Test Bank For A History of World Societies Combined Volume 10th Edition By John P. McKay

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A History of World Societies Combined Volume 10th Edition By John P. McKay

 

SAMPLE QUESTIONS

 

Answer each of the following questions with an essay. Be sure to include specific examples that support your thesis and conclusions.

 

 

1. What are some of the problems in using evidence from contemporary gatherer societies to study early humans?

 

 

2. How did early Homo erectus spread out of East Africa into other parts of the world? Where did they go, and how early did they reach those places?

 

 

3. What were the key features of Paleolithic food attainment and Paleolithic diets?

 

 

4. What are some of the theories about gender relationships in Paleolithic societies? What changed in those relationships in the Neolithic period? What kinds of evidence are used in supporting or arguing against these theories?

 

 

5. What is the relationship between pastoralism, disease, and humans?

 

 

6. How did material goods create, define, and perpetuate social hierarchies in Neolithic societies?

 

Choose the letter of the best answer.

 

 

1. How is the term species generally defined?
  A) A group of organisms that can communicate with one another
  B) A group of organisms that will share food with one another
  C) A group of organisms that can mate and produce fertile offspring of both sexes
  D) A group of organisms that originate from a different ancestor

 

 

2. During which of the following periods did the ancestor common to both chimpanzees and humans probably live?
  A) 3 to 5 million years ago
  B) 5 to 7 million years ago
  C) 10 to 12 million years ago
  D) 12 to 14 million years ago

 

 

3. Scientists used which of the following to label the first periods of human history?
  A) The material used for tools
  B) The height of the human form
  C) Language ability and skill level
  D) The location of human settlements

 

 

4. Although the date varies by location, when did the shift to agriculture first occur?
  A) 3000 B.C.E.
  B) 15,000 B.C.E.
  C) 9000 B.C.E.
  D) 1000 B.C.E.

 

 

5. What term is used for the first fully bipedal hominid known to paleontologists?
  A) Ardipithecus
  B) Homo habilis
  C) Australopithecus
  D) Homo sapiens

 

 

6. Where have the majority of Australopithecus skeletal remains been found?
  A) The Sahara Desert
  B) The Great Rift Valley
  C) Jericho Valley
  D) The Island of Java

 

 

7. How did Homo erectus differ from modern humans?
  A) Homo erectus had a slightly smaller brain size than modern humans.
  B) Homo erectus had no capacity for making and using tools.
  C) Homo erectus lived in larger groups than modern humans.
  D) Homo erectus shared food preparations and gathering.

 

 

8. How Homo erectus migrate from China about 1.5 million years ago to settle on Java?
  A) By sailing woven grass boats
  B) By walking over land
  C) By floating on planks
  D) By paddling canoes

 

 

9. Where did Homo sapiens first evolve?
  A) The Black Sea region
  B) The Nile Valley
  C) China
  D) East Africa

 

 

10. Why were better social skills especially important for early human females?
  A) They needed help with food gathering.
  B) They needed help with home building.
  C) They needed help attracting a mate.
  D) They needed help with child rearing.

 

 

11. Which of the following skills did Homo sapiens acquire around 25,000 years ago?
  A) The capacity to weave cloth
  B) The capacity to make tools from stone
  C) The capacity to domesticate sheep
  D) The capacity to use fire for warmth

 

 

12. Which of the following is evidence that Neanderthals understood death to have a symbolic meaning?
  A) They drew pictures of the dead on walls.
  B) They buried the dead with symbolic objects.
  C) They wrote stories about the meaning of death.
  D) They built large funerary monuments.

 

 

13. The Neanderthals of Europe were a branch of what hominid group?
  A) Homo sapiens
  B) Homo habilis
  C) Australopithecus
  D) Homo erectus

 

 

14. Between 1 and 4 percent of the DNA in modern humans is shared with what early hominid?
  A) Homo sapiens
  B) Cro-Magnon
  C) Neanderthals
  D) Australopithecus

 

 

15. Which of the following allowed Homo sapiens to migrate to Australia and New Guinea?
  A) Simple rafts
  B) Land bridges
  C) Large boats
  D) Swimming

 

 

16. What was one of the results of endogamy?
  A) An increase in fertility
  B) A lack of diversity of languages
  C) The inability of Homo sapiens to mate with one another
  D) Differences in physical features and spoken language

 

 

17. The term forager is now used by historians instead of what traditional term?
  A) Hunter-gatherer
  B) Stone-age man
  C) Caveman
  D) First people

 

 

18. Which of the following foods dominated the diet of Paleolithic foragers?
  A) Trapped animals
  B) Fish
  C) Hunted animals
  D) Plants

 

 

19. Paleolithic humans may have encouraged the growth of new plants by doing what?
  A) Planting seeds
  B) Hunting large game
  C) Harvesting crops
  D) Setting fires

 

 

20. How many hours a week did early foragers generally spend gathering food?
  A) One to three hours
  B) Forty hours
  C) Fifty hours or more
  D) Ten to twenty hours

 

 

21. Which of the following is true of Paleolithic mating patterns?
  A) Most Paleolithic humans sought mates from outside their kinship groups.
  B) Mates were usually selected from within the same kinship group.
  C) Most mates were purchased from a distant tribal group.
  D) Mates were generally people taken captive in conflict.

 

 

22. The burial sites of Paleolithic humans reveal that they believed that all things and natural occurrences had which of the following?
  A) Meaning
  B) Economic value
  C) Danger
  D) Spirits

 

 

23. What did Paleolithic peoples believe about dead members of their kinship groups?
  A) That the dead were gone forever
  B) That deceased family members were still with them
  C) That the dead became new gods
  D) That the dead would return one day

 

 

24. Who in Paleolithic society was believed to regularly receive messages from the spirit world?
  A) The chief
  B) The shaman
  C) The king
  D) The warriors

 

 

25. What was one of the shaman’s primary duties?
  A) Healing the sick
  B) Leading the war band
  C) Harvesting crops
  D) Leading building projects in urban areas

 

 

26. What discovery marks the transition from Paleolithic to Neolithic?
  A) Stone tools
  B) Religion
  C) Burial
  D) Agriculture

 

 

27. What major climate change occurred about 15,000 years ago?
  A) Temperatures warmed and glaciers melted.
  B) Monsoon patterns began.
  C) Temperatures became slightly colder.
  D) El Niño wind patterns first developed.

 

 

28. What term describes a crop that has been modified by selective breeding?
  A) Trained
  B) Marketed
  C) Domesticated
  D) Husbanded

 

 

29. Horticulture refers to the growing of plants using what tool?
  A) Clubs
  B) Plows
  C) Digging sticks
  D) Sickles

 

 

30. Beginning about 9000 B.C.E., people in the Fertile Crescent began to domesticate what crop?
  A) Yams
  B) Wheat
  C) Squash
  D) Rice

 

 

31. How did women’s work change as a result of settled agriculture?
  A) Women were responsible for working the fields while their husbands hunted.
  B) Women became merchants because they now had time to produce things to sell.
  C) Women continued to be quite mobile and continued to add to family diet through foraging.
  D) Women likely began to spend more time tending to household needs.

 

 

32. How did the amount of labor required for horticulture compare to that for foraging?
  A) Horticulture required less time and labor than foraging.
  B) Horticulture required more time and labor than foraging.
  C) Horticulture required the same amount of time and labor as foraging.
  D) Horticulture required more time and labor than foraging, but only during harvesting season.

 

 

33. By 4000 B.C.E., how far north of the Fertile Crescent had horticulture spread?
  A) To Britain
  B) To Scandinavia
  C) To Ethiopia
  D) To Russia

 

 

34. Potatoes and quinoa were domesticated by 3000 B.C.E. in what region?
  A) Indus Valley
  B) Western United States
  C) Andes Mountains
  D) Fertile Crescent

 

 

35. What species of animal did humans domesticate around 15,000 years ago?
  A) Sheep
  B) Dogs
  C) Cattle
  D) Horses

 

 

36. Which of the following was a consequence of humans living in close proximity with animals?
  A) Humans had an easier time domesticating animals.
  B) Humans spread disease to animals, leading to the extinction of some species.
  C) Humans were exposed to more pathogens.
  D) Humans began to consider animals as property.

 

 

37. Animal domestication led to humans becoming able to digest which of the following?
  A) Milk
  B) Meat
  C) Grain
  D) Minerals

 

 

38. The natural herding instinct of what animal paved the way for pastoralism?
  A) Pigs
  B) Yaks
  C) Humans
  D) Sheep

 

 

39. Beginning in the sixth millennium B.C.E., people attached wooden sticks to frames and pack animals to use as a simple version of what developing technology?
  A) Weapons
  B) Fences to mark boundaries of territory
  C) Early threshers
  D) Plows

 

 

40. How did the moldboard plow aid early farmers?
  A) It turned over soil, breaking it up for easier planting.
  B) It planted seeds as it moved through the soil.
  C) It helped to harvest crops.
  D) It made straighter furrows.

 

 

41. In most Neolithic communities, which group of people were the first to work out written codes of law?
  A) Craftsmen
  B) Priests
  C) Warriors
  D) Farmers

 

 

42. Every society that has left a written record was organized around what important hierarchical system?
  A) Patriarchy
  B) Theocracy
  C) Pastoralism
  D) Matriarchy

 

 

43. What is depicted in the earliest Egyptian hieroglyph for weaving?
  A) Children weaving
  B) A loom and shuttle
  C) Sheep being sheared
  D) A woman with a shuttle

 

 

44. Which of the following was an important feature of the houses of Çatal Hüyük?
  A) They were constructed without roofs.
  B) Elites lived in round houses with two doors.
  C) They were made of mud brick.
  D) They were spaced far apart to combat disease.

 

 

45. For what did Neolithic peoples use obsidian?
  A) It was melted to construct plow blades.
  B) It was used to make knives and blades.
  C) It was easily carved into storage jars.
  D) It was woven into carpets to make them stronger.

