Test Bank For Life Span Human Development 2nd Australian And New Zealand Edition by Sigelman

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Test Bank for Life Span Human Development 2nd Australian and New Zealand Edition by Sigelman

 

 

CHAPTER 1

UNDERSTANDING LIFE SPAN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Development can best be defined as:
a. systematic changes and continuities from ‘womb to tomb’.
b. unpredictable and unenduring events from ‘womb to tomb’.
c. physical changes from ‘womb to tomb’.
d. biological and psychological deterioration from ‘womb to tomb’.

 

ANS: A                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Easy      TOP: Defining development

 

  1. The fact that development often involves continuities speaks to the fact that over time, humans tend to:
a. remain the same. c. become less active.
b. become more intelligent. d. undergo orderly patterns of change.

 

ANS: A                    PTS: 1                                 DIF: Moderate         TOP: Defining development

 

  1. The three broad domains explored by developmental psychologists are:
a. motor, interpersonal, cognitive. c. personality, motor, learning.
b. physical, cognitive, psychosocial. d. interpersonal, maturational, learning.

 

ANS: B                    PTS: 1                                 DIF: Easy                 TOP: Defining development

 

  1. Albert, a developmental psychologist, conducts research on children’s emotional reactions to studying math in school. Albert is concerned with children’s _____ development.
a. cognitive c. physical
b. maturational d. psychosocial

 

ANS: D                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Moderate         TOP: Defining development

 

  1. Which is best categorised as being in the cognitive domain of development?
a. Physical maturation of the body c. Poor interpersonal skills
b. A changing personality d. Language acquisition

 

ANS: D                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Moderate         TOP: Defining development

 

  1. Which of the following does NOT belong on a list of key aspects of physical development?
a. Change in motor ability c. Change in short-term memory
b. Change in body organ efficiency d. Change in skin tone (e.g., wrinkling)

 

ANS: C                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Moderate         TOP: Defining development

 

  1. Traditionally, growth has been defined as:
a. physical changes that occur from conception to maturity.
b. the biological unfolding of genetic potential.
c. positive changes across the life span.
d. gains, changes, and losses at each stage of the life cycle.

 

ANS: A                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Moderate         TOP: Defining development

 

  1. ________ ageing involves the deterioration of an organism that eventually results in death.
a. Cognitive c. Behavioural
b. Psychosocial d. Biological

 

ANS: D                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Easy      TOP: Defining development

 

  1. Ageing is most accurately defined as involving _________ in the maturing organism.
a. only negative changes c. both negative and positive changes
b. only positive changes d. neither positive nor negative changes

 

ANS: C                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Moderate         TOP: Defining development

 

  1. A socially defined age group, with culture-specific assigned roles, privileges, and
    responsibilities is referred to as:
a. an age norm.
b. an age grade.
c. a social clock.
d. an ageism.

 

ANS: B                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Moderate         TOP: Conceptualising the life span

 

  1. The most diverse of all age groups in terms of physiological and psychological
    functioning are:
a. newborns. c. young adults.
b. children. d. elderly adults.

 

ANS: D                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Moderate         TOP: Conceptualising the life span

 

  1. Misunderstandings and generalisations towards an age group are known as:
a. age interpretations. c. social clock.
b. stereotypes. d. normalising.

 

ANS: B                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Difficult          TOP: Conceptualising the life span

 

 

  1. A rite of passage marks a transition from one ________ to another.
a. culture c. sex
b. gender d. status

 

ANS: D                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Easy      TOP: Conceptualising the life span

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT true of stereotypes?
a. They are always negative c. They can prevent access to services
b. They can lead to discrimination d. They can be directed to all age groups

 

ANS: A                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Difficult          TOP: Conceptualising the life span

 

  1. Manuel hoped to graduate from college by age 22, but finds himself enrolling for the first time at age 52. The anxiety Manuel feels because of this situation may be best explained by the concept of:
a. biological maturation. c. plasticity.
b. a social clock. d. historical change.

 

ANS: B                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Difficult          TOP: Conceptualising the life span

 

  1. In the Western context, by the seventeenth century, _________ came to be viewed as a distinct period of development.
a. childhood c. middle age
b. adolescence d. old age

 

ANS: A                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Moderate         TOP: Conceptualising the life span

 

  1. The term ‘emerging adulthood’ refers to individuals from about age:
a. 11 to 17. c. 29 to 37.
b. 18 to 29. d. 38 to 46.

