Test Bank For Intimate Relationships Marriages And Families 9th Edition by Nancy Stinnett





Intimate Relationships Marriages And Families 9th Edition by Nancy Stinnett




Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

1. Which of these is not considered a family by the U.S. Census Bureau definition?

A. one-parent family


B. gay or lesbian family


C. cohabiting couple


D. polygamous family


2. Which of these is not considered a family by the definition used in this textbook?

A. gay or lesbian family


B. college roommates


C. polygamous family


D. cohabiting couple


E. grandparent-headed household


3. A __________ is defined as the family into which one is born and in which one is reared.

A. nuclear family


B. family of origin


C. cohabiting family


D. primary family


E. matriarchal family


4. Which of the following is used to refer to the family you establish when you have your own children?

A. family of origin


B. nuclear family


C. family of procreation


D. patriarchal family


5. A __________ consists of a father, mother, and their children.

A. nuclear family


B. family of origin


C. family of procreation


D. patriarchal family


E. natural family


6. According to researchers, a(n) __________ is formed when a widowed or divorced person, with or without children, marries another person who may or may not have been married before and who may or may not have children.

A. broken family


B. family of origin


C. binuclear family


D. extended family


E. blended family


7. According to your text, which of the following terms could also be used to refer to a stepfamily?

A. extended family


B. binuclear family


C. blended family


D. family of procreation


8. According to your text, a(n) __________ consists of a parent, possibly a mate, and any children of the parent and other relatives who might live in the household or nearby.

A. nuclear family


B. extended family


C. family of origin


D. binuclear family


E. blended family


9. A __________ is defined as one in which the man has more than one wife.

A. binuclear family


B. polygynous family


C. matriarchal family


D. polyandrous family


E. patriarchal family


10. Since 1970 families have become more concerned with meeting the _____ needs of family members.

A. economic


B. emotional


C. practical


D. instrumental


11. One of the most important changes in the family has been a shift in emphasis
from marriage for __________ to marriage for __________.

A. economic security; having children


B. economic security; love, companionship, and satisfaction of emotional need


C. having children; love, companionship, and satisfaction of emotional need


D. love, companionship, and emotional need; economic security


12. The traditional purpose of the family was to meet the ______ needs of family members.

A. expressive


B. patriarchal


C. industrial


D. physical


13. A patriarchal family is defined as one in which _________.

A. a man has more than one wife


B. a married couple lives with their own biological children


C. an original family is divided into two families by divorce


D. the father has authority over all other family members


14. The 1960s marked a point at which families began to shift from ______ to _____.

A. matriarchy to patriarchy


B. democracy to patriarchy


C. patriarchy to democracy


D. patriarchal to matriarchal


15. According to your text, the feminist movement of the 1960s was a major cause of _______.

A. the rise of matriarchy


B. a shift to a more traditional view of the family


C. the child study movement


D. families becoming more egalitarian


16. The marriage rate is defined as the number of people who marry

A. during the preceding 12 months per 10,000 population.


B. during the preceding 12 months per 1,000 population.


C. for the first time during the preceding 12 months per 10,000 population


D. for the first time during the preceding 12 months per 1,000 population


17. According to the U.S. Census, today’s marriage rate is approximately _____.

A. 4 per 1000


B. 6 per 1000


C. 7 per 1000


D. 10 per 1000


18. According to the U.S. Census, the current marriage rate is ______ the rate right after World War II.

A. lower than


B. the same as


C. more than


19. According to the U.S. Census, at the beginning of the twentieth century, the median age at first marriage started a(n) _____ that ended in the _______.

A. increase; mid-1950s.


B. decline; mid-1950s.


C. increase; year 2000.


D. decline; year 2000.


20. The median age in 2006 for first marriage was ________ that of the 1980s.

A. less than


B. about the same as


C. higher than


21. The change in the age at which most people are marrying for the first time is not associated with:

A. longer periods of school enrollment


B. increased acceptance of non-marital cohabitation


C. negative attitudes about marriage


D. more career options for women


22. What is one major consequence of waiting until one’s mid to late 20s to get married, according to research findings?

A. fewer marriage partners will be available


B. marriages will tend to last longer


C. families will be smaller


D. divorce will be more common


23. According to national statistics, overall fertility rates have been _________ over the last 100 years.

A. rising


B. staying about the same


C. declining


24. What was the average family size in 2007, according to the U.S. Census?

A. 2.0


B. 2.6


C. 3.7


D. 4.5


25. Which of the following is not indicated by research to be one of the reasons for the decline in family size?

A. interracial marriages


B. availability of contraception


C. economic conditions


D. higher divorce rate


26. The fertility rate is highest among:

A. African Americans


B. Hispanic Americans


C. Asian Americans


D. Native Americans


27. Data from the U.S. Census Bureau indicate that most employed mothers have ________ at home.

A. no children


B. young children (under age 6)


C. older children (between 6 and 17)


28. According to the U.S. Census, what percent of mothers who have children under age 6 are employed outside the home?

A. 40


B. 50


C. 60


D. 70


29. According to the text, _______ is the major reason for mothers entering the workforce.

A. financial need


B. personal fulfillment


C. increase in employment opportunities


D. increase in educational attainment


30. According to the text, women’s increasing employment outside the home has resulted in _____.

A. a larger work load for women


B. a more equal sharing of household duties


C. less time for self-fulfillment


D. unhappier husbands


31. In the last 30 years, the number of one-parent families has _______.

A. decreased slightly


B. decreased significantly


C. increased slightly


D. increased significantly


32. Which ethnic group has the highest number of children living in one-parent families?

A. non-Hispanic White


B. Hispanic


C. non-Hispanic Black


D. Asian American


33. According to the text, children in cohabiting families are ___________.

A. generally younger than children of married parents


B. at higher risk for abuse


C. overall happier than children of divorced parents


D. better off financially than children whose parents are married


34. Which of the following statements is TRUE about cohabiting couples, according to a recent review of research?

A. Only about ¼ of cohabiting couples have children.


B. Most cohabiting couples go on to get married.


C. Cohabiting couples are more likely to have good marriages.


D. Cohabiting couples break up more often than married couples.


35. Same-sex couples who want long-term, committed, and legally recognized relationships have which choice(s)?

A. civil union


B. same-sex marriage (in some states)


C. domestic partnership


D. A, B, and C


E. A and B only


36. According to the text, children in gay or lesbian families ________.

A. tend to be confused sexually


B. are rare


C. are at higher risk for abuse


D. may come from previous heterosexual relationships


37. About _____ children in households headed by grandparents.

A. 6 million


B. 4 million


C. 1 million


D. ½ million


38. Research has indicated that possible reasons for the increase in the number of grandparent-maintained household include all of the following EXCEPT ______.

A. higher rates of teen pregnancy


B. alcohol and/or drug use by parents


C. incarceration of parents


D. lack of education


39. According to the Census Bureau, life expectancy for men has increased from ______ in 1970 to _____ now.

A. 66; 72


B. 67; 75


C. 70; 75


D. 77; 80


40. According to the Census Bureau, life expectancy for women has increased from ______ in 1970 to _____ now.

A. 68; 72


B. 70; 75


C. 70; 78


D. 75; 80


41. According to the text, families may ____________ because of changes in how long people are living.

A. become smaller


B. have more responsibilities for elder care


C. experience a higher standard of living


D. see an increase in the divorce rate


42. According to the U.S. Census, the divorce rate in this country is _________.

A. increasing slightly


B. increasing significantly


C. decreasing slightly


D. decreasing significantly


43. At the present rate, researchers predict that about __________ of new marriages are likely to end in divorce.

A. 10-20%


B. 20-30%


C. 30-40%


D. 40-50%


44. According to the U.S. Census, by age 40, about ______ of people have been married two or more times.

A. 10%


B. 20%.


C. 30%


D. 50%


45. The number of blended families has been _________ because of _______.

A. declining; rising ages at first marriages


B. declining; lower birth rates


C. increasing; higher divorce rates


D. increasing; higher birth rates


46. Which of these is not characteristic of Hispanic American families?

A. high fertility rate


B. traditional marriage relationships


C. emphasis on individualism


D. extended family is a source of strength


47. Although the number of one-parent families is growing among all ethnic groups, the number of such families is highest among:

A. non-Hispanic Black families


B. Asian American families


C. Hispanic families


D. Native American families


48. According to the U.S. Bureau of the Census, the second-largest ethnic group in the U.S. is _________.

A. non-Hispanic Black


B. Hispanic/ Latino


C. Asian American


D. non-Hispanic White


E. Native American


49. Familism is a social pattern in which the interests of the _____ are subordinated to the values and demands of the ______.

A. family; individual


B. family; society/ culture


C. individual; family


50. The family theory that looks at the family as a social institution is _______.

A. exchange theory


B. structural-functional theory


C. family developmental theory


D. symbolic interaction theory


51. Which question might a structural-functionalist ask?

A. How do family members resolve conflict?


B. Is the family’s income adequate?


C. Why were these two adults attracted to one another?


D. Were these two adults really ready to get married?


52. The family theory that divides the family experience into phases over the life span and describes changes in family structure and roles at each phase is ______.

A. exchange theory


B. conflict theory


C. family developmental theory


D. symbolic interaction theory


53. Which is a question that a developmental theorist might ask about families?

A. How does the family change when there is a birth?


B. Who provides the income?


C. How do family members communicate?


D. Why do parents feel overwhelmed sometimes?


54. The family theory that describes the family as a unit of interacting personalities is _______.

A. conflict theory


B. structural-functional theory


C. family developmental theory


D. symbolic interaction theory


55. A family therapist using the symbolic interaction theory might examine ________.

A. whether parents are at risk to be abusive


B. how family members communicate with one another


C. how financially stable the family is


D. the effect of remarriage on the family


56. Systems theory emphasizes how family members are __________.

A. problem-solvers


B. individuals looking to the family unit to meet its needs


C. contributors to the family’s well-being


D. constantly influencing one another


57. A family therapist using systems theory would focus on an unhappy family’s ____.

A. communication patterns


B. conflict resolution skills


C. adjustment to change


D. alliances within the family


58. Looking at a family from an exchange theory point of view means ________.

A. seeing how a family changes over time


B. seeking out answers about child abuse


C. looking at how each member gets their needs met


D. asking how equal each member feels to the others


59. From an exchange theorist’s perspective, family members _______.

A. both give and take within the family


B. interact in either functional or dysfunctional ways


C. are parts of an interacting whole


D. are constantly adjusting to change


60. Conflict theory focuses on ________ within the family.

A. destructive communication


B. negotiation


C. sexual satisfaction


D. sources of abuse


61. Which question might a family therapist using conflict theory ask?

A. How are you adjusting to this divorce?


B. Are the children happy in school?


C. Who has the power in this family?


D. How do each of you get your needs met?


62. The feminist perspective focuses primarily on _________ within a family.

A. sexual adjustment


B. the balance of power


C. the division of household responsibilities


D. communication


63. Which is not a premise of the International Family Strengths Model?

A. The qualities that make families robust vary considerably from culture to culture


B. All families have strengths.


C. Family strengths can be learned and developed.


D. The qualities that make families strong are interconnected.


64. According to the text, the most useful theory for understanding family communication is _______.

A. conflict theory


B. family developmental theory


C. exchange theory


D. symbolic interaction theory


65. According to the text, the most useful theory in understanding a family’s adjustment to change is ______.

A. conflict theory


B. family developmental theory


C. exchange theory


D. symbolic interaction theory


66. Which of the following theories best explains the effect of addiction on families.

A. exchange


B. feminist


C. systems


D. structural-functional


67. The _______ theory explains how children learn many behaviors and ways of interacting with others.

A. feminist


B. structural-functional


C. exchange


D. social learning


68. According to the text, the most common method for learning about families is to _______.

A. watch them


B. ask them questions


C. study history


D. do experiments on them


69. Which of the following statements about relationship research is TRUE?

A. Very little has been done.


B. Longitudinal research is more valid than cross-sectional.


C. Validity and reliability are always questionable.


D. The most useful results can be drawn from numerous related studies.


70. The U.S. Census Bureau defines a family as a group of two or more people related by birth, marriage, or adoption and residing together.