 

 

46. What alloy is created by mixing copper with another metal such as arsenic?
  A) Iron
  B) Steel
  C) Tin
  D) Bronze

 

 

47. Why did Neolithic peoples build circular structures?
  A) It helped them to predict where best to herd their animals.
  B) Circular structures were believed to predict the movements of the stars.
  C) Circular structures were believed to possess magical powers to help people know where to migrate next.
  D) Priests taught their populations that building large circular structures would ensure a large harvest for years to come.

 

 

48. What characteristics did the gods of polytheistic Neolithic societies develop?
  A) They took on social hierarchies and had specific labor responsibilities.
  B) They were originally believed to resemble people but later were depicted as animals.
  C) They were always depicted as strong animals.
  D) They were seen as heavenly creatures with wings.

 

 

49. As Neolithic religious structures became more hierarchical, what was the purpose of the most important religious practice?
  A) Ensuring military success
  B) Granting a special skill
  C) Foretelling the future
  D) Ensuring fertility

 

 

50. By what time was the Bronze Age well under way?
  A) 10,000 B.C.E.
  B) 7500 B.C.E.
  C) 5000 B.C.E.
  D) 2500 B.C.E.

 

Choose the letter of the best answer.

 

 

1. What material was used for writing in Mesopotamia?
  A) Animal bones
  B) Papyrus
  C) Soft clay
  D) Parchment

 

 

2. How did papyrus compare with clay tablets as a writing material?
  A) It was less prone to disintegration.
  B) It was more fragile and less likely to survive.
  C) It required a stylus to carve the symbols.
  D) It was more difficult to write on.

 

 

3. In general, how did residents of ancient cities tend to view residents of rural areas?
  A) City dwellers viewed themselves as more sophisticated.
  B) City dwellers saw themselves as equal to the farmers.
  C) City dwellers looked up to and envied those who lived in the country.
  D) City dwellers tried to imitate the people of the rural areas.

 

 

4. What method did early states use to control their populace?
  A) Exemption from taxation
  B) Promises of wealth
  C) Threats of violence
  D) Offers of free food

 

 

5. Social hierarchies in early states were usually heightened by the introduction of what state mechanism?
  A) Written laws
  B) Economic records
  C) Written religious texts
  D) Coinage

 

 

6. In what region did the first known states develop?
  A) Egypt
  B) India
  C) Persia
  D) Mesopotamia

 

 

7. What natural feature in Sumer helped settled agriculture develop there first?
  A) Naturally occurring irrigation ditches that helped water the crops
  B) Rivers that brought new soil with annual floods
  C) Constant annual rainfall that irrigated the fields
  D) An abundance of labor to work the fields

 

 

8. What role did the first rulers of Ur, Uruk, and other Sumerian city-states play?
  A) Priests
  B) Merchants
  C) Farmers
  D) Scribes

 

 

9. Where did Sumerians build their large ziggurat temples?
  A) On the outskirts of the cities
  B) In the middle of crop fields
  C) On man-made islands in the river
  D) In the center of the city

 

 

10. Which of the following best describes a ziggurat-style temple?
  A) Underground cavern
  B) Floating island
  C) Beehive-shaped dome
  D) Stepped pyramid

 

 

11. Why did Sumerians likely begin a system of taxation?
  A) To pay for establishing a public school system
  B) To pay for the construction of temples and the expenses of temple officials
  C) To pay for the construction of libraries to hold cuneiform tablets
  D) To encourage economic growth and the development of market squares for traders

 

 

12. To counter the temples’ power, military leaders who became kings began to build what kinds of structures?
  A) Rival temples to worship war gods
  B) Public cemeteries to honor war dead as heroes
  C) Palaces to demonstrate the king’s strength
  D) Marketplaces to highlight goods from conquered territories

 

 

13. Who were known as “clients” in Sumer?
  A) Free people who were dependent on the nobility
  B) Household slaves
  C) Destitute persons supported by the city temple
  D) Indentured servants who had contracts with local nobles

 

 

14. Who worked the land owned by the king, nobles, and temples in ancient Sumer?
  A) Hired laborers
  B) Priests in training
  C) Client farmers and slaves
  D) Scribes and soldiers

 

 

15. Why did older men have the most power in the Mesopotamian social system?
  A) Mesopotamian societies were patriarchal.
  B) The most important value in Mesopotamian society was reverence for elders.
  C) Older men tended to form political alliances with powerful priests.
  D) Older men presided over important ancestor-worship rituals.

 

 

16. Which of the following describes the earliest Sumerian writings?
  A) They were ideograms in which each sign symbolized an idea.
  B) They were pictographs in which each sign pictured an object.
  C) Each symbol represented a sound in the spoken language.
  D) They were written using the first known alphabet.

 

 

17. How did Sumerian scribes learn the cuneiform writing system?
  A) They were taught at special schools.
  B) Their fathers taught them at home.
  C) Priests were solely responsible for this important teaching.
  D) They were taught as part of their mandated training as members of the army.

 

 

18. Sumerian scribes were trained largely to do what?
  A) To record religious texts and ritual manuals
  B) To write tax documents and legal cases
  C) To write official histories of royal families
  D) To keep property and wealth records

 

 

19. What is the key theme of the Epic of Gilgamesh?
  A) The duty of a soldier to serve the king
  B) The constant battle between good and evil
  C) The idea that men and women were created by magic
  D) Humanity’s search for immortality

 

 

20. The Sumerian mathematical system was based on units of sixty, ten, and six and survives in what modern system?
  A) Calculus
  B) Musical notation
  C) Time measurement
  D) Square roots

 

 

21. Around 2300 B.C.E., what chieftain conquered Sumer and created an empire?
  A) Hammurabi
  B) Menes
  C) Akhenaten
  D) Sargon

 

 

22. How did Sargon reinforce his rule in Mesopotamia?
  A) He converted all the people to his Semitic religion.
  B) He tore down the defensive walls of major cities and appointed his own sons as rulers.
  C) He wrote the first law code.
  D) He claimed to be a descendant of the god Marduk.

 

 

23. How did religion contribute to Hammurabi’s political success?
  A) He demonstrated his strength by forcing the exile of all Sumerian priests.
  B) He partitioned all of Mesopotamia into small political units governed by priests.
  C) He destroyed all existing Mesopotamian religions and forced acceptance of his Babylonian faith.
  D) He claimed that divine authority stood behind the laws that he established.

 

 

24. What was the intended function of Hammurabi’s code?
  A) To regulate the relationships among his people and promote their welfare
  B) To intimidate the common people in order to prevent social upheaval
  C) To protect the position of nobles and priests at the expense of the commoners
  D) To increase the nobility’s power over the priesthood

 

 

25. According to Hammurabi’s code, who controlled a woman’s dowry after she married?
  A) A judge
  B) The woman’s husband
  C) The woman’s father
  D) The woman herself

 

 

26. What geographic feature had the largest impact on Egyptian culture and prosperity?
  A) The Sinai Desert
  B) The Nile River
  C) The Red Sea
  D) The Mediterranean Sea

 

 

27. How did Egyptians view the afterlife?
  A) As bleak and very frightening
  B) As pleasant
  C) As a place of punishment
  D) As a fictional realm that nonetheless inspired great wonder

 

 

28. According to Egyptian belief, the Nile’s rise and fall was dictated by
  A) tides.
  B) Ra.
  C) the pharaoh.
  D) priests.

 

 

29. One of the earliest deities Egyptians worshiped was Amon, god of
  A) the sky.
  B) the underworld.
  C) the dead.
  D) fertility.

 

 

30. For which of the following was a pharaoh believed to be responsible?
  A) Achieving integration between gods and humans
  B) Ruling over earth and sky
  C) Ensuring his people’s safe passage to the afterlife
  D) Organizing Egypt’s agricultural system

 

 

31. Egyptian hieroglyphs were recorded on papyrus sheets and on what else?
  A) Clay tablets
  B) Glass items
  C) Walls of tombs
  D) Clay pots

 

 

32. How did Egyptian and Mesopotamian women compare in terms of their ability to own and control property?
  A) Neither culture allowed women to own or control property independently.
  B) Mesopotamian women owned and controlled more property than Egyptian women.
  C) In both cultures, women were able to own and control property freely.
  D) Egyptian women owned and controlled more property than Mesopotamian women.

 

 

33. During what period did slavery become widespread in Egypt?
  A) Second Intermediate Period
  B) Old Kingdom
  C) New Kingdom
  D) First Intermediate Period

 

 

34. What important contribution did the Hyksos make to Egyptian society?
  A) They encouraged Egyptians to worship the god Amon.
  B) Their bronze technology and weaponry was adopted by Egyptians.
  C) As naval pioneers, they introduced the center-stern rudder to Egyptian ships.
  D) Their mathematicians introduced the abacus to Egypt.

 

 

35. How was the New Kingdom different from the previous Middle and Old Kingdoms?
  A) Pharaohs increasingly tried to ensure peace because they realized war was too expensive.
  B) In response to multiple social problems, pharaohs encouraged more religious activities.
  C) Egyptians now focused more on trade than on farming because the Nile became unpredictable.
  D) Egyptians now focused more on conquest of new territories and created the first Egyptian empire.

 

 

36. Which of the following contributed to the expansion of slavery in the New Kingdom period?
  A) Economic problems forced families to sell children into slavery to pay off debts.
  B) As the Egyptian population diminished, the agricultural system required more laborers to maintain farming efficiency.
  C) Power struggles within the royal family led to more people becoming slaves.
  D) Focus on the conquest of other peoples resulted in slaves being brought back to Egypt from conquered territories.

 

 

37. Why was Akhenaten’s interest in worship of a new sun-god Aten ultimately a failure?
  A) The elaborate worship rituals were too confusing.
  B) The hated and corrupt priesthood endorsed it.
  C) It was imposed from above and failed to find a place among the people.
  D) It attempted to do away with worship of the widely popular sun-god.

 

 

38. Why did the Hittites and Egyptians conclude a peace treaty in 1258 B.C.E.?
  A) Both sides were exhausted by war.
  B) The Egyptians signed to avoid a total defeat by the Hittites.
  C) The Hittites brutally conquered the Egyptians.
  D) Both sides recognized the impossibility of defeating the other.