 

ANS: B                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Moderate         TOP: Conceptualising the life span

 

  1. Which description best characterises individuals in the ‘emerging adulthood’ period of development?
a. Young people who are adolescents but not adults
b. Young people who are neither adolescents nor adults
c. Old people who are adults but not elderly
d. Old people who are neither adults nor elderly

 

ANS: B                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Difficult          TOP: Conceptualising the life span

 

  1. Which of the following best represents the way we now understand the distinct life stage of ‘middle age’?
a. A time of ‘crisis’
b. A time of hardly any psychological change
c. A time of peak cognitive functioning
d. A time of poor health

 

ANS: C                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Moderate         TOP: Conceptualising the life span

 

  1. The median age for first motherhood in Australia in 1971 was 25.4 years. By 2010, this had _________ to _______ years.
a. increased; 40.7 years c. decreased; 19.7 years
b. decreased; 22.7 years d. increased; 30.7 years

 

ANS: D                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Difficult          TOP: Conceptualising the life span

 

  1. The question of how biological and environmental forces impact development is referred to as the _____________ issue.
a. continuity–discontinuity c. nature–nurture
b. passive–active d. proximal–distal

 

ANS: C                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Framing the influence of nature and nurture

 

  1. Which best describes the relationship between maturation and genes?
a. Maturation is driven by a plan contained in the genes
b. Maturation is the nature side of development, and genes are the nurture side of
development
c. Maturation is the process by which genes learn
d. Genes and maturation are unrelated concepts

 

ANS: A                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Framing the influence of nature and nurture

 

  1. Which of the following represents a maturational process?
a. Being taught how to pay attention
b. Changing one’s violent ways as the result of spending time in prison
c. Learning to tie your shoes
d. The development of pubic hair during puberty

 

ANS: D                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Difficult             TOP: Framing the influence of nature and nurture

 

  1. The ‘nurture’ side of the nature–nurture debate emphasises change in response to:
a. biological growth. c. learning processes.
b. genetic factors. d. environment.

 

ANS: D                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Framing the influence of nature and nurture

 

  1. Which of the following was NOT associated with successful ageing by the results of the
    Nun Study?
a. A healthy lifestyle c. Complex vocabulary
b. Expression of positive emotions d. Expression of negative emotions

 

ANS: D                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Framing the influence of nature and nurture

 

  1. If you have been told that men commit more violent crimes than women, you can most

accurately conclude that:

a. genes alone cause aggression.
b. women elicit violent behaviour in men.
c. gender roles alone cause aggression.
d. a difference in the level of a behaviour exists, but the cause may involve hereditary and/or environmental factors.

 

ANS: D                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Framing the influence of nature and nurture

 

  1. The fact that sex differences in aggression are greatest in patrilineal cultures suggests that:
a. genes for aggression most likely come from fathers.
b. cultural standards play a significant role in determining aggression.
c. boys are naturally more aggressive than girls.
d. primitive societies were likely less aggressive than modern societies.

 

ANS: B                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Framing the influence of nature and nurture

 

  1. Urie Bronfenbrenner is best associated with the ___________ model of development.
a. bioecological c. psychodynamic
b. humanistic d. cognitive

 

ANS: A                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Easy                    TOP: Framing the influence of nature and nurture

 

  1. The abusive behaviour that Crosby perpetrated on his son has definitely negatively impacted his son’s development. According to the bioecological model, this impact is best explained by events occurring in the child’s:
a. exosystem. c. microsystem.
b. mesosystem. d. macrosystem.

 

ANS: C                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Difficult             TOP: Framing the influence of nature and nurture

 

 

 

 

  1. The mesosystem is best described as:
a. a linkage of indirect social settings. c. a linkage between two microsystems.
b. a larger cultural context. d. an immediate social environment.

 

ANS: C                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Easy                    TOP: Framing the influence of nature and nurture

 

  1. The government’s plan to increase tax rates results in Frank losing his house mortgage; consequently, he needs to move to a smaller home. Frank’s children will now have to share the same bedroom. According to Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological theory, this is an example of how events in the ___________ can affect child development.
a. exosystem c. microsystem
b. macrosystem d. chronosystem

 

ANS: A                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Difficult             TOP: Framing the influence of nature and nurture

 

  1. The culture in which a child is raised is best described as a:
a. microsystem. c. chronosystem.
b. macrosystem. d. mesosystem.

 

ANS: B                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Framing the influence of nature and nurture

 

  1. The fact that specific historical events (e.g., living during an economic crisis) can influence development is best explained by the influence of the:
a. mesosystem. c. microsystem.
b. exosystem. d. chronosystem.

 

ANS: D                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Framing the influence of nature and nurture

 

  1. According to the bioecological model, researchers need to:
a. focus mainly on unconscious factors.
b. conduct research in the laboratory and not in ‘real-life’ settings.
c. separate the contributions of nature and nurture.
d. consider the relationship between the person, context, time, and the process through which a person interacts with his or her environment.

