Test Bank Nutrition for Health and Healthcare 6th Edition DeBruyne Pinna

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Test Bank Nutrition for Health and Healthcare 6th Edition DeBruyne Pinna

 

True / False

 

1. Whenever carbohydrate is available to the body, the human brain depends exclusively on it as an energy source.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   3.0 Introduction
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.0 – Introduction
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

2. Most dietary fiber provides little or no energy.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   3.1 The Chemist’s View of Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.1 – Identify the monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides common in nutrition and list their major food sources.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

3. A client consumes 2600 kcalories per day and 50 grams of carbohydrate from concentrated sweets. This client’s sugar intake falls within the same range as added sugar intakes for the USDA Food Patterns recommendations.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   3.4 Health Effects of Sugars and Alternative Sweeteners
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.4 – Describe how added sugars can contribute to health problems and how alternative sweeteners may help to limit kcalories and sugar intake.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

4. Experts agree that moderate amounts of sugar in the diet may pose a number of major health risks.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   3.4 Health Effects of Sugars and Alternative Sweeteners
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.4 – Describe how added sugars can contribute to health problems and how alternative sweeteners may help to limit kcalories and sugar intake.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

5. A client consumes 2000 kcalories per day and 200 grams of carbohydrate. This person meets the current dietary recommendations for carbohydrate intake.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   3.5 Health Effects of Starch and Dietary Fibers
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.5 – Identify the health benefits of, and recommendations for, starches and fibers.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

6. Cindy consumed 1 cup of vegetables, 1 cup of fruit, 5 ounces of whole grains, and 1 cup of legumes during the day. Cindy met the DV recommendation for fiber for the day.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   3.5 Health Effects of Starch and Dietary Fibers
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.5 – Identify the health benefits of, and recommendations for, starches and fibers.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

Multiple Choice

 

7. The main function of carbohydrates in the body is to:​

  a. ​furnish the body with energy.
  b. ​provide material for synthesizing cell walls.
  c. ​synthesize fat.
  d. ​insulate the body to prevent heat loss.
  e. build muscle.​

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   3.0 Introduction
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.0 – Introduction
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

8. High-fructose corn syrup and fruit juice concentrate are examples of:​

  a. ​starches.
  b. ​disaccharides.
  c. ​added sugars.
  d. ​fibers.
  e. ​fats.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   3.1 The Chemist’s View of Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.1 – Identify the monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides common in nutrition and list their major food sources.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

9. What are the basic units of all carbohydrates?​

  a. ​monosaccharides
  b. ​disaccharides
  c. ​polysaccharides
  d. ​sucrose molecules
  e. ​glycogen

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   3.1 The Chemist’s View of Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.1 – Identify the monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides common in nutrition and list their major food sources.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

10. Three monosaccharides important in nutrition are:​

  a. ​glucose, lactose, and fructose.
  b. fructose, glucose, and sucrose.​
  c. ​maltose, fructose, and lactose.
  d. ​galactose, sucrose, and lactose.
  e. ​fructose, glucose, and galactose.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   3.1 The Chemist’s View of Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.1 – Identify the monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides common in nutrition and list their major food sources.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

11. The primary source of energy for the brain and nervous system under normal conditions is:​

  a. sucrose.​
  b. ​amino acids.
  c. ​fructose.
  d. glucose.​
  e. ​fatty acids.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   3.1 The Chemist’s View of Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.1 – Identify the monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides common in nutrition and list their major food sources.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

12. The hormone that moves glucose from the blood into the cells is:​

  a. ​glucagon.
  b. ​insulin.
  c. ​testosterone.
  d. ​sucrose.
  e. ​glycogen

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   3.2 Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.2 – Summarize carbohydrate digestion and absorption.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

13. Which of the following occurs mostly as part of lactose?​

  a. ​glucose
  b. ​maltose
  c. ​fructose
  d. ​galactose
  e. ​sucrose

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   3.1 The Chemist’s View of Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.1 – Identify the monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides common in nutrition and list their major food sources.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

14. Fructose is:​

  a. ​the sweetest of the sugars.
  b. ​known as milk sugar.
  c. ​abundant in whole grains.
  d. ​also known as dextrose.
  e. combines with glucose to make lactose.​

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   3.1 The Chemist’s View of Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.1 – Identify the monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides common in nutrition and list their major food sources.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

15. Fructose occurs naturally in:​

  a. ​bread.
  b. milk.​
  c. ​meats.
  d. ​fruits.
  e. ​glucose

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   3.1 The Chemist’s View of Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.1 – Identify the monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides common in nutrition and list their major food sources.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

16. Which monosaccharide is found most often in nature as a part of a disaccharide?​

  a. ​glucose
  b. ​fructose
  c. ​maltase
  d. ​galactose
  e. ​sucrose

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   3.1 The Chemist’s View of Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.1 – Identify the monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides common in nutrition and list their major food sources.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

17. Which of the following compounds is a disaccharide?​

  a. ​glucose
  b. ​fructose
  c. ​lactose
  d. ​galactose
  e. ​glycogen

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   3.1 The Chemist’s View of Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.1 – Identify the monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides common in nutrition and list their major food sources.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

18. What happens when blood glucose falls too low?​

  a. ​Glucagon promotes breakdown of muscle glycogen.
  b. ​Glucagon promotes breakdown of liver glycogen.
  c. ​Insulin promotes glycogen synthesis in the liver.
  d. ​Insulin promotes glycogen synthesis in the muscle.
  e. ​Insulin promotes breakdown of muscle glycogen.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   3.3 Regulation of Blood Glucose
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.3 – Explain how hormones control blood glucose concentrations.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

19. The most familiar source of sucrose is:​

  a. ​bread.
  b. ​table sugar.
  c. ​milk.
  d. ​meat.
  e. ​fruit.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   3.1 The Chemist’s View of Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.1 – Identify the monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides common in nutrition and list their major food sources.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

20. The principal carbohydrate used to sweeten homemade iced tea is:​

  a. ​fructose.
  b. ​galactose.
  c. ​maltose.
  d. ​glucose
  e. ​sucrose.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   3.1 The Chemist’s View of Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.1 – Identify the monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides common in nutrition and list their major food sources.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

21. One molecule of maltose can yield how many molecules of glucose?​

  a. one​
  b. ​two
  c. ​three
  d. ​four
  e. ​twelve

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   3.1 The Chemist’s View of Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.1 – Identify the monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides common in nutrition and list their major food sources.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

22. Which of the following is the principal carbohydrate in milk?​

  a. ​galactose
  b. ​fructose
  c. ​fructose
  d. ​fructose
  e. ​maltose

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   3.1 The Chemist’s View of Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.1 – Identify the monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides common in nutrition and list their major food sources.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

23. Chemically, lactose is a(n):​

  a. ​monosaccharide.
  b. disaccharide.​
  c. ​dextrose.
  d. ​polysaccharide.
  e. ​alternative sweetener.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   3.1 The Chemist’s View of Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.1 – Identify the monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides common in nutrition and list their major food sources.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

24. An example of a polysaccharide is:​

  a. ​starch.
  b. ​meat.
  c. ​fruit.
  d. ​protein.
  e. ​milk.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   3.1 The Chemist’s View of Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.1 – Identify the monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides common in nutrition and list their major food sources.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

25. Which of the following carbohydrates is a polysaccharide?​

  a. ​fructose
  b. ​glucose
  c. ​maltose
  d. ​lactose
  e. ​starch

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   3.1 The Chemist’s View of Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.1 – Identify the monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides common in nutrition and list their major food sources.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