 

 

39. Which civilization produced some of the best iron products in the world?
  A) India
  B) Sumer
  C) Meroë
  D) Persia

 

 

40. In 727 B.C.E., King Piye conquered and unified Egypt from his home kingdom of
  A) Kush.
  B) Phoenicia.
  C) Persia.
  D) Babylonia.

 

 

41. What was the Phoenicians’ greatest cultural achievement?
  A) They developed settled agriculture.
  B) They developed the first sun-based calendar.
  C) They created the first fully phonetic alphabet.
  D) They were responsible for the composition of The Iliad.

 

 

42. What remains our most important source of knowledge about ancient Jews?
  A) Archaeological excavations
  B) The Hebrew Bible
  C) Governmental records
  D) Oral epic histories

 

 

43. The Hebrews created a monarchy with Saul as leader by fighting what other Palestinian people in the eleventh century B.C.E.?
  A) Philistines
  B) Phoenicians
  C) Egyptians
  D) Assyrians

 

 

44. Which Hebrew leader captured the city of Jerusalem?
  A) Judah
  B) David
  C) Saul
  D) Solomon

 

 

45. What happened to the Hebrew kingdom after Solomon’s death?
  A) Its leaders continued to consolidate politically.
  B) Conflict led to its split into two separate kingdoms.
  C) The kingdom was largely destroyed by an internal power struggle.
  D) Leaders gained the military protection of the Assyrians.

 

 

46. How did the Hebrew religion change as a result of the Babylonian Captivity?
  A) It was redefined and established as the law of Yahweh.
  B) It almost disappeared.
  C) It was exposed to Zoroastrianism.
  D) It was adopted by the Chaldeans.

 

 

47. How were children educated in ancient Israel?
  A) Education was left up to the father.
  B) Education took place in organized schools.
  C) Boys and girls attended school at the local temple.
  D) Education was a responsibility of both parents.

 

 

48. Which of the following was true of the Assyrians?
  A) They were one of the most warlike people in history.
  B) They used shrewd diplomacy to carve out an empire.
  C) They united the small kingdoms of Phoenicia and the Jews to defeat Egypt.
  D) They were nomadic fighters who did not build or live in permanent towns.

 

 

49. In addition to his concept of empire, what was another characteristic that made Cyrus a remarkable warrior-king?
  A) His concern for economic development
  B) His effective assimilation of nomadic invaders into his kingdom
  C) His benevolence and humanity as a ruler
  D) His ability to coordinate an efficient bureaucracy over a vast region

 

 

50. Which of the following was an important teaching of Zoroaster?
  A) Human actions were the result of manipulation by the gods.
  B) People possessed free will and were accountable for their actions.
  C) People’s eternal fate was determined by the depth of their religious faith.
  D) All gods embodied good and truth, whereas only humans could be hateful or evil.

 

 

Choose the letter of the best answer.

 

 

1. The earliest Indian civilization developed along what river?
  A) Nile
  B) Euphrates
  C) Ganges
  D) Indus

 

 

2. In terms of India’s geography, what regions have been home to its great empires?
  A) Fertile plains in the river valleys
  B) Forests at the foot of the Himalayas
  C) Deserts of the Rajasthan regions
  D) Jungles of the Vindhya Mountains

 

 

3. What was one of the first crops to be developed in India?
  A) Rice
  B) Lentils
  C) Cotton
  D) Wheat

 

 

4. The first Indian civilization—the Harappan civilization—is also known as which of the following?
  A) The Mauryan Empire
  B) The Indus Valley civilization
  C) The Indo-Aryan civilization
  D) Mesopotamia

 

 

5. What is unusual about the written language of the Harappan people?
  A) It consisted of only four hundred letters.
  B) It was very similar to Sumerian cuneiform.
  C) No one has yet deciphered it.
  D) It was written on papyrus and silk.

 

 

6. Compared to ancient Egyptian and Sumerian civilizations, what makes the Indus civilization unique?
  A) It was nearly twice as large in territory.
  B) It lasted less than three hundred years.
  C) Its people did not grow cotton.
  D) It was not a literate society.

 

 

7. Harappan craftsmen are the first known producers of what cloth?
  A) Wool
  B) Linen
  C) Cotton
  D) Silk

 

 

8. Harappan houses were built around what feature?
  A) A household shrine
  B) A burial site
  C) A cooking hearth
  D) A courtyard

 

 

9. What was one of the most unique features of Harappan cities?
  A) Assembly halls
  B) Wide roads
  C) Communal wells
  D) Drainage systems

 

 

10. On which of the following did the prosperity of the Indus (Harappan) civilization depend?
  A) Extensive trade with China
  B) Intensive cultivation of the fertile river valley
  C) The religious toleration shown to conquered peoples
  D) Their skill in making and trading jewelry

 

 

11. Like early Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilization, Harappan civilization depended on what annually?
  A) Visitation from the gods to provide for abundance during harvest
  B) A short but wet growing season
  C) Attending the Tigris River Valley seed market
  D) Floods and irrigation to sustain agriculture

 

 

12. The remnants of Harappan script have been preserved on what material?
  A) Clay tablets
  B) Linen paper
  C) Bronze discs
  D) Wood tablets

 

 

13. Which of the following was true of the Aryans?
  A) They were the native people of the Ganges Valley.
  B) They were a warrior people who destroyed the Indus civilization.
  C) They put an end to the strict Harappan caste system.
  D) They spoke an Indo-European language.

 

 

14. The Aryans spoke an early form of what language?
  A) Sanskrit
  B) Hindi
  C) Persian
  D) Tamil

 

 

15. What was the Rig Veda?
  A) An oral collection of military stories
  B) The name given to Harappan texts
  C) An oral collection of ritual texts, treatises, and hymns
  D) A collection of Greek epics borrowed by the Aryans

 

 

16. Who was at the head of each Aryan tribal group?
  A) A raja or chief
  B) A head priest
  C) An assembly of tribesmen
  D) A god-king

 

 

17. What did the Aryans use to ease the difficult task of clearing the jungle?
  A) Fire
  B) Iron tools
  C) Pesticides
  D) Wooden plows

 

 

18. What are priests referred to as in the Indian caste system?
  A) Brahmins
  B) Jains
  C) Buddhas
  D) Shudras

 

 

19. How was Indian slavery in the Vedic Age similar to slavery in Mesopotamia?
  A) Only men captured in warfare were enslaved.
  B) Men in the nobility were the only ones who could own slaves.
  C) Men might sell themselves and their families into slavery to pay debts.
  D) Slaves were the only people who could serve as butchers.

 

 

20. Who were the “untouchables” in the varna system?
  A) Women who belonged to the lowest caste
  B) Outsiders who were considered “impure”
  C) The nobility
  D) Child slaves

 

 

21. Which of the following statements is true about women in ancient Aryan society?
  A) Women could never remarry if widowed.
  B) Almost all females were married while they were still children.
  C) Women lived in patrilineal and patriarchal tribal groups.
  D) Women were economically equal to men and could hold property.

 

 

22. Who commonly performed the important ritual sacrifice of animals in Brahmanism?
  A) Untouchables
  B) Teenagers, because they were considered pure
  C) Male rulers only
  D) The priestly caste

 

 

23. With what sacred text did the Aryan religion shift to a more ascetic and philosophical religion?
  A) Rig Veda
  B) Sutras
  C) Upanishads
  D) Mahabharata

 

 

24. To what does the term asceticism refer?
  A) What Brahmans refer to as the individual soul
  B) The practice of severe self-discipline and self-denial
  C) The rejection of anthropomorphic gods
  D) All of the Brahman faith’s sacrificial rites

 

 

25. According to the Upanishads, what is moksha?
  A) Human reincarnation as a lower animal
  B) A cleansing fire ritual for women after childbirth
  C) Release from the wheel of life and freedom from reincarnation
  D) The cosmic tally of one’s deeds

 

 

26. How did the introduction of the concepts of samsara and karma from the Upanishads affect Indian society?
  A) It destabilized Indian society by undermining Brahmin privileges.
  B) It led society to consider the concepts part of the Hindu response to Buddhism and Jainism.
  C) It made Kshatriya fear that existing authority would be undermined.
  D) It stabilized Indian society by encouraging the poor to work hard, live righteously, and do good deeds.

 

 

27. Mahavira was the founder of what Indian religion?
  A) Jainism
  B) Buddhism
  C) Hinduism
  D) Sikhism

 

 

28. According to Mahavira, what kinds of objects have souls?
  A) Only human beings have souls.
  B) All objects, living or inanimate, have souls.
  C) Only living creatures, human and animal, have souls.
  D) All animate objects, but only some inanimate objects, have souls.

 

 

29. In response to their belief about souls and karma, Jains developed what kind of views about life forms?
  A) All souls are equally sacred, and to harm any is equally bad.
  B) Plant life is more vulnerable and thus more important.
  C) Humans are more important than plants but not other animals.
  D) Humans are the most sacred form of life.

 

 

30. What motivated the Jains’ practice of radical nonviolence?
  A) A reaction to the brutality their founder had suffered from the Brahmins
  B) The desire to avoid the karmic consequences of harming other life forms
  C) The belief that nonviolence would put an end to class conflict
  D) The fear that a warrior class would dominate their small population

 

 

31. Buddha preached his sermons in what language, so as to reach the wisest possible audience?
  A) Sanskrit
  B) Tamil
  C) Magadhi
  D) Tamil

 

 

32. Buddha taught that individuals could triumph over human weakness by
  A) following an ascetic lifestyle.
  B) following the Eightfold Path.
  C) entering a monastery.
  D) properly observing the rituals of Hinduism.

 

 

33. What is the last step in Buddhism’s Eightfold Path?
  A) Contemplation
  B) Conduct
  C) Awareness
  D) Endeavor

 

 

34. What are sutras in the Buddhist tradition?
  A) The steps on the Eightfold Path
  B) Animals sacrificed to the Buddha
  C) The written teachings of the Buddha
  D) Sacred names taken by monks

 

 

35. What was the main ritual performed in Buddhist monasteries?
  A) Extreme asceticism
  B) Pilgrimage to Nepal
  C) Growing one’s own food
  D) Communal recitation of sutras

 

 

36. What qualified Bodhisattvas to help guide Buddhist believers to enlightenment?
  A) They had already achieved enlightenment.
  B) They were descendants of the Buddha himself.
  C) They were once Brahmin priests before converting.
  D) They could recite the most prayers from memory.

