Test Bank For Philosophy A Text with Readings 11th Edition Manuel Velasquez

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Philosophy A Text with Readings 11th Edition Manuel Velasquez

 

SAMPLE QUESTIONS

 

Chapter 1—The Nature of Philosophy

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. What is the goal of philosophy?
a. Autonomy
b. Angst
c. Authority
d. Ambivalence

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Who wrote of the Myth of the Cave?
a. Plato
b. Aristotle
c. Gyges
d. Epicurus

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Epistemology literally means
a. the study of knowledge
b. the study of the reality
c. the study of whether humans are free or unfree
d. the study of morality

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The belief that there is just one God is
a. Pantheism
b. Agnosticism
c. Monotheism
d. Heresy

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Gail Stenstad is a
a. Greek theologian
b. Platonic philosopher
c. Feminist philosopher
d. Religious theologian

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Karma means literally
a. Action
b. Movement
c. Rightness
d. Fate

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The idea of karma can combine
a. Rightness and wrongness
b. Determinism and freedom
c. The whole and the part
d. Life and death

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Rachels says that finding satisfaction in helping others is not
a. Selfishness
b. Worthwhile
c. Moral
d. Karmic

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Who said that whatever the gods love is holy?
a. Socrates
b. Plato
c. Euripides
d. Euthyphro

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

  1. According to whom does philosophical knowledge free us from the cycle of birth, suffering, death, and rebirth?
a. Plato
b. Aristotle
c. Krishna
d. Buddha

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

  1. What does philosophy literally mean?
a. love of knowledge
b. love of nature
c. love of wisdom
d. love of life

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The view of philosophy as the activity of examining our assumptions and beliefs about ourselves and the universe around us was expressed by
a. Plato
b. Perictione
c. Aristotle
d. Buddha

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. What philosopher argues for determinism, the view that all things and all human beings are unfree?
a. Paul Henri d’Holbach
b. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
c. Viktor Frankl
d. Plato

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Who wrote: “Freedom is not caprice, nor is Karma necessity.”
a. Plato
b. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
c. Viktor Frankl
d. Buddha

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Based on his experience in a Nazi prison camp, what philosopher argued that human beings are ultimately free and that each of us has the freedom to be whoever we choose to be?
a. Buddha
b. Gail Stenstad
c. Paul Henri d’Holbach
d. Viktor Frankl

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The philosopher Harry Browne upholds what philosophical view?
a. determinism
b. skepticism
c. egoism
d. materialism

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. What philosopher argued that service toward others is our primary moral duty?
a. Aristotle
b. Mahatma Gandhi
c. Plato
d. Harry Browne

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. What philosopher wrote: “Everyone is selfish; everyone is doing what he believes will make himself happier.”
a. James Rachels
b. Mahatma Gandhi
c. Perictione
d. Harry Browne

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

  1. What subfield of philosophy is concerned with moral values and moral principles?
a. theology
b. ethics
c. metaphysics
d. epistemology

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. What subfield of philosophy is concerned with the ultimate characteristics of reality or existence?
a. epistemology
b. axiology
c. metaphysics
d. science

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Philosophy begins with wonder.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Perictione suggests that philosophy is ultimately a search for an understanding of why we and our universe are here.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Socrates held that the gods agreed on what is holy.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Crito was unwilling to help Socrates escape from jail.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

 

  1. When people talk about getting along, then generally mean satisfying their maintenance needs.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Moulton and Lloyd claim that philosophy is a male activity with a male bias.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Plato tells the Myth of the Cave in the Republic.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Philosophy is not hard work.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Monotheism is the belief that there are many gods.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Holbach was a determinist.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

 

COMPLETION

 

  1. ____________________ means “the study of knowledge”.

 

ANS:  Epistemology

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. Monotheism is the belief that there is just ____________________ ____________________.

 

ANS:  one God

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. ____________________ is the view that all things and all human beings are unfree because everything that happens does so in accordance with some law.

 

ANS:  Determinism

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. ____________________ is the study of the most general characteristics of reality.

 

ANS:  Metaphysics

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. ____________________ is the study of morality.

 

ANS:  Ethics

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. Harry Browne’s view that morality is a sham because humans always try to satisfy themselves is called ____________________.