True    False


71. To meet Winch’s definition of family, members must have childbearing as their primary function.

True    False


72. Throughout most of American history, the American family was matriarchal.

True    False


73. The marriage rate signifies the number of people who marry within the preceding 12 months per 100 population.

True    False


74. Primary relationships tend to be superficial and easily replaced.

True    False


75. The median age at first marriage has decreased since the 1950s.

True    False


76. According to the text, people today tend to marry later and may experience a period of cohabitation prior to marriage.

True    False


77. The fertility rate is the number of children a woman is expected to have in her lifetime.

True    False


78. One of the most common challenges of single-parent families is economic hardship.

True    False


79. Research indicates that the wife’s employment has a major effect on the
husband’s household responsibilities.

True    False


80. According to the U.S. Census, almost 40% of all cohabiting couples break off their relationship in less than 5 years.

True    False


81. According to research, living together before marriage is a good way to prepare for marriage or to avoid divorce.

True    False


82. Civil unions and domestic partnerships carry all federal benefits and are automatically recognized by other states.

True    False


83. Research shows that households in which the greatest percentage of children under age 18 live with their grandparents also include their parents.

True    False


84. According to the U.S. Census, most people who remarry after divorce do so within 3 or 4 years.

True    False


85. Among Native Americans, family can include members of the household, distant cousins, and clan members.

True    False


86. One of the biggest changes in families in the U.S. in recent years has been the increase in cultural diversity.

True    False


87. By definition, a culture can encompass many different ethnicities.

True    False


88. Ethnicity can be thought of as the way people define themselves as part of a group through similarities in an ancestry and cultural heritage.

True    False


89. A family developmental theorist describes the family as a unity of interacting personalities.

True    False


90. In order to explain family behavior, a systems theory approach looks at a family as a social institution and asks how the family is organized.

True    False


91. A study may be reliable but still not be valid.

True    False


92. Only certified family specialists are qualified to do research on families.

True    False


93. The definition of family presented as the one used throughout the text
include what types of family situations not covered by other definitions?





94. Identify the four causes of the decline of patriarchy and the advent of the democratic family.





95. Identify the major reasons behind the decline in family size during the twentieth century.





96. One of the most dramatic trends in marriage patterns over the decades has been the postponement of marriage to a later age. How does this impact the lives of couples, as well as society, in general?





97. Distinguish among a nuclear, extended, and cohabiting family.





98. What factors are related to the change from a patriarchal to a democratic family?





99. List three negative outcomes associated with cohabiting before marriage.





100. Compare and contrast same-sex marriage, civil union, and domestic partnership.





101. Distinguish between ethnicity and culture.





102. What are some of the “cautions” in looking at families and practices in other cultures?





103. Discuss the change in the structure and function of the family as it moved from institution to companionship and from patriarchy to democracy.





104. Outline the basic trends in marriage rates, age at first marriage, birthrates and family size, employment of working mothers, and one-parent families.





105. Discuss the demographic, social, and attitudinal differences between married women who work outside the home and those who do not.





106. Discuss the concerns of gay and lesbian parents and their children.





107. Discuss the benefits and drawbacks for both children and their grandparents of grandparent-maintained households.





108. Murdock identified four basic functions of a nuclear family. Discuss them in terms of the family’s role in American society.





Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

1. What percentage of the U.S. population live by themselves?

A. 1%


B. 12%


C. 27%


D. 42%


2. According to the U.S. Census, which group makes up the smallest proportion of the U.S. population in terms of marital status?

A. never-married


B. divorced


C. separated


D. widowed


3. According to the U.S. Census, the percentage of Americans aged 18 and older in 2004 who are married is ______ the percentage who are single.

A. more than


B. a little less than


C. much less than


D. about equal to


4. According to the U.S. Census, the ethnic group with the lowest percentage of divorced adults is ________.

A. Asian


B. Blacks


C. Whites


D. Blacks and Hispanics are about equal


5. According to the 2005 U.S. Census, in the last 35 years, the proportion of people who have never been married has ______.

A. increased a little


B. increased dramatically


C. decreased a little


D. decreased dramatically


6. Which ethnic group does research indicate is least likely to live with their parents if they have never been married?

A. Hispanics


B. Blacks


C. Whites


D. Asians


7. Which of the following does research indicate is the largest group of people 18 years old and over – other than those who were married?

A. never-married


B. widowed


C. divorced


D. separated


8. For which of the following groups of people does it appear that marriage is most popular?

A. Whites


B. African Americans


C. Mexican Americans


D. Asian Americans


9. Which socioeconomic variables are related to the likelihood of remaining single?

A. age


B. race


C. gender


D. all


E. A and C only


10. The category of __________ singles includes never-married persons or widowed or divorced people who wanted to marry or remarry but who have not found a mate; they have become reconciled to their single state.

A. voluntary stable (permanent)


B. involuntary stable (permanent)


C. involuntary temporary


D. voluntary temporary


11. According to the U.S. Census, the great majority of singles are

A. permanently unmarried.


B. temporarily unmarried.


C. widowed or divorced, rather than never married.


D. eager to marry as soon as possible


12. According to the 2005 U.S. Census, people tend to get married for the first time when they are _____ now than they used to be.

A. older


B. younger


C. still in school


D. still at home


13. The women’s movement has encouraged women to _________.

A. avoid marriage


B. have non-marital sex


C. not have families


D. be financially independent


14. According to the U.S. Census, by ages 45-54:

A. all but about 7% of males have married.


B. all but about 9% of females have married.


C. those who were single at 30 are probably still single


D. most males and females have married.


15. Which of the following is not a reason for the trend toward delaying marriage?

A. sexual revolution


B. women’s movement


C. prejudice against marriage


D. longer period of educational and economic dependency


16. According to some researchers, who has more frequent contact with relatives and are more likely to live with relatives?

A. White, never-married individuals


B. Non-White, never-married individuals


C. White, divorced individuals


D. Non-White, divorced individuals


17. According to the text, a major purpose of singles’ groups today is to _________.

A. provide matchmaking opportunities


B. help people adjust to being single


C. provide support for the single lifestyle


D. pass laws to help single people


18. Lutwak’s study of fear of intimacy among college women found that they

A. were afraid of sex.


B. were afraid of getting pregnant.


C. did not see the need for intimacy.


D. were afraid of dependency.


19. Analysis of statistical trends indicates that, since 1940, the male population has been _______.

A. greater than the female population.


B. less than the female population.


C. the same as the female population.


D. significantly greater than the female population.


20. In a study of heterosexual single women aged 30-65, researchers found that _____ said they wished they were married.

A. less than 20%


B. one-third


C. half


D. three-fourths


21. The term “marriage squeeze” refers to:

A. the societal pressure to marry


B. the difficulty some women have finding eligible male partners


C. the negative, crushing effect marriage has on emotional well being


D. the pressures of marriage on role performance


22. A consistent research finding has been that ________ is a common problem reported by both single and married women.

A. loneliness


B. childlessness


C. economic dependence


D. sexual frustration


23. Single women most often express feelings of ______ about being single.

A. contentment


B. ambivalence


C. dissatisfaction


D. anger and resentment


24. Which was NOT given in the text as an advantage of being single?

A. economic independence and self-sufficiency


B. more varied sexual experiences


C. greater opportunities for self-development and personal growth and fulfillment


D. greater opportunity for companionship


25. Which was NOT given in the text as a disadvantage of being single?

A. loneliness


B. feeling out of place in many social gatherings that are organized around


C. married couples


D. lack of economic self-sufficiency


E. lack of family in which to bring up children


26. A consistent finding in research has been that for adults, the absence of a partner or prospective partner is associated with:

A. greater opportunity for companionship.


B. loneliness.


C. greater opportunities for self-development.


D. ambivalence.


27. Research supports the conclusion that people who ______ are happiest.

A. stay married


B. stay single


C. divorce


D. never marry


28. One reason that studies show married people to be healthier than single people may be because _____.

A. single people go to the doctor more often – thus appearing less healthy


B. being single is not healthy for people because they are so lonely


C. the researchers are biased


D. marriage makes people healthier


29. Studies indicate that of women who are married, divorced, separated, widowed, or never-married, ______ are the healthiest.

A. married


B. never-married


C. divorced


D. widowed


30. Research indicates that life satisfaction is highest for those who are _______.

A. never married


B. divorced after being unhappily married


C. single and searching


D. married


31. A possible explanation for single people being less healthy than married people is:

A. singles are less healthy because they do not go to the doctor often enough.


B. seriously unhealthy people are less likely to get married in the first place.


C. the stress of being single takes a toll on one’s health.


D. singles keep later hours and live wilder lives than married people.


32. In a study of the effects of women’s marital status and employment, the best predictor of well-being was:

A. a high-prestige job.


B. a spouse.


C. a high salary.


D. having children.


33. Most single adults in their late 20s and 30s live ________.

A. in apartments with roommates


B. with their parents


C. in singles’ communities


D. with friends


34. According to the U.S. Census, the number of single adults living with their parents has ________ since 1970.

A. increased


B. decreased


C. stayed about the same


35. According to the U.S. Census, more _____ than _____ aged 25 to 34 live with their parents.

A. women; men


B. men; women


C. parents; non-parents


D. widowed; divorced


36. According to the U.S. Census, more _____ than _____ of all ages live alone.

A. women; men


B. men; women


C. divorced adults; widowed adults


D. older men; older women


37. According to the U.S. Census, which group of singles is most likely to face housing problems?

A. singles still in school


B. singles in their late twenties and early thirties


C. divorced singles


D. elderly singles


38. According to a 2004 study, the percentage of young adults (18 to 29 years of age) who lived with their parents had its high point in:

A. 1940.


B. 1950.


C. the 1960s.


D. the 1980s.


39. According to the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth, _____ % of American males and females aged 25-44 have had heterosexual vaginal intercourse.

A. More than 95%


B. Between 75% and 95%


C. Between 60% and 75%


D. A little over half


40. According to the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth, more _____ than _____ have had same-sex sexual contact in their lifetimes.

A. men; women


B. women; men


C. older men; younger men


D. older women; younger women


41. According to the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth, most adults have had vaginal intercourse by age ______.

A. 16


B. 18


C. 20


D. 22


42. According to the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth, more _____ than _____ say they have been sexually attracted to people of the same sex.

A. men; women


B. women; men


C. teens; adults


D. older men; older women


43. According to the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth, what percentage of teens aged 15 to 19 have had heterosexual oral sex but not vaginal intercourse?

A. 2-4%


B. 5-8%


C. C.10-12%


D. D.15-18%


44. According to the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth, _____% of women aged 15 to 44 reported having a same-sex experience in their lifetimes.

A. 5%


B. 8%


C. 11%


D. 14%


45. According to the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth, the rate of non-HIV sexually transmitted infections for men is _______ for those who have had at least one same-sex sexual contact than for those who have had no same-sex sexual contact.

A. higher


B. lower


C. about the same as


46. According to the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth, about what percentage of men aged 15 to 44 who had at least one sexual partner in the last 12 months used a condom during their most recent sexual encounter?