 

ANS: D                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Framing the influence of nature and nurture

 

  1. Scientists ultimately strive to achieve __________ after completing their first goal of _____________.
a. explanation; description c. prediction; optimisation
b. description; explanation d. optimisation; prediction

 

ANS: A                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Goals of study

 

  1. The title of Dr Doublemint’s latest bestseller is Why Identical Twins Differ from Each
    Other!
    Given this title, it is safe to assume that Dr Doublemint’s primary interest is in
    the _________ goal of psychology.
a. prediction c. explanation
b. optimisation d. description

 

ANS: C                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Difficult             TOP: Goals of study

 

  1. Vue is a developmental psychologist who is concerned with helping adolescents learn to deal constructively with divorce. Her work focuses primarily on which goal of developmental
    psychology?
a. Prediction c. Explanation
b. Optimisation d. Description

 

ANS: B                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Goals of study

 

  1. When making a decision on whether or not to follow the latest diet trend, Jillian focuses on what the best scientific research has to say about the topic of nutrition. This indicates that
    Jillian believes in engaging in ___________ practice.
a. speculative c. evidence-based
b. ethnocentric d. emerging

 

ANS: C                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Goals of study

 

  1. In the nineteenth century, scholars began to systematically record the growth and development of their own children. The published form of the observations were known as:
a. quasi experiments. c. meta-analyses.
b. time of measurement papers. d. baby biographies.

 

ANS: D                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Moderate         TOP: Early beginnings

 

  1. ___________ is often cited as the most influential of the baby biographers.
a. G. Stanley Hall
b. Charles Darwin
c. Sigmund Freud
d. Jean Piaget

 

ANS: B                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Moderate         TOP: Early beginnings

 

  1. Who is most often cited as the founder of developmental psychology?
a. G. Stanley Hall
b. Charles Darwin
c. Sigmund Freud
d. Jean Piaget

 

ANS: A                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Moderate         TOP: Early beginnings

 

 

 

 

  1. In his book Adolescence (1904), G. Stanley Hall put forward the notion that adolescence is a period of __________ and ___________.
a. calm and reflection. c. calm and stress.
b. storm and reflection. d. storm and stress.

 

ANS: D                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Early beginnings

 

  1. Francine has just purchased a copy of G. Stanley Hall’s 1922 book Senescence for herself. This indicates that she is likely very interested in the topic of:
a. mental illness. c. biology.
b. language. d. old age.

 

ANS: D                       PTS: 1             DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Early beginnings

 

  1. Research on the effects of digital media on adolescents indicates that media use can be:
a. a vehicle for strengthening relationships.
b. negatively associated with feeling good about one’s social acceptance
c. isolating.
d. all of the above.

 

ANS: D                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: The modern life span perspective

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT an assumption of the life span perspective?
a. Development is shaped by historical context
b. Development can take multiple directions
c. Development is independent of culture
d. Understanding development requires multiple disciplines

 

ANS: C                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: The modern life span perspective

 

  1. Sixty-year-old Kwan has led a life filled with ups (a prosperous career) and downs (a battle with breast cancer) and continues to maintain the capacity to change in response to such experiences. A life span developmental psychologist would likely say that Kwan has:
a. a flawed social clock. c. minimal longevity.
b. great plasticity. d. maturational grief.

 

ANS: B                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Difficult             TOP: The modern life span perspective

 

  1. Which best exemplifies the concept of neuroplasticity?
a. The ability to use your arm to draw after the arm was severely broken
b. The development of thicker heart muscles in old age after beginning an aerobic exercise class
c. The production of large amounts of testosterone during puberty
d. The formation of new brain cell connections as the result of reading a book

 

 

 

ANS: D                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Moderate         TOP: The modern life span perspective

 

  1. Physical exercise and mental stimulation can result in the development of new neurons
    in the hippocampus of the brain of:
a. adolescents but not adults.
b. adults.
c. every age group.
d. toddlers.

 

ANS: C                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Easy                    TOP: The modern life span perspective

 

  1. According to the life span perspective, development is:
a. singularly influenced and involves a single discipline.
b. multiply influenced and involves a single discipline.
c. singularly influenced and involves multiple disciplines.
d. multiply influenced and involves multiple disciplines.

 

ANS: D                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Easy        TOP: The modern life span perspective

 

  1. Generating ideas and testing them by making observations is the process of:
a. the scientific method. c. creating reports.
b. sampling. d. generating predictions.

