Test Bank Of A History of World Societies Combined Volume 10th Edition By John P. McKay





Test Bank Of A History of World Societies Combined Volume 10th Edition By John P. McKay


Choose the letter of the best answer.



1. How is the term species generally defined?
  A) A group of organisms that can communicate with one another
  B) A group of organisms that will share food with one another
  C) A group of organisms that can mate and produce fertile offspring of both sexes
  D) A group of organisms that originate from a different ancestor



2. During which of the following periods did the ancestor common to both chimpanzees and humans probably live?
  A) 3 to 5 million years ago
  B) 5 to 7 million years ago
  C) 10 to 12 million years ago
  D) 12 to 14 million years ago



3. Scientists used which of the following to label the first periods of human history?
  A) The material used for tools
  B) The height of the human form
  C) Language ability and skill level
  D) The location of human settlements



4. Although the date varies by location, when did the shift to agriculture first occur?
  A) 3000 B.C.E.
  B) 15,000 B.C.E.
  C) 9000 B.C.E.
  D) 1000 B.C.E.



5. What term is used for the first fully bipedal hominid known to paleontologists?
  A) Ardipithecus
  B) Homo habilis
  C) Australopithecus
  D) Homo sapiens



6. Where have the majority of Australopithecus skeletal remains been found?
  A) The Sahara Desert
  B) The Great Rift Valley
  C) Jericho Valley
  D) The Island of Java



7. How did Homo erectus differ from modern humans?
  A) Homo erectus had a slightly smaller brain size than modern humans.
  B) Homo erectus had no capacity for making and using tools.
  C) Homo erectus lived in larger groups than modern humans.
  D) Homo erectus shared food preparations and gathering.



8. How Homo erectus migrate from China about 1.5 million years ago to settle on Java?
  A) By sailing woven grass boats
  B) By walking over land
  C) By floating on planks
  D) By paddling canoes



9. Where did Homo sapiens first evolve?
  A) The Black Sea region
  B) The Nile Valley
  C) China
  D) East Africa



10. Why were better social skills especially important for early human females?
  A) They needed help with food gathering.
  B) They needed help with home building.
  C) They needed help attracting a mate.
  D) They needed help with child rearing.



11. Which of the following skills did Homo sapiens acquire around 25,000 years ago?
  A) The capacity to weave cloth
  B) The capacity to make tools from stone
  C) The capacity to domesticate sheep
  D) The capacity to use fire for warmth



12. Which of the following is evidence that Neanderthals understood death to have a symbolic meaning?
  A) They drew pictures of the dead on walls.
  B) They buried the dead with symbolic objects.
  C) They wrote stories about the meaning of death.
  D) They built large funerary monuments.



13. The Neanderthals of Europe were a branch of what hominid group?
  A) Homo sapiens
  B) Homo habilis
  C) Australopithecus
  D) Homo erectus



14. Between 1 and 4 percent of the DNA in modern humans is shared with what early hominid?
  A) Homo sapiens
  B) Cro-Magnon
  C) Neanderthals
  D) Australopithecus



15. Which of the following allowed Homo sapiens to migrate to Australia and New Guinea?
  A) Simple rafts
  B) Land bridges
  C) Large boats
  D) Swimming



16. What was one of the results of endogamy?
  A) An increase in fertility
  B) A lack of diversity of languages
  C) The inability of Homo sapiens to mate with one another
  D) Differences in physical features and spoken language



17. The term forager is now used by historians instead of what traditional term?
  A) Hunter-gatherer
  B) Stone-age man
  C) Caveman
  D) First people



18. Which of the following foods dominated the diet of Paleolithic foragers?
  A) Trapped animals
  B) Fish
  C) Hunted animals
  D) Plants



19. Paleolithic humans may have encouraged the growth of new plants by doing what?
  A) Planting seeds
  B) Hunting large game
  C) Harvesting crops
  D) Setting fires



20. How many hours a week did early foragers generally spend gathering food?
  A) One to three hours
  B) Forty hours
  C) Fifty hours or more
  D) Ten to twenty hours



21. Which of the following is true of Paleolithic mating patterns?
  A) Most Paleolithic humans sought mates from outside their kinship groups.
  B) Mates were usually selected from within the same kinship group.
  C) Most mates were purchased from a distant tribal group.
  D) Mates were generally people taken captive in conflict.