A. 22%


B. 28%


C. 39%


D. 65%


47. Statistical analyses reveal that single people make _______ money than married people

A. more


B. less


C. about the same amount of


48. Economists think that one reason why married and never-married people have different incomes may be that ________.

A. employers discriminate against both single and married women.


B. good employees share the same qualities as good mates


C. single people are more generally more attractive than married people


D. married people have less time to devote to their jobs than single people


49. Nearly ____ of families with children under age 6 are headed by a single parent.

A. 10%


B. 25%


C. 40%


D. over 50%


50. One possible conclusion that could be drawn from available studies is that many single-mother families are _________ whereas single father families tend to ________.

A. the result of choice; result from divorce


B. have a high quality of parenting; not have as high a quality of parenting


C. better off financially; not be as well off financially


D. less common; be increasing


51. The role strain that single mothers experience is primarily caused by ________.

A. the lack of a father in the household


B. inadequate income


C. lack of self-esteem


D. the multiple responsibilities they carry


52. According to a 1995 study, children in single-parent families are most negatively affected by ________.

A. the absence of their father


B. their mother’s stress level


C. poor child-care


D. inadequate income


53. According to researchers, families most likely to live in poverty are ________.

A. those headed by single fathers


B. those headed by single mothers


C. non-White families


D. families of divorce


54. A possible distinction that could be made between single mothers and single fathers is that:

A. many single fathers choose this option.


B. more single women are so as a result of divorce.


C. more single men are so as a result of divorce.


D. single fathers receive more social and emotional support.


55. The text points out that, stated very simply, single women become mothers
because they:

A. are surprised by unexpected pregnancy.


B. wanted to when it was time to do it.


C. are able to afford it financially.


D. dislike men.


56. The text points out that life satisfaction for never-married adults is MOST dependent on their ________.

A. close relationships


B. fulfillment in their career


C. lifestyle


D. social support system


57. Which of the following conclusions can be drawn about older never-marrieds?

A. They are seldom happy with their situation.


B. Never-marrieds are less likely to be isolated from their families than are widows and widowers.


C. They tend to accept and take for granted their life-style.


D. They see marriage as something special.


58. Probably the biggest challenge many single parents face is:

A. financial hardship


B. the emotional care of family members


C. role strain


D. affordable child care


59. The text points out that one difference in the pattern of social support between older marrieds and never-marrieds is that the never-married interact:

A. more frequently with relatives than do married people.


B. more frequently with friends than do married people.


C. more equally with friends and relatives.


D. more often with a younger cohort than do married people.


60. Brian’s story about being a single father focuses on how important _______ is/are to him.

A. juggling multiple roles


B. communication with his children’s mother


C. parenting


D. his children’s concerns


61. According to “Cultural Perspective: African American Single Mothers,” one major reason why almost half of African American families are headed by single mothers is that ________.

A. African American culture is matriarchal


B. Black men are happier living alone


C. fewer Black men are available for marriage


D. Black women choose not to be married


62. The text suggests that phenomenon of “friends with benefits” has emerged in our culture as a way of meeting single adults’ needs for _________.

A. close friendship


B. love without commitment


C. meeting new people on-line


D. sexual expression


63. According to the U.S. Census, which adults are most likely to be married?
A. Males
B. Females

True    False


64. Some 31 million Americans live by themselves.

True    False


65. According to the U.S. Census, which gender is most likely to be widowed?
A. Males
B. Females

True    False


66. According to the U.S. Census, African Americans are more likely than Whites to marry.

True    False


67. Statistically, age is negatively related to the likelihood of never marrying: The older one becomes, the greater the likelihood of staying single

True    False


68. The text suggests that most people who are single would rather be married.

True    False


69. One study reveals that people who are married with children and a high-prestige job have the lowest level of well-being.

True    False


70. Census data show that most single adults live alone.

True    False


71. Census data show that a greater percentage of single women than men of all ages live at home with parents.

True    False


72. According to the U.S. Census, overall, never-married people are financially better off than married people.

True    False


73. The major difference found by researchers between older never-marrieds and younger never-marrieds is that the younger ones consider their status as temporary, whereas the older ones more likely have adjusted to their single status.

True    False


74. Women are more likely to report feeling lonely than are men.

True    False


75. Even though single adults living at home plan for independence, parents still provide much of their needs – food, cars, insurance, etc.

True    False


76. Subsidized housing is an important source of affordable housing for poor, single elderly persons.

True    False


77. Some social scientists have theorized that married people make more money than singles (in part) because employers perceive married people as more reliable, responsible, stable, and mature.

True    False


78. Single people have different kinds of motivations for having children than do married persons.

True    False


79. Family sociologists have noted a 30-year trend in American society toward a growing separation of marriage and childbearing.

True    False


80. Identify and discuss the four social and economic factors involved in the increase in the number of people who delay marriage.





81. Discuss four of the reasons identified in the chapter that account for peoples’ decision to remain single.





82. Identify and discuss three reasons for income discrepancies between single and married people.





83. List three advantages and three disadvantages of being single.





84. The increase in single-father families stems from several changes. Name them.





85. Identify and define the four categories of single people developed by Stein.





86. What are the reasons for the increasing trend to delay first marriage?





87. What are some of the major reasons why some people remain single?





88. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of remaining single.





89. Discuss the phenomenon of “friends with benefits.” Give pros and cons.





90. Contrast the life of the older, never-married adult with that of the younger, never-married adult.





91. What are the primary factors related to the phenomenon of so many single women becoming mothers?





92. Discuss the employment and economic issues of being single and female.





93. Compare and contrast the health of single versus married people. Be sure to discuss the various explanations given for the differences.





94. Compare and contrast the lives of single mothers and those of single fathers.





95. How do single adults meet their sexual needs?





96. What special issues do single parent families face that are usually not issues for two-parent families?





97. What are the major sources of stress for a single mother, how does her stress affect her children, and what are possible solutions?





98. How does the absence of a father in the household affect the members of a family headed by a single mother? How might this problem be alleviated?





Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

1. According to the text, to accurately define the word ‘love’ requires

A. at least one college course


B. an understanding of its different aspects


C. people to look to their own experience


D. knowing what the other person means


2. The basic point of view of the text is that love is:

A. a simple concept


B. a multidimensional concept


C. primarily emotional


D. exclusively a physiological reaction


3. Love defined as profoundly tender or passionate affection for another person is termed:

A. erotic love


B. dependent love


C. romantic love


D. conscious love


4. Individuals who fall in love with people who manifest the characteristics of their ego ideal are said to experience:

A. erotic love


B. dependent love


C. narcissistic love


D. romantic love


5. Tennov found that when passion is strong, lovers are in a wildly emotional state, obsessed with thoughts of their loved one. These feelings are labeled:

A. limerence


B. altruistic love


C. infatuation


D. erotic love


6. Which kind of love does the text say can become problematic if it is taken as the only criterion for marriage?

A. romantic love


B. companionate love


C. erotic love


D. dependent love


7. According to Liebowitz, excitement and arousal of romantic love are a result of increased levels of which of the following in the bloodstream?

A. endorphins


B. dopamine and norepinephrine


C. serotonin


D. blood sugar


8. According to Liebowitz, which type of love results in the brain’s producing narcotic-like substances called endorphins, which give a sense of tranquility?

A. romantic love


B. companionate love


C. erotic love


D. conscious love


9. Romantic love can also be narcissistic love when:

A. it is a forbidden or secret love


B. it becomes the only thing one can think about


C. we love in the other the characteristics we would like to have


D. it is not based on reality but on an idealistic image


10. Orgasms are followed by the release of the “cuddle chemicals” that make us feel attachment and union with someone. The cuddle chemicals are:

A. dopamine & oxytocin


B. dopamine & endorphin


C. oxytocin & vasopressin


D. vasopressin & endorphin


11. Research shows that the excitement and arousal of romantic love are caused by:

A. companionate, or conscious, love


B. physiological mechanisms


C. finding the perfect life partner


D. the release of neurotransmitters


12. According to the text, romantic love can become a problem when:

A. it fades before people get married


B. a person doesn’t recognize it


C. it is not accompanied by sexual passion


D. it becomes the basis for marriage


13. _______ is defined as a wildly emotional state, seesawing between bliss and jealousy.

A. companionate love


B. romantic love


C. altruistic love


D. limerence


14. People who think love and sex are the same thing believe that:

A. sex is biological but love is emotional


B. we love another because they meet our sexual needs


C. romance is necessary for sexual pleasure


D. you cannot have one without the other


15. People who believe love and sex are different but connected may also believe that:

A. you can’t have one without the other


B. sex means love


C. to love someone means you want sex with them


D. sex is a physical way of showing emotional love


16. Who viewed love and sex as the same thing?

A. Maslow


B. Reik


C. Fromm


D. Freud


17. According to Freud’s theory of love,

A. love and sex are identical.


B. sex is the drive that produces the need for affection


C. love and sex are two separate entities.


D. love and sex cannot be separated.


18. According to Freud, the two important elements of the sexual aim of adults are:

A. sensual and psychical


B. rational and emotional


C. sensual and rational


D. egoistic and sensual


19. A common manifestation of the separation of love and sex today is:

A. disappointment


B. erotic love


C. rational love


D. casual sex


20. Another term for sexual, sensuous love is:

A. romantic love


B. narcissistic love


C. erotic love


D. limerence


21. Dependency love is defined as the kind of love that:

A. children have for their parents


B. parents have for their children


C. people cannot live without


D. married people develop after many years


22. According to Maslow, when one’s basic needs are not met as a child, ________ in an adult love relationship.

A. only B-love can be fulfilled


B. deficiency needs will be met


C. deficiency love can develop


D. both D-love and B-love will be present


23. According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, what must I do before I can focus on personal growth?

A. experience B-love from my mate


B. experience D-love from my mate


C. meet my basic needs


D. meet my partner’s basic needs


24. According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, a person who is possessive and manipulative in a love relationship is likely to:

A. have being needs that are unmet


B. have deficiency needs that are unmet


C. be looking to a partner to meet his/her being needs.


D. focus on giving a partner what the partner need


25. According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, a person who expects his/her partner to make up for all the love s/he did not receive as a child will most likely _______.

A. be in D-love


B. be in B-love


C. look for D-love


D. look for B-love


26. According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, when someone’s deficiency needs are fulfilled by another person, _____ love develops.

A. erotic


B. dependent


C. rational


D. romantic


27. Who would suggest that love is associated with need fulfillment?

A. Freud


B. Reik


C. Fromm


D. Maslow


28. In Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, which of the following refers to the highest three levels of need?

A. A-needs


B. B-needs


C. C-needs


D. D-needs


29. Maslow’s term for love for the very being and uniqueness of another person is

A. altruistic love


B. D-love.


C. B-love.


D. U-love.


30. Which of the following does Maslow extol as being particularly virtuous?

A. B-love


B. D-love


C. self-revelation


D. mutual dependency


31. According to the text, when people are friends, they:

A. are more likely to have a romance


B. truly like the other person


C. may not like the other person


D. are companions


32. The text points out that as a love relationship matures over the years, friendship is likely to _____.

A. increase


B. decrease


C. evolve into companionate love


D. develop into romance


33. The type of love between individuals with common concerns is referred to as:

A. friendship love


B. altruistic love


C. B-love


D. D-love


34. Altruistic love is different from all other types of love because of its emphasis on:

A. care and concern for other’s feelings


B. not dominating the other person


C. understanding and nurturing another person


D. lack of concern for one’s own needs


35. Which of the following is NOT one of the components of the concept of altruistic love?

A. respect


B. attraction


C. responsibility


D. nurturing care


36. One of the chief proponents of altruistic love is

A. Freud.


B. Maslow.


C. Fromm.


D. Sternberg.


37. Which of the following components is NOT part of altruistic love according to Fromm?

A. passion


B. care


C. responsibility


D. knowledge


38. Which of the following kinds of love does your text say is NOT important for a successful marriage?

A. narcissistic


B. erotic


C. dependent


D. friendship


39. Which kind of love is the combination of intimacy, passion, and commitment that Sternberg says is important for enduring love?