 

ANS: A                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Easy                    TOP: The scientific method

 

  1. The key element of the scientific method is the belief that _________ should determine
    the merits of an idea.
a. systematic observation c. debate
b. logic d. intuition

 

ANS: A                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: The scientific method

 

  1. Dr Wells has proposed that the centre of the Earth consists of large open areas that contain air and water and may be inhabited by some life form. This proposition is best described as a:
a. fact. c. theory.
b. hypothesis. d. correlation.

 

ANS: C                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Difficult             TOP: The scientific method

 

  1. After observing the interaction between rival street gangs, Jet predicts that fighting between the gangs would decrease significantly if the existing ‘colours’ (clothing) of the two gangs (one black and one red) were changed to pink and yellow. This prediction is most accurately thought of as a:
a. fact. c. theory.
b. hypothesis. d. correlation.

 

ANS: B                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: The scientific method

 

  1. Which of the following does NOT describe the characteristics of a good theory?
a. Speculative c. Internally consistent
b. Supported by data d. Falsifiable

 

ANS: A                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Easy                    TOP: The scientific method

 

  1. Reba wants to examine the TV-viewing habits of 18- to 25-year-old males in New Zealand. As it is quite impossible to include all males of this age group in her study, she selects a smaller group of 18- to 25-year-old males to survey. The males included in her study are called a(n):
a. population. c. control group.
b. sample. d. age grade.

 

ANS: B                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Sample selection

 

  1. Trojan interviews a group of 50 teen mothers to determine what sort of knowledge they hold regarding use of contraceptives prior to the time they became pregnant. He then writes an
    article where he speaks in broad terms about what teen mothers know about the use of
    contraceptives prior to becoming pregnant. In this study, the group of 50 teen mothers is called the __________, while all teen mothers are collectively called the __________.
a. control group; population c. sample; control group
b. population; sample d. sample; population

 

ANS: D                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Moderate         TOP: Sample selection

 

  1. The major goal behind random sampling is to ensure that the:
a. data is falsifiable.
b. sample is representative of the population.
c. project will not be costly.
d. population is large.

 

ANS: B                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Sample selection

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a major shortcoming of self-reports?
a. Standardising the self-report measure results in difficulty in comparing the
responses of two different individuals who have completed the self-report
b. Respondents may give socially desirable answers so the researchers think more positively of them
c. They are difficult to use with very young children
d. Language abilities between people of different ages can make interpretation of results difficult

 

ANS: A                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Difficult             TOP: Reporting

 

  1. Dr Hu is interested in children’s affective responses to studying science. She spends many hours sitting quietly and observing in elementary school classrooms during science instruction, and makes careful notes on all she observes. While observing, Dr Hu is careful not to interact with the children or to interfere with their behaviour in any way. This form of data collection is known as:
a. self-report investigation. c. structured observation.
b. naturalistic observation. d. case study analysis.

 

ANS: B                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Reporting

 

  1. The greatest advantage of the naturalistic observation method is that it:
a. can tell us what people do in everyday life.
b. is easily conducted in a laboratory setting.
c. readily leads to the discovery of cause-effect relationships.
d. untangles age effects from cohort effects.

 

ANS: A                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Behavioural observations

 

  1. Which of the following is true of ALL structured observations?
a. The data is analysed using inferential statistics
b. They take place outside of the laboratory setting
c. They measure some verbal response
d. The researcher creates a special condition to elicit a behaviour

 

ANS: D                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Behavioural observations

 

  1. Dr Foreman is very interested in infants’ reactions to different music styles. In order to study the phenomena, he built a special lab crib containing audio speakers. He then individually brings six-month-old babies into the lab, places them in the crib, plays rap music, and watches each baby’s reactions. Given this description, Dr Foreman appears to be using the __________ technique.
a. self-report investigation c. structured observation
b. naturalistic observation d. case study analysis

 

ANS: C                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Difficult             TOP: Behavioural observations

 

  1. Which of the following represents a physiological measure of anger?
a. Survey responses c. Non-verbal behaviour
b. Skin conductance d. Aggressive language

 

ANS: B                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Easy        TOP: Physiological measurements

 

 

 

 

  1. An fMRI uses magnetic forces to measure ___________ in an active area of the brain.
a. blood flow c. dendritic expansion
b. neurotransmitter levels d. hormone output

 

ANS: A                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Physiological measurements

 

  1. The main limitation of physiological measures is that:
a. responses to such measures are easy to fake.
b. they cannot be used to assess emotional reactions.
c. it is not always clear what is being assessed.
d. they cannot be used to study infants.