22. The burial sites of Paleolithic humans reveal that they believed that all things and natural occurrences had which of the following?
  A) Meaning
  B) Economic value
  C) Danger
  D) Spirits



23. What did Paleolithic peoples believe about dead members of their kinship groups?
  A) That the dead were gone forever
  B) That deceased family members were still with them
  C) That the dead became new gods
  D) That the dead would return one day



24. Who in Paleolithic society was believed to regularly receive messages from the spirit world?
  A) The chief
  B) The shaman
  C) The king
  D) The warriors



25. What was one of the shaman’s primary duties?
  A) Healing the sick
  B) Leading the war band
  C) Harvesting crops
  D) Leading building projects in urban areas



26. What discovery marks the transition from Paleolithic to Neolithic?
  A) Stone tools
  B) Religion
  C) Burial
  D) Agriculture



27. What major climate change occurred about 15,000 years ago?
  A) Temperatures warmed and glaciers melted.
  B) Monsoon patterns began.
  C) Temperatures became slightly colder.
  D) El Niño wind patterns first developed.



28. What term describes a crop that has been modified by selective breeding?
  A) Trained
  B) Marketed
  C) Domesticated
  D) Husbanded



29. Horticulture refers to the growing of plants using what tool?
  A) Clubs
  B) Plows
  C) Digging sticks
  D) Sickles



30. Beginning about 9000 B.C.E., people in the Fertile Crescent began to domesticate what crop?
  A) Yams
  B) Wheat
  C) Squash
  D) Rice



31. How did women’s work change as a result of settled agriculture?
  A) Women were responsible for working the fields while their husbands hunted.
  B) Women became merchants because they now had time to produce things to sell.
  C) Women continued to be quite mobile and continued to add to family diet through foraging.
  D) Women likely began to spend more time tending to household needs.



32. How did the amount of labor required for horticulture compare to that for foraging?
  A) Horticulture required less time and labor than foraging.
  B) Horticulture required more time and labor than foraging.
  C) Horticulture required the same amount of time and labor as foraging.
  D) Horticulture required more time and labor than foraging, but only during harvesting season.



33. By 4000 B.C.E., how far north of the Fertile Crescent had horticulture spread?
  A) To Britain
  B) To Scandinavia
  C) To Ethiopia
  D) To Russia



34. Potatoes and quinoa were domesticated by 3000 B.C.E. in what region?
  A) Indus Valley
  B) Western United States
  C) Andes Mountains
  D) Fertile Crescent



35. What species of animal did humans domesticate around 15,000 years ago?
  A) Sheep
  B) Dogs
  C) Cattle
  D) Horses



36. Which of the following was a consequence of humans living in close proximity with animals?
  A) Humans had an easier time domesticating animals.
  B) Humans spread disease to animals, leading to the extinction of some species.
  C) Humans were exposed to more pathogens.
  D) Humans began to consider animals as property.



37. Animal domestication led to humans becoming able to digest which of the following?
  A) Milk
  B) Meat
  C) Grain
  D) Minerals



38. The natural herding instinct of what animal paved the way for pastoralism?
  A) Pigs
  B) Yaks
  C) Humans
  D) Sheep



39. Beginning in the sixth millennium B.C.E., people attached wooden sticks to frames and pack animals to use as a simple version of what developing technology?
  A) Weapons
  B) Fences to mark boundaries of territory
  C) Early threshers
  D) Plows



40. How did the moldboard plow aid early farmers?
  A) It turned over soil, breaking it up for easier planting.
  B) It planted seeds as it moved through the soil.
  C) It helped to harvest crops.
  D) It made straighter furrows.