 

 

37. What is the ultimate goal of Hinduism?
  A) Wealth and earthly prosperity
  B) Becoming a priest
  C) Union with Brahman
  D) Physical immortality

 

 

38. What is the Hindu concept of dharma?
  A) The rejection of ritualism
  B) The belief in reincarnation
  C) The balance sheet of good and bad deeds
  D) The moral law that Hindus are to observe

 

 

39. What Hindu text urges action in this world?
  A) The Sutras
  B) Rig Veda
  C) Ramayana
  D) Bhagavad Gita

 

 

40. What enabled India to make contact with the outside world in the sixth century B.C.E.?
  A) Alexander the Great’s conquest brought knowledge of the Mediterranean world.
  B) As the Persian Empire expanded, it made territorial conquests in the Indus Valley.
  C) Great expansion of overseas trade by Indian merchants and a new merchant fleet led to outside contact.
  D) Significant technological improvements in sailing led to greater communication and travel.

 

 

41. Contact with Persia brought many innovations into India, including what new economic technique?
  A) Printing paper money
  B) Minting silver coins
  C) Bank transfers
  D) Putting dates on coins

 

 

42. Who was Chandragupta?
  A) The leader of Buddhist reform in India
  B) The military leader who defeated Alexander the Great at Taxila
  C) The founder of the Mauryan Empire
  D) A famous Greek ambassador who was sent to the Mauryan court

 

 

43. What was the capital of Chandragupta’s empire?
  A) Kalinga
  B) Taxila
  C) Pataliputra
  D) Gujarat

 

 

44. Kautilya encouraged Chandragupta to do which of the following to secure his leadership?
  A) Send men to Greece to be trained as secret agents
  B) Conquer all the territory between the Indus and Euphrates Rivers
  C) Use propaganda to gain support and treat his enemies’ enemies as his allies
  D) Kill local leaders to show his ruthlessness

 

 

45. How did Chandragupta control the outlying areas of his empire?
  A) He trusted local kings to continue on if they took a pledge of loyalty.
  B) He sent agents to the provinces to oversee government and keep him informed.
  C) He forced the migration of loyal supporters to distant realms.
  D) He did not try to control the areas but instead collected taxes.

 

 

46. What personal change did Ashoka make following the conquest of Kalinga?
  A) He converted to Jainism and became an ascetic monk.
  B) He divorced his wife and married a Kalingan princess.
  C) He became a paranoid, reclusive emperor.
  D) He converted to Buddhism after witnessing the horror of war.

 

 

47. How did Buddhism influence Ashoka’s rule?
  A) He required all of his people to convert to the faith even though he was a Jainist.
  B) He appointed officials to oversee the moral welfare of the realm.
  C) He banned all other forms of religious thought.
  D) He began a series of religious wars against non-Buddhists.

 

 

48. Ashoka’s religious policies
  A) were directed at the suppression of Jainism.
  B) supported orthodoxy in Buddhism.
  C) spurned all other religions except Buddhism.
  D) weakened the central government of the empire.

 

 

49. After the fall of the Mauryans, what new empire was founded by Buddhist king Kanishka?
  A) Taxila
  B) Cholas
  C) Kushan
  D) Magadha

 

 

50. During the Kushan period, Indian art was strongly influenced by the art of what society?
  A) Egyptian
  B) Greek
  C) Chinese
  D) Turkish

Choose the letter of the best answer.

 

 

1. How did the development of China compare with that of India and Mesopotamia?
  A) China engaged in much more long-distance trade with other civilizations.
  B) China had many more cultural breaks in its history.
  C) China had no written language.
  D) China had little contact with other people in Eurasia.

 

 

2. How is the dominant soil type in the Yellow River basin, loess, best defined?
  A) Hard-packed earth difficult to dig into
  B) An iron-rich soil with a reddish tint
  C) A loose, wind-driven soil that is easy to till
  D) A loose, sandy soil that is not very fertile

 

 

3. What was the predominant agricultural activity in the Yangzi River basin?
  A) Wheat farming
  B) Rice farming
  C) Cotton farming
  D) Vegetable farming

 

 

4. Approximately when did the Chinese begin to practice agriculture?
  A) 10,000 B.C.E.
  B) 5000 B.C.E.
  C) 1000 B.C.E.
  D) 750 B.C.E.

 

 

5. What funerary custom did Neolithic cultures in China share?
  A) Exposure of corpses to wild animals
  B) Ritual dismemberment of the corpse
  C) Burning of corpses in public pyres
  D) Use of coffins and burials

 

 

6. Which Chinese dynasty was the first to have writing, cities, and metalworking?
  A) Xiongnu
  B) Shang
  C) Zhou
  D) Yangzi

 

 

7. What was Anyang?
  A) An ancient legal philosophy
  B) A mythical Chinese ruler
  C) The Shang capital for more than two centuries
  D) A vision of the unity of nature

 

 

8. The palaces, temples, and altars in Anyang were built on what?
  A) Concrete foundations
  B) Loess fields
  C) Stilts above the ground
  D) Rammed-earth foundations

 

 

9. Why were many of the homes at Anyang built partly below ground?
  A) Because of a lack of building materials
  B) As a means to conserve heat
  C) For protection against attacks
  D) For spiritual reasons

 

 

10. According to texts found in Shang royal tombs, what important role did Shang kings fulfill?
  A) They were also philosophers.
  B) They were considered to be gods.
  C) They were the dynasty’s most important merchants.
  D) They were military chieftains.

 

 

11. Where did the Shang kings obtain the slaves that provided them with one of their most important sources of revenue?
  A) They were often men and women taken as war captives.
  B) They were people who were in debt to the king.
  C) They were orphans who were taken by the king and sold into slavery.
  D) They were the king’s former concubines, who were often sold into slavery.

 

 

12. Shang warriors’ weapons were tipped with what?
  A) Iron
  B) Steel
  C) Bronze
  D) Bone

 

 

13. In addition to leading his kingdom, what other important role did the Shang king fulfill?
  A) He controlled all trade.
  B) He was a master of the healing arts.
  C) He served as the high priest.
  D) He was considered a reincarnation of Di.

 

 

14. Which of the following is a true statement about the underground tombs built for Shang kings?
  A) All were constructed from wood, and few exist today.
  B) They were quite simple compared with those of other ancient civilizations.
  C) Their contents reveal that the Shang practiced human sacrifice.
  D) The coffins indicate that bodies of nobility were partly mummified.

 

 

15. What did the people who volunteered to be buried with deceased Shang kings and consorts usually have with them?
  A) Pets
  B) Family members
  C) Spell books
  D) Grave goods

 

 

16. From what material were the tools of Shang farmers made?
  A) Bronze
  B) Stone
  C) Iron
  D) Wood

 

 

17. The development of more complex forms of social organization in Shang China coincided with the mastery of what skill?
  A) Ship building
  B) Pottery making
  C) Silk weaving
  D) Metalworking

 

 

18. In Shang culture, what was a taotie?
  A) A priest who lived in a temple
  B) A message intended for a god
  C) A tool used to write
  D) A stylized animal face image

 

 

19. How was the Chinese system of writing similar to that in Egypt and Sumer?
  A) All three were logographic systems.
  B) Each symbol in all three systems represented a spoken syllable.
  C) Each of the three was an early alphabetical system.
  D) It was impossible to express abstract concepts in any of the three systems.

 

 

20. Which of the following facilitated communication between China, Vietnam, and Japan?
  A) Japan, Korea, and Vietnam adopted the Chinese script for writing.
  B) All three societies used the same spoken language.
  C) Japan, Korea, Vietnam, and China developed a common sign language.
  D) All three used the same phonetic script for writing.

 

 

21. When did the Zhou rise up and overthrow the Shang?
  A) Around 3150 B.C.E.
  B) Around 2250 B.C.E.
  C) Around 1400 B.C.E.
  D) Around 1050 B.C.E.

 

 

22. According to the Book of Documents, what did a ruler have to do to retain the Mandate of Heaven?
  A) Govern in the best interests of the people
  B) Expand his territorial holdings
  C) Remain humble and discreet
  D) Make sacrifices to the gods

 

 

23. What is a likely reason that the Zhou leadership created the theory of the Mandate of Heaven?
  A) They needed a way to convince the Zhou princes to fight.
  B) They needed a way to win the loyalty of the priestly class.
  C) They wanted to win over the conquered Shang.
  D) They wanted to gain the support of the peasantry.

 

 

24. Who helped the Zhou kings rule their newly conquered kingdom?
  A) Local, native warlords
  B) A powerful, centralized bureaucracy
  C) Family members and other loyal followers
  D) Military experts from Korea and Japan

 

 

25. In 771 B.C.E., the Zhou capital was moved to what city after the king was killed and replaced by his son?
  A) Anyang
  B) Chang-an
  C) Beijing
  D) Luoyang

 

 

26. Why is the Book of Songs especially valuable for people studying early Zhou China?
  A) It serves as the best source for understanding everyday life at various social levels.
  B) It explains the complexity of the Mandate of Heaven.
  C) It tells the story of China’s first musicians.
  D) It is a political manual much like India’s Arthashastra.