 

ANS:  egoism

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. Socrates claimed that he had a(n) ____________________ to obey the law.

 

ANS:  obligation

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. Genevieve Lloyd is a(n) ____________________ philosopher.

 

ANS:  feminist

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. The freedom of being able to decide for yourself what you will believe is called ____________________.

 

ANS:  autonomy

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. ____________________ is the love and pursuit of wisdom.

 

ANS:  Philosophy

 

PTS:   1

 

ESSAY

 

  1. What is Plato’s Myth of the Cave, and how does it illustrate the challenges and advantages associated with philosophy?

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. Some people believe that the term “philosophy” is only a verb, while others hold that it could function as a noun, as well. What is your view, and why do you hold it?

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. Philosophy is traditionally divided into three categories of philosophical topics. Do you think that these divisions are strict ones, or do you think that the questions that fall under one category are relevant to those that fall under others? Explain and illustrate your answers.

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. What are the advantages of Socratic questions¾and what might its dangers be?

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. Do you think that we have an obligation to obey the law? What if the law is unjust? Would we still have an obligation to obey it? Or would we instead say that the law in question was not properly a law, since it was unjust? What do your answers to these questions tell you about (a) your views concerning the nature of law; (b) your views concerning the nature of obligation?

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

PTS:   1

Chapter 3—Reality and Being

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Who was also known as the Lokyata?
a. The Buddhists
b. The Hindus
c. The Charvakas
d. The Augustinians

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Hobbes believed that
a. Only matter is real
b. Only spirit is real
c. The world is composed of both matter and spirit
d. The world cannot be known

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The view that whatever I perceive is merely one of my perceptions or a collection of them is known as
a. Subjective idealism
b. Objective idealism
c. Subjective materialism
d. Objective materialism

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Which pragmatist was concerned with the logical implications of ideas?
a. John Dewey
b. C. S. Pierce
c. William James
d. Elmer Sprague

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. A. J. Ayer believed that there were only two kinds of meaningful statements:
a. Relations of ideas and statements of fact
b. Relations of ideas and tautologies
c. Empirical hypotheses and statements of fact
d. Relations of fact and statements of ideas

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Which view is the heir of pragmatism and idealism?
a. Materialism
b. Irrealism
c. Antirealism
d. Immaterialism

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Heidegger was influenced by which view?
a. James’ pragmatism
b. Ayer’s positivism
c. Husserl’s phenomenology
d. Descartes’ skepticism

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Who is best known for writing of our own human being in the world, our Dasein?
a. James
b. Husserl
c. Heidegger
d. Plato

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Sartre endorses
a. Libertarianism
b. Determinism
c. LaPlacianism
d. Psychologism

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Thomas Hobbes endorses
a. Libertarianism
b. Compatibilism
c. Determinism
d. Existentialism

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. For what philosopher(s) does reality contain every possible kind of being, from the “lowest” kind of inert matter to the “highest” kind of spirit?
a. Thomas Hobbes
b. Karl Marx
c. Saint Augustine
d. Charvaka Philosophers of India

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. What philosopher argued that reality can be explained in terms of the smallest pieces of matter he called atoms?
a. Aristotle
b. Plato
c. Saint Augustine
d. Democritus

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

  1. What philosopher, in his book Man a Machine, argued that humans are nothing more than complex machines?
a. Karl Marx
b. Democritus
c. Julien Offray de La Mettrie
d. Vasubandhu

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. An unusual aspect of consciousness is that the objects of which one is conscious need not exist. This feature of consciousness is called
a. subjectivity.
b. intensionality.
c. spatiality.
d. awareness.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. What contemporary Canadian philosopher argues that all the things in the universe are thoughts in the mind of God?
a. John Leslie
b. John Rawls
c. Josiah Royce
d. F. H. Bradley

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The attribution of human thoughts and emotions onto the nonhuman universe is the fallacy of
a. equivocation
b. composition
c. anthropomorphism
d. wishful thinking