A. companionate love


B. complete love


C. consummate love


D. altruistic love


40. Researchers have found that a person who is _____ is most likely to be committed in a love relationship.

A. dependent


B. conscientious


C. altruistic


D. heterogamous


41. Which of the following does your text say is most emphasized as the basis for mate selection in Western culture?

A. romantic love


B. companionate love


C. dependent love


D. erotic love


42. Which of the following components is NOT a part of love according to Sternberg?

A. intimacy


B. passion


C. decision/commitment


D. friendship


43. Of the three attachment styles, a person with an avoidant attachment style would be MOST likely to:

A. seek idealistic romantic love


B. use sex to achieve prestige among peers


C. use sex to achieve intimacy


D. experience dependent love


44. College students with an anxious/ambivalent attachment style were most likely to have sex to:

A. satisfy their own physical needs


B. reduce insecurity and foster intimacy


C. impress their friends


D. express their love for their partner


45. Adolescents who were securely attached as infants were more likely to have ______ dating relationships.

A. longer lasting


B. very few


C. more mature


D. many


46. Researchers found that young singles tend to have attitudes about love that are more ____ than married adults.

A. possessive


B. liberal


C. self-giving


D. erotic


47. Across the life span men’s attitudes toward love are ______ than/as women’s.

A. more erotic


B. less inhibited


C. about the same


D. more possessive


48. According to research, which of the following is most likely to be associated with adults’ satisfaction with their relationships?

A. how long they have been married


B. an experienced sexual history


C. exclusive commitment to their partner


D. whether couples have children in the home


49. According to developmental process theories, finding a suitable marriage partner requires ________.

A. falling in love with someone who can take care of us


B. filtering out people who aren’t like our parents


C. sorting out people with the right characteristics


D. finding someone who is our picture of an ideal mate


50. According to psychodynamic theories of mate selection, we are most likely to marry someone who is _______.

A. like our opposite-sex parent


B. the opposite from us


C. a good parent


D. employed in a high status occupation


51. Compatibility means that people:

A. have the same values, likes, and dislikes


B. are meant to be together


C. have complementary needs


D. can live together amicably


52. Selecting a mate who is geographically close is called:

A. exogamy


B. heterogamy


C. propinquity


D. logical


53. Selecting a partner who is different from oneself is called:

A. heterogamy


B. propinquity


C. exogamy


D. homogamy


54. Marrying outside one’s kin group is called:

A. homogamy


B. heterogamy


C. endogamy


D. exogamy


55. Montgomery and Sorell’s study of differences in love attitudes across family life stages suggested that

A. there is a smooth developmental progression of love attitudes during the life span.


B. at all stages of the life course, adults endorse passion, friendship, and self-giving love attitudes.


C. strategies that encourage eroticism are likely to decrease a couple’s satisfaction with the relationship as the life cycle progresses.


D. only in the early stages do love attitudes encompass friendship


56. Which theories of mate selection emphasize the influence of experiences of earlier years on mate selection?

A. psychodynamic


B. needs


C. exchange


D. developmental process


57. What is an example of a psychodynamic theory of mate selection?

A. ideal mate theory


B. equity theory


C. propinquity theory


D. filter process theory


58. Theories of mate selection based on the notion that we enter into relationships with those who possess resources that we value are referred to as:

A. psychodynamic


B. needs


C. exchange


D. developmental process


59. Which is an example of an exchange theory of mate selection?

A. propinquity theory


B. equity theory


C. parent image theory


D. ideal mate theory


60. Which theories of mate selection describe it as a process of filtering and weeding out ineligible and incompatible people until an appropriate person is selected?

A. psychodynamic


B. needs


C. exchange


D. developmental process


61. Which of the following refers to marrying someone across outside one’s own kin group?

A. endogamy


B. exogamy


C. homogamy


D. heterogamy


62. Which of the following characteristics tends to be at the top of the process of filtering through a wide field of eligibles in order to select a mate?

A. compatibility


B. temperament


C. propinquity


D. habits


63. The propensity to choose a spouse similar to oneself is called:

A. homogamy


B. heterogamy


C. hypogamous


D. propinquity


64. People who were raised in unhealthy families:

A. should not get married


B. may have developed characteristics that can cause problems in marriage


C. cannot have a happy marriage unless they get premarital counseling


D. can be happy only if they marry someone else who was raised in an unhappy family


65. People raised in a middle class family are most likely to be happy:

A. with mates from middle class families


B. if they marry up


C. with mates who are more educated


D. marrying either up or down


66. Marriages between people with differing educational levels ______ than/as those between people with similar educational levels.

A. are slightly more stable


B. are equally as stable


C. are somewhat less stable


67. A 2004 study found that interfaith marriages are more likely to occur when _______.

A. the woman is not Catholic or Jewish


B. the religion is more orthodox


C. socioeconomic status is similar


D. people are more educated


68. As the tradition of the man as the family’s sole source of income disappears:

A. women are finally considering the economic characteristics of potential husbands in the mate selection process.


B. men are finally considering the economic characteristics of potential wives in the mate selection process.


C. women are increasingly hesitant to marry.


D. men are increasingly hesitant to marry.


69. Which of the following appears to be likely regarding the effect of education and intelligence on mate selection?

A. Most females with 4 years of college marry college graduates or those with more education than they have.


B. Educationally homogamous marriages tend to be much more compatible than educationally heterogamous marriages.


C. Intelligence compatibility appears to have about the same level of importance as does educational compatibility.


D. Most males with 4 years of college marry women with equal or more education than they have.


70. Research shows that marriages tend to be homogamous with respect to:

A. religion


B. race


C. both religion and race


D. neither religion nor race


71. Which of the following is not true regarding age differentials in mate selection?

A. The median age differential between husband and wife in the first marriage is about 2 years.


B. Marriages tend to be age homogamous.


C. Significant differences in marital quality occur among couples from various age dissimilar categories.


D. A young wife marrying an older man is likely to be widowed at an early age.


72. The text states that marriage tends to be happier when partners are:

A. hypogamous


B. compatible


C. younger when they marry


D. sociable


73. Impulsivity and unconventionality are associated with:

A. greater marriage satisfaction


B. lower marriage satisfaction


C. greater age difference between partners


D. people who marry at a younger age


74. Research shows that both men and women tend to live longer if they are married to:

A. their best friend


B. someone older than they are


C. someone younger than they are


D. a sociable person with high self-esteem


75. Which of the following issues does research indicate seems to be the LEAST important for couples to have consensus about?

A. when they go to bed and wake up


B. how they spend their money


C. where they are going to live


D. what movies they are going to watch


76. Which of the following issues does research suggest is MOST likely to be able to be worked out in an otherwise compatible marriage?

A. age differences between spouses


B. differing religious convictions


C. annoying personal habits


D. inadequate interpersonal skills


77. The extent of agreement or disagreement between the husband and wife partially describes

A. homogamy


B. compatibility


C. propinquity


D. heterogamy


78. What is the relationship between marital satisfaction and consensus and similarity of attitudes and values?

A. Consensus develops slowly in a personal relationship, and the more it develops, the greater the satisfaction.


B. The more intimate dating couples become, the less likely they are to express agreement in a number of important areas.


C. Marital satisfaction is not related to having similar attitudes and values.


D. If people love each other, consensus is not necessary for marital satisfaction.


79. Interviews with cohabiting couples indicate that they considered living together to be all of these EXCEPT:

A. convenient


B. practical financially


C. a stage of dating


D. a substitute for marriage


80. Some ____ million couples are cohabiting; most are under age _____.

A. 1 million: 30 years


B. 5 million: 40 years


C. 6 million: 30 years


D. 8 million: 40 years


81. Studies show that the divorce rate among people who lived together before they got married is ______ than/as the rate for those who did not live together.

A. lower


B. much lower


C. higher


D. the same


82. Cohabitation ______ appears to have negative effects on marriage.

A. before deciding to marry


B. after deciding to marry


C. between mixed ethnic partners


D. as a trial marriage


83. Adults who are living together to test their compatibility and to help them decide if they were meant for each other and if they want to get married view their cohabitation as a(n)

A. utilitarian arrangement


B. trial marriage


C. prelude to marriage


D. alternative to marriage


84. What does research indicate about what appears to be true about premarital cohabitation?

A. It prepares people for successful marriage


B. It weeds out incompatible couples


C. both A and B


D. neither A nor B


85. Approximately _____ of unmarried cohabiting couples plan to get married.

A. 10%


B. 25%


C. 50%


D. 80%


86. Some cohabiting couples plan to remain together but do not plan to marry (for a variety of reasons). This type of arrangement:

A. Intimate Involvement with Emotional Commitment


B. Utilitarian Arrangement


C. Trial Marriage


D. Alternative to Marriage


87. One conclusion that can be drawn from the research information on marital readiness is that people have difficulty making marriage successful because they haven’t had enough experience:

A. sexually


B. dating


C. living with other people


D. taking care of themselves


88. For a marriage to be legal in most states, people must:

A. be at least 21 years old


B. have a non-consanguineous relationship


C. wait at least 30 days after getting the marriage license to wed


D. go through premarital counseling


89. Premarital assessments such as PREPARE/ENRICH and FOCCUS can help people prepare for marriage by pointing out ________.

A. when a couple should not get married


B. relationship strengths and weaknesses


C. a person’s unsuitability for marriage


D. when a couple is being deceptive


90. Which level of government has the responsibility for marital regulation?

A. city


B. county


C. state


D. federal


91. Which of the following terms refers to a blood relationship or descent from a common ancestor?

A. consanguinity


B. propinquity


C. affinity


D. blood marriage


92. Which of the following is associated with incestuous marriages?

A. heterogamy


B. consanguinity


C. homogamy


D. propinquity


93. About ______ of the states forbid marriages to first cousins.

A. 10%


B. 25%


C. 50%


D. all


94. Which of the following is NOT one of the legal conditions required in those states recognizing common-law marriages?

A. The couple must be legally marriageable.


B. They must live together and present themselves to the world as husband and wife.


C. They must have children together.


D. They must intend to be married.


95. A marriage that was never considered valid in the first place is a(n):

A. void marriage


B. avoidable marriage


C. voidable marriage


D. proxy marriage


96. Validity tests of the premarital inventory PREPARE/ENRICH have shown that the inventory can be used to predict with almost 80% accuracy _______.

A. the couple’s having sexual dysfunction


B. whether a marriage will be successful or end in divorce


C. potential problem areas for the couple


D. whether or not the couple will have children


97. Which of the following inventories has replaced the Pre-Marital Inventory (PMI) as the predominant inventory used in marriage preparation by the Roman Catholic Church?









98. Which is NOT a rite of passage according to the text?

A. cohabitation


B. engagement


C. wedding ceremony


D. wedding reception


99. Which of the following does the text NOT include as one of the purposes of the engagement?

A. to test the relationship


B. to make wedding plans


C. to gain social support


D. to resolve problem issues


100. Jessica, the 27-year-old who had a big wedding described in “Personal Perspective: The Big Wedding,” advises others:

A. to take lots of time to plan the wedding


B. not to go overboard or stress out on details


C. to make wedding plans carefully so everything is perfect


D. to have a big wedding so you can remember it always


101. “Cultural Perspective: Chinese Wedding Ceremonies” states that the color red is used in Chinese marriage rituals because it symbolizes:

A. happiness and prosperity


B. celebration


C. excitement


D. fertility


102. Researchers quoted in the article “At Issue Today: The Lavish Wedding” make the point that weddings are becoming more expensive and lavish in America because they symbolize:

A. how much the couple loves one another


B. mythical happiness


C. how prosperous the marriage will be


D. how perfect the marriage match is


103. According to “A Question of Policy: Marriage Incentives,” which of the following educational programs would NOT be eligible for the new federal welfare reform grants?