 

 

27. The development of which of the following helped to promote economic expansion in the early Zhou period?
  A) Writing
  B) Iron technology
  C) Laws
  D) Education

 

 

28. What Shang religious practice became less common in the Zhou period?
  A) The building of tombs for the dead
  B) The sacrifice of animals to the ancestors
  C) Human sacrifice
  D) Peasants’ perception of heaven as divine

 

 

29. What new military technology did the Chinese develop around 350 B.C.E.?
  A) The longbow
  B) The crossbow
  C) The mace
  D) The cannon

 

 

30. Around 350 B.C.E., Chinese soldiers began wearing armor made largely from what material?
  A) Steel
  B) Chain mail
  C) Bamboo
  D) Leather

 

 

31. The need for a chariot-riding aristocracy was diminished by the introduction of what military advancement?
  A) Iron weapons
  B) Cavalry
  C) Camel saddles
  D) Leather armor

 

 

32. In The Art of War, Sun Wu argued that military success required what?
  A) Great heroism from every man under command
  B) That orders by commanders be followed without question
  C) A leader who believed that surrender was the greatest dishonor
  D) A king who was willing to lead troops into battle

 

 

33. How did the seven states that emerged out of the Warring States Period compare with the Zhou state?
  A) They were more centralized than the Zhou.
  B) They were less militarized than the Zhou.
  C) They were geographically larger than the Zhou.
  D) They traded less with other states than the Zhou.

 

 

34. What are the traditional dates for the life of Confucius?
  A) 551–479 B.C.E.
  B) 187–102 B.C.E.
  C) 430–363 B.C.E.
  D) 315–274 B.C.E.

 

 

35. According to Confucius, what was the basic unit of society?
  A) Kingdom
  B) Family
  C) Village
  D) Individual

 

 

36. How many cardinal relationships did Confucius emphasize?
  A) One
  B) Three
  C) Five
  D) Seven

 

 

37. According to Confucius, which relationship was the only relationship based on mutual obligations between equals?
  A) The relationship between father and son
  B) The relationship between ruler and subject
  C) The relationship between husband and wife
  D) The relationship between friend and friend

 

 

38. Confucius redefined the term gentleman (or junzi) as which of the following?
  A) A man of noble birth and status
  B) A religious priest
  C) A man of moral cultivation
  D) A successful merchant

 

 

39. How did Confucius view the class distinctions that existed in Chinese society?
  A) He believed that class distinctions should not exist.
  B) He believed that there should be more class levels and deeper distinctions between them.
  C) He believed that only the uneducated should be divided by class.
  D) He minimized class distinctions and believed talent could elevate a person socially.

 

 

40. What was the ultimate virtue according to Confucius?
  A) Piety
  B) Humanity
  C) Physical strength
  D) Humility

 

 

41. Why did Mencius believe that a benevolent ruler would be successful?
  A) He would never be invaded or attacked.
  B) He would be proclaimed a god.
  C) He would be able to intimidate his subjects.
  D) He would have his subjects’ loyalty.

 

 

42. A follower of Confucius, Mencius claimed what about human beings?
  A) That human nature is fundamentally good
  B) That people need to serve their rulers without question
  C) That people can never learn to recognize right from wrong
  D) That people should govern themselves

 

 

43. The thinker Xunzi argued that
  A) people will always be corrupted by experience.
  B) human nature is fundamentally good.
  C) there is no point in trying to change human nature.
  D) people are born selfish and greedy but can be trained to be good.

 

 

44. What advantage did Xunzi have when compared to Confucius and Mencius?
  A) He had considerable political experience.
  B) He offered broad ideas that were less developed and detailed.
  C) He trained to be a priest and thought heaven should be involved in human affairs.
  D) His father had been a philosopher as well.

 

 

45. Unlike Confucius, Xunzi was willing to discuss which of the following?
  A) Ethics
  B) Morality
  C) Religion
  D) Education

 

 

46. According to the philosophy of the Laozi, people would be better off if they did what?
  A) Traveled more
  B) Knew less
  C) Learned to read
  D) Developed new tools

 

 

47. What was the Zhuangzi?
  A) The second text written by Laozi that discussed politics
  B) A work that questioned whether life was better than death
  C) A text written to refute the ideas of Confucius
  D) An essay that concerned itself mostly with political thought

 

 

48. According to advocates of Legalism, what characteristics should the ideal government have?
  A) Government should be bureaucratic and authoritarian.
  B) Government should put an end to social hierarchy.
  C) All governmental leaders should be highly moral and pious.
  D) Government should be small and weak.

 

 

49. Under Qin legalist principles, in addition to taxes, subjects owed the state which of the following?
  A) Proof of education
  B) Labor service
  C) Worship of the emperor
  D) Animal sacrifice

 

 

50. What do yin and yang represent?
  A) Good and evil forces in nature
  B) Complementary masculine and feminine principles
  C) Skills of ritual and music
  D) Distinct entities that are opposing forces

 

 

Choose the letter of the best answer.

 

 

1. How did the geography of Greece affect its development?
  A) It had little impact on the development of Greek society.
  B) It enabled a strong central government to dominate the political order.
  C) It helped to unite the Greek city-states.
  D) It was a divisive force in Greek life.

 

 

2. Why was the growth of great empires (like those in Mesopotamia and Egypt) less likely to develop in ancient Greece?
  A) The dominance of a middle class, not peasants, worked against empire building.
  B) Its people were too ethnically and culturally diverse.
  C) The rugged terrain discouraged expansion of any one center.
  D) Greek military technology was slow to develop.

 

 

3. Which of the following is true of the Minoans?
  A) They formed a society that lived on the island of Crete.
  B) They settled in Greece after they were driven from their homes in Persia.
  C) They were a matriarchal society that lived on the island of Sicily.
  D) They were the first peoples who formed a society on the Greek peninsula.

 

 

4. How are the gods portrayed in the Homeric poems?
  A) With many human characteristics
  B) As seemingly obsessed with their desire to be human
  C) As largely unconcerned with humanity
  D) As bitter toward humans for their sacrifices

 

 

5. How was the Greek polis different from older models of city-states?
  A) The polis was strictly a political institution.
  B) The polis was a community of citizens.
  C) The polis was unified by one shared religion.
  D) The polis was seen as a kingdom under a divine ruler.

 

 

6. What was an agora?
  A) A temple complex
  B) A fortified stronghold
  C) A marketplace
  D) A plot of arable land for farming

 

 

7. Which of the following refers to heavily armed Greek foot soldiers?
  A) Hoplites
  B) Acropolis
  C) Chora
  D) Legionaries

 

 

8. What does the term oligarchy mean?
  A) “The rule of the few”
  B) “The rule of the people”
  C) “The rule of the excellent”
  D) “The rule of the king”

 

 

9. Which of the following was one of the causes of Greek colonization, and a particularly persistent problem for Sparta?
  A) A lack of financial prosperity in the polis
  B) Overpopulation and a limited food supply
  C) The need to find new gods to worship
  D) An overabundance of natural resources

 

 

10. How did the Lycurgan system in Sparta shape its political organization?
  A) It led to the creation of a society ruled by an aristocratic, warrior elite.
  B) It led to the start of a dictatorship controlled by the most powerful Spartan general.
  C) It led to the development of a democratic state in which helot and Spartan ruled together.
  D) It led to the erosion of Spartan military power in favor of the helots.

 

 

11. Which of the following is true of Spartan women?
  A) They were expected to assist their husbands and travel with them on military campaigns.
  B) They enjoyed a more active, public life than most other Greek women.
  C) Their single responsibility was to have many children.
  D) They were more restricted than most other Greek women.

 

 

12. How did the Spartan military view same-sex relationships between Spartan soldiers?
  A) They were seen as detrimental because they promoted fighting between comrades.
  B) They were ignored by leaders because personal choices were of no concern to the military.
  C) They were viewed as advantageous because lovers would fight harder to defend one another.
  D) They were prohibited because homosexual behavior was looked down upon by other Greeks.

 

 

13. What important position did Solon hold as he reformed Athens?
  A) King
  B) Archon
  C) Emperor
  D) Tyrant

 

 

14. What did Solon accomplish through his reforms in Athens?
  A) He established democracy.
  B) He established social equality.
  C) He gave common citizens a place in the assembly.
  D) He eliminated the position of chief magistrate.

 

 

15. What two law-making bodies guided Athenian political life?
  A) The boule and the ecclesia
  B) The agora and the chora
  C) The archon and the boule
  D) The agora and the archon

 

 

16. Athens and Persia began a series of wars over Greek cities in what region?
  A) Peloponnesus
  B) Macedonia
  C) Ionia
  D) Crete

 

 

17. What Mediterranean island did Athens invade during the Peloponnesian War?
  A) Crete
  B) Cyprus
  C) Lesbos
  D) Sicily

 

 

18. Which of the following contributed to the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War?
  A) Spartan domination of the Aegean
  B) Athenian imperialism
  C) A Persian invasion of Asia Minor
  D) A Spartan attempt to gain control of Ionia

 

 

19. What did Thucydides believe caused the Peloponnesian War?
  A) Divine intervention in Athenian politics
  B) Athens’s desire to spread democracy
  C) Sparta’s need to find new food sources
  D) Human greed and desire for power

 

 

20. The crowning achievement of Pericles’s rebuilding of the Acropolis was the Parthenon, a temple dedicated to which of the following?
  A) Athena and the greatness of Athens
  B) Zeus and the idea of a unified Greece
  C) Poseidon and Athens’s control of the seas
  D) Aphrodite and the importance of love

 

 

21. The plays of Sophocles emphasized the precedence of which of the following over human law and customs?
  A) Family needs
  B) Personal happiness
  C) Military success
  D) Divine law

 

 

22. How was the daily life of Greek elites similar to the lives of more ordinary people?
  A) All people in Athens were relatively affluent and could afford a “good life.”
  B) Everyone paid heavy annual taxes regardless of social class.
  C) They had a relatively modest material standard of living.
  D) All families depended almost entirely on slave labor.

 

 

23. What was unusual about slaves in Athens?
  A) All slaves were captured and imported from the wars in North Africa.
  B) Slaves were legally forbidden to read.
  C) Slaves could vote as a result of democratic reforms.
  D) Slaves were paid for their work.

 

 

24. What was the main function of women from citizen families in Athens?
  A) To accompany their husbands in public settings
  B) To run family estates and manage businesses while their husbands were at war
  C) To perform manual labor in the fields or sell goods in the agora
  D) To bear and raise children

 

 

25. By the classical era, Greek religion focused on which of the following?
  A) Worship of a group of gods understood to live on Mount Olympus
  B) Monotheistic worship of Zeus as the one true god
  C) Worship of only male deities, as female deities came to be seen as too powerless
  D) Individual worship of a polis’s chosen deity and abandonment of all Pan-Hellenic rituals

 

 

26. What was the most important result of the athletic contests held at Olympia?
  A) The contests allowed Greek leaders to identify the greatest soldiers.
  B) The contests led to the creation of a Pan-Hellenic trading network.
  C) The contests were unifying factors in Greek life.
  D) The contests put an end to political competition between Greek city-states.