41. In most Neolithic communities, which group of people were the first to work out written codes of law?
  A) Craftsmen
  B) Priests
  C) Warriors
  D) Farmers



42. Every society that has left a written record was organized around what important hierarchical system?
  A) Patriarchy
  B) Theocracy
  C) Pastoralism
  D) Matriarchy



43. What is depicted in the earliest Egyptian hieroglyph for weaving?
  A) Children weaving
  B) A loom and shuttle
  C) Sheep being sheared
  D) A woman with a shuttle



44. Which of the following was an important feature of the houses of Çatal Hüyük?
  A) They were constructed without roofs.
  B) Elites lived in round houses with two doors.
  C) They were made of mud brick.
  D) They were spaced far apart to combat disease.



45. For what did Neolithic peoples use obsidian?
  A) It was melted to construct plow blades.
  B) It was used to make knives and blades.
  C) It was easily carved into storage jars.
  D) It was woven into carpets to make them stronger.



46. What alloy is created by mixing copper with another metal such as arsenic?
  A) Iron
  B) Steel
  C) Tin
  D) Bronze



47. Why did Neolithic peoples build circular structures?
  A) It helped them to predict where best to herd their animals.
  B) Circular structures were believed to predict the movements of the stars.
  C) Circular structures were believed to possess magical powers to help people know where to migrate next.
  D) Priests taught their populations that building large circular structures would ensure a large harvest for years to come.



48. What characteristics did the gods of polytheistic Neolithic societies develop?
  A) They took on social hierarchies and had specific labor responsibilities.
  B) They were originally believed to resemble people but later were depicted as animals.
  C) They were always depicted as strong animals.
  D) They were seen as heavenly creatures with wings.



49. As Neolithic religious structures became more hierarchical, what was the purpose of the most important religious practice?
  A) Ensuring military success
  B) Granting a special skill
  C) Foretelling the future
  D) Ensuring fertility



50. By what time was the Bronze Age well under way?
  A) 10,000 B.C.E.
  B) 7500 B.C.E.
  C) 5000 B.C.E.
  D) 2500 B.C.E.


Choose the letter of the best answer.



1. How did the development of China compare with that of India and Mesopotamia?
  A) China engaged in much more long-distance trade with other civilizations.
  B) China had many more cultural breaks in its history.
  C) China had no written language.
  D) China had little contact with other people in Eurasia.



2. How is the dominant soil type in the Yellow River basin, loess, best defined?
  A) Hard-packed earth difficult to dig into
  B) An iron-rich soil with a reddish tint
  C) A loose, wind-driven soil that is easy to till
  D) A loose, sandy soil that is not very fertile



3. What was the predominant agricultural activity in the Yangzi River basin?
  A) Wheat farming
  B) Rice farming
  C) Cotton farming
  D) Vegetable farming



4. Approximately when did the Chinese begin to practice agriculture?
  A) 10,000 B.C.E.
  B) 5000 B.C.E.
  C) 1000 B.C.E.
  D) 750 B.C.E.



5. What funerary custom did Neolithic cultures in China share?
  A) Exposure of corpses to wild animals
  B) Ritual dismemberment of the corpse
  C) Burning of corpses in public pyres
  D) Use of coffins and burials



6. Which Chinese dynasty was the first to have writing, cities, and metalworking?
  A) Xiongnu
  B) Shang
  C) Zhou
  D) Yangzi



7. What was Anyang?
  A) An ancient legal philosophy
  B) A mythical Chinese ruler
  C) The Shang capital for more than two centuries
  D) A vision of the unity of nature



8. The palaces, temples, and altars in Anyang were built on what?
  A) Concrete foundations
  B) Loess fields
  C) Stilts above the ground
  D) Rammed-earth foundations



9. Why were many of the homes at Anyang built partly below ground?
  A) Because of a lack of building materials
  B) As a means to conserve heat
  C) For protection against attacks
  D) For spiritual reasons



10. According to texts found in Shang royal tombs, what important role did Shang kings fulfill?
  A) They were also philosophers.
  B) They were considered to be gods.
  C) They were the dynasty’s most important merchants.
  D) They were military chieftains.