26. The stored form of glucose in the body is called:​

  a. glycogen.​
  b. ​insulin.
  c. ​fat.
  d. ​maltose.
  e. ​protein.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   3.1 The Chemist’s View of Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.1 – Identify the monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides common in nutrition and list their major food sources.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

27. Polysaccharides are composed of:​

  a. ​one glucose unit.
  b. ​two glucose units.
  c. ​two fructose units.
  d. ​many glucose units.
  e. ​only disaccharides.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   3.1 The Chemist’s View of Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.1 – Identify the monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides common in nutrition and list their major food sources.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

28. Excess glucose in the blood is converted into glycogen and stored primarily in the:​

  a. ​brain and liver.
  b. ​liver and muscles.
  c. ​blood cells and brain.
  d. ​pancreas and brain.
  e. ​brain and muscles.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   3.1 The Chemist’s View of Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.1 – Identify the monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides common in nutrition and list their major food sources.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

29. The richest sources of starch are:​

  a. ​fruits.
  b. ​grains.
  c. ​vegetables.
  d. ​soybeans.
  e. ​legumes.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   3.1 The Chemist’s View of Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.1 – Identify the monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides common in nutrition and list their major food sources.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

30. Whole grains, vegetables, and fruits are rich sources of:​

  a. ​sucrose.
  b. ​protein.
  c. ​fat.
  d. ​glycogen.
  e. ​dietary fiber

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   3.1 The Chemist’s View of Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.1 – Identify the monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides common in nutrition and list their major food sources.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

31. Cellulose, pectin, hemicellulose, and gums are:​

  a. nonnutritive sweeteners.​
  b. ​sugar alcohols.
  c. ​fibers.
  d. ​forms of starch.
  e. ​whole grains

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   3.1 The Chemist’s View of Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.1 – Identify the monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides common in nutrition and list their major food sources.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

32. Which of the following is a fiber found in all vegetables, fruits, and legumes?​

  a. ​hemicelluose
  b. ​pectin
  c. ​mucilage
  d. ​cellulose
  e. ​lignins

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   3.1 The Chemist’s View of Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.1 – Identify the monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides common in nutrition and list their major food sources.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

33. Which of the following fibers is a nonpolysaccharide?​

  a. ​cellulose
  b. ​lignin
  c. ​pectin
  d. ​gum
  e. ​legumes

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   3.1 The Chemist’s View of Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.1 – Identify the monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides common in nutrition and list their major food sources.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

34. A food company wants to use a fiber to stabilize its new product. Which of the following would be least likely to be considered?​

  a. ​pectins
  b. gums​
  c. ​lignins
  d. ​mucilages
  e. ​cellulose

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   3.1 The Chemist’s View of Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.1 – Identify the monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides common in nutrition and list their major food sources.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

35. Which of the following escape digestion and absorption in the small intestine?​

  a. ​Resistant starches
  b. ​Polysaccharides
  c. ​Bacteria
  d. ​Disaccharides
  e. ​Whole grains

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   3.1 The Chemist’s View of Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.1 – Identify the monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides common in nutrition and list their major food sources.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

36. Fibers are categorized by:​

  a. ​the type of chemical bonds that hold them together.
  b. ​their chemical and physical properties.
  c. ​the number of hydrogen molecules they contain.
  d. ​their ability to be digested by human enzymes.
  e. ​their ability to dissolve in water.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   3.1 The Chemist’s View of Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.1 – Identify the monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides common in nutrition and list their major food sources.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

37. The sugars in fruits, vegetables, grains, and milk are:​

  a. ​usually added to these foods.
  b. ​considered discretionary kcalories.
  c. ​naturally occurring.
  d. ​resistant to digestion.
  e. ​known to add kcalories, but not nutrients.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   3.4 Health Effects of Sugars and Alternative Sweeteners
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.4 – Describe how added sugars can contribute to health problems and how alternative sweeteners may help to limit kcalories and sugar intake.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

38. The steady upward trend in sugar consumption among Americans can be attributed to:​

  a. ​consumer demand.
  b. bans on sugary soft drinks.​
  c. ​better food preservation techniques.
  d. ​improved food safety practices.
  e. ​food manufacturers.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   3.4 Health Effects of Sugars and Alternative Sweeteners
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.4 – Describe how added sugars can contribute to health problems and how alternative sweeteners may help to limit kcalories and sugar intake.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

39. The leading source of added sugars in the American diet is:​

  a. ​baked goods such as cookies and cakes.
  b. ​fruit packed in heavy syrup.
  c. ​soft drinks and other sugar-sweetened beverages.
  d. chocolate bars and other candy treats.​
  e. ​hidden sugars, such as ketchup or sauces

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   3.4 Health Effects of Sugars and Alternative Sweeteners
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.4 – Describe how added sugars can contribute to health problems and how alternative sweeteners may help to limit kcalories and sugar intake.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

40. According to the World Health Organization’s recommendations, no more than what percentage of daily kcalories should come from added sugars?​

  a. 5​
  b. ​10
  c. ​15
  d. ​20
  e. ​25

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   3.4 Health Effects of Sugars and Alternative Sweeteners
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.4 – Describe how added sugars can contribute to health problems and how alternative sweeteners may help to limit kcalories and sugar intake.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

41. Which of the following statements best describes the role of sugar in the development of obesity?​

  a. ​Sugar consumption is a direct cause of weight gain leading to obesity.
  b. ​The increased use of added sugars by food manufacturers is the cause of obesity.
  c. ​Sugar contributes to obesity when it is part of excessive energy intakes.
  d. ​There is no correlation between the consumption of added sugars and the rise in obesity.
  e. ​Alternatives to sugar (artificial sweeteners) are a greater contributor to obesity than sugar.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   3.4 Health Effects of Sugars and Alternative Sweeteners
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.4 – Describe how added sugars can contribute to health problems and how alternative sweeteners may help to limit kcalories and sugar intake.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

42. ​Which statement about excessive sugar consumption is true?

  a. ​It causes cancer.
  b. ​It causes heart disease.
  c. ​It causes dental caries.
  d. ​It causes hyperactive behavior in children.
  e. ​It causes gallbladder inflammation.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   3.4 Health Effects of Sugar and Alternative Sweeteners
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.4 – Describe how added sugars can contribute to health problems and how alternative sweeteners may help to limit kcalories and sugar intake.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

43. Which of the following ingredients is a sugar alcohol?​

  a. ​polydextrose
  b. ​maltitol
  c. ​cellulose
  d. ​aspartame
  e. ​saccharin

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   3.4 Health Effects of Sugar and Alternative Sweeteners
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.4 – Describe how added sugars can contribute to health problems and how alternative sweeteners may help to limit kcalories and sugar intake.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

44. In the small intestine, amylase breaks starch down into which of the following? ​

  a. ​bacterial enzymes
  b. ​maltase
  c. ​maltose
  d. ​amylase
  e. ​lactase

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   3.2 Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.2 – Summarize carbohydrate digestion and absorption.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

45. Sweeteners that yield energy are called:​

  a. ​nutritive sweeteners.
  b. ​alternative sweeteners.
  c. ​resistant sweeteners.
  d. ​glycemic sweeteners.
  e. ​nonnutritive sweeterners.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   3.4 Health Effects of Sugars and Alternative Sweeteners
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.4 – Describe how added sugars can contribute to health problems and how alternative sweeteners may help to limit kcalories and sugar intake.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