 

 

27. What did the Pre-Socratics conclude from their observations?
  A) That the universe consisted of four substances––air, fire, earth, and water
  B) That one god had created the entire world
  C) That the universe was too complex to be understood
  D) That humans had achieved physical perfection

 

 

28. What did Hippocrates think was the best way to treat illnesses?
  A) Pray that the evil spirits would leave
  B) Use bloodletting and other invasive techniques to remove evil spirits from the body
  C) Use natural means to address imbalances in the four basic humors
  D) Offer more sacrifices to the gods

 

 

29. What crime was Socrates tried and executed for in 399 B.C.E.?
  A) Giving information to a Persian intelligence agent
  B) Undermining the authority of the government
  C) Denying the divinity of Zeus
  D) Corrupting the youth of Athens

 

 

30. Which student of Socrates developed the theory of “forms”?
  A) Plato
  B) Aristotle
  C) Ptolemy
  D) Zeno

 

 

31. According to Aristotle, true knowledge could be discerned from which of the following?
  A) Contemplation of perfect possibilities
  B) Observations of the real world
  C) Prayer or divine intervention
  D) Specialized religious ritual

 

 

32. After defeating Athens in the Peloponnesian War, Sparta was defeated in 371 B.C.E. by what city-state?
  A) Alexandria
  B) Corinth
  C) Delos
  D) Thebes

 

 

33. Philip II of Macedonia was able to conquer Greece because the Greek city-states were
  A) still occupied fighting the Persians.
  B) severely weakened by earthquakes.
  C) unable to put aside their quarrels and unite to defend themselves.
  D) unprepared for his surprise attack.

 

 

34. After Philip II of Macedonia unified Greece, he called upon Greeks and Macedonians to do which of the following?
  A) Promise five years of peace to allow for recovery from the war
  B) Work together to liberate the Ionian colonies from Persian control
  C) Move the royal court to Athens and build him a new palace
  D) Form a naval alliance with Persia and invade India

 

 

35. What did Alexander the Great do in Egypt once he had conquered it?
  A) Ordered the construction of the city of Alexandria
  B) Overturned Egyptian traditions in favor of Greek customs
  C) Decimated the land and pillaged the trade centers
  D) Forced the Egyptians to open new trade routes to Greece

 

 

36. How did the Hellenistic city differ from the polis?
  A) It perceived itself as a community of citizens.
  B) It was united by religious rituals.
  C) It tolerated same-sex relations.
  D) It was not autonomous and had to follow royal orders.

 

 

37. Why did Alexander’s eastward expansion of his empire stop at the Hyphasis River?
  A) His Macedonian army refused to continue fighting.
  B) The powerful Indian army defeated the Macedonians.
  C) The Persian army attacked him from the west.
  D) His spiritual advisors warned of unfavorable omens.

 

 

38. What happened to Alexander’s empire following his death?
  A) His empire was torn apart by more than forty years of civil war.
  B) His son ruled briefly as emperor until he was assassinated.
  C) Athens declared its independence from Macedonia.
  D) His empire was peacefully partitioned by a trio of powerful generals.

 

 

39. Which of the following is true of the Hellenistic city?
  A) It had homogenous populations.
  B) It was hampered by an inefficient bureaucracy that proved difficult to maintain.
  C) It was overseen by kings with limited authority.
  D) It resembled modern cities and served as both a cultural and economic center.

 

 

40. The spread of Hellenistic culture was bolstered by Alexander’s tradition of doing what in his newly conquered territories?
  A) Forcibly resettling conquered peoples in Greece
  B) Founding new cities with mixed populations
  C) Placing Macedonian kings in charge
  D) Censoring art and culture that criticized him

 

 

41. What was koine?
  A) The term used for Greco-Macedonian immigrants in one of the new cities
  B) The political organization that governed Jewish affairs
  C) The philosophical belief that fate, Tyche, ruled the world
  D) A common Greek dialect that developed throughout the Hellenistic period

 

 

42. How was Hellenistic trading made easier?
  A) Most traders spoke a variety of languages.
  B) Slaves working as pirates moved goods all over the Hellenistic world.
  C) Coinage was developed to facilitate convenient, standard payments.
  D) Traders began using camels to move goods in Europe.

 

 

43. Which of the following were major exports from Greek cities during the classical and Hellenistic periods?
  A) Gold and precious stones
  B) Olive oil and wine
  C) Feta cheese and lamb
  D) Silks and pearls

 

 

44. Why were slaves in high demand throughout the Hellenistic world?
  A) Slaves were traded for goods from China and India.
  B) Large-scale agriculture was dependent on slaves.
  C) Monarchs equated their power with how many slaves they owned.
  D) Manual labor continued to produce most goods.

 

 

45. Mystery religions featured which of the following?
  A) The promise of reincarnation
  B) The worship of a wide range of spirits and deities, both known and unknown
  C) A belief in the mysterious and sometimes malevolent force of Tyche
  D) A body of rituals and beliefs not divulged to anyone not initiated into them

 

 

46. What did Epicurus believe was the principal good of human life?
  A) Individual contribution to the civic life of the polis
  B) Pleasure, which he defined as the absence of pain
  C) The accumulation of power and wealth
  D) Helping others

 

 

47. What did the philosophy of Stoicism strongly emphasize?
  A) Personal achievement
  B) The acceptance of Tyche or chance
  C) The ability to endure suffering
  D) Living a virtuous life

 

 

48. What was Aristarchus’s most important contribution to astronomy?
  A) He argued that Earth is far larger than the sun.
  B) He theorized that the stars are close to Earth and to one another.
  C) He believed that Earth and the planets revolve around the sun.
  D) He asserted that telescopes are necessary for all astronomical work.

 

 

49. Archimedes’s many contributions to Hellenistic science include his theories about which of the following?
  A) Hydrostatics
  B) Heliocentrism
  C) Physics
  D) Astronomy

 

 

50. Which early scientist dissected corpses to learn more about anatomy and physiology?
  A) Euclid
  B) Archimedes
  C) Hippocrates
  D) Herophilus

Use the following to answer questions 1-10:

 

Select the word or phrase from the Terms section that best matches the definition or example provided in the Definitions section.

 

Terms

  1. Senate
  2. consuls
  3. patricians
  4. plebeians
  5. Punic Wars
  6. paterfamilias
  7. pax Romana
  8. Messiah
  9. pagan
  10. bishop

 

 

1. Primary executives in the Roman Republic, elected for one-year terms, who commanded the army in battle, administered state business, and supervised financial affairs. _________________

 

 

2. The assembly that was the main institution of power in the Roman Republic, originally composed only of aristocrats. _________________

 

 

3. Originally referring to those who lived in the countryside, the term came to mean those who practiced religions other than Judaism or Christianity. _________________

 

 

4. A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage in which Rome emerged the victor. _________________

 

 

5. The Roman hereditary aristocracy, who held most of the political power in the republic. _________________

 

 

6. In Jewish belief, a savior who would bring a period of peace and happiness for Jews; many Christians came to believe that Jesus was that savior. _________________

 

 

7. The common people of Rome, who were free but had few of the patricians’ advantages. _________________

 

 

8. The oldest dominant male of the family, who held great power over the lives of family members. _________________

 

 

9. The “Roman peace,” a period during the first and second centuries C.E. of political stability and relative peace. _________________

 

 

10. A Christian Church official with jurisdiction over a certain area and the power to determine the correct interpretation of Christian teachings. _________________

 

 

Choose the letter of the best answer.

 

 

1. Which year marked the beginning of a unified China under the Qin state?
  A) 206 C.E.
  B) 581 C.E.
  C) 221 B.C.E.
  D) 764 C.E.

 

 

2. How is the title Shihuangdi best translated?
  A) First King
  B) First Emperor
  C) God of All
  D) Mightiest Disciple

 

 

3. Which group of people did the First Emperor order to move to the capital?
  A) Nobility
  B) Merchants
  C) Military generals
  D) Foreigners

 

 

4. What did the first Qin emperor standardize, enabling China to operate more efficiently?
  A) The prices for rice and wheat were set by the government so that no one paid more than others.
  B) The Chinese script, weights, measures, and coinage were standardized to facilitate trade.
  C) Scholars were put to work on an official volume of Confucian theories so that religious rituals could be standardized.
  D) Ritual celebrations were set to a calendar so that they could be observed everywhere at the same time.

 

 

5. What defensive barrier was built by the Qin emperor using conscripted labor?
  A) The Grand Canal
  B) The First Wall
  C) The Silk Road
  D) The Great Wall

 

 

6. What happened to the Qin Dynasty after the death of the First Emperor?
  A) Legalists gained power.
  B) The Qin state collapsed.
  C) The position of emperor became a weak figurehead.
  D) His heir established popular reforms.

 

 

7. What did the Han emperor Gaozu do to reestablish stability after the fall of the Qin Dynasty?
  A) He resurrected Legalism as the guiding philosophy of government.
  B) He enacted harsh laws and high taxes in order to quell uprisings.
  C) He outlawed Confucian philosophy.
  D) He retained the centralized government created by the Qin.

 

 

8. According to the census of 2 C.E., how many people lived in China at that time?
  A) 3 million
  B) 16 million
  C) 58 million
  D) 116 million

 

 

9. The Han government shared what popular view about commerce by merchants?
  A) That it was the key to China’s economic prosperity
  B) That it exploited the true producers of wealth
  C) That it should be largely unregulated
  D) That it should not include the silk trade

 

 

10. Which statement is true about the Confucian classics?
  A) They were the texts written by Confucius in the sixth and fifth centuries B.C.E.
  B) They rejected the ideas of yin and yang and instead promoted piety.
  C) They were written by the disciples of Confucius after his death.
  D) They were the ancient books recovered after the book burning of the third century B.C.E.