11. Where did the Shang kings obtain the slaves that provided them with one of their most important sources of revenue?
  A) They were often men and women taken as war captives.
  B) They were people who were in debt to the king.
  C) They were orphans who were taken by the king and sold into slavery.
  D) They were the king’s former concubines, who were often sold into slavery.



12. Shang warriors’ weapons were tipped with what?
  A) Iron
  B) Steel
  C) Bronze
  D) Bone



13. In addition to leading his kingdom, what other important role did the Shang king fulfill?
  A) He controlled all trade.
  B) He was a master of the healing arts.
  C) He served as the high priest.
  D) He was considered a reincarnation of Di.



14. Which of the following is a true statement about the underground tombs built for Shang kings?
  A) All were constructed from wood, and few exist today.
  B) They were quite simple compared with those of other ancient civilizations.
  C) Their contents reveal that the Shang practiced human sacrifice.
  D) The coffins indicate that bodies of nobility were partly mummified.



15. What did the people who volunteered to be buried with deceased Shang kings and consorts usually have with them?
  A) Pets
  B) Family members
  C) Spell books
  D) Grave goods



16. From what material were the tools of Shang farmers made?
  A) Bronze
  B) Stone
  C) Iron
  D) Wood



17. The development of more complex forms of social organization in Shang China coincided with the mastery of what skill?
  A) Ship building
  B) Pottery making
  C) Silk weaving
  D) Metalworking



18. In Shang culture, what was a taotie?
  A) A priest who lived in a temple
  B) A message intended for a god
  C) A tool used to write
  D) A stylized animal face image



19. How was the Chinese system of writing similar to that in Egypt and Sumer?
  A) All three were logographic systems.
  B) Each symbol in all three systems represented a spoken syllable.
  C) Each of the three was an early alphabetical system.
  D) It was impossible to express abstract concepts in any of the three systems.



20. Which of the following facilitated communication between China, Vietnam, and Japan?
  A) Japan, Korea, and Vietnam adopted the Chinese script for writing.
  B) All three societies used the same spoken language.
  C) Japan, Korea, Vietnam, and China developed a common sign language.
  D) All three used the same phonetic script for writing.



21. When did the Zhou rise up and overthrow the Shang?
  A) Around 3150 B.C.E.
  B) Around 2250 B.C.E.
  C) Around 1400 B.C.E.
  D) Around 1050 B.C.E.



22. According to the Book of Documents, what did a ruler have to do to retain the Mandate of Heaven?
  A) Govern in the best interests of the people
  B) Expand his territorial holdings
  C) Remain humble and discreet
  D) Make sacrifices to the gods



23. What is a likely reason that the Zhou leadership created the theory of the Mandate of Heaven?
  A) They needed a way to convince the Zhou princes to fight.
  B) They needed a way to win the loyalty of the priestly class.
  C) They wanted to win over the conquered Shang.
  D) They wanted to gain the support of the peasantry.



24. Who helped the Zhou kings rule their newly conquered kingdom?
  A) Local, native warlords
  B) A powerful, centralized bureaucracy
  C) Family members and other loyal followers
  D) Military experts from Korea and Japan



25. In 771 B.C.E., the Zhou capital was moved to what city after the king was killed and replaced by his son?
  A) Anyang
  B) Chang-an
  C) Beijing
  D) Luoyang



26. Why is the Book of Songs especially valuable for people studying early Zhou China?
  A) It serves as the best source for understanding everyday life at various social levels.
  B) It explains the complexity of the Mandate of Heaven.
  C) It tells the story of China’s first musicians.
  D) It is a political manual much like India’s Arthashastra.