A carton of ice cream displays the following list of ingredients: milkfat and nonfat milk, sorbitol, pecans, cellulose, butter, caramel color, citric acid, aspartame, carrageenan.​

 

46. ​How many alternative sweeteners are contained in this product?

  a. ​one
  b. ​two
  c. ​three
  d. ​four
  e. ​zero

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   3.4 Health Effects of Sugars and Alternative Sweeteners
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.4 – Describe how added sugars can contribute to health problems and how alternative sweeteners may help to limit kcalories and sugar intake.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

47. How many nonnutritive sweeteners are contained in the product?​

  a. ​one
  b. ​two
  c. ​three
  d. ​four
  e. ​zero

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   3.4 Health Effects of Sugar and Alternative Sweeteners
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.4 – Describe how added sugars can contribute to health problems and how alternative sweeteners may help to limit kcalories and sugar intake.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

48. The nonnutritive sweetener sucralose is made from:​

  a. ​sucrose.
  b. ​an amino acid.
  c. ​aspartame.
  d. ​maltose.
  e. ​benzoic sulfimide.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   3.4 Health Effects of Sugar and Alternative Sweeteners
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.4 – Describe how added sugars can contribute to health problems and how alternative sweeteners may help to limit kcalories and sugar intake.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

49. The nonnutritive sweetener that is unsafe for people with phenylketonuria is:​

  a. ​aspartame.
  b. ​neotame.
  c. ​sucralose.
  d. ​stevia.
  e. ​saccharin.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   3.4 Health Effects of Sugar and Alternative Sweeteners
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.4 – Describe how added sugars can contribute to health problems and how alternative sweeteners may help to limit kcalories and sugar intake.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

50. Which of the following foods would you recommend to someone interested in lowering his or her blood cholesterol level?​

  a. ​wheat bread
  b. ​almonds
  c. ​strawberries
  d. ​pork
  e. ​oatmeal

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   3.5 Health Effects of Starch and Dietary Fibers
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.5 – Identify the health benefits of, and recommendations for, starches and fibers.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

51. Soluble fiber can help reduce blood cholesterol levels by:​

  a. ​ converting cholesterol into vitamin D.
  b. ​binding cholesterol and carrying it out of the body with the feces.
  c. ​reducing bile excretion.
  d. ​preventing the production of bile.
  e. ​slowing glucose absorption.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   3.5 Health Effects of Starch and Dietary Fibers
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.5 – Identify the health benefits of, and recommendations for, starches and fibers.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

52. Which statements regarding the effects of fiber on the human body is true?  ​

  a. ​Fiber causes weight gain.
  b. ​Fiber contributes to the development of diabetes.
  c. ​Fiber aids in overall health of the gastrointestinal tract.
  d. ​Fiber aids in the prevention of osteoporosis.
  e. ​Fiber increases blood cholesterol levels.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   3.5 Health Effects of Starch and Dietary Fibers
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.5 – Identify the health benefits of, and recommendations for, starches and fibers.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

53. Which of the following describes the effect a food has on blood glucose levels?​

  a. ​glycemic index
  b. ​insulin index
  c. ​solubility factor
  d. ​viscosity index
  e. ​glycemic load

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   3.5 Health Effects of Starch and Dietary Fibers
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.5 – Identify the health benefits of, and recommendations for, starches and fibers.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

54. Soluble fibers are found in:​

  a. ​celery, wheat bran, and corn.
  b. ​kidney beans, apples, and oatmeal.
  c. ​corn, apples, and sunflower seeds.
  d. ​celery, soybeans, and bran flakes.
  e. ​celery, flax seeds, and corn.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   3.1The Chemist’s View of Carbohydrates; 3.5 Health Effects of Starch and Dietary Fibers
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.1 – Identify the monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides common in nutrition and list their major food sources.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

55. ​Which of the following is the most effective at alleviating constipation?

  a. ​cellulose
  b. ​pectin
  c. ​gums
  d. ​glycogen
  e. ​lignins

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   3.5 Health Effects of Starch and Dietary Fibers
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.5 – Identify the health benefits of, and recommendations for, starches and fibers.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

56. Carbohydrate should contribute approximately what percentage of the total daily energy intake?​

  a. ​35-40
  b. ​45-55
  c. ​45-65
  d. ​55-60
  e. ​70-80

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   3.5 Health Effects of Starch and Dietary Fibers
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.5 – Identify the health benefits of, and recommendations for, starches and fibers.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

57. A 2000-kcalorie diet that provides 175 grams of carbohydrate provides:​

  a. ​inadequate carbohydrate.
  b. ​excessive carbohydrate.
  c. ​an appropriate amount of carbohydrate.
  d. ​inadequate fiber.
  e. ​excessive protein.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   3.5 Health Effects of Starch and Dietary Fibers
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.5 – Identify the health benefits of, and recommendations for, starches and fibers.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

58. What is the Dietary Reference Intake for dietary fiber?​

  a. ​10-15 grams per day
  b. ​15-25 grams per day
  c. ​25-35 grams per day
  d. ​35-50 grams per day
  e. ​70-80 grams per day

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   3.5 Health Effects of Starch and Dietary Fibers
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.5 – Identify the health benefits of, and recommendations for, starches and fibers.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

59. Grains and legumes contain predominantly:​

  a. ​sugars and fiber.
  b. ​protein and fiber.
  c. ​fat and fiber.
  d. ​sugars and fat.
  e. ​starches and fiber.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   3.5 Health Effects of Starch and Dietary Fibers
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.5 – Identify the health benefits of, and recommendations for, starches and fibers.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

60. ​Foods richest in carbohydrates include:

  a. ​eggs, cheese, and milk.
  b. ​rice, broccoli, and apples.
  c. ​milk, nuts, and oils.
  d. ​mayonnaise, butter, and salad dressing.
  e. ​pork chops, almonds, and spinach.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   3.5 Health Effects of Starch and Dietary Fibers
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.5 – Identify the health benefits of, and recommendations for, starches and fibers.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

61. ​Which of the following groups contains the least carbohydrate?

  a. ​grains and starchy vegetables
  b. ​nuts and dried fruits
  c. ​milk and cheese
  d. ​fruits and vegetables
  e. ​applesauce and pumpkin seeds

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   3.5 Health Effects of Starch and Dietary Fibers
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.5 – Identify the health benefits of, and recommendations for, starches and fibers.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

62. ​Jeff consumed the following foods for a meal: small baked potato, 1/2 cup of carrots, 1 cup skim milk, and 1 small banana. Approximately how many grams of carbohydrate did Jeff consume?

  a. ​47
  b. ​57
  c. ​66
  d. ​69
  e. ​12

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   3.5 Health Effects of Starch and Dietary Fibers
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.5 – Identify the health benefits of, and recommendations for, starches and fibers.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

63. The glycemic index ranks carbohydrate foods based on their effect on:​

  a. ​blood glucose levels.
  b. ​blood cholesterol levels.
  c. ​weight.
  d. ​blood pressure.
  e. ​body fat percentage.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   3.6 Nutrition in Practice: The Glycemic Index in Nutrition Practice
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.6 – Describe the glycemic index and explain why its use in disease prevention in controversial.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