 

ANS: C                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Physiological measurements

 

  1. Which type of study always involves an in-depth examination of one specific individual or a very small number of individuals?
a. Cross-sectional study c. Longitudinal study
b. Quasi experimental study d. Case study

 

ANS: D                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Easy        TOP: Case study

 

  1. The main limitation of the case study method is that:
a. results may not generalise to others.
b. inferential statistics must be used in its analysis.
c. it is ‘too artificial’, as it is typically conducted in the laboratory.
d. it does not provide any detail about an individual’s behaviour.

 

ANS: A                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Case study

 

  1. In a psychological experiment, a researcher always:
a. manipulates some aspect of the environment and then measures the effect on
behaviour.
b. uses a control group.
c. randomly assigns participants to a minimum of three different levels of the
independent variable.
d. tests the entire population.

 

ANS: A                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Easy                    TOP: The experimental method

 

  1. Dr Woods is interested in the consequences of fast food intake on memory. He identifies a group of undergraduates to serve as research participants. Then he randomly assigns them to one of three conditions. In condition 1, the students eat no fast food for a week. In condition 2, students eat fast food once each day for one week. Those students assigned to condition 3 eat fast food twice each day for one week. At the end of the week, Dr Woods measures the students’ memory recall for a list of 20 words. Given this description, Dr Woods appears to be using a(n) __________ research technique.
a. biographical c. meta-analysis
b. experimental d. correlational

 

ANS: B                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: The experimental method

 

  1. A true experiment involves the __________ of the independent variable.
a. manipulation c. elimination
b. measurement d. correlation

 

ANS: A                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Easy                    TOP: The experimental method

 

  1. A psychologist measures the IQs of 20 students who ingested a ‘smart pill’ and 20 students who ingested a sugar pill, in order to determine if the pill had an effect on intelligence. To
    ensure peak performance, she tests all of the students on Wednesdays. In this experiment,
    the independent variable is the:
a. day of the week. c. IQ score.
b. pill type. d. sex of the researcher.

 

ANS: B                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Difficult             TOP: The experimental method

 

  1. In the Friedrich and Stein study on the influence of television on aggression, the type of television show watched (aggressive, prosocial, or neutral) represented the _________
    variable in the experiment.
a. extraneous c. independent
b. dependent d. confounding

 

ANS: C                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: The experimental method

 

  1. A study is done examining whether rewarding children for good behaviour increases the amount of time students spend studying. In this study, the amount of time spent studying would be the __________ variable.
a. control c. confounding
b. dependent d. independent

 

ANS: B                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Moderate         TOP: The experimental method

 

  1. In the Friedrich and Stein study on the influence of television on aggression, the observed level of aggression the children displayed in the nursery school represented the _________ variable in the experiment.
a. extraneous c. independent
b. dependent d. confounding

 

ANS: B                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: The experimental method

 

  1. Random assignment helps ensure:
a. cohort effects.
b. differences exist between treatment groups prior to the treatment.
c. age effects.
d. similarity of treatment groups prior to the treatment.

 

ANS: D                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: The experimental method

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a hallmark of a true experiment?
a. Control over responses on the dependent measure
b. Manipulation of an independent variable
c. Control over extraneous variables
d. Random assignment of participants to experimental conditions

 

ANS: A                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: The experimental method

 

  1. Emma wants to know whether there is a cause-effect relationship between the amount of time parents spend reading to their children and their children’s attitudes toward reading. What type of research design should Emma use?
a. Cross-sectional c. Longitudinal
b. Experimental d. Naturalistic observation

 

ANS: B                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: The experimental method

 

  1. What point was Urie Bronfenbrenner attempting to make when he said that developmental psychology had become ‘the science of the strange behaviour of children in strange situations with strange adults’?
a. Modern developmental psychology is too focused on laboratory research
b. Modern developmental psychology pays too much attention to exceptional
children and not enough to normal children
c. Modern developmental psychology is too worried about the impact of early
childhood abuse by parents
d. Modern developmental psychology conducts far too few experiments

 

ANS: A                    PTS: 1                                DIF: Difficult          TOP: The experimental method

 

  1. The key distinction between a true experiment and a quasi experiment is that in
    quasi experiments:
a. research is conducted in the ‘real world’, not in the laboratory.
b. individuals are not randomly assigned to different treatments.
c. no statistical analysis is conducted.
d. there is always a control group.

 

 

 

ANS: B                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: The experimental method

 

  1. Dr Rambo wants to determine whether there are sex differences in reaction to televised violence. He asks male and female participants to watch a 15-minute video clip of a violent program and then complete a rating scale. Rambo’s research project is best classified as a(n):
a. true experiment. c. naturalist observation.
b. quasi experiment. d. interview.