27. The development of which of the following helped to promote economic expansion in the early Zhou period?
  A) Writing
  B) Iron technology
  C) Laws
  D) Education



28. What Shang religious practice became less common in the Zhou period?
  A) The building of tombs for the dead
  B) The sacrifice of animals to the ancestors
  C) Human sacrifice
  D) Peasants’ perception of heaven as divine



29. What new military technology did the Chinese develop around 350 B.C.E.?
  A) The longbow
  B) The crossbow
  C) The mace
  D) The cannon



30. Around 350 B.C.E., Chinese soldiers began wearing armor made largely from what material?
  A) Steel
  B) Chain mail
  C) Bamboo
  D) Leather



31. The need for a chariot-riding aristocracy was diminished by the introduction of what military advancement?
  A) Iron weapons
  B) Cavalry
  C) Camel saddles
  D) Leather armor



32. In The Art of War, Sun Wu argued that military success required what?
  A) Great heroism from every man under command
  B) That orders by commanders be followed without question
  C) A leader who believed that surrender was the greatest dishonor
  D) A king who was willing to lead troops into battle



33. How did the seven states that emerged out of the Warring States Period compare with the Zhou state?
  A) They were more centralized than the Zhou.
  B) They were less militarized than the Zhou.
  C) They were geographically larger than the Zhou.
  D) They traded less with other states than the Zhou.



34. What are the traditional dates for the life of Confucius?
  A) 551–479 B.C.E.
  B) 187–102 B.C.E.
  C) 430–363 B.C.E.
  D) 315–274 B.C.E.



35. According to Confucius, what was the basic unit of society?
  A) Kingdom
  B) Family
  C) Village
  D) Individual



36. How many cardinal relationships did Confucius emphasize?
  A) One
  B) Three
  C) Five
  D) Seven



37. According to Confucius, which relationship was the only relationship based on mutual obligations between equals?
  A) The relationship between father and son
  B) The relationship between ruler and subject
  C) The relationship between husband and wife
  D) The relationship between friend and friend



38. Confucius redefined the term gentleman (or junzi) as which of the following?
  A) A man of noble birth and status
  B) A religious priest
  C) A man of moral cultivation
  D) A successful merchant



39. How did Confucius view the class distinctions that existed in Chinese society?
  A) He believed that class distinctions should not exist.
  B) He believed that there should be more class levels and deeper distinctions between them.
  C) He believed that only the uneducated should be divided by class.
  D) He minimized class distinctions and believed talent could elevate a person socially.



40. What was the ultimate virtue according to Confucius?
  A) Piety
  B) Humanity
  C) Physical strength
  D) Humility



41. Why did Mencius believe that a benevolent ruler would be successful?
  A) He would never be invaded or attacked.
  B) He would be proclaimed a god.
  C) He would be able to intimidate his subjects.
  D) He would have his subjects’ loyalty.



42. A follower of Confucius, Mencius claimed what about human beings?
  A) That human nature is fundamentally good
  B) That people need to serve their rulers without question
  C) That people can never learn to recognize right from wrong
  D) That people should govern themselves



43. The thinker Xunzi argued that
  A) people will always be corrupted by experience.
  B) human nature is fundamentally good.
  C) there is no point in trying to change human nature.
  D) people are born selfish and greedy but can be trained to be good.



44. What advantage did Xunzi have when compared to Confucius and Mencius?
  A) He had considerable political experience.
  B) He offered broad ideas that were less developed and detailed.
  C) He trained to be a priest and thought heaven should be involved in human affairs.
  D) His father had been a philosopher as well.



45. Unlike Confucius, Xunzi was willing to discuss which of the following?
  A) Ethics
  B) Morality
  C) Religion
  D) Education



46. According to the philosophy of the Laozi, people would be better off if they did what?
  A) Traveled more
  B) Knew less
  C) Learned to read
  D) Developed new tools



47. What was the Zhuangzi?
  A) The second text written by Laozi that discussed politics
  B) A work that questioned whether life was better than death
  C) A text written to refute the ideas of Confucius
  D) An essay that concerned itself mostly with political thought



48. According to advocates of Legalism, what characteristics should the ideal government have?
  A) Government should be bureaucratic and authoritarian.
  B) Government should put an end to social hierarchy.
  C) All governmental leaders should be highly moral and pious.
  D) Government should be small and weak.