64. ​The glycemic index of a food can be measured by comparing the increase in one’s blood glucose levels after consuming a carbohydrate to that caused by a reference food such as:

  a. ​potato chips.
  b. ​a banana.
  c. ​ice cream.
  d. ​oatmeal.
  e. ​white bread.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   3.6 Nutrition in Practice: The Glycemic Index in Nutrition Practice
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.6 – Describe the glycemic index and explain why its use in disease prevention in controversial.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

65. Which of the following breakfast foods has the lowest glycemic index?​

  a. ​Pop-Tart
  b. ​biscuit
  c. ​Fiber One cereal
  d. ​Rice Krispies cereal
  e. ​Hash browns

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   3.6 Nutrition in Practice: The Glycemic Index in Nutrition Practice
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.6 – Describe the glycemic index and explain why its use in disease prevention in controversial.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

66. You are explaining the GI concept to a client with diabetes. Which factor should he focus on the least?​

  a. ​structure of the starch
  b. ​type of fiber in the food
  c. ​manner in which the food was processed
  d. ​time of day the food was consumed
  e. ​amount of carbohydrate consumed

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   3.6 Nutrition in Practice: The Glycemic Index in Nutrition Practice
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.6 – Describe the glycemic index and explain why its use in disease prevention in controversial.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

67. Limiting their intake of high-GI foods can benefit those who are at risk for which disease?​

  a. ​infectious disease
  b. ​arthritis
  c. ​diabetes
  d. ​migraine headaches
  e. ​Crohn’s disease

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   3.6 Nutrition in Practice: The Glycemic Index in Nutrition Practice
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.6 – Describe the glycemic index and explain why its use in disease prevention in controversial.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

Matching

 

Matching​

a. ​a hormone secreted by the pancreas in response to high blood glucose; promotes cellular glucose uptake
b. ​a hormone that is secreted by special cells in the pancreas in response to low blood glucose concentration; elicits release of glucose from storage
c. ​a measure of the extent to which a food raises the blood glucose concentration and elicits an insulin response, as compared with pure glucose
d. ​the more common type of diabetes in which the cells resist insulin
e. ​indigestible food components that readily dissolve in water and often impart gummy or gel-like characteristics to foods
f. ​having a gel-like consistency
g. ​the tough, fibrous structures of fruits, vegetables, and grains; indigestible food components that do not dissolve in water

 

REFERENCES:   3.3 Regulation of Blood Glucose
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.3 – Explain how hormones control blood glucose concentrations.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

68. ​glucagon

ANSWER:   b

 

69. ​ insulin

ANSWER:   a

 

Matching​

a. ​a hormone secreted by the pancreas in response to high blood glucose; promotes cellular glucose uptake
b. ​a hormone that is secreted by special cells in the pancreas in response to low blood glucose concentration; elicits release of glucose from storage
c. ​a measure of the extent to which a food raises the blood glucose concentration and elicits an insulin response, as compared with pure glucose
d. ​the more common type of diabetes in which the cells resist insulin
e. ​indigestible food components that readily dissolve in water and often impart gummy or gel-like characteristics to foods
f. ​having a gel-like consistency
g. ​the tough, fibrous structures of fruits, vegetables, and grains; indigestible food components that do not dissolve in water

 

REFERENCES:   3.5 Health Effects of Starch and Dietary Fibers
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.5 – Identify the health benefits of, and recommendations for, starches and fibers.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

70. glycemic response

ANSWER:   c

 

71. type 2 diabetes

ANSWER:   d

 

Matching​

a. ​a hormone secreted by the pancreas in response to high blood glucose; promotes cellular glucose uptake
b. ​a hormone that is secreted by special cells in the pancreas in response to low blood glucose concentration; elicits release of glucose from storage
c. ​a measure of the extent to which a food raises the blood glucose concentration and elicits an insulin response, as compared with pure glucose
d. ​the more common type of diabetes in which the cells resist insulin
e. ​indigestible food components that readily dissolve in water and often impart gummy or gel-like characteristics to foods
f. ​having a gel-like consistency
g. ​the tough, fibrous structures of fruits, vegetables, and grains; indigestible food components that do not dissolve in water

 

REFERENCES:   3.1 The Chemist’s View of Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.1 – Identify the monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides common in nutrition and list their major food sources.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

72. insoluble fibers

ANSWER:   g

 

73. ​soluble fibers

ANSWER:   e

 

74. ​viscous

ANSWER:   f

 

Essay

 

75. ​Of all the possible alternatives, why is carbohydrate the preferred energy source?

ANSWER:   Carbohydrates are a readily-available and easily accessible source of energy for the body. They can be absorbed easily by the small intestine and are available for quick utilization.​
REFERENCES:   3.1 The Chemist’s View of Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.1 – Identify the monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides common in nutrition and list their major food sources.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

76. How would you respond to the statement that honey is more nutritious than white sugar?​

ANSWER:   Honey contains glucose and fructose, just like white sugar. Honey differs from white sugar, though, in that some of the glucose and fructose molecules in honey are paired and some are free single sugars. Your body ultimately breaks them down into single sugars, so it makes no difference if they were paired when you ate them. Honey contains a few vitamins and minerals but not very many. Also, it is denser than crystalline sugar, so it provides more kcalories per serving.
REFERENCES:   3.4 Health Effects of Sugars and Alternative Sweeteners
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.4 – Describe how added sugars can contribute to health problems and how alternative sweeteners may help to limit kcalories and sugar intake.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

77. What is blood glucose homeostasis, and how is it achieved within the body?​

ANSWER:   Blood glucose homeostasis is the maintenance of a constant, “normal” level of blood glucose by the body’s control systems. In the case of blood glucose, the control systems are two hormones: insulin, which transports glucose from the bloodstream into cells for storage, and glucagon, which brings glucose out of storage when blood glucose levels drop.​
REFERENCES:   3.3 Regulation of Blood Glucose
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.3 – Explain how hormones control blood glucose concentrations.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

78. Describe how fiber-rich foods help with weight control.​

ANSWER:   Fiber-rich foods tend to be low in fat, added sugars, and kcalories by providing fewer kcalories per bite. Fibers also absorb water from digestive juices, which can create feelings of fullness, delay hunger, and reduce food intake, thereby aiding weight control.​
REFERENCES:   3.5 Health Effects of Starch and Dietary Fibers
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.5 – Identify the health benefits of, and recommendations for, starches and fibers.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

79. Discuss the harmful effects of excessive fiber intake.​

ANSWER:   Too much fiber intake may cause some minerals to bind to it and be excreted before becoming available for the body to use. People who do not eat enough food and consume mostly high-fiber foods may find it difficult to take in enough food to meet energy requirements (malnourished people, elderly, young children, vegans).​
REFERENCES:   3.5 Health Effects of Starch and Dietary Fibers
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.5 – Identify the health benefits of, and recommendations for, starches and fibers.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

80. Given the nutrient information on food labels, how could you determine the number of grams of starch in a food product?​

ANSWER:   Fiber and total sugar, in grams, are listed on food labels. Starch, in grams, can be calculated by subtracting the grams of fiber and sugars from the total carbohydrate.​
REFERENCES:   3.5 Health Effects of Starch and Dietary Fibers
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.3.5 – Identify the health benefits of, and recommendations for, starches and fibers.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

True / False

 

1. Depending on the patient population, estimates of malnutrition in hospital patients range from 15 to 60 percent.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   13.1 Nutrition in Health Care
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.1 – Describe the interrelationships between illness and malnutrition and explain how health professionals identify and treat patients at risk for nutrition problems.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

2. In some cases, the patient’s nutrition care is incorporated into the medical care plan developed by the entire health care team in particular types of plans called nursing diagnoses.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   13.1 Nutrition in Health Care
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.1 – Describe the interrelationships between illness and malnutrition and explain how health professionals identify and treat patients at risk for nutrition problems.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

3. The four steps of the nutrition care process include nutrition assessment, nutrition diagnosis, nutrition intervention, and nutrition monitoring and evaluation.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   13.1 Nutrition in Health Care
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.1 – Describe the interrelationships between illness and malnutrition and explain how health professionals identify and treat patients at risk for nutrition problems.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

4. The medical history helps the clinician identify health problems or medical treatments that may interfere with food intake or require dietary changes.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

5. The 24-hour recall provides accurate and complete data for assessing an individual’s diet.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.