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The philosophical view that interprets an idea in terms of its practical consequences and asks what difference it would make if it were true is called
a. materialism.
b. idealism.
c. pragmatism.
d. logical positivism.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The statement, “All bachelors are unmarried.” is a(n)
a. analytical statement.
b. synthetic statement.
c. meaningless statement.
d. empirical statement.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Who wrote the following: “Now many linguistic utterances are analogous to laughing in that they have only an expressive function, no representative function.”?
a. William James
b. Thomas Hobbes
c. Rudolf Carnap
d. Jacques Derrida

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The philosophical view that a real world exists independently of our language, our thoughts, our perceptions, and our beliefs is called
a. antirealism.
b. realism.
c. pragmatism.
d. postmodernism.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The view that there are many realities and that realities are constructed by the many languages of the cultures and subcultures is called
a. pragmatism.
b. existentialism.
c. postmodernism.
d. realism.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Who wrote, “The aim of phenomenology is described as the study of experiences with a view to bringing out their ‘essences,’ their underlying reason.”?
a. Hilary Putnam
b. Jean Grimshaw
c. Maurice Merleau-Ponty
d. Edmund Husserl

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The view that there are no absolute truth but that all truth is relative to groups or persons, acculturation or personal bias is called
a. phenomenology.
b. relativism.
c. pragmatism.
d. realism.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The philosophical position that holds that people have control over what they do and are free to choose to act other than the way they do is called
a. determinism.
b. existentialism.
c. libertarianism.
d. phenomenology.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. What French philosopher argues that the scientist’s objective time is just a conceptual abstraction, a construct of the mind?
a. Henri Bergson
b. Edmund Husserl
c. Immanual Kant
d. J. J. C. Smart

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. St. Augustine found it difficult to believe that spirits were real.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The Charvaka philosophers were spiritualists.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Hobbes believed that there was more to the Universe than measureable mater.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Hobbes believed that our mental states are states of our brain.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The neutrino has no mass, no electric charge, and no magnetic field.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Vasubandhu claimed that we directly perceive the objects in the world around us.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Dewey believed that philosophy arose out of people’s struggles to deal with social and political problems.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Charles S. Pierce was concerned with the psychological effects of ideas.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Husserl believed that Europe had inherited rational certainty from the Greeks.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Newton believed that all material bodies in the universe were governed by universal laws of nature.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

 

COMPLETION

 

  1. ____________________ is the view that matter is the ultimate constituent of reality.

 

ANS:  Materialism

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. ____________________ ____________________ is generalizing about what we observe.

 

ANS:  Inductive reasoning

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. ____________________ ____________________ appeals to general statements to reach its logical conclusions.

 

ANS:  Deductive reasoning

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. ____________________ is the belief that reality is essentially composed of minds and their ideas.

 

ANS:  Idealism

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. The City of God was written by ____________________.

 

ANS:  Augustine

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. ____________________ idealism contains elements of both objective and subjective idealism.

 

ANS:  Berkeley’s

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. Objective idealism accounts for the ____________________ of our experiences.

 

ANS:

regularity

steadiness

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. According to James, pragmatism looks towards ____________________ things.

 

ANS:  last

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. ____________________ is the view that reality is only one kind of thing.

 

ANS:  Monism

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. The philosophical school that contends that ____________________ is the underlying reality that appears to our consciousness is phenomenology.

 

ANS:  being

 

PTS:   1

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Imagine that you are placed into a machine that stimulates your brain, making you think that your life is going wonderfully well, while all the time you are simply attached to an “Experience Machine” in a basement. Given that you could not tell that your life was illusory, would you choose to enter this machine, or not? Would it make a difference to you in answering this question if you learned that Berkeley’s idealism was correct? Why, or why not?

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. If everything is comprised of matter, and if all matter is governed by causal laws, it is possible that humans are free in the sense required for moral responsibility? Explain your answer.

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. Do you believe that pragmatism is a tenable middle ground between materialism and idealism? If not, why not? If so, why do you think this? How do your answers to these questions illustrate your own views on the value and role of metaphysics in understanding the world around you?

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. In what way might our language be said to create our world? Drawing on your answer to this question, what practical implications do you think it could have¾if any¾for social change? If you believe that your answer has no such implications, explain why.

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. Do you think that our consciousness is effective in leading us to act? Do we make decisions, or do our decisions merely flow through us? Are these empirical questions, or metaphysical ones? Explain your answer.

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

PTS:   1

 

 

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