49. Under Qin legalist principles, in addition to taxes, subjects owed the state which of the following?
  A) Proof of education
  B) Labor service
  C) Worship of the emperor
  D) Animal sacrifice



50. What do yin and yang represent?
  A) Good and evil forces in nature
  B) Complementary masculine and feminine principles
  C) Skills of ritual and music
  D) Distinct entities that are opposing forces


Choose the letter of the best answer.



1. In geographic terms, how large is Africa?
  A) It is larger than all the other continents combined.
  B) It is approximately the size of the United States and Mexico.
  C) It contains 20 percent of the world’s land surface.
  D) It is the world’s largest continent.



2. What are the Namib and the Kalahari?
  A) The fertile east and west coasts of Africa
  B) Two of the largest rivers in sub-Saharan Africa
  C) The capitals of Ghana and Mali, respectively
  D) Two of Africa’s great deserts



3. Which of Africa’s climate zones is best suited to grain-based agriculture?
  A) Rain forest
  B) Savanna
  C) Desert
  D) Steppe



4. Africa’s climate is mostly
  A) tropical.
  B) desert.
  C) equatorial.
  D) subtropical.



5. From where did Africans first gain ideas about settled agriculture?
  A) Indian Ocean traders brought plants and technology to Africa.
  B) The Greeks and Romans shared agricultural techniques with North Africa.
  C) Agriculture in Africa developed independently without outside influence.
  D) Africans learned about settled agriculture from the Middle East.



6. Scholars speculate that crops such as bananas and plantains originated where?
  A) They are indigenous to Africa.
  B) They were brought to Africa from South America.
  C) They were brought to Africa from Asia.
  D) They were brought to Africa from Europe.



7. What was one result of the development of agriculture in early Africa?
  A) The nuclear family became isolated from neighbors.
  B) Populations throughout Africa decreased at a slow rate.
  C) Marriage ties were weakened in all areas.
  D) Ties and connections between extended families became stronger.



8. The village of Nok in Nigeria is famed for which of the following metallurgic skills?
  A) Bronze casting
  B) Goldsmithing
  C) Silver mining
  D) Ironworking



9. What does the term Bantu refer to?
  A) A linguistic classification of African peoples who lived south of the Congo River.
  B) The name given to the ruler of the kingdom of Ghana.
  C) The region between the Sahara Desert and the subtropical region of central Africa.
  D) A form of slavery practiced in West Africa.



10. Where did the Bantu peoples originate?
  A) South Africa
  B) Egypt
  C) Cameroon and Nigeria
  D) Palestine



11. What crop was a major contributor to the rise in population of central Africa around 1000 C.E.?
  A) Bananas
  B) Yams
  C) Millet
  D) Sorghum



12. What was the basic social unit in the western Sudan after 1000 B.C.E.?
  A) The council of elders
  B) Parents and children
  C) Master and apprentice
  D) The extended family



13. Kingship in the western Sudan may have emerged out of what social role?
  A) Farmer
  B) Scribe
  C) Blacksmith
  D) Priest



14. Among the Asante in modern-day Ghana and the Yoruba in modern-day Nigeria, what figure held power equal to or even greater than the king?
  A) The chief priest
  B) The son of the king
  C) The Queen Mother
  D) The wife of the king



15. Which of the following describes religious practices in western Sudan?
  A) They were animistic and polytheistic.
  B) Most people adhered to Islam.
  C) Christianity became the norm once it was introduced into Ethiopia.
  D) People in that region of Africa practiced an extinct form of monotheism.



16. A common belief in most African religions held that
  A) the gods created social hierarchies.
  B) a supreme being had created the universe.
  C) natural phenomena could not be explained or controlled.
  D) individuals need to explore their own spirituality.