 

6. ​A written account of foods and beverages consumed by a client over several days is called a nutrition diagnosis.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

7. Height and weight are the most common anthropometric measurements and are used to evaluate growth in children and nutrition status in adults.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

8. Head circumference values can track vitamin D deficiency in premature and small-for-gestational-age infants.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

9. Fluid retention can cause lab values to be deceptively high, whereas dehydration may cause the values to be deceptively low.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

10. Along with environmental factors, genetic variation also determines susceptibilities to disease.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   13.3 Nutrition in Practice: Nutritional Genomics
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.3 – Explain how nutritional genomics research may improve our understanding of the relationship between illness and nutrition care.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

Multiple Choice

 

11. ​ What is an example of a symptom or effect of an illness that would likely lead to impaired digestion and absorption?

  a. ​chemotherapy
  b. ​insufficient secretion of bile salts
  c. ​use of diuretics
  d. ​restrictive diets
  e. ​depression

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   13.1 Nutrition in Health Care
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.1 – Describe the interrelationships between illness and malnutrition and explain how health professionals identify and treat patients at risk for nutrition problems.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

12. ​What best describes a task of the registered dietitian?

  a. making referrals for dietary counseling
  b. ​administering total parenteral nutrition
  c. ​conducting nutrition assessments
  d. administering formula through feeding tubes​
  e. ​prescribing diet orders

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   13.1 Nutrition in Health Care
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.1 – Describe the interrelationships between illness and malnutrition and explain how health professionals identify and treat patients at risk for nutrition problems.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

13. ​A patient’s diet order is most often prescribed by the _____.

  a. ​registered dietitian
  b. ​physician
  c. ​registered nurse
  d. ​ registered dietetic technician
  e. ​occupational therapist

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   13.1 Nutrition in Health Care
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.1 – Describe the interrelationships between illness and malnutrition and explain how health professionals identify and treat patients at risk for nutrition problems.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

14. ​A coordinated program of treatment that merges the care plans of different health practitioners is a _____.

  a. ​critical pathway
  b. ​care map
  c. ​clinical pathway
  d. ​care plan
  e. ​nutrition screening

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   13.1 Nutrition in Health Care
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.1 – Describe the interrelationships between illness and malnutrition and explain how health professionals identify and treat patients at risk for nutrition problems.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

15. ​When performing a nutrition screening, the registered dietitian asks the patient about his health history. What information should be included in this section to determine if the patient is at risk of malnutrition?

  a. ​height, weight, and BMI
  b. ​current medical diagnosis
  c. ​food allergies and intolerances
  d. ​loss of subcutaneous fat
  e. ​low handgrip strength

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   13.1 Nutrition in Health Care
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.1 – Describe the interrelationships between illness and malnutrition and explain how health professionals identify and treat patients at risk for nutrition problems.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

16. ​When assessing for criteria that signify malnutrition risk, which element would most likely be included as part of the functional assessment data?

  a. ​severity of illness
  b. ​history of diabetes
  c. generalized weakness
  d. ​presence of pressure sores
  e. ​localized edema

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   13.1 Nutrition in Health Care
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.1 – Describe the interrelationships between illness and malnutrition and explain how health professionals identify and treat patients at risk for nutrition problems.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

17. ​Which type of assessment evaluates a person’s risk of malnutrition by ranking key variables from the medical history and physical examination?

  a. ​Subjective Global Assessment
  b. ​Integrated assessment
  c. ​Functional assessment
  d. ​Nutrition care plan
  e. ​Katz Index

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   13.1 Nutrition in Health Care
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.1 – Describe the interrelationships between illness and malnutrition and explain how health professionals identify and treat patients at risk for nutrition problems.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

18. ​Which nursing diagnosis has nutritional implications?

  a. ​hyperthermia
  b. ​self-esteem disturbance
  c. ​impaired dentition
  d. ​sleep pattern disturbance
  e. ​disruption of gas exchange

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   13.1 Nutrition in Health Care
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.1 – Describe the interrelationships between illness and malnutrition and explain how health professionals identify and treat patients at risk for nutrition problems.

 

19. ​What information would most likely be included in the “S” portion of a PES statement?

  a. ​long-term use of corticosteroids
  b. ​poor control of blood glucose levels
  c. ​decreased intake of vitamin C
  d. ​high risk of accidental injury
  e. ​weight gain of 10 percent over the past six months

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   13.1 Nutrition in Health Care
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.1 – Describe the interrelationships between illness and malnutrition and explain how health professionals identify and treat patients at risk for nutrition problems.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

20. What element would most likely be included as part of the nutrition intervention step of the nutrition care process?

  a. ​assessing the success of the patient’s nutritional care goals
  b. ​adjusting the types of treatments offered to the patient
  c. ​formulating a statement that correctly describes the patient’s condition
  d. ​reviewing the patient’s laboratory results
  e. reading the patient’s chart to gain an accurate medical history​

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   13.1 Nutrition in Health Care
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.1 – Describe the interrelationships between illness and malnutrition and explain how health professionals identify and treat patients at risk for nutrition problems.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

21. ​Which medical problem is not generally associated with malnutrition?

  a. ​Celiac disease
  b. ​dementia
  c. ​pressure sores
  d. ​incontinence
  e. major surgery​

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

22. ​When performing a nutrition assessment, the practitioner should include what information as part of the patient’s food and nutrition history?

  a. ​dietary restrictions
  b. ​religious beliefs
  c. ​prescription drugs
  d. ​surgical history
  e. past medical problems​

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

23. ​A patient is completing a food frequency questionnaire that is designed to evaluate calcium intake. This questionnaire would most likely include which foods?

  a. ​raspberries and kiwi
  b. ​summer squash
  c. ​yogurt and cheese
  d. ​ham and bacon
  e. ​lima or kidney beans

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

24. ​ A disadvantage to using a food frequency questionnaire is _____.

  a. ​it is expensive to administer
  b. ​it is not effective for monitoring short-term changes in food intake
  c. ​it is affected by seasonal changes in the diet
  d. ​it influences the food choices of the consumer
  e. ​it takes too long to obtain the results

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

25. ​When utilizing the multiple pass technique of the 24-hour dietary recall method, the first pass is completed when _____.

  a. ​the patient writes down all of the food he has consumed in the past 24 hours
  b. ​the patient includes extra foods to his intake list, such as condiments
  c. ​the patient measures the amount of liquid consumed during the last 24 hours
  d. ​the patient provides a quick list of foods consumed without prompts
  e. ​the patient describes how all of his foods have been prepared

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

26. ​A disadvantage of using a food record is _____.

  a. ​it is too time consuming for the patient
  b. ​it only offers limited food lists for the consumer
  c. ​it does not rely on the patient’s memory for accuracy
  d. ​it may provide more information than is needed
  e. ​it is affected by seasonal changes in the diet

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

27. ​Which method of collecting a dietary history is the most time-consuming and requires the highest degree of motivation to complete?

  a. ​24-hour recall
  b. ​food frequency questionnaire
  c. ​food record
  d. ​direct observation
  e. ​nutrition data assessment

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

28. ​What food intake method is most often used to monitor a client’s response to and compliance with medical nutrition therapy?

  a. ​food record
  b. food frequency checklist​
  c. ​24-hour recall
  d. ​usual intake record
  e. ​nutrition data assessment

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

29. ​When direct observations are used to generate an estimate of a client’s current food intake, the procedure is called a _____.

  a. ​kcalorie count
  b. ​food diary
  c. ​24-hour recall
  d. ​food record
  e. ​nutrient surveillance record

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.