 

ANS: B                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Difficult             TOP: The experimental method

 

  1. In the field of developmental psychology, the main reason that the correlational method is used more often than experimental methods is because:
a. correlations are more effective at addressing the issue of cause.
b. of ethical concerns.
c. correlational research is significantly more scientifically rigorous.
d. of the availability of computers.

 

ANS: B                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: The correlational method

 

  1. Dr Fill wants to study the relationship between drug addiction and being the victim of child abuse. As Dr Fill is an ethical researcher, he would have to conduct a(n) _________ study.
a. experimental c. laboratory
b. correlational d. cross-sectional

 

ANS: B                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Difficult             TOP: The correlational method

 

  1. Tom finds a correlation of +.81 between number of years in school and salary of first job. This would mean that:
a. the more education one has, the lower his or her starting salary is likely to be.
b. the more education one has, the higher his or her starting salary is likely to be.
c. education level determines whether or not someone will get a job after graduation.
d. increases in education level cause employers to offer higher salaries.

 

ANS: B                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Difficult             TOP: The correlational method

 

  1. If the correlation between listening to country music and passing general psychology is found to be -.8, then one could rightly conclude that __________ country music listeners pass
    the class.
a. all c. few
b. most d. no

 

ANS: C                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: The correlational method

 

  1. Smoking cigarettes and having lung cancer are highly correlated events, and people often logically conclude that smoking must cause the cancer. It is hypothetically possible, however, that having lung cancer causes one to crave nicotine and thus it leads to smoking. This
    example illustrates the issue of:
a. the third variable. c. time of measurement effects.
b. a reversed cause-effect relationship. d. plasticity.

 

ANS: B                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Difficult             TOP: The correlational method

 

  1. Research has shown a positive correlation between the amount of time children spend watching television and their level of aggression. It is possible that the actual cause of this
    relationship is harsh parents who act aggressively toward children (teaching them to be
    aggressive) and whose violence leads children to avoid them at all costs (including by
    watching television). This example illustrates the issue of:
a. the third variable. c. time of measurement effects.
b. a reversed cause-effect relationship. d. plasticity.

 

ANS: A                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: The correlational method

 

  1. In order to study the effects of television on children’s behaviour, Dr Squarepants synthesises the results from 150 studies looking at the influence of cartoons on children’s moral
    development. Given this description, Dr Squarepants appears to be using the ___________
    research technique.
a. naturalistic observation c. structured observation
b. meta-analysis d. sequential design

 

ANS: B                       PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: The correlational method

 

  1. Which of the following best describes the basic premise of the cross-sectional research design?
a. Assess different age groups (e.g., 5-, 10-, 15-year-olds) at same time (e.g., during same week)
b. Assess same age group (e.g., only 5-year-olds) at same time (e.g., during same week)
c. Assess different age groups (e.g., 5-, 10-, 15-year-olds) at different times (e.g., 5-year-olds in 2003, 10-year-olds in 2004, and 15-year-olds in 2005)
d. Assess same group (e.g., 5-year-olds) at different times (e.g., first test when kids are 5, then when they are 10, and finally when they turn 15)

 

ANS: A                         PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate           TOP: Cross-sectional designs

 

  1. For her Honours, Lisa wants to study children’s moral reasoning. During the first semester, she interviews 20 individuals in each of the following high school grades: grade three, six, nine, twelve, and first year undergraduates. She asks each participant to solve a practical
    moral dilemma. What sort of research design is Lisa using?
a. Cross-sectional c. Longitudinal
b. Experimental d. Sequential

 

ANS: A                           PTS: 1                         DIF: Difficult          TOP: Cross-sectional designs

 

  1. The fact that individuals who were born in 1980 will develop differently than individuals born in 1880 is best explained using the concept of ____________ effects.
a. age c. cohort
b. microsystem d. social clock

 

ANS: C                       PTS: 1             DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Cross-sectional designs

 

  1. While I am the research design which is the fastest to conduct, one big disadvantage I have is that I do not generate information about the development of individuals. Which research method am I?
a. Cross-cultural c. Longitudinal
b. Cross-sectional d. Sequential

 

ANS: B                       PTS: 1             DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Cross-sectional designs

 

  1. Longitudinal design traces changes in individuals as they:
a. behave unexpectedly c. age.
b. suffer due to external stimuli d. face new experiences.