A. premarital assessment and education


B. high school education in budgeting and money management


C. training in relationship skills


D. effective single parenting


104. Both positive and negative emotions appear to influence emotional love.

True    False


105. Freud argued that love and sex are different in origin and nature.

True    False


106. Altruistic love is defined as unselfish concern and care for another.

True    False


107. Research indicates that dependency is a negative factor in relationships and is not a component of durable love.

True    False


108. Maslow emphasized that “B-love” in marriage pertains to all forms of self-centered love, and thus it can be fragmented.

True    False


109. Researchers consider friendship to be an important element of romantic love.

True    False


110. Overall, friendship love is more relaxed and provides a more secure environment than does romantic love.

True    False


111. To Fromm, altruistic love is a passive affection, not an activity.

True    False


112. Helen Fowler, an anthropologist, argues that casual sex is rarely casual because sexual interactions stimulate neurotransmitters that cause us to feel passion and attachment.

True    False


113. Psychodynamic theories of mate selection emphasize the influence of childhood experiences and family background on one’s choice of mate.

True    False


114. Needs theories describe mate selection as a process of filtering and weeding out ineligible and incompatible people until one person is selected.

True    False


115. Research indicates that residential propinquity is far more important than institutional propinquity as a factor in mate sorting.

True    False


116. Research indicates that White women are significantly more likely than Black women to marry men who are less educated than they are.

True    False


117. Sociability or extroversion has been found by researchers to be negatively related to marital stability and quality.

True    False


118. Research reveals that marriages between people with different racial or ethnic backgrounds are becoming more common.

True    False


119. Census Bureau statistics reveal that, overall, the median age differential between spouses in a first marriage is about 2 years.

True    False


120. Cohabiting before marriage has been associated with less positive problem-solving support and behavior during the marriage.

True    False


121. Overall, research indicates that cohabitation is helpful in relation to marital success.

True    False


122. Cohabiting couples in the style described as “utilitarian arrangement” may not have a sexually intimate relationship.

True    False


123. No state has laws forbidding the mentally deficient from marrying.

True    False


124. All 50 states recognize common-law marriages, defined as marriage by mutual consent, without a license.

True    False


125. A rite of passage is a ritual that signifies that people are moving to another social status.

True    False


126. Discuss how romantic love can be problematic.





127. Discuss how the excitement and arousal of romantic love are a result of physiological processes.





128. How is love defined by Freud?





129. Identify and briefly describe the four basic components of love according to Fromm.





130. Summarize Sternberg’s view of the three components of love.





131. List the three attachment styles and how they correlate with adult romantic love.





132. Using attachment theory, explain why a college student may be experiencing excessive stress.





133. Describe the problems that interethnic and interfaith couples might experience and how these can be addressed.





134. Describe the parent image theory and the ideal mate theory, as examples of psychodynamic theories.





135. Identify the seven important factors determining marital readiness that were discussed in the chapter.





136. Explain the meaning, characteristics, and effects of romantic love, and evaluate it as a sound basis for marriage.





137. Compare and contrast “D-love” with “B-love.”





138. Discuss the meaning of altruistic love as described by Fromm.





139. Describe the eight different kinds of love arranged from the three components identified by Sternberg.





140. Discuss the importance of attachment style in forming adult romantic relationships.





141. There are major legal requirements regulating marriage. Choose and explain five of the eight discussed in the text.





142. Discuss what couples can do to prepare well for marriage.





143. Explain how the rituals and symbols used in weddings symbolize the values of the American culture today.





Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

1. According to the text, couples’ personal happiness depends to a large degree on the _____ of their marriage.

A. overall length


B. general quality


C. stability


D. state


2. The family life cycle consists of phases over the life span which are determined by:

A. researchers who compile statistics


B. specific age cut-off points


C. ages of children


D. major life changes


3. According to Census Bureau statistics, children are typically born _____ year(s) apart.

A. 1


B. 2


C. 3


D. 4


4. According to Census Bureau statistics, on average, a couple waits about _____ year(s) before having the first of _____ children.

A. 1; 2


B. 2; 2


C. 3; 3


D. 4; 2


5. According to Census Bureau statistics, women tend to marry men who are ____ than/as they are.

A. about 2 years older


B. about the same age


C. about 2 years younger


D. much older


6. According to Census Bureau statistics, the median age of first marriage for couples who later divorce is:

A. 2 years younger than for couples who never divorce.


B. 2 years older than for couples who never divorce.


C. 4 years younger than for couples who never divorce.


D. 4 years older than for couples who never divorce.


7. According to Census Bureau statistics, couples who divorce usually remarry when their children are:

A. preschoolers


B. early elementary age


C. middle school age


D. high school age


8. According to Census Bureau statistics, men tend to remarry within _____ years of divorce and women tend to remarry within _____ years of divorce.

A. 2; 3


B. 3; 4


C. 4; 3


D. 5; 4


9. According to Census Bureau statistics, men tend to remarry ______ after divorce than women.

A. sooner


B. later


C. about the same number of years


10. According to Census Bureau statistics, fathers who divorce and remarry will most likely live with their _____ children.

A. biological


B. step


11. According to Census Bureau statistics, youngest children typically leave home when they are _____ years old.

A. 18


B. 19


C. 20


D. 21


12. In the traditional family life cycle, what does the Census Bureau say are the average ages of the mother and father when the youngest child leaves home?

A. woman is 45; man is 47


B. woman is 50; man is 51


C. woman is 51; man is 53


D. woman is 54; man is 56


13. According to Census Bureau statistics, in _______ couples, women typically will spend more years as a widow.

A. never divorced


B. divorced and remarried


14. According to Census Bureau statistics, on the average, remarried women can expect to be widows for about __________ years.

A. 4


B. 5


C. 7


D. 10


15. Which of the following does NOT fit in with the text’s definition of “marital adjustment“?

A. the process of modifying individual and couple patterns of behavior


B. a means to an end


C. becoming adjusted to each other but still being unhappy and dissatisfied with the relationship


D. a process that is completed early in marriage


16. Making adjustments to one’s partner in a marriage:

A. will always improve the marriage


B. does not necessarily make partners happier


C. may provide the highest satisfaction possible under the circumstances


D. both B and C


E. none of these


17. Which of the following became less of a problem after marriage than had been true before marriage – according to longitudinal research of couples?

A. money


B. communication


C. religion


D. alcohol and drugs


E. both C and D


18. According to a longitudinal study of couples during three early stages of their relationship, _____ was the number one problem at all stages of the relationship.

A. jealousy


B. communication


C. money


D. relatives


19. Research shows that one big problem before marriage that declines substantially after marriage is:

A. jealousy


B. communication


C. money


D. relatives


20. _____ was a bigger problem after the first child was born than either before marriage or in the first year.

A. religion


B. relatives


C. communication


D. recreation


21. According to research studies, which of the following issues was as much a problem after the birth of the first child as before marriage?

A. jealousy


B. friends


C. relatives


D. religion


22. Which of the following problems became much more serious after the birth of the first child?

A. jealousy


B. communication


C. religion


D. sex


E. both B and D


23. According to research, which of the following is NOT true regarding stress and parenthood?

A. The less stressful a couple’s marriage before parenthood, the more stressful parenthood becomes.


B. Part of the stress arises because couples are inadequately prepared for parenthood.


C. Parenthood is more stressful if it is not planned.


D. Part of the stress arises because of the abrupt transition to parenthood.


24. The stress of new parenthood arises because of:

A. inadequate preparation for parenthood


B. abrupt transition to parenthood


C. immaturity of the parents


D. all of these


E. A and C


25. Social support during the transition to parenthood is associated with:

A. positive parent-child interactions


B. more positive adaptations to parenthood


C. more negative mental and physical health outcomes


D. all of these


E. A and B


26. Of the following positive contributions that fathers make to their children’s well-being, most fathers tend to think that _____ is the most important feature of being a good father.

A. sharing child care responsibilities


B. being a provider


C. being available to their children


D. teaching their children


27. Mexican American families, in comparison to European American families:

A. have more frequent social interactions


B. show stronger levels of obligation


C. exchange more support


D. are less likely to share living arrangements with the elderly


E. A, B, and C


28. Which of the following is characteristic of Chinese American families?

A. great emphasis on the extended family as the most important unit


B. children have high sense of duty to parents


C. emphasis on the importance of fulfilling individual needs


D. all of these


E. A and B


29. Research shows that children who receive support from their parents during childhood:

A. have fewer psychological and physical problems


B. have lower levels of depressive symptoms


C. have lower levels of self-esteem


D. A and B


E. none of these correlates


30. In a multicultural study of fathering, most fathers reported _______ about fatherhood.

A. ambivalent feelings


B. feeling disappointed


C. positive feelings


D. fears


31. The text points out that the most noticeable changes of midlife are

A. physical


B. emotional


C. intellectual


D. social


32. According to your text, middle adulthood:

A. marks a stage of low life fulfillment for most individuals.


B. marks the prime of life in many ways.


C. sees very few physical changes but many psychological changes.


D. is marked by rapid physical changes.


33. During which period of the family life cycle are most adults first confronted with their own mortality?

A. beginning marriage


B. after the first child is born


C. middle adulthood


D. late adulthood


34. Which period in the life cycle is the time of heaviest responsibilities at work and in the community, often leading to considerable stress?

A. Single adulthood


B. Young adulthood


C. Middle adulthood


D. Late adulthood


35. The generalized capacity for flexible and resourceful adaptation to stress is referred to as:

A. coping-skill


B. play-quotient


C. ego-resiliency


D. combating-depression


36. Middle-aged adults are sometimes called the __________ generation because they
carry both the care-giving responsibilities for their children and for their elderly parents.

A. flip-flop


B. sandwich


C. reverse


D. upside-down


37. The post-parental years usually refer to:

A. the period between when children go away to college and then return to live at home for some time


B. the period between the last child’s leaving home and the parents’ retirement.


C. the period when middle aged adults take care of their elderly parents


D. a time of marital dissatisfaction


38. Because today’s generation of young adults may return home several different times to live, they are referred to as the:

A. sandwich generation


B. upside-down generation


C. good-bye kids


D. boomerang kids


39. The text points out that one result of the “boomerang kid” phenomenon is:

A. stronger extended family ties


B. the easing of financial pressure on middle-aged parents


C. increased conflict between parents and children


D. later retirement


40. Late adulthood is defined as the period of life in which adults:

A. are over 65


B. are over 75


C. become grandparents


D. lose their independence


41. The text refers to the “young-old” as being between _____ years of age.

A. 45-54


B. 55-64


C. 65-74


D. 75-84


42. Which of the following living arrangements is of great importance to older people?

A. living in their own home


B. living with their grown children


C. living with a roommate


D. living in an extended care facility


43. Research findings indicate that as adults get older they tend to:

A. prefer living alone


B. lose interest in pursuing friendships


C. take on different gender roles at home


D. resent their children’s concern about them


44. Research indicates that the majority of older people:

A. rent housing


B. live with adult children


C. live in homes they own.


D. live in senior citizens’ communities


45. Research findings indicate that one of the most important predictors of life satisfaction for the elderly is:

A. retirement


B. home maintenance


C. high status and prestige


D. good health


46. According to the text, what happens to marital satisfaction during late adulthood?

A. It continues to decline.


B. It decreases after the children are launched.


C. It increases after retirement.


D. It increases briefly, then decreases.


47. Research indicates that later-life parental divorce has a _______ effect on the relationships between older adults and their grown children.