 

30. ​A child’s height is measured in the standing position once she or he reaches the age of _____.

  a. ​12 months
  b. 18 months​
  c. ​2 years
  d. ​3 years
  e. ​5 years

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

31. ​For an adult’s height to be accurately measured, the person should _____.

  a. ​stand with the feet together
  b. ​stand erect with shoes
  c. ​stand with the feet slightly apart
  d. ​stand 2” away from the wall
  e. ​stand erect without shoes

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

32. ​The height of a person who is unable to stand is estimated from equations that use _____.

  a. ​elbow breadth or wrist circumference
  b. ​knee height or full arm span
  c. ​the distance between the wrist and the shoulder
  d. ​head circumference or wrist circumference
  e. ​the distance between the knee and the hip

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

33. ​Growth charts with BMI-for-age percentiles can be used to assess risk of underweight and overweight in children over two years of age: the _____ percentile is used as a cutoff to identify children who may be malnourished.

  a. ​1st
  b. ​5th
  c. ​8th
  d. ​10th
  e. ​15th

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

34. ​What technique would most likely be used to assess brain development in an infant?

  a. ​measure of abdominal girth
  b. ​skinfold measurement
  c. ​head circumference
  d. ​height and weight
  e. ​BMI

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

35. ​Among people who are ill, significant weight loss may be masked by _____.

  a. ​fluid retention
  b. ​dehydration
  c. ​a large tumor
  d. ​drug therapy
  e. ​hypotension

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

36. ​Joe, a 69-year-old widower, has lost 27 pounds since his wife’s death a year ago. He is 5’11” and his usual body weight is 173 pounds. What is his %UBW?

  a. ​15%
  b. ​69%
  c. ​84%
  d. ​91%
  e. ​101%

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

37. ​What laboratory test would most likely aid in the diagnosis of anemia?

  a. ​red blood cell count
  b. ​​total protein
  c. ​C-reactive protein
  d. ​blood urea nitrogen
  e. ​white blood cell count

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

38. ​When checking laboratory values for electrolyte levels, the normal range for serum sodium should be between _____.

  a. ​3.5 to 5.1 mEq/L
  b. ​7 to 35 mEq/L
  c. ​98 to 106 mEq/L
  d. ​136 to 146 mEq/L
  e. ​158 to 178 mEq/L

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

39. ​Transthyretin is also known as _____.

  a. ​C-reactive protein
  b. ​retinol-binding protein
  c. ​transferrin
  d. ​albumin
  e. ​prealbumin

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

40. ​Elevated blood levels of _____ may indicate a heart attack, brain tissue damage, or skeletal muscle injury.

  a. ​red blood cells
  b. ​chloride
  c. ​C-reactive protein
  d. ​creatine kinase
  e. ​hematocrit

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

41. ​Which laboratory test would most likely be used to evaluate liver function?

  a. ​Creatine kinase
  b. ​Mean corpuscular hemoglobin
  c. ​Creatinine
  d. ​BUN
  e. ​Alkaline phosphatase

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

42. ​The normal half-life of albumin is _____.

  a. ​12-16 hours
  b. ​2-3 days
  c. ​8-10 days
  d. ​14-20 days
  e. ​26-30 days

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

43. ​What lab value responds to both PEM and iron status?

  a. ​albumin
  b. ​prealbumin
  c. ​retinol-binding protein
  d. ​transferrin
  e. ​C-reactive protein

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

44. ​What clinical sign is an indicator of good nutritional status?

  a. ​shiny hair
  b. ​smooth tongue
  c. ​lack of fat under the skin
  d. rough skin​
  e. ​spoon-shaped nails

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

45. ​Muscle weakness due to wasting would most likely be evaluated by which test?

  a. ​recall of food intake
  b. ​red blood cell levels
  c. ​handgrip strength
  d. ​skinfold thickness
  e. ​serum sodium

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

46. ​ In a child with kwashiorkor, physical signs of malnutrition may include _____.

  a. ​bleeding gums
  b. ​magenta tongue
  c. ​bruising under the skin
  d. ​sparse, brittle hair
  e. ​ridged fingernails

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

John Wilson is a 74-year-old retired schoolteacher. He is 5’8” tall and weighs 136 pounds. His wife died nine months ago. During a routine visit to the doctor, it was noted that his weight had decreased 21 pounds since his visit a year ago. Mr. Wilson does not have any medical problems, though he does report feeling depressed and lonely. The physician ordered a panel of lab tests including hemoglobin, hematocrit, and albumin, which all were low.

 

47. ​What is Mr. Wilson’s ideal body weight?

  a. ​125 pounds
  b. ​144 pounds
  c. ​155 pounds
  d. ​161 pounds
  e. ​170 pounds

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

48. ​What is Mr. Wilson’s percent usual body weight?

  a. ​86.6%
  b. ​88.3%
  c. ​99.1%
  d. ​113.2%
  e. ​115.4%

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

49. ​The most likely cause of Mr. Wilson’s weight loss is _____.

  a. ​depression due to loss of his spouse
  b. ​inadequate income to purchase food
  c. ​ lack of knowledge about nutrition
  d. ​a high level of physical activity
  e. ​a low hemoglobin level

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   13.1 Nutrition in Health Care
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.1 – Describe the interrelationships between illness and malnutrition and explain how health professionals identify and treat patients at risk for nutrition problems.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

50. ​What nursing diagnosis would be most appropriate for Mr. Wilson?

  a. ​impaired physical mobility
  b. ​feeding self-care deficit
  c. ​disturbed body image
  d. ​mpaired dentition
  e. ​imbalanced nutrition: less than body requirements

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   13.1 Nutrition in Health Care
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.1 – Describe the interrelationships between illness and malnutrition and explain how health professionals identify and treat patients at risk for nutrition problems.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

51. Mr. Wilson’s low hemoglobin and hematocrit may be indicative of a deficiency of dietary _____.​

  a. ​potassium
  b. ​calcium
  c. ​sodium
  d. iron​
  e. magnesium

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

52. ​Mr. Wilson’s low albumin level may indicate a depletion of _____.

  a. ​body fat
  b. ​body proteins
  c. ​vitamin D
  d. iron
  e. ​calcium

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

53. ​The study of the effects of diet on gene expression is called _____.

  a. ​gene representation
  b. ​nutritional genomics
  c. ​nutritional science
  d. ​gene therapy
  e. ​epigenetics

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   13.3 Nutrition in Practice: Nutritional Genomics
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.3 – Explain how nutritional genomics research may improve our understanding of the relationship between illness and nutrition care.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