17. What animal made trans-Saharan trade viable?
  A) Horse
  B) Cow
  C) Camel
  D) Ox



18. How did the development of the saddle contribute positively to the growth of trans-Saharan trade?
  A) It enabled the Berbers to dominate the desert.
  B) It increased the speed of the caravan trade.
  C) It enabled merchants to cross the desert safely.
  D) Its creation made animals useful for the first time in the trans-Saharan caravan trade.



19. In the eleventh century, much of the gold from western Sudan spread to Asia to pay for what commodity from India?
  A) Slaves
  B) Camels
  C) Spices
  D) Ivory



20. After gold, what was the most import trade commodity to come out of West Africa?
  A) Ivory
  B) Kola nuts
  C) Silver
  D) Slaves



21. Approximately how many Africans were forced, according to the estimate of scholars, into the trans-Saharan slave trade between 650 and 1500?
  A) 1 million
  B) 2 million
  C) 4 million
  D) 8 million



22. What role did race play in the African slave trade?
  A) Race had little or no association with slavery.
  B) Slavery was generally associated with lighter-skinned peoples.
  C) Only black Africans were enslaved.
  D) Caucasians were never enslaved in Africa.



23. After the eighth century, most of the Berbers had converted to what religion?
  A) Christianity
  B) Islam
  C) Buddhism
  D) Animism



24. Following the conversion of North Africans to Islam, where did the deepest penetration of Islam occur south of the Sahara?
  A) In the West African kingdoms of Ghana and Mali
  B) Along the east coast of Africa
  C) In Namibia
  D) Along the southern coast of Africa



25. What was the most common form of leadership in the stateless societies of Africa?
  A) Kingship
  B) Theocracy
  C) Local council
  D) Dictatorship



26. On what was political authority in the Ethiopian kingdom based?
  A) The Christian faith
  B) The Muslim Shari’a
  C) The legacy of the pharaohs
  D) Military strength



27. What does the term ghana mean?
  A) “Rain maker”
  B) “War chief”
  C) “The divine”
  D) “Father”



28. Why did the civilization of Ghana develop in the southern portion of Wagadou?
  A) Muslims had already settled there and built urban centers.
  B) The king of Ghana had a vision from his god to settle there.
  C) The Mandinka people had recently left, and the land was empty.
  D) Only the southern part received enough rainfall to be agriculturally productive.



29. In the tenth century, Ghana became powerful by capturing what territory?
  A) The neighboring kingdom of Mali and its goldmines
  B) The territory of the Soninke king
  C) The Berber town of Awdaghost and the southern portion of the trans-Saharan trade route
  D) The majority of Berber strongholds and their mosques



30. Royal descent in Ghana was hereditary. Who succeeded a king upon his death?
  A) His firstborn son
  B) His sister’s son
  C) His strongest son
  D) His brother



31. How did Muslims and non-Muslims interact in Ghana?
  A) Everyone was thoroughly integrated into the local society.
  B) Not well; eventually the Muslims converted to animism as a result of political pressure.
  C) Muslims provided valuable unskilled labor for the mines.
  D) Muslims lived separately from the African artisans and traders.



32. What role outside of religion did Ghana’s Muslim religious leaders play?
  A) They sat in judgment of legal cases of all people in the kingdom.
  B) They exercised civil authority over their fellow Muslims.
  C) They were responsible for collecting tribute from the king’s subordinate chieftains.
  D) They were solely responsible for building new schools and universities.



33. What was the greatest source of income for the king of Ghana?
  A) The slave trade
  B) His royal estates
  C) His gold export monopoly
  D) The salt trade



34. Mali’s success as a kingdom was aided in part by which of the following?
  A) A pool of highly skilled artisans
  B) Control of highly productive goldmines
  C) A strong agricultural and commercial base
  D) A military equipped with superior technology



35. During Ghana’s heyday, what were the Mandinka known for?
  A) Creating a rival kingdom that overthrew Ghana
  B) Remaining seminomadic and nonagricultural
  C) Converting to Islam and trading with Arabs
  D) Acting as middlemen in the gold and salt trades



36. What was Mansa Musa’s most significant innovation?
  A) He used loyal family members as provincial governors.
  B) He abolished the stratified social structure.
  C) He introduced European-style military reforms.
  D) He established a process by which slaves could buy their freedom.