A. generally positive


B. generally negative


C. devastating


D. strengthening


48. In research looking at relationships between parents and grown children, the grown children tend to describe their relationship with their older parents in terms of:

A. the quality of the relationship


B. how much their parents need them


C. how often they contact and help them


D. how available their parents are to them


49. Studies show that older adults generally feel ______ when their children give them extensive help when they need it.

A. resentful


B. encouraged


C. the need to give back


D. incapacitated


50. Which of the following has been shown by research NOT to be a key factor in the relationship between older adults and their grown children?

A. emotional support


B. frequent contact


C. reciprocated help


D. moderate level of support


51. According to census statistics, on average, about how many years will a woman be a widow in her later years?

A. 3


B. 4


C. 7


D. 10


52. Studies reveal that widows report that the biggest problem they have is:

A. low income


B. loneliness


C. isolation from children


D. self-identity


53. How one deals with the challenges of widowhood depends on:

A. physical factors


B. emotional factors


C. spiritual factors


D. all of these


E. A and B only


54. Which of the following was NOT cited by younger widows as a problem after their spouses died?

A. loneliness


B. home maintenance and car repair


C. finances


D. increased independence


55. _____ is often a period of disillusionment and disenchantment for couples who have not realized what marriage involves.

A. Early marriage


B. Parenthood


C. Middle adulthood


D. Late adulthood


56. The text makes a strong point that during ______ a great deal of stress can occur because the couple is inadequately prepared.

A. early marriage


B. parenthood


C. middle adulthood


D. late adulthood


57. Studies show that during ______marital satisfaction is at its lowest point.

A. early marriage


B. middle adulthood


C. retirement


D. post retirement


58. Research shows that stress arises in _____ because of the sudden transition to the stage.

A. early marriage


B. parenthood


C. middle adulthood


D. late adulthood


59. In _____, the text suggests that a tired marriage may need to be revitalized.

A. early marriage


B. parenthood


C. middle adulthood


D. late adulthood


60. In _____, the text points out that there is significant loss of status and prestige.

A. early marriage


B. parenthood


C. middle adulthood


D. late adulthood


61. The family life cycle can be said to consist of the phases, or stages, over the life span and to describe changes in family structure during each stage.

True    False


62. Typically, according to census figures, a woman remarries 3 years after her divorce.

True    False


63. Same sex couples have very little role flexibility.

True    False


64. Researchers have found that gay and lesbian families are very different in most respects than are heterosexual families.

True    False


65. The goal of marital adjustment is to eliminate conflict.

True    False


66. According to longitudinal research, jealousy is often a big problem after marriage, even though it was not before the marriage.

True    False


67. The more stressful a couple’s marriage prior to parenthood, the more likely they are to have problems in adjusting to their first child.

True    False


68. Couples who prepare for parenthood find greater satisfaction in being a parent than do those who do not prepare.

True    False


69. Stress related to parenthood is greater if parents are young.

True    False


70. Ego resiliency refers to the generalized capacity to be flexible and resourceful in adapting to stress.

True    False


71. Parents today see their children leaving home at an earlier age than in past decades.

True    False


72. In looking at the population over age 45, the number of widows is about 4 times the number of widowers.

True    False


73. The chief psychological task of the final stage of life is the development of ego integrity – contentment with one’s life as it is and has been.

True    False


74. Discuss the traditional family life cycle of spouses in an intact marriage in the United States.





75. What usually precipitates a midlife crisis?





76. Describe the “sandwich generation.” To what does this term refer? Give some examples in your answer.





77. Unmarried children continue living with their parents for a longer period of time than they used to for three basic reasons. Discuss them.





78. What problems and stresses do widows face?





79. Identify four of the nine categories of major adjustments facing elderly people that were discussed in the chapter.





80. Identify and give an example of five of the twelve marital adjustment tasks early in marriage as discussed in the chapter.





81. Why is parenthood often a period of stress?





82. What did fathers report as the primary components of good fathering?





83. Discuss the effects of people going through divorce during late adulthood.





84. What are the chief sources of stress in middle age?





85. Identify and briefly discuss the six different types of long-term marriages described by Weishaus and Field.





86. Outline the basic stages of the family life cycle in an intact marriage and in a family in which there has been divorce and remarriage.





87. Discuss the differences and similarities of gay and lesbian families as compared to heterosexual marriages.





88. Summarize the major marital adjustment tasks early in marriage.





89. Describe the relationship between marriage happiness and life satisfaction.





90. Discuss the major adjustments people typically face during middle adulthood.





91. Discuss the ramifications that the return of adult children to their parents’ home might have on the parents, the adult children, and the grandchildren.





92. Summarize the major adjustments typically necessary during late adulthood.





93. Describe marriage and family relationships among the elderly.



Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

1. Power in intimate relationships refers to:

A. the ability to influence other family members to get what one wants


B. the influence that families have in society


C. how strong a relationship is when stressful situations occur


D. how much authority parents have over their children and each other


2. Which of the following does your text say to be true regarding the exercise of power?

A. People who exercise power live a life of conflict.


B. People can find fulfillment without having to exercise power over others.


C. Without some personal power, it’s difficult to survive as an independent individual.


D. It’s unhealthy for children to try to influence their parents


3. The power bestowed by society on men and women as their right according to social prescription is called

A. legitimate power


B. legal power


C. economic power


D. social power


4. According to the text, legitimate power can be said to refer to power that ______.

A. gets us what we wanted


B. is lawful


C. is bestowed by society as our right


D. doesn’t hurt anyone else


5. Our families of origin _______ how we exercise power.

A. determine


B. dictate


C. have little control over


D. teach us


6. The first power base from which the child learns to function is the

A. school


B. playground


C. neighborhood


D. family of origin


7. According to the text, the need to have power over other people is:

A. a healthy expression of societal and family power


B. a compensation for inner insecurities


C. a construct of social control theory


D. natural as long as no one gets hurt


8. According to _____ theory, the use of power or violence is a response to an upsetting behavior by others.

A. social control theory


B. attachment theory


C. feminist theory


D. patriarchal theory


9. Which theoretical framework, used to explain the need for power, asserts that the patriarchal hierarchy in families allows the use of male-female violence as a way of maintaining male power within the marriage?

A. attachment theory


B. social control theory


C. feminist theory


D. patriarchal theory


10. According to social control theory, using power (or violence) as a response to an upsetting behavior by another serves all EXCEPT which of the following functions?

A. an expression of anger congruent with the triggering event


B. a means to manage conflict in a relationship


C. an expression of grievances


D. a form of social control


11. Research shows that contemporary Black families are more _____ White couples.

A. matriarchal


B. patriarchal


C. traditional


D. egalitarian


12. In a study examining men’s ideas about the woman’s place in the family, the belief that women preferred to stay at home and that the woman’s career was secondary to her job as a wife and mother was held by:

A. traditional men


B. a transitional group of men


C. liberal male respondents


D. an intermediate group of men


13. According to _____ theory, those who control valued resources needed by other family members hold power over them.

A. socialization


B. social exchange


C. resource


D. marital power


14. A 1999 study showed that women who were the breadwinners in a family felt _____.

A. they had more power in the family than the men


B. they were not doing enough around the house


C. they deserved more power because they made more money


D. resentment that their husbands were not supporting the family so they could stay home


15. ______ power can be said to be used by the person who knows more about a particular issue.

A. expert


B. informational


C. presumed competence


D. primary interest


16. A person who has a superior education has:

A. expert power


B. informational power


C. presumed competence power.


D. resource power


17. Which theory says that the person who is most interested and involved with a particular choice and most qualified to make a particular decision is the one most likely to do so?

A. socialization


B. social exchange


C. primary interest and presumed competence


D. resource


18. Which of the following personality characteristics is likely to give people the most power in a relationship?

A. kindness


B. high self-esteem


C. aggressiveness


D. motivation to control


19. What best describes one relationship between personality and power?

A. People with low self-esteem are incapable of exerting influence over others.


B. The younger spouse typically exerts influence over the older one when there is a large age difference.


C. Those who are most motivated often gain the most power.


D. Personality differences have no influence on power.


20. Withholding sex is a way of using _____ power to control another person.

A. physical


B. persuasive


C. psychological


D. gender


21. According to __________ theory, those with the greatest love and emotional needs have the least power.

A. socialization


B. social exchange


C. primary interest and presumed competence


D. resource


22. Men who have to rely on their _____ for power try to limit the ______ of those they want power over.

A. partners; intelligence


B. self-esteem; physical strength


C. physical strength; alternatives


D. life circumstances; intelligence


23. The threat of physical force or other types of punishment to force compliance is referred to as:

A. egalitarian power


B. coercive power


C. expert power


D. legitimate power


24. One way children exercise power in a family is by ______.

A. screaming, yelling, and throwing fits


B. threatening to run away


C. getting parents to disagree


D. being obedient and loving


25. Research shows that the highest level of marital satisfaction is reported by couples who use a/an _____ pattern of interaction with one another.

A. female-dominated


B. male-dominated


C. egalitarian


D. anarchic


26. A woman in a female-dominated relationship may be demanding because she wants:

A. her spouse to take on more leadership and authority


B. a spouse who is more equal


C. more control over the material resources of the family


D. her spouse to do everything the way she wants it done


27. Research shows that minor violence is least likely to occur in ______ marital relationships.

A. female-dominated


B. male-dominated


C. egalitarian


D. anarchic


28. The power pattern that is most likely to lead to an unhappy marriage is _____.

A. female-dominated


B. male-dominated


C. egalitarian


D. anarchic


29. Couples who interact in an anarchic fashion do so because _____.

A. neither particularly cares who makes the decisions


B. each is trying to exert his/her own power and resist the other’s


C. neither person wants the responsibility for making decisions


D. they each fear confrontation and so they avoid arguments


30. Marital power patterns have been divided into four types. Which of the following is NOT one of these?

A. egalitarian


B. male-dominant


C. coercive


D. anarchic


31. In a/an __________ marital power pattern, both the husband and the wife have power but have no agreement as to how decisions will be made.

A. egalitarian


B. anarchic


C. pluralistic


D. mutually satisfying


32. Studies of the relationship between power and marriage satisfaction have consistently shown that female-dominant couples are, on the whole:

A. the most satisfied of all couples.


B. less satisfied than egalitarian, but not male-dominant couples.


C. less satisfied than male-dominant, but not egalitarian, couples.


D. less satisfied than egalitarian or male-dominant couples.


33. Therapy appears to be more successful for ______ couples than for couples with other power patterns.

A. male-dominated


B. female-dominated


C. egalitarian


D. anarchic


34. Power processes could be said to be ______.

A. what happens in an interaction between two people


B. tactics for getting others to do what we want them to


C. the ways that people use the power they have


D. constructs that describe where people get their power


35. According to the text, the two basic ways that people exert the power they have is by either ______ or ______.

A. making decisions; carrying out decisions


B. bargaining; negotiating


C. forcing compliance; backing down


D. equalizing power; controlling the other person


36. The text points out that power tactics likely to increase the quality of relationships include:

A. persuading


B. bargaining and negotiating


C. being nice


D. discussion and explaining


E. B and D


37. According to the text, one power tactic that can EITHER build or damage a relationship is:

A. persuading


B. acting helpless so the other person feels powerful


C. bargaining with the other person


D. explaining why you want what you are asking for


38. Which power tactic involves “quid pro quo”?

A. persuasion


B. bargaining


C. discussion


D. rationalization


39. One power tactic that helps to build better relationships is:

A. being helpless or dependent


B. gaslighting


C. bargaining and negotiation


D. overprotecting


40. The ability to make important decisions that determine life-styles and other major features of the family is called _______ power.