54. The human body contains _____ chromosomes.

  a. ​23
  b. ​37
  c. ​46
  d. ​52
  e. ​56

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   13.3 Nutrition in Practice: Nutritional Genomics
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.3 – Explain how nutritional genomics research may improve our understanding of the relationship between illness and nutrition care.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

55. Genetic information is encoded in _____ within the nuclei of almost all of the cells in the body.

  a. ​DNA molecules
  b. c​hromosomes
  c. ​amino acid sequences
  d. ​nucleotides
  e. ​protein molecules

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   13.3 Nutrition in Practice: Nutritional Genomics
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.3 – Explain how nutritional genomics research may improve our understanding of the relationship between illness and nutrition care.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

56. ​The field of _____ investigates processes that cause heritable changes in gene expression that are separate from the underlying DNA nucleotide sequence.

  a. ​microarray technology
  b. ​nutritional genomics
  c. ​DNA methylation
  d. ​epigenetics
  e. ​RNA transcription

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   13.3 Nutrition in Practice: Nutritional Genomics
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.3 – Explain how nutritional genomics research may improve our understanding of the relationship between illness and nutrition care.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

57. ​One example of a single-gene disorder would be _____.

  a. ​diabetes
  b. ​hypertension
  c. ​hemochromatosis
  d. ​hyperlipidemia
  e. ​obesity

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   13.3 Nutrition in Practice: Nutritional Genomics
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.3 – Explain how nutritional genomics research may improve our understanding of the relationship between illness and nutrition care.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

58. ​Segments of a DNA strand that can be translated into proteins are called _____.

  a. ​chromosomes
  b. ​noncoding sequences
  c. ​genomics
  d. ​genes
  e. ​nucleotides

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   13.3 Nutrition in Practice: Nutritional Genomics
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.3 – Explain how nutritional genomics research may improve our understanding of the relationship between illness and nutrition care.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

59. ​A drawback to obtaining detailed genetic information about one’s disease risk is _____.

  a. ​the potential for revealing private information
  b. ​people may take better care of themselves and seek medical care less often
  c. ​there are less effective treatments for some diseases
  d. ​physicians may stop ordering less expensive lab tests
  e. ​medical science and treatments may not be able to keep up with genetic risk information

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   13.3 Nutrition in Practice: Nutritional Genomics
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.3 – Explain how nutritional genomics research may improve our understanding of the relationship between illness and nutrition care.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

Nursing Exam Review Multiple Choice​

 

60. T​he nurse realizes that malnutrition is a common problem among people who are hospitalized and that it is associated with _____.

  a. ​a weakened immune system
  b. ​lower mortality rates
  c. ​reduced health care costs
  d. ​fewer complications
  e. ​high blood pressure

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   13.1 Nutrition in Health Care
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.1 – Describe the interrelationships between illness and malnutrition and explain how health professionals identify and treat patients at risk for nutrition problems.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

61. ​Though a dietitian or dietetic technician may perform a patient’s nutrition screening, it should occur within _____ hours of admission.

  a. ​12
  b. ​24
  c. ​36
  d. ​48
  e. ​72

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   13.1 Nutrition in Health Care
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.1 – Describe the interrelationships between illness and malnutrition and explain how health professionals identify and treat patients at risk for nutrition problems.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

62. ​An elderly male is admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of malnutrition three months after his wife died. This situation describes which criteria that identify malnutrition risk?

  a. ​depression or social isolation
  b. ​recent unintentional weight change
  c. ​history of chronic illness
  d. ​age
  e. ​impaired mobility

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   13.1 Nutrition in Health Care
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.1 – Describe the interrelationships between illness and malnutrition and explain how health professionals identify and treat patients at risk for nutrition problems.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

63. ​A nurse is examining a 3-week old infant. What step should be performed to correctly measure the length of an infant?

  a. ​Use a moveable headboard and fixed footboard.
  b. ​Place the infant in the prone position.
  c. ​Use a flexible tape measure.
  d. ​Record the measurement to the nearest ¼”.
  e. ​Undress the infant completely.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

64. ​What steps should the nurse include in order to successfully measure a patient’s weight?

  a. ​Ask the patient his weight before measuring it.
  b. ​Avoid using electronic or beam balance scales.
  c. ​Measure infants and children up to age 15 sitting on a scale.
  d. ​Avoid using built-in scales found in some hospital beds.
  e. ​Only use a scale that has been maintained and calibrated.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

65. Weight gain due to fluid retention in a patient with liver cirrhosis can mask symptoms of _____.

  a. ​liver failure
  b. ​PEM
  c. ​obesity
  d. ​gallbladder disease
  e. ​heart failure

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HNHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

Matching

 

​Matching

a. ​clinical judgments about actual or potential health problems that provide the basis for selecting appropriate nursing interventions
b. ​health care professionals responsible for the provision of nutrients by tube feeding or intravenous infusion
c. ​the distance from the top of the head to the soles of the feet while a person is recumbent
d. ​a state of malnutrition characterized by depletion of tissue proteins and energy stores
e. ​structures within the nucleus of a cell that contain the cell’s DNA and associated proteins
f. ​medical conditions resulting from genetic defects
g. ​loss of appetite
h. ​a record of foods consumed during the previous day or in the past 24 hours
i. ​the subunits of DNA and RNA molecules
j. ​estimates of food energy consumed by patients for one or more days
k. ​regions of skin and tissue that are damaged due to prolonged pressure on the affected area by an external object
l. ​regions of DNA that do not code for proteins
m. ​a detailed log of food eaten during a specified time period
n. ​the length of time that it takes for half the amount of a substance circulating in the plasma to degrade
o. ​the gradual atrophy of body tissues; associated with protein- energy malnutrition or chronic illness
p. ​specific instructions regarding dietary management
q. ​the full complement of genetic material in the chromosomes of a cell
r. ​variations in DNA sequences of a particular gene
s. ​a systematic approach used by dietetics professionals to evaluate and treat nutrition-related problems
t. ​related to physical measurements of the human body, such as height, weight, body circumferences, and percentage of body fat

 

REFERENCES:   13.1 Nutrition in Health Care
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.1 – Describe the interrelationships between illness and malnutrition and explain how health professionals identify and treat patients at risk for nutrition problems.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

66. ​anorexia

ANSWER:   g

 

67. ​diet orders

ANSWER:   p

 

68. ​nutrition support teams

ANSWER:   b

 

69. ​pressure sores

ANSWER:   k

 

70. ​protein energy malnutrition

ANSWER:   d

 

71. nursing diagnoses

ANSWER:   a

 

72. ​nutrition care process

ANSWER:   s

 

​Matching

a. ​clinical judgments about actual or potential health problems that provide the basis for selecting appropriate nursing interventions
b. ​health care professionals responsible for the provision of nutrients by tube feeding or intravenous infusion
c. ​the distance from the top of the head to the soles of the feet while a person is recumbent
d. ​a state of malnutrition characterized by depletion of tissue proteins and energy stores
e. ​structures within the nucleus of a cell that contain the cell’s DNA and associated proteins
f. ​medical conditions resulting from genetic defects
g. ​loss of appetite
h. ​a record of foods consumed during the previous day or in the past 24 hours
i. ​the subunits of DNA and RNA molecules
j. ​estimates of food energy consumed by patients for one or more days
k. ​regions of skin and tissue that are damaged due to prolonged pressure on the affected area by an external object
l. ​regions of DNA that do not code for proteins
m. ​a detailed log of food eaten during a specified time period
n. ​the length of time that it takes for half the amount of a substance circulating in the plasma to degrade
o. ​the gradual atrophy of body tissues; associated with protein- energy malnutrition or chronic illness
p. ​specific instructions regarding dietary management
q. ​the full complement of genetic material in the chromosomes of a cell
r. ​variations in DNA sequences of a particular gene
s. ​a systematic approach used by dietetics professionals to evaluate and treat nutrition-related problems
t. ​related to physical measurements of the human body, such as height, weight, body circumferences, and percentage of body fat