 

ANS: C                       PTS: 1             DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Longitudinal designs

 

  1. The impact on research findings produced by historical events occurring at the moment the data were collected are referred to as ___________ effects.
a. meta-analysis c. age
b. placebo d. time of measurement

 

ANS: D                       PTS: 1             DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Longitudinal designs

 

  1. In which type of study are the effects of age and the effects of time of measurement
    confounded with one another?
a. Correlational c. Longitudinal
b. Cross-sectional d. Sequential

 

ANS: C                       PTS: 1             DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Longitudinal designs

 

  1. Sol is investigating the effects of divorce on children’s self-esteem. His initial sample consists of a group of 10 five-year-olds, which he plans to follow over a period of at least 15 years. When this group of children reaches age 15, Sol adds a second group of five-year-olds to his study, and plans to follow them for another 15 years. Sol’s overall plan is best classified as a ___________ research design.
a. correlational c. longitudinal
b. cross-sectional d. sequential

 

ANS: D                       PTS: 1             DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Sequential designs: The best of both worlds

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of sequential designs?
a. They confound the effects of age, cohort and time of measurement.
b. They are complex.
c. They are expensive.
d. They can pull apart the effects of age, cohort and time of measurement.

 

ANS: A                       PTS: 1             DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Sequential designs: The best of both worlds

 

  1. While considering a new study, Stuart is concerned that the stimulus he is using might frighten the infants he is testing. This indicates that Stuart is focusing on:
a. meta-analysis. c. a sequential design.
b. a correlational design. d. research ethics.

 

ANS: D                       PTS: 1             DIF: Easy                    TOP: What special challenges do developmental scientists face?

 

  1. The fact that a study participant needs to be aware of what they may experience while in a research study illustrates the concept of:
a. informed consent. c. protection from harm.
b. debriefing. d. confidentiality.

 

ANS: A                       PTS: 1             DIF: Moderate                        TOP: What special challenges do developmental scientists face?

 

  1. After Mr Flay has finished filling out a survey that he thought was on cooking skills, he is told that the actual purpose of the survey was to assess his intelligence. This would represent the concept of:
a. informed consent. c. protection from harm.
b. debriefing. d. confidentiality.

 

ANS: B                         PTS: 1                           DIF: Moderate         TOP: What special challenges do developmental scientists face?

 

  1. In a study in which participants are tricked into believing that they caused harm to someone else, a researcher is obligated to make sure that the participants are told about the true nature of the study before they leave, and also must make sure that the participants do not feel bad about their behaviour. These two researcher obligations are referred to as:
a. informed consent and debriefing.
b. debriefing and protection from harm.
c. protection from harm and confidentiality.
d. confidentiality and informed consent.

 

ANS: B                         PTS: 1                           DIF: Moderate         TOP: What special challenges do developmental scientists face?

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Biological ageing is defined as the deterioration of organisms that leads inevitably to their death.

 

ANS: T                        PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Defining development

 

  1. Steven assumes that he will become a father by the age of 28 because that’s when his friends expect to have children. This is an example of an age norm.

 

ANS: T                        PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Conceptualising the life span

 

  1. It has been suggested that adolescents in Western society are taking longer and longer to become adults.

 

ANS: T                        PTS: 1                         DIF: Easy                    TOP: Conceptualising the life span

 

  1. Maturation refers to the gains that occur across the life span as the result of experiences.

 

ANS: F                       PTS: 1                           DIF: Moderate            TOP: Framing the influence of nature and nurture

 

  1. Charles Darwin formulated an ecological model to describe how the environment is organised and how it affects child development.

 

ANS: F                       PTS: 1                           DIF: Moderate            TOP: Framing the influence of nature and nurture

 

  1. Plasticity involves the capacity to change in response to both positive and negative events.

 

ANS: T                        PTS: 1                         DIF: Easy                    TOP: The modern life span perspective

 

  1. A case study typically involves collecting data on several individuals in order to compare them.

 

ANS: F                        PTS: 1                         DIF: Easy                    TOP: The scientific method

 

  1. A random sample is always smaller than the population from which it is drawn.

 

ANS: T                        PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Sample selection

 

  1. In a structured observation, a researcher creates a special condition designed to elicit some behaviour of interest.

 

ANS: T                       PTS: 1                           DIF: Moderate            TOP: Behavioural observations

 

  1. The greatest advantage of the experimental method is the ability to establish the fact that one thing causes another.

 

ANS: T                        PTS: 1                         DIF: Moderate                        TOP: The experimental method

 

  1. Random assignment of participants occurs in all quasi experimental designs.

 

ANS: F                        PTS: 1             DIF: Moderate                        TOP: The experimental method

 

  1. A correlation of +.2 indicates a stronger relationship between two variables than would a correlation of -.9.

 

ANS: F                        PTS: 1             DIF: Difficult             TOP: The correlational method