37. Which of the following was a consequence of Mansa Musa’s pilgrimage to Mecca in 1324–1325?
  A) Europeans attempted to convert the people of Mali to Christianity.
  B) The Mediterranean world gained knowledge of the wealth of Mali.
  C) Berbers began invading Mali in order to capture its gold.
  D) Egypt and Arabia closed itself off from Mali trade.



38. Under the reign of Mansa Musa, what happened to the city of Timbuktu?
  A) It lost its position as a major terminus of trans-Saharan trade.
  B) It became the capital city of the entire Mali kingdom.
  C) Its inhabitants revolted against the Islamic influences supported by the king.
  D) It developed into a thriving commercial and intellectual center.



39. By the fifteenth century, some 150 schools in Timbuktu were devoted to which of the following?
  A) Training new merchants
  B) Educating former slaves
  C) Studying the Qur’an
  D) Maintaining oral traditions



40. How did the expansion of Islam into northern Ethiopia in the eighth century affect the city of Aksum?
  A) It brought a huge influx of trade to the city.
  B) It resolved religious conflicts that had weakened the region for four centuries.
  C) It sparked a civil war and many political assassinations.
  D) It weakened Aksum’s commercial prosperity.



41. The introduction of Coptic Christianity into Ethiopia is traditionally ascribed to whom?
  A) Frumentius
  B) Sheba
  C) Menilek I
  D) Prester John



42. Ethiopia was the first black African society that
  A) moved from being predominately Christian to Islamic.
  B) built mosques.
  C) can be studied from written records.
  D) allowed Arab men to legally marry African women.



43. How did Christianity influence marriage norms in Ethiopia?
  A) Polygamy was banned throughout the kingdom.
  B) Monogamy was unusual but not unknown.
  C) Polygamy remained common but was scorned.
  D) Monogamy became common.



44. Which of the following is true of the Kebra Negast?
  A) It served as a national epic and linked Ethiopia’s identity to the Judeo-Christian tradition.
  B) It told the story of the gold trade in Mali and the rise of the great Ethiopian king Mansa Musa.
  C) If offered insight into African slavery and described the horrors endured by slaves in the trans-Saharan slave trade.
  D) It detailed the extent of landed estates in Ghana and served as the first official census in Africa.



45. Even up to 1955, Ethiopia’s rulers have claimed that they can trace their line of succession back to which of the following?
  A) Abu Bakr, Muhammad’s immediate successor
  B) James, Jesus’s younger brother
  C) The Queen Mother
  D) The Hebrew king Solomon



46. What did Greco-Roman ships traveling down from the east coast of Africa take to trade with peoples of that region?
  A) Raw cotton and textiles
  B) Slaves for the East African markets
  C) Manufactured goods
  D) Ivory and animal skins



47. Although many peoples settled in East Africa, including Arabs and Persians, much of Madagascar was settled by people from what area?
  A) Europe
  B) Mandinka
  C) Egypt
  D) Indonesia



48. How did the influx of migrants from the Arabian peninsula affect the lives of the coastal people of East Africa?
  A) The migrants had little to no influence as they remained strictly segregated from the indigenous peoples.
  B) The Arabs introduced a strict social and racial hierarchy to the native culture and prohibited marriage between Arabs and Africans.
  C) The migrants introduced Islamic culture, intermarried with Africans, and helped form a society that combined Asian, African, and Islamic traits.
  D) The Arabs aggressively spread Islamic culture throughout the region and suppressed more traditional religious beliefs and cultural practices.



49. The polyglot coastal culture of East Africa is known as what?
  A) Coptic
  B) Zimbabwe
  C) Swahili
  D) Soninke



50. What likely caused the fifteenth-century decline of Great Zimbabwe?
  A) High mortality rates owing to diseases brought by Arab traders
  B) Agriculturally unproductive land
  C) Exhausted goldmines
  D) Corrupt rulers




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