A. implementation


B. bargaining


C. orchestration


D. psychological


41. When someone uses his/her power to decrease the power of the other person, this power tactic is:

A. gaslighting


B. destructive


C. constructive


D. punishing


42. A pattern of interaction that appears legitimate but that actually has an ulterior motive is:

A. orchestration power


B. implementation power


C. diplomatic power


D. a psychological game


43. The use of indirect messages, hints, or talking around an issue is an example of which of the following psychological games:

A. wooden leg


B. corner


C. camouflage


D. martyr


E. scapegoating


44. Which psychological game is involved with blaming others instead of accepting responsibility oneself?

A. blackmailing


B. criticizing


C. gaslighting


D. scapegoating


45. Which power tactic is involved with one person’s attempting to destroy the self-confidence, perceptions, and sense of reality of another person?

A. blackmailing


B. criticizing


C. gaslighting


D. scapegoating


46. Which of the following is true of psychological games?

A. They tend to prevent true intimacy.


B. They are obstacles to clear communication.


C. They tend to be an obstacle to conflict resolution.


D. all of these are true


E. B and C only


47. A person playing the jealous game:

A. demands all the time and attention of the partner/victim


B. frequently monitors the activities of the partner/victim closely


C. often isolates the partner/victim from family and friends


D. all of these


E. B and C


48. Having an excessive or unbalanced need for control can cause:

A. anxiety


B. stress


C. conflict


D. all of these


E. B and C


49. Which of the following principles can be helpful in coping positively with the need for control?

A. practice acceptance and trust


B. develop patience


C. focus on the other person’s behavior


D. all of these


E. B and C


50. Psychological games are used for which of the following reasons:

A. lack of trust


B. fear


C. desire to avoid responsibility


D. all of these


E. A and B


51. According to exchange theorists, satisfaction in marriage hinges on:

A. exchanging control for harmony


B. improving one’s own capacities


C. the perception of fairness or equity


D. the woman’s struggle to get out from under domination by men


52. Research comparing distressed and non-distressed couples found that distressed couples:

A. had the same communication skills level as non-distressed couples


B. had fewer communication skills than non-distressed couples


C. used communication skills with more negative intentions and ill will


D. B and C


E. A and C


53. The more we need someone’s affection, the _____ power we have.

A. more


B. less


54. The type of communication that involves inconsistency between words and actions is referred to as:

A. double-bind communication


B. body language


C. symbolic communication


D. cross-purposes communication


55. In general, close physical proximity in housing or living space is associated with:

A. less intimate relationships


B. more intimate relationships


C. neither more nor less intimacy


D. decreased self disclosure


56. In a study of the preferences and habits of college students from over 100 universities, which were among the 2 most popular activities on campus?

A. football games


B. text messaging


C. Facebook communications


D. A and B


E. B and C


57. Which of the following exemplifies a situational barrier to communication?

A. interaction influenced by the proximity of people to each other


B. fear of rejection


C. a much older spouse and much younger spouse having difficulty in relating to each other


D. greater closeness felt during wife’s pregnancy but not after


58. Which type of barrier to communication is considered to be the most important?

A. physical and environmental


B. situational


C. cultural


D. psychological


59. In conversations, men are more likely than women to express:

A. their anger


B. facts


C. helpful suggestions


D. feelings


60. In conversations, women are more likely than men to focus on:

A. their anger


B. facts


C. helpful suggestions


D. relationships and interactions


61. In conversations, men are more likely to:

A. engage in the silent style of communication


B. be more concerned about putting their best argument forward


C. express anger and contempt


D. all of these


E. B and C


62. In communication patterns, women are more likely to:

A. come to the bottom line quickly


B. communicate in a nurturing and supportive way


C. use little nonverbal communication


D. all of these


E. A and C


63. Which of the following is an important principle for improving communication?

A. take time for communication


B. be empathic


C. give feedback


D. listen


E. all of these


64. Compared to low revealers, high revealers are:

A. less prone to disclose intimate facets of their personalities


B. likely to reveal intimate facets of their personalities early in the relationship


C. not able to accurately assess the intimate attitudes and values of their friends


D. less rational


65. Paraphrasing the other person’s statement, asking questions, and giving one’s own input are referred to as:

A. echoing


B. copying


C. self-disclosure


D. feedback


66. _____ is the ability to identify with the emotional state of another person. It is motivated by genuine concern for another.

A. empathy


B. sympathy


C. clarity


D. acceptance


67. When couples continually quarrel over the same thing, it may be because they are struggling with underlying issues of ________.

A. control and domination


B. intimacy and sharing


C. intimacy and control


D. sharing and domination


68. A person who feels significant others have abandoned him/her in the past and who keeps pushing the limits to see how much bad behavior and stress the partner/victim will endure is playing which psychological game?

A. Hard to Get


B. Sweetheart


C. Prove Your Love for Me


D. It’s Your Decision


E. Wooden Leg


69. In general, couples in which both people are high revealers are more compatible than are couples in which both are low revealers or pairs that differ in the level of disclosure.

True    False


70. Seeing the problem as a difficulty the couple is having, rather than as something one partner does to the other is a good guideline to follow for arguing constructively.

True    False


71. Educated, middle-class ideology in the United States emphasizes a patriarchal exercise of family power.

True    False


72. Power in intimate relationships is defined as the ability to influence one’s partner to get what one wants.

True    False


73. Power bestowed by society on men and women as their right according to social prescriptions is referred to as intimate power.

True    False


74. Building up hopes and shattering them for no acceptable reason is an example of gaslighting.

True    False


75. In the study of families in which the men made more money than the women, and of families in which the women earned more, none of the men who were employed full-time in either group did more than half of the domestic labor.

True    False


76. Those with the greatest relational power also report higher levels of self-esteem.

True    False


77. According to social exchange theory, the partner with the greater love and emotional needs tends to have the greater power.

True    False


78. High rates of satisfaction have been found in female-dominant relationships.

True    False


79. Anarchic couples exhibit less negative behavior than either male-or-female-dominant couples.

True    False


80. Implementation power is the power to make the important decisions that determine family lifestyles and the major characteristics and features of the family.

True    False


81. Bargaining is the process by which two parties decide what each will give and receive in arriving at a decision.

True    False


82. When power tactics are used to maintain or increase the imbalance of power in a relationship, they are usually destructive.

True    False


83. Power produces strong psychological changes in power holders.

True    False


84. In what ways is personal power necessary for self-actualization?





85. According to social control theory, using power as a response to an upsetting behavior by others serves three functions. Name them.





86. Name the various sources of power in a marital relationship.





87. How can being employed affect a married woman’s decision-making power in the family?





88. There are two aspects of the theory of primary interest and presumed competence. Name them and give an example.





89. Marital power patterns can be divided into four types. Name and discuss them.





90. Discuss the consequences of extreme imbalances of power between two people.





91. Identify the four requirements for skill in communication.





92. Identify three ways in which clarity and accuracy in communication can be enhanced.





93. Define psychological game and give three examples of specific psychological games.





94. What is meant by power in intimate relationships? Identify different aspects of family power.





95. Three theoretical frameworks are often used to explain the need for power. Name and discuss them.





96. What are the reasons people want power?





97. What are some possible effects of extreme imbalances of power on individuals and on marital satisfaction?





98. Identify four major barriers to communication.





99. Describe the communication process, both verbal and nonverbal, and why it is important in marriage.





100. Discuss guidelines for arguing constructively.





101. Identify and discuss four reasons why people play psychological games. How can a psychological game be stopped?




Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

1. The term ‘family planning’ means ________.

A. having sex without getting pregnant


B. using contraception when having sex


C. deciding when you get married how many children to have


D. having the number of children you want when you want


2. Research shows that delaying childbirth is ______.

A. necessary when marriage is delayed


B. a form of family planning


C. beneficial to families


D. more common when people marry young


3. The federal government provides funds for programs in public schools that are aimed at reducing teen pregnancy and the spread of STDs. Recent legislation requires these programs to _____ to receive funding.

A. teach abstinence only as a form of birth control


B. hand out free condoms in high schools


C. serve predominantly lower-income teens


D. demonstrate their effectiveness


4. Getting pregnant beyond the age of 35 increases the risk of giving birth to:

A. over weight babies by 40%.


B. low birth weight babies by 10%


C. low birth weight babies by 20-40%


D. premature babies by 40%


5. Oral contraceptives contain the synthetically produced hormones that are chemically similar to:

A. estrogen and androgen


B. progesterone and androgen


C. estrogen and progesterone


D. estrogen and endometrium


6. Women who use the pill:

A. should not also use condoms.


B. are protected against HIV infection


C. have an increased likelihood of developing pelvic inflammatory diseases.


D. should not smoke.


7. Which of the following prevent ovulation and alters the endometrium to prevent successful implantation of a possible fertilized ovum?

A. oral contraceptives


B. cervical caps or shields




D. condoms


8. A(n) ______ is inserted into the uterus and releases very small amounts of progestin continuously for up to 5 years.



B. cervical shield


C. vaginal ring


D. Norplant


9. The brand of progestin injection most commonly used in the United States is called

A. Norplant.


B. RU-486.


C. Depo-Provera.


D. Prostaglandin.


10. Emergency contraceptive pills (ECP):

A. make pregnancy following unprotected sex much less likely to happen


B. are taken in 5 to 7 doses up to 120 hours after sex


C. prevent ovulation or interfere with fertilization


D. all of these


E. A and C


11. Your friend wants to use hormonal contraceptives, but has trouble remembering to take a pill every day. Which of these might you suggest to her?

A. progestin injection (Depo-Provera)


B. implant (Implanon)


C. vaginal ring/ contraceptive patch


D. any of these


E. A and B


12. Serious disadvantages of hormonal contraceptive include that they:

A. may cause blood clots, increasing the risk of heart attacks or strokes


B. do not protect against STDs


C. increase benign breast disease and ovarian cysts


D. all of these


E. A and B


13. Spermicides come in all the following forms EXCEPT ______.

A. suppository


B. film


C. cream


D. powder


14. Spermicides provide contraceptive protection by:

A. killing the ovum


B. immobilizing the sperm


C. preventing implantation


D. preventing ovulation


15. The Pills-A-Plenty Pharmaceutical Company is conducting a test of the effectiveness of a new contraceptive. They have included all the people ages 15 to 44 who are using the method – even if some have used the method incorrectly or inconsistently. The effectiveness rate they calculate will be

A. the actual or typical use rate


B. the perfect use rate


C. not very accurate


D. not very helpful


E. A, C, D


16. Which of the following is more effective for women who have not had children?

A. cervical cap


B. female condom


C. intrauterine device


D. male condom


17. Which of the following contraceptive methods can protect against HIV infection?

A. condom


B. cervical cap


C. diaphragm


D. intrauterine device


18. For which of the following is the failure rate the highest even when correctly used?

A. condom


B. intrauterine device


C. spermicides


D. contraceptive pills


19. What contraceptive device is made of plastic, contains progestin or copper, and is placed in the uterus to prevent pregnancy?