 

 

11. The Confucian scholar-official system began during the
  A) Han Dynasty.
  B) Qin Dynasty.
  C) Age of Division.
  D) Zhou period.

 

 

12. The Confucian classics viewed natural disasters such as floods or earthquakes as evidence of what?
  A) The natural world had forces of its own.
  B) The people did not properly worship their ancestors.
  C) The gods were dissatisfied with the sacrifices offered to them.
  D) The emperor failed to keep the forces of Heaven and earth in balance.

 

 

13. What was significant about Sima Qian’s writings?
  A) They told the history of the eunuchs who served the Han emperors.
  B) They were the first collection of Daoist ideas on government.
  C) They included a comprehensive history of China and set a standard for historical writing.
  D) They represented the first time a Han official had written in support of Legalism.

 

 

14. Which of the following was invented in China around 105 C.E.?
  A) Writing
  B) Bronze technology
  C) Wet-field rice cultivation
  D) Paper

 

 

15. Who became China’s main military threat in the fifth to fourth centuries B.C.E.?
  A) Koreans from the Silla kingdom
  B) Nomadic horsemen of the north
  C) Internal rebels trying take control of trade
  D) Bactrian merchants on the Silk Road

 

 

16. Who formed the first great confederation of nomadic tribes, known as the Huns in the West?
  A) The Xiongnu
  B) The Chengdu
  C) The Qin
  D) The Chang’an

 

 

17. The early Han policy for dealing with the Xiongnu was to
  A) invade and destroy their camps.
  B) make peace with gifts and brides.
  C) send them sons of the emperors.
  D) capture as many of their horses as they could.

 

 

18. By taking over city-states in Central Asia, the Han under Emperor Wu were taking control of what transregional route?
  A) Grand Canal
  B) Silk Road
  C) Incense Route
  D) Khyber Pass

 

 

19. What was the key to the Han tributary system?
  A) The exchange of gifts via envoys
  B) Sending royal children as hostages
  C) Frequently sending armies to invade
  D) Sending Confucian scholars as teachers

 

 

20. Which of the following was true of metalworking in Han China?
  A) It was less sophisticated than Roman metalworking.
  B) It led to bronze replacing iron in tools.
  C) It involved the use of liquefied iron poured into molds.
  D) It resulted in bronze being phased out of all products.

 

 

21. Han coins and jewelry were usually made of what metal?
  A) Bronze
  B) Iron
  C) Gold
  D) Silver

 

 

22. Why did Han officials encourage peasants to be independent and productive?
  A) Peasants made up the bulk of the population and contributed vital taxes and labor services to the state.
  B) All peasants had high social ambitions and were easily coerced into doing difficult jobs for the possibility of advancement.
  C) China’s peasants were well known for their military skills and were required to serve in the emperor’s army.
  D) Most peasants also had secondary skills such as metalworking and weaving and were vital to keeping the economy strong.

 

 

23. Who arranged marriages in a typical Han family?
  A) Buddhist monks
  B) The nearest noble
  C) The groom
  D) Parents

 

 

24. How did the inheritance system in Han China usually work?
  A) All land and property were passed to the eldest son.
  B) All children inherited equally.
  C) Land was divided equally among the sons in a family.
  D) Land and money were divided between the spouse and the oldest child.

 

 

25. What was the most glorified virtue in Han times?
  A) Filial piety
  B) Bureaucratic honesty
  C) Honoring the emperor
  D) Gentlemanly conduct

 

 

26. Ban Zhao’s Admonitions for Women promoted the ideal virtues for Han women, particularly the virtue of
  A) pride.
  B) humility.
  C) physical strength.
  D) piety.

 

 

27. Which of the following took place during the Age of Division?
  A) A eunuch ruled China through child emperors.
  B) The Han Dynasty only maintained control of northern China.
  C) Buddhism was widely suppressed by most local rulers.
  D) Nanjing became the capital of southern China.

 

 

28. Under the rule of the Kushan king, artists began to depict the Buddha in human form because of influence from what culture?
  A) Persian
  B) Daoist
  C) Roman
  D) Greek

 

 

29. The Mahayana Buddhism that spread to Central Asia was influenced by Iranian religions to become more
  A) sacrificial.
  B) devotional.
  C) ritualistic.
  D) monastic.

 

 

30. What attracted Chinese women to Buddhism?
  A) It encouraged women to pursue salvation and serve the faith on terms nearly equal to men.
  B) It guaranteed every woman status as a bodhisattva.
  C) It taught that being born female was higher than being born male.
  D) It accepted the idea of female rulers and female independence.

 

 

31. Buddhist monasteries quickly became popular throughout northern and southern China and included among their patrons
  A) court eunuchs.
  B) men only and no women.
  C) rulers of both regions.
  D) nomadic pastoralists.

 

 

32. What was one of the objections to Buddhism in China?
  A) Buddhists sought to build monasteries on land that was sacred to Confucians.
  B) Buddhists wanted to provide education for everyone, not just sons of the nobility.
  C) Buddhist monks established missionaries to convert all people, including members of the imperial family.
  D) Buddhist monasteries and temples were built on untaxed land, and monks did not perform labor service.

 

 

33. Yang Jian, who established the Sui Dynasty, came from a mixed family of Chinese and non-Chinese from what part of Asia?
  A) Korea
  B) The north
  C) The southeast
  D) Japan

 

 

34. What new method for choosing government officials was introduced in 605 C.E. under the Sui Dynasty?
  A) Written examinations
  B) Military challenges
  C) Monastic training
  D) Oral examinations

 

 

35. How did the Sui Dynasty contribute to China’s infrastructure?
  A) A well-planned government complex was established in Beijing.
  B) Protective walls were built around cities for the first time.
  C) The Yellow and Yangzi Rivers were connected by a canal.
  D) China’s first roads were built between Beijing and Chang’an.

 

 

36. What title did Taizong of the Tang Dynasty gain when he defeated the Turks in 630 C.E.?
  A) Second Emperor
  B) Son of Heaven
  C) Sultan
  D) Great Khan

 

 

37. How did Empress Wu of the Tang seize power for herself?
  A) She waged a coup d’etat against her husband.
  B) She took advantage of the illness of Emperor Gaozong.
  C) She murdered her two sons.
  D) She claimed she was pregnant with the dead emperor’s son.

 

 

38. Who led a rebellion against the Tang government in 755 C.E.?
  A) Yang Guifei
  B) Emperor Gaozong
  C) Empress Wu
  D) An Lushan

 

 

39. During what dynasty did the great age of Chinese poetry occur?
  A) Han
  B) Qin
  C) Sui
  D) Tang

 

 

40. Which Buddhist school of thought appealed to laypeople during the Tang era?
  A) Therevada School
  B) Chan School
  C) Zen School
  D) Pure Land School

 

 

41. Which area of East Asia was the least affected by Chinese cultural influences?
  A) Japan
  B) Tibet
  C) Korea
  D) Vietnam

 

 

42. What written language was used by educated people throughout East Asia by the eighth century?
  A) Korean
  B) Japanese
  C) Chinese
  D) Vietnamese

 

 

43. Who established the Nam Viet kingdom in the third century B.C.E.?
  A) A Buddhist monk
  B) A Confucian scholar
  C) A former Qin general
  D) A Viet prince

 

 

44. Who did the Vietnamese Trung sisters lead an uprising against in 39 C.E.?
  A) Han rulers
  B) Trieu Da
  C) Nam Viet
  D) Qin officials

 

 

45. Which of the three kingdoms of Korea was able to unify the entire peninsula under its control?
  A) Paekche
  B) Choson
  C)
  D) Silla

 

 

46. Why were the Yamato rulers of Japan able to come to power?
  A) They had a strong military and claimed to be descended from the sun-goddess.
  B) They claimed they had been chosen by the Tang and the Silla.
  C) They claimed they possessed special powers that would ensure an overthrow of the Han Dynasty.
  D) They promised material wealth for all followers and to never allow women to rule.

 

 

47. What was the native religion of Japan?
  A) Zen
  B) Shinto
  C) Yamato
  D) Mahayana

 

 

48. Prince Shôtoku’s reforms of Japan included adopting what administrative ideas from China?
  A) Using Legalism to organize a society
  B) Instituting a ladder of ranks and using Confucianism as a guiding principle
  C) Administering the country through a Daoist hands-off approach
  D) Establishing an official policy of “family comes first”

 

 

49. Which of the following was a result of increased Japanese contact with the Asian mainland in the eighth century C.E.?
  A) The introduction of Buddhism
  B) A general decline in prices due to competition
  C) A smallpox epidemic
  D) The disappearance of the Japanese language

 

 

50. Which of the following was Japan’s capital and first true city?
  A)
  B) Tokyo
  C) Chang’an
  D) Nara

 

Choose the letter of the best answer.

 

 

1. In the sixth century, the Byzantine emperor Justinian fought the Ostrogoths for control of what territory?
  A) France
  B) Italy
  C) Germania
  D) Asia Minor

 

 

2. How did people of the Byzantine Empire view themselves?
  A) They saw themselves as something new, calling themselves the Byzantines.
  B) They saw themselves as Greeks because of their close cultural relationship with Greece.
  C) They considered themselves Persians because most of the rulers of the Byzantine Empire were Persian.
  D) They considered themselves Romans as Byzantium was the eastern part of the Roman Empire.

 

 

3. In addition to its strong walls, which of the following protected Constantinople from attacks?
  A) Large deserts on all sides
  B) Buffer neighborhoods of settled Huns
  C) The sea on three sides
  D) An army corps surrounding the walls

 

 

4. For many centuries, who were the most regular foes of the Byzantines?
  A) Mongolians
  B) Sassanids
  C) Franks
  D) The Norse

 

 

5. What was the official religion of Sassanid Persia?
  A) Islam
  B) Coptic Christianity
  C) Zoroastrianism
  D) Judaism

 

 

6. Which of the following is true of Justinian’s law code?
  A) It was only used in the Byzantine Empire.
  B) It became the foundation of law for most modern European nations.
  C) It was the first time laws had been written in Europe.
  D) It focused on practical civil law but not the philosophy of law.