 

REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

73. 24-hour recall

ANSWER:   h

 

74. ​food record

ANSWER:   m

 

75. ​kcalorie counts

ANSWER:   j

 

76. ​anthropometric

ANSWER:   t

 

77. ​length

ANSWER:   c

 

78. ​half-life

ANSWER:   n

 

79. ​wasting

ANSWER:   o

 

​Matching

a. ​clinical judgments about actual or potential health problems that provide the basis for selecting appropriate nursing interventions
b. ​health care professionals responsible for the provision of nutrients by tube feeding or intravenous infusion
c. ​the distance from the top of the head to the soles of the feet while a person is recumbent
d. ​a state of malnutrition characterized by depletion of tissue proteins and energy stores
e. ​structures within the nucleus of a cell that contain the cell’s DNA and associated proteins
f. ​medical conditions resulting from genetic defects
g. ​loss of appetite
h. ​a record of foods consumed during the previous day or in the past 24 hours
i. ​the subunits of DNA and RNA molecules
j. ​estimates of food energy consumed by patients for one or more days
k. ​regions of skin and tissue that are damaged due to prolonged pressure on the affected area by an external object
l. ​regions of DNA that do not code for proteins
m. ​a detailed log of food eaten during a specified time period
n. ​the length of time that it takes for half the amount of a substance circulating in the plasma to degrade
o. ​the gradual atrophy of body tissues; associated with protein- energy malnutrition or chronic illness
p. ​specific instructions regarding dietary management
q. ​the full complement of genetic material in the chromosomes of a cell
r. ​variations in DNA sequences of a particular gene
s. ​a systematic approach used by dietetics professionals to evaluate and treat nutrition-related problems
t. ​related to physical measurements of the human body, such as height, weight, body circumferences, and percentage of body fat

 

REFERENCES:   13.3 Nutrition in Practice: Nutritional Genomics
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.3 – Explain how nutritional genomics research may improve our understanding of the relationship between illness and nutrition care.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

80. chromosomes

ANSWER:   e

 

81. ​genome

ANSWER:   q

 

82. ​inherited disorders

ANSWER:   f

 

83. ​noncoding sequence

ANSWER:   l

 

84. ​nucleotides

ANSWER:   i

 

85. ​polymorphisms

ANSWER:   r

 

Essay

 

86. Describe how illness can compromise nutrition status.​

ANSWER:   Illnesses and their treatments may lead to malnutrition by causing a reduction in food intake, interfering with digestion and absorption, or altering nutrient metabolism and excretion. Illness can directly impact nutrition when a patient’s condition, his symptoms, or the treatments for his illness affect how he is able to eat and digest food. Nutrition status is further affected when illness causes changes in the gastrointestinal or urinary symptoms, thereby impacting how the body metabolizes or excretes nutrients. The patient may develop electrolyte imbalances, vitamin or mineral deficiencies, or dehydration because of the alterations in how the body manages nutrients during a time of illness.​
REFERENCES:   13.1 Nutrition in Health Care
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.1 – Describe the interrelationships between illness and malnutrition and explain how health professionals identify and treat patients at risk for nutrition problems.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

87. Explain the purpose of a nutrition screening and describe the types of information collected during the process.​

ANSWER:   To identify patients who are malnourished or at risk for malnutrition, a nutrition screening is conducted within 24 hours of a patient’s admission to a hospital or other extended-care facility. A screening may also be included in certain types of outpatient services and community health programs. The information collected in a nutrition screening varies according to the patient population, the type of care offered by the health care facility, and the patient’s medical problem. Often included are the admitting diagnosis, physical measurements and laboratory test results obtained during the admission process, relevant symptoms, and information about diet and health status provided by the patient or caregiver. Several screening tools that use different combinations of these variables are available for use. The screening should be sensitive enough to identify patients who require nutrition care but simple enough to be completed within 10 to 15 minutes.​
REFERENCES:   13.1 Nutrition in Health Care
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.1 – Describe the interrelationships between illness and malnutrition and explain how health professionals identify and treat patients at risk for nutrition problems.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

88. List and describe the steps in the nutrition care process.

ANSWER:   ​The four steps of the nutrition care process are nutrition assessment, nutrition diagnosis, nutrition intervention, and nutrition monitoring and evaluation. A nutrition assessment involves the collection and analysis of health-related data in order to identify specific nutrition problems and their underlying causes. The nutrition diagnosis identifies problems determined from the nutrition assessment and makes a diagnostic statement about each. These diagnoses are typically formatted as a PES statement, which identifies the problem, its cause, and associated signs and symptoms. After identifying nutrition problems and their associated diagnoses, the appropriate nutrition care can be planned and implemented by providing nutrition interventions. Finally, the effectiveness of the nutrition care plan must be evaluated periodically: the patient’s progress should be monitored closely, and updated assessment data or diagnoses may require adjustments in goals or outcome measures.
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

89. List three different methods for obtaining food intake data and describe the major uses, advantages, and limitations of each.​

ANSWER:   There are several methods designed to collect and monitor food intake among patients; three examples are the food frequency questionnaire, the 24-hour recall, and the food record. The food frequency questionnaire is a written survey of food consumption during a specific period of time, often a one-year period. It examines long-term intake, it does not affect the patient’s food choices, and it is inexpensive, but it relies on the patient’s memory for accuracy and is ineffective in evaluating short-term dietary changes. The 24-hour recall method is a guided interview in which the foods and beverages consumed in a 24-hour period are described in detail. It is a quick method of obtaining food information that does not affect the patient’s food choices, but it also relies on the patient’s memory and the skill of the interviewer to obtain accurate data. The food record is a written account of food consumed during a specified period, usually several consecutive days. It can be useful in controlling the patient’s food intake because foods are recorded as they are consumed. Alternatively, the food record can be time consuming and there is a high level of error when estimating portion sizes.​
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

90. Describe the major biochemical tests of protein status and briefly discuss their major advantages and disadvantages.​

ANSWER:   Biochemical data are obtained by analyzing blood and urine samples, which contain proteins, nutrients, and metabolites that reflect protein status. Serum protein levels can aid in the assessment of protein-energy status, but the levels may fluctuate. Because serum proteins are affected by so many factors, their values must be considered along with other data to evaluate health and nutrition status. Albumin is the most abundant serum protein, and its levels are routinely monitored in hospital patients to help gauge the severity of illness. Albumin levels increase slowly when malnutrition is treated, so it is not a sensitive indicator of effective treatment. Transferrin is an iron-transport protein, and its blood concentrations respond to iron status, PEM, and various illnesses. Additionally, blood concentrations of trans-thyretin and retinol-binding protein decrease rapidly during PEM and respond quickly to improved protein intakes. Thus, these proteins are more sensitive than albumin to short-term changes in protein status. C-reactive protein (CRP) levels rise rapidly in response to inflammation or infection and are often elevated in individuals with critical illness, heart disease, and certain cancers. Elevated CRP values may help to identify individuals at risk for malnutrition, as well as aid in the interpretation of other serum protein tests.​
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

 

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