p. 57)

 

  1. Researchers learned a great deal about memory by studying a man named H.M., who had part of his hippocampus removed in order to alleviate seizures. This research is best characterized as a(n)
    1. experiment.
    2. participant observation.
    3. case study.
    4. grounded theory research study.

 

ANSWER: c (p. 57)

 

  1. Most artifact analyses involve which types of artifacts?
    1. text-based materials
    2. audio recordings
    3. art work
    4. All of the above.

 

ANSWER: a (p. 57)

 

  1. Rick does a study on newspaper headlines after the last presidential election. Rick is most likely using which qualitative research approach?
    1. case study
    2. experiment
    3. naturalistic observation
    4. artifact analysis

 

ANSWER: d (p. 57)

 

  1. In a historiography, a researcher analyzes
    1. individuals’ behavior in a natural setting.
    2. extant artifacts.
    3. data in order to reconstruct past events.
    4. common symbols that give meaning to human interaction.

 

ANSWER: c (p. 57)

 

  1. Which of the following is FALSE regarding historiographies?
    1. Historiographies are primarily concerned with reconstructing past events.
    2. Historiographies use information from diaries, photographs, written accounts, etc.
    3. Historiographies consist almost exclusively of information derived from secondary sources.
    4. All of the above are false statements about historiographies.

 

ANSWER: c (p. 57)

 

  1. If a researcher is studying the common symbols that are meaningful within a particular social group, he or she is using which approach?
    1. participant observation
    2. case study
    3. experiment
    4. symbolic interaction

 

ANSWER: d (p. 57)

 

  1. What is the first step in the symbolic interaction method?
    1. determine the relationships among the symbols
    2. identify the symbols used by the particular social group
    3. write a narrative about the symbolic interactions
    4. None of the above.

 

ANSWER: b (p. 58)

 

  1. An approach to qualitative research that focuses on building theories is known as
    1. the correlational approach.
    2. grounded theory.
    3. archival research.
    4. situation sampling.

 

ANSWER: b (p. 58)

 

  1. What is the ultimate goal of grounded theory research?
    1. test existing theories
    2. develop new theories
    3. Both (a) and (b) are correct.
    4. None of the above.

 

ANSWER: b (p. 58)

 

  1. The grounded theory approach is most likely to use
    1. complicated statistical techniques.
    2. interviews and observations.
    3. independent and dependent variables.
    4. All of the above.

 

ANSWER: b (p. 58)

 

  1. Which of the following is FALSE regarding grounded theory research?
    1. The researcher should not be too familiar with existing research on the topic before conducting the study.
    2. The researcher will likely use non-technical literature such as letters, diaries, and newspapers.
    3. Grounded theory research is adaptable to all research questions.
    4. Grounded theory research uses three different types of coding.

 

ANSWER: c (p. 58)

 

  1. Which of the following best describes the order in which coding occurs in the grounded-theory approach?
    1. Open coding®selective coding®axial coding
    2. Axial coding®selective coding®open coding
    3. Selective coding®axial coding®open coding
    4. Open coding®axial coding®selective coding

 

ANSWER: d (p. 58)

 

  1. During ______ coding, the researcher labels and categories the phenomenon being studied.
    1. axial
    2. selective
    3. open
    4. closed

 

ANSWER: c (p. 58)

 

  1. During ______ coding, the researcher finds links between categories and subcategories.
    1. axial
    2. selective
    3. open
    4. closed

 

ANSWER: a (p. 58)

 

  1. During _____ coding, the researcher identifies a core category and relates all other categories to this core.
    1. axial
    2. selective
    3. open
    4. closed

 

ANSWER: b (p. 58)

 

  1. An analysis of how actions and interactions relate to their conditions and consequences is known as a(n)
    1. case study.
    2. transactional system.
    3. naturalistic observation.
    4. ethnographic inquiry.

 

ANSWER: b (p. 59)

 

  1. ___________ refers to a linking of actions and interactions that result in some outcome.
    1. Process
    2. Open coding
    3. Transferability
    4. Confirmability

 

ANSWER: a (p. 59)

 

  1. A transactional system is diagrammed in a _______ matrix.
    1. coding
    2. process
    3. conditional
    4. correlational

 

ANSWER: c (p. 59)

 

  1. A qualitative research approach that usually attempts to understand the impact of a social program on the community is known as _____________ research.
    1. case study
    2. participatory action
    3. naturalistic observation
    4. experimental

 

ANSWER: b (p. 59)

 

  1. Dr. Perry conducts a study in which she evaluates the effectiveness of an adult literacy program. The study is both quantitative and qualitative in nature, and the 30 participants are treated as equal researchers in the study. What research method is Dr. Perry MOST likely to use?
    1. case study
    2. naturalistic observation
    3. participatory action research
    4. focus group

 

ANSWER: c (p. 59)

 

  1. In participatory action research, the participants are
    1. not given a true debriefing.
    2. considered equal researchers.
    3. part of a focus group.
    4. studied using only qualitative research methods.

 

ANSWER: b (p. 59)

 

Short Answer/Essay

 

  1. Briefly describe the historical evolution of qualitative research.

 

  1. Explain why researchers had to develop non-experimental methods to complement the experimental method.

 

  1. In what ways are qualitative research studies different from the more traditional, quantitative research studies?

 

  1. Briefly describe the five characteristics of qualitative research.

 

  1. Briefly describe the four criteria for judging trustworthiness in qualitative research.

 

  1. What is participant observation? Give an example and describe the strengths and weaknesses of this method.

 

  1. What is a focus group? Describe the important characteristics of a focus group.

 

  1. Distinguish between the structured and unstructured interview approach.

 

  1. What is a narrative study? Describe an example.

 

  1. What is a case study? Give an example and describe the strengths and weaknesses of this method.

 

  1. What is an artifact analysis? Describe an example.

 

  1. What is a historiography? Describe an example.

 

  1. What is the symbolic interaction method? Describe an example.

 

  1. Explain the grounded-theory approach to qualitative research, including when it is and is not appropriate to use.

 

  1. Briefly describe the three types of coding used in grounded theory research.

 

  1. What is participatory action research? Describe an example.

 

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