 

 

7. What was the Byzantines’ most important contribution to mathematics and science?
  A) Preserving Greco-Roman texts
  B) Discovering the origins of the Bubonic plague
  C) A treatise on how to perform surgeries
  D) A machine that propelled oared boats

 

 

8. What was the Byzantines’ best-known innovation?
  A) The explosive compound known as “Greek fire”
  B) The Cyrillic alphabet
  C) Bronze weapons
  D) The cure for Justinian’s plague

 

 

9. Which of the following was true of Byzantine medicine?
  A) It was less advanced than their work in other sciences.
  B) It resulted in an understanding of the connection between sanitation and disease.
  C) It led to practical treatment for the “Justinian plague.”
  D) It was more advanced than medicine in Western Europe.

 

 

10. How did the “Justinian plague” affect the Byzantines?
  A) Its outbreak severely weakened the military resources of Byzantium.
  B) It decimated the Muslim armies attacking Byzantium.
  C) It killed much fewer Byzantines than Western Europeans.
  D) It caused the death of the Emperor Justinian.

 

 

11. Which group dominated tenth-century Byzantine society?
  A) Silk Road businessmen
  B) Military generals
  C) The landed aristocracy
  D) The clergy

 

 

12. What was a gynaeceum?
  A) A large reception hall
  B) A public bath
  C) A woman’s apartment
  D) An art gallery

 

 

13. Prior to becoming a bishop, Ambrose of Milan had received what kind of training?
  A) Medical
  B) Legal
  C) Rhetoric
  D) Military

 

 

14. What important belief did the Arians hold?
  A) They believed in the supremacy of the bishop of Rome.
  B) They argued that the powers of church and state should be separate.
  C) They asserted that God and Christ were equals.
  D) They thought that Christ was not co-eternal with God or equal to him in power.

 

 

15. Arianism was condemned by Constantine at what council in 325?
  A) Nicaea
  B) Tours
  C) Rome
  D) Athens

 

 

16. What important theological issue did the Nicene Creed address?
  A) It stated that secular leaders could intervene in spiritual concerns.
  B) It supported the ideas of Arianism.
  C) It explained the nature of Christ’s divinity.
  D) It denied that Christ was as divine as God the Father.

 

 

17. What happened to Arius after the Council of Nicaea?
  A) He and his followers were executed.
  B) He created an alternative church
  C) He became bishop of Alexandria.
  D) He and his followers were banished.

 

 

18. What emperor made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire?
  A) Constantine
  B) Theodosius
  C) Justinian
  D) Tiberius

 

 

19. Why did Emperor Theodosius destroy the pagan temples in the late fourth century?
  A) He believed they were centers of sedition.
  B) He wanted to use the buildings for official purposes.
  C) He expected the Christian Church’s support in return.
  D) He saw that they were no longer being used.

 

 

20. Which of the following allowed the bishops of Rome, or popes, to gain increased power and political authority in central Italy?
  A) The popes’ ability to expand religious and secular authority as a result of their greater independence from Constantinople
  B) The close personal relationship that the bishops maintained with the emperors at Constantinople
  C) The failure of the emperors at Constantinople to provide financial support for the urban development projects taking place in Rome
  D) The tradition of viewing religion as a branch of the state and the church’s reliance on councils of bishops and theologians to settle doctrinal disputes peacefully

 

 

21. On what basis did the bishops of Rome claim authority over other bishops?
  A) The bishopric of Rome was the first diocese created by Constantine.
  B) The Nicene Creed was promulgated and approved in Rome.
  C) The bishops of Rome were the best-educated churchmen.
  D) The apostle Peter lived in Rome, and the bishops of Rome were his successors.

 

 

22. Where did Christian monasticism begin?
  A) Egypt
  B) Rome
  C) Constantinople
  D) Jerusalem

 

 

23. How did church authorities respond to the growing trend of eremitical monasticism?
  A) They encouraged all monks to become hermits in the desert.
  B) They encouraged hermits to retreat to the edge of towns.
  C) They encouraged those who wanted to live ascetic lives to join communities instead.
  D) They encouraged all hermits to renounce asceticism altogether.

 

 

24. What was Saint Jerome’s major contribution to the early church?
  A) He translated the Bible into Latin.
  B) He wrote the Nicene Creed.
  C) He reconciled Christ’s sermons with pagan philosophy.
  D) He established the first communal monastery.

 

 

25. What did Jesus teach regarding women?
  A) He taught that women were almost always inferior to men.
  B) He believed and taught that women were a constant source of temptation.
  C) He taught that women were equal to men.
  D) He taught that no matter what happened women could not achieve salvation.

 

 

26. Which of the following was one of Saint Augustine’s key ideas?
  A) His belief in monastic celibacy
  B) His doctrine of Christ’s divinity
  C) His doctrine of original sin
  D) His belief that the pope was Peter’s successor

 

 

27. In The Confessions, what does Saint Augustine argue about human behavior?
  A) That knowledge and virtue are one and the same
  B) That people always act on the basis of rational knowledge
  C) That a person who knows what is right will do what is right
  D) That all humans are weak-willed and have an innate tendency to sin

 

 

28. According to Saint Augustine, what did God transmit through the sacraments?
  A) Free will
  B) Grace
  C) Peace
  D) Desire

 

 

29. Iconoclasts believed that people were doing what with icons?
  A) Praying through them
  B) Decorating with them
  C) Using them for instruction
  D) Worshiping them

 

 

30. What order did the Byzantine emperor Leo III give in 730?
  A) He banned women from monasteries.
  B) He ordered the destruction of icons.
  C) He ordered that Latin no longer be used for mass.
  D) He outlawed the use of singing in prayer.

 

 

31. With whom did the pope form an alliance as a result of the iconoclastic controversy?
  A) The Byzantine emperor
  B) The Frankish monarchy
  C) Arian Christians
  D) Persian Muslims

 

 

32. What was a consequence of the controversy over icons in the Eastern Christian Church?
  A) The controversy had few consequences beyond theology.
  B) It settled the issue of church-state relations in Byzantium.
  C) It led to further separation between Western Europe and Byzantium.
  D) It resulted in the destruction of all pagan icons.

 

 

33. What was the original meaning of barbaros, or barbarian?
  A) Someone who was primitive or unruly
  B) Someone who did not speak Greek
  C) Someone who was not Christian
  D) Someone who wore animal skins

 

 

34. What was the basic Germanic social unit?
  A) The state
  B) The family
  C) The individual
  D) The tribe

 

 

35. In early Germanic villages, which of the following indicated a man’s wealth and determined his social status?
  A) His relationship with the king
  B) The amount of land he owned
  C) The number of cattle he possessed
  D) The number of wives he had

 

 

36. What was one distinction between wealthy, powerful barbarians and ordinary barbarians of lesser status?
  A) Only powerful men were expected to fight.
  B) Only ordinary Barbarians were allowed to drink beer.
  C) Powerful men owned cattle, while ordinary men herded sheep.
  D) Powerful men sometimes had more than one wife.

 

 

37. Which of the following outlined the value Germanic tribes ascribed to the worth of individual members?
  A) Doom
  B) Gentes
  C) Comitatus
  D) Wergeld

 

 

38. What roles did the druids fill in Celtic society?
  A) They were chieftains and scribes.
  B) They served religious and legal functions.
  C) They were largely military leaders and scribes
  D) They served as clan elders and bards.

 

 

39. Barbarians migrated into Roman territory looking for which of the following?
  A) A promised holy site
  B) Better supplies and more farmland
  C) The knowledge and skills needed to make iron
  D) Women for brides or slaves

 

 

40. Why did the Huns retreat from Italy in 451?
  A) Their leader, Attila, had died, and their new leader wanted to return home.
  B) Pope Leo I asked them to, and they were weakened by disease and poor food supply.
  C) They were forced out by Visigoths.
  D) They did not find what they needed.

 

 

41. On whom did early Christian missionaries concentrate their conversion efforts?
  A) Urban residents
  B) Pagan priests
  C) Rural peasants
  D) Members of royal families

 

 

42. According to legend, what saint Christianized Ireland?
  A) Christopher
  B) Patrick
  C) Jerome
  D) Benedict

 

 

43. The base for the Christianization of the European continent began in 597 in what country?
  A) Spain
  B) France
  C) England
  D) Portugal

 

 

44. One of Cyril’s most important contributions to Russian culture was the invention of which of the following?
  A) Greek fire
  B) Russian icons
  C) The Cyrillic alphabet
  D) Russian monarchy

 

 

45. Which fifth-century Merovingian leader helped unify the Franks?
  A) Clovis
  B) Gregory
  C) Merovech
  D) Charles Martel

 

 

46. Carolingian power over the Franks was solidified by Charles Martel’s defeat of which group in 732 at Poitiers?
  A) Muslim invaders
  B) The Visigoths
  C) The Burgundians
  D) Celtic warriors

 

 

47. The coronation of Charlemagne as emperor caused a decisive break between Western Europe and what empire?
  A) The Abbasid
  B) The Byzantine
  C) The Sassanid
  D) The Umayyad

 

 

48. Charlemagne used missi dominici to connect his central government to which of the following?
  A) Church leaders
  B) Rome
  C) Constantinople
  D) Local authorities

 

 

49. To what does the Carolingian Renaissance refer?
  A) A growing veneration of the fathers of Roman Christianity
  B) An enthusiastic interest in Roman military history
  C) A growing interest in the ideas of classical Greece and Rome
  D) Charlemagne’s clever invention of a bureaucracy necessary to operate a vast empire

 

 

50. What was accomplished by the Treaty of Verdun?
  A) It removed substantial territory from the Byzantine Empire, creating the beginnings of the Holy Roman Empire.
  B) It moved the territory today known as Italy, Austria, and France out of the Carolingian Empire and into that of the Merovingian.
  C) It created peace between the Muslim armies of the Iberian Peninsula and Charlemagne’s armies.
  D) It divided the Carolingian Empire, forming the precursors to the modern states of Germany, France, and Italy.

 

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