C. contraceptive patch


D. progestin implant


20. Which form of contraception has had major troubles with lawsuits?



B. vaginal sponge


C. the pill


D. diaphragm


21. How do IUDs rate as an effective contraceptive?

A. slightly better than the pill


B. second only to the pill


C. much less effective than the pill


D. cannot compare them (insufficient data)


22. Which of the following is NOT classified as a barrier method?

A. CycleBeads


B. diaphragm


C. cervical cap


D. contraceptive sponge


23. Why don’t condoms offer protection against HIV, herpes, and hepatitis?

A. These viruses can permeate lambskin condoms.


B. Condoms can leak or break.


C. Condoms are not always used properly


D. All of the above


E. A and B


24. When a condom and a spermicide are used together, the effectiveness rate among typical users is about:

A. 55%


B. 73%


C. 86%


D. 97%


25. A thick, dome-shaped rubber latex cap which is stretched over a collapsible metal ring is called a:



B. cervical cap


C. diaphragm.


D. condom.


26. Which procedure has fewer long term health risks?

A. castration


B. vasectomy


C. tubal ligation


D. all are equally risky


27. This soft disk of polyurethane foam contains spermicide and fits over the cervix. It is called the

A. cervical cap


B. cervical shield


C. contraceptive sponge




28. To reduce the risk of toxic shock syndrome, a/an _____ should not be left in place for more than 24 hours.

A. diaphragm, cervical shield, or cervical cap






D. vaginal ring


29. Effectiveness rates for tubal ligation and vasectomy are:

A. 90%


B. 95%


C. 97%


D. more than 99%


30. If a man wants to have a vasectomy but also wants to maintain the option of fathering children at some point in the future, his best chances would be by:

A. having his sperm frozen and deposited in a sperm bank


B. having a partial vasectomy, keeping one duct open


C. reversing the vasectomy surgically when he wants children


D. taking female hormones until he decides to have children


31. Female sterilization by severing or closing the fallopian tubes is called

A. electro-coagulation


B. hysterotomy


C. tubal ligation


D. hysterectomy


32. To be most effective, fertility awareness methods require ______.

A. a regular menstrual cycle


B. abstinence (or use of another method) for long periods


C. careful observation of signs of ovulation


D. douching after intercourse


E. A, B, and C


33. Which of the following methods is most effective if used carefully?

A. withdrawal (coitus interruptus)


B. douching after intercourse


C. noncoital stimulation


D. basal body temperature method


34. Which of the following methods is MOST unreliable as a method of preventing pregnancy?

A. withdrawal (coitus interruptus)


B. fertility awareness


C. calendar method


D. basal body temperature method


35. A woman is most likely to be fertile:

A. 1 week during menstruation


B. 14 days after her period ends


C. 14 days before the onset of the next menstrual period


D. just before menstruation


36. The calendar method for contraception is improved by the additional use of

A. the basal body temperature method


B. the cervical mucus method


C. progestin capsules.


D. all of these


E. A and B


37. Cervical mucus that appears _____ is considered “fertile” (ovulation is close or underway).

A. clear, stretchy, slippery


B. cloudy


C. sticky, tacky


D. B and C


38. Why can a woman sometimes get pregnant even though the man withdraws before ejaculation?

A. The woman may already have had her orgasm.


B. The woman has already ovulated.


C. The lubricating fluid from the Cowper’s gland contains sperm.


D. The sperm have already swum out of the penis.


39. The three most popular contraceptive methods among married women and their husbands are

A. sterilization, contraceptive pills, condoms


B. condoms, IUDs, and diaphragms


C. fertility awareness, condoms, IUDs


D. contraceptive pills, condoms, and diaphragms


40. Even with contraceptive use, about _____ women experience an accidental pregnancy.

A. 1 in 4


B. 1 in 5


C. 1 in 8


D. 1 in 10


41. Sexually active, never-married women, when using birth control, were more likely to choose:

A. the IUD


B. birth control pills


C. spermicidal jelly


D. a cervical cap


42. The basis for the U.S. Supreme Court’s abortion ruling in 1973 was that women have a right to ___________.

A. privacy


B. choose


C. have an abortion


D. not have children


43. States do NOT have the right to make laws governing abortion that prevent _____.

A. abortion without counseling


B. underage girls from getting abortions without their parents’ consent


C. abortion if the baby is viable


D. abortion when the mother’s life or health is at risk


44. The highest abortion rate is among ______ women.

A. White


B. Black


C. underaged


D. older


45. Both sides of the abortion debate agree that having an abortion is ________.

A. a decision that a woman can make only with her doctor


B. psychologically damaging to the mother


C. a simple and painless form of emergency contraception


D. a decision that can only be made after extensive consideration


46. The majority of abortions today are for _______ reasons.

A. fertility


B. personal and economic


C. health


D. medical


47. In Roe v. Wade, the Court declared that during the second trimester or pregnancy, a state may regulate the abortion procedure to the extent that the regulation relates to:

A. maternal health


B. fetal rights


C. the right to privacy


D. the right of choice


48. The most recent controversy in abortion law has been over:

A. Roe v. Wade.


B. the Sarvis Amendment


C. late-term and partial-birth abortions


D. when life actually begins.


49. Various estimates place the number of illegal abortions before 1967 at about:

A. 5% of total pregnancies.


B. 10% of total pregnancies.


C. 15% of total pregnancies.


D. 20% of total pregnancies.


50. Scientific research clearly supports the idea that human life begins

A. at conception


B. 40 days after conception


C. at viability


D. None of these is supported by scientific research.


51. About _____ of infertility cases involve male infertility; about _____ involve female infertility.

A. 5 – 10%; 10 – 20%


B. 15 – 20%; 15 – 20%


C. 30 – 40%; 40 – 50%


D. 25%; 75%


52. In artificial insemination (AI) sperm from the partner or a donor is placed:

A. in the fallopian tubes


B. in a laboratory dish with harvested ova


C. into the vagina, cervix, or uterus


D. any of these


53. In a/an _____, harvested ova and sperm are inserted directly into the fallopian tube, where normal conception takes place.

A. in vitro fertilization (IVF)


B. gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT)


C. artificial insemination (AI)


D. embryo transfer


54. _____ involves removing egg cells from a woman, fertilizing them with sperm in the laboratory, growing them for 3 to 5 days, and then placing them in the uterus.







D. Surrogacy


55. Causes of infertility include:

A. blockage of the fallopian tubes or vas deferens


B. reduced sperm count or sperm motility


C. retrograde ejaculation


D. all of these


E. A and B


56. Treatment of infertility includes:

A. hormonal treatment


B. surgery


C. use of fertility awareness methods


D. AI, GIFT, IVF as alternative ways of conception


E. all of these


57. Of those who petition for adoption, about _____ are related to the child they wish to

A. one-fourth


B. one-third


C. one-half


D. two-thirds


58. Children enter foster care because:

A. their parents have been abusive/neglectful to them


B. their parents are ill or incarcerated


C. their parents are unable to care for them due to other reasons


D. all of these


E. A and C


59. Concerns for children in foster care include:

A. too few African American foster parents for African American children


B. developmental delays and behavior problems


C. too strong attachments being formed between children and foster parents


D. all of these


E. A and C


60. In 2002, the mean age for women at first birth was about:

A. 20


B. 22


C. 24


D. 25


61. According to census data, childlessness among ever-married women:

A. decreased from 1980 to 1998.


B. doubled from 2% in 1980 to 4% in 1998.


C. doubled from 7% in 1980 to 14% in 1998.


D. tripled from 7% in 1980 to 21% in 1998.


62. A 2003 study found that one of the main reasons people chose a child-free marriage was:

A. because children cost too much to rear


B. for increased personal freedom


C. because they were worried that having children would hurt the marriage


D. because they were afraid they would abuse their children


63. The reasons most often given by women for not having children include:

A. not finding motherhood fulfilling


B. wanting more time to spend with their husbands


C. not liking to do housework


D. not liking children


64. The increasing trend toward delaying first births is resulting in:

A. less financial pressure


B. an increase in loneliness


C. decreasing fertility


D. increasing marital breakup


65. Overall, voluntary child-free individuals viewed motherhood as natural and fulfilling.

True    False


66. Family planning is defined as having children by choice, not by chance, and having the number of children wanted at the time planned.

True    False


67. The minipill should be taken at about the same time every day to be most effective.

True    False


68. Emergency contraception is not available without a prescription in the United States.

True    False


69. A placebo is a pill that has no pharmacological effect; it contains no “active” ingredient.

True    False


70. An extended-cycle option of the combination pills (Seasonale or Seasonique) uses 84 active pills and 7 placebos; menstrual periods happen every 3 months.

True    False


71. Non-contraceptive benefits of the oral contraceptives include reductions in benign breast disease, ovarian cysts, and iron-deficiency anemia.

True    False


72. One benefit of spermicides is that they provide substantial protection against HIV.

True    False


73. Female condoms are slightly less effective than male condoms; they are more expensive.

True    False


74. Condoms used with spermicides are more effective than other barrier methods in preventing pregnancy.

True    False


75. Annie has been on a diet and exercise regimen and has lost 20 pounds. She looks and feels great, but doesn’t want to get pregnant. Can she rely on her diaphragm that she’s had for a year?

True    False


76. A nulliparous woman has had children.

True    False


77. A vasectomy involves castration.

True    False


78. Following vasectomy, most men no longer ejaculate during orgasm.

True    False


79. Tubal ligation is more costly and more complicated than vasectomy.

True    False


80. Basal Body Temperature method (BBT) can be disrupted by the use of an electric blanket.

True    False


81. Noncoital stimulation can lead to orgasm without intercourse.

True    False


82. The most recent controversy in abortion law has been over late-term abortions.

True    False


83. According to current Supreme Court rulings, states can ban elective abortions after the fetus is viable.

True    False


84. According to current Supreme Court rulings, states cannot require a waiting period or counseling before an abortion is performed.

True    False


85. Alcohol use and smoking can reduce fertility.

True    False


86. Use of a surrogate mother is a simple, relatively inexpensive option for an infertile couple.

True    False


87. Infertility is defined as failure to achieve a pregnancy after frequent, unprotected sex for 6 months.

True    False


88. Open adoption is much less expensive than the use of an agency.

True    False


89. Openness – full disclosure of all information to all the parties involved – is usually the least stressful option for everyone.

True    False


90. Identify the three ways in which conception is prevented with the use of oral contraceptives.





91. Describe how vaginal contraceptive film (VCF) works and how it compares to contraceptive foams and jellies.





92. What are some disadvantages of using an IUD?





93. What are the reasons why condoms fail?





94. There are two principal methods by which couples can improve on the rhythm method. Name them.





95. Identify three methods of birth control that do not use devices.





96. What were the provisions of Roe v. Wade as handed down by the U.S. Supreme Court?





97. Explain open adoption and list arguments for and against.





98. Identify three positive effects on families as a result of delayed childbearing.





99. Discuss three reasons given by couples for choosing a child-free marriage.





100. Discuss the basic issues and trends in relation to childlessness, smaller families, and delayed parenthood.





101. Discuss the following facts about oral contraceptives:
A. types and administration
B. use and action
C. effectiveness





102. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of hormonal contraceptives.





103. Discuss the hormonal methods other than the oral contraceptives. Include advantages and risks.





104. Explain basic information about the use of spermicides as contraceptives.





105. Explain basic information about fertility awareness methods of contraception. Include effectiveness, advantages, and disadvantages.





106. Compare and contrast male and female condoms.





107. Compare and contrast the cervical shield, cervical cap, diaphragm, and contraceptive sponge.





108. Compare and contrast tubal ligation and vasectomy.





109. Discuss the legal considerations in relation to abortion.





110. Discuss the social and psychological considerations in relation to abortion.





111. Discuss the pros and cons of openness – full disclosure of all information to all parties – in adoption.







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