 

  1. Cohort effects concern the impact of being born in one particular historical context rather than another.

 

ANS: T                        PTS: 1             DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Cross-sectional designs

 

  1. Cross-sectional studies are better suited than longitudinal studies to the examination of individual differences.

 

ANS: F                        PTS: 1             DIF: Moderate                        TOP: Cross-sectional designs

 

  1. In a sequential design, time of measurement is confounded with cohort effects.

 

ANS: F                    PTS: 1                DIF: Moderate               TOP: Sequential designs: The best of both worlds

 

COMPLETION

 

  1. Development is defined as the systematic changes that take place between _________ and death.

 

ANS: conception                                     PTS: 1

 

DIF: Moderate                                          TOP: Defining development

 

  1. The status and privileges assigned to individuals of a specific age defines the concept of an age _________.

 

ANS: grade                                              PTS: 1

 

DIF: Moderate                                          TOP: Conceptualising the life span

 

  1. A _________ of passage is a ritual marking the transition from one age status to another.

 

ANS: rite                                                  PTS: 1

 

DIF: Easy                                                 TOP: Conceptualising the life span

 

  1. Genetically influenced __________ processes guide all of us through many of the same developmental changes at about the same points in our lives.

 

ANS: maturational                                   PTS: 1

 

DIF: Moderate                                          TOP: Framing the influence of nature and nurture

 

  1. __________ is defined as the process through which experience brings about relatively permanent changes in actions, thoughts, or feelings.

 

ANS: Learning                                         PTS: 1

 

DIF: Moderate                                          TOP: Framing the influence of nature and nurture

 

  1. According to Bronfenbrenner, a local law passed that requires all children to attend school all year round would be an example of the __________ environmental system.

 

ANS: exosystem                                      PTS: 1

 

DIF: Difficult                                           TOP: Framing the influence of nature and nurture

 

  1. A set of concepts and propositions intended to describe and explain some aspect of experience is a __________.

 

ANS: theory                                             PTS: 1

 

DIF: Moderate                                          TOP: The scientific method

 

  1. The overall group from which a sample is drawn is called the _________.

 

ANS: population                                      PTS: 1

 

DIF: Moderate                                          TOP: Sample selection

 

  1. In a _________ observation study, the researcher creates a special condition designed to elicit the behaviour of interest.

 

ANS: structured                                       PTS: 1

 

DIF: Moderate                                          TOP: Behavioural observations

 

 

  1. The findings of __________ experiments do not always hold true in the real world.

 

ANS: laboratory                                       PTS: 1

 

DIF: Moderate                                          TOP: The experimental method

 

  1. The numeric expression r = +.84 represents a _________ coefficient.

 

ANS: correlation                                      PTS: 1

 

DIF: Moderate                                          TOP: The correlational method

 

  1. _________ effects concern the impact of being born as a member of a particular generation in history.

 

ANS: Cohort                                            PTS: 1

 

DIF: Moderate                                          TOP: Cross-sectional designs

 

  1. In a _________ design, a single cohort group is assessed repeatedly over time.

 

ANS: longitudinal                                    PTS: 1

 

DIF: Moderate                                          TOP: Longitudinal designs

 

  1. A _________ design combines elements of both longitudinal and cross-sectional designs.

 

ANS: sequential                                       PTS: 1

 

DIF: Moderate                                        TOP: Sequential designs: The best of both worlds

 

  1. The belief that one’s own group and its culture are superior is referred to as _________.

 

ANS: ethnocentrism                                PTS: 1

 

DIF: Difficult                                           TOP: What special challenges do developmental scientists face?

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Define ‘age norms’. Then discuss and give three examples of age norms in our society.

 

ANS: Answers may vary.                        PTS: 1

 

TOP: Conceptualising the life span

 

 

 

 

  1. Define the nature–nurture issue and discuss the differences between the two perspectives.

 

ANS: Answers may vary.                        PTS: 1

 

TOP: Framing the influence of nature and nurture

 

  1. What are some of the major differences between the experimental method and the
    correlational method?

 

ANS: Answers may vary.                        PTS: 1

 

TOP: The scientific method

 

  1. You have been asked to conduct an experiment on whether a pill affects memory
    development. Please describe your experiment by identifying the independent and dependent variable(s) you would select. Discuss how the variable(s) would be manipulated.

 

ANS: Answers may vary.                        PTS: 1

 

TOP: The experimental method

 

  1. Discuss the ethical concerns a researcher must consider before they conduct a study using humans.

 

ANS: Answers may vary.                        PTS: 1

 

TOP: What special challenges do developmental scientists face?

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