Test Bank for Universe Solar System Stars and Galaxies 8th Edition by Seeds

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INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

Test Bank for Universe Solar System Stars and Galaxies 8th Edition by Seeds

Sample  Questions

 

CHAPTER 2—A USER’S GUIDE TO THE SKY

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Seen from the northern latitudes (mid-northern hemisphere), the star Polaris
a. is never above the horizon during the day.
b. always sets directly in the west.
c. is always above the northern horizon.
d. is never visible during the winter.
e. is the brightest star in the sky.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. An observer on Earth’s equator would find _______
a. the celestial equator passing at 45 degrees above the northern horizon.
b. the celestial equator passing at 45 degrees above the southern horizon.
c. that the celestial equator coincides with the horizon.
d. the celestial equator passing directly overhead.
e. None of the above are true.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

  1. An observer at Earth’s geographic north pole would find _______
a. the celestial equator passing at 45 degrees above the northern horizon.
b. the celestial equator passing at 45 degrees above the southern horizon.
c. that the celestial equator coincides with the horizon.
d. the celestial equator passing directly overhead.
e. None of the above are true.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. An observer on Earth’s geographic north pole would find
a. Polaris directly overhead.
b. Polaris 40° above the northern horizon.
c. that the celestial equator coincides with the horizon.
d. that the celestial equator passing directly overhead.
e. that the ecliptic coincides with the horizon.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. An observer on Earth’s equator would find
a. Polaris directly overhead.
b. Polaris 40° above the northern horizon.
c. Polaris on the northern horizon.
d. that the celestial equator passing directly overhead.
e. that the ecliptic coincides with the horizon.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The celestial equator is
a. a line around the sky directly above Earth’s equator.
b. the dividing line between the north and south celestial hemispheres.
c. the path that the sun appears to follow on the celestial sphere as Earth orbits the sun.
d. a and b.
e. a and c.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The ____ is the point on the celestial sphere directly above an observer who can be at any point on the Earth..
a. north celestial pole
b. south celestial pole
c. zenith
d. celestial equator
e. nadir

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Constellation names are from _____ translated into _______, the language of science in Europe to the 19th century.
a. Greek;  Latin
b. Latin; Greek
c. Latin; Arabic
d. Greek; English
e. Greek; Italian

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Most star names, such as Aldebaran and Betelgeuse, are___ in origin.
a. Latin
b. Greek
c. Arabic
d. English
e. Italian

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The magnitude scale
a. originated just after the telescope was invented.
b. can be used to indicate the apparent intensity of a celestial object.
c. was devised by Galileo.
d. is no longer used today.
e. was used to determine the rate of precession.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The apparent visual magnitude of a star is a measure of the star’s
a. size.
b. intensity.
c. distance.
d. color.
e. temperature.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The apparent visual magnitude of a star is 7.3. This tells us that the star is
a. one of the brighter stars in the sky.
b. bright enough that it would be visible even during the day.
c. not visible with the unaided eye.
d. very far from Earth.
e. very close to Earth.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The star Vega has an apparent visual magnitude of 0.03 and the star HR 4374 has an apparent visual magnitude of 4.87. It has been determined that both stars are at the same distance from Earth. What does this information tell us about the two stars?
a. Vega must be closer to Earth than HR 4374.
b. Vega must be farther from Earth than HR 4374.
c. Vega must produce less energy per second than HR 4374.
d. Vega must produce more energy per second than HR 4374.
e. Vega will appear fainter to us than HR 4374.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The ____ of an object can be measured in degrees.
a. apparent brightness
b. apparent magnitude
c. zenith
d. angular diameter
e. color

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

  1. An observer’s nadir is
a. the point directly opposite the observer’s zenith.
b. the north point on the observer’s horizon.
c. located at the center of Earth.
d. always located near a circumpolar constellation.
e. directly opposite the north celestial pole.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. A(n) ____ is 1/60th of a degree.
a. precession
b. second of arc
c. minute of arc
d. nadir
e. angular diameter

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. A(n) ____ is 1/60th of a minute of arc.
a. precession
b. second of arc
c. degree
d. nadir
e. angular diameter

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. In contrast to Ursa Major, the Big Dipper is not a(n)  ___ but is instead a(n)  ______
a. star; constellation.
b. asterism; constellation.
c. a constellation;  asterism.
d. Wrong!  Both are asterisms.
e. Wrong! Both are official constellations.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Precession of the rotation axis of Earth is caused by
a. the force of gravity from the sun and moon on Earth’s equatorial bulge.
b. the force of gravity from the sun and Jupiter on the Earth-moon system.
c. the magnetic field of Earth.
d. the formation and subsequent melting of glaciers during the ice-ages.
e. the impact of asteroids.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. An observer in the Northern Hemisphere watches the sky for several hours. Due to the motion of Earth, this observer notices that the stars near the north celestial pole appear to move
a. counter-clockwise around the celestial pole.
b. clockwise around the celestial pole.
c. from left to right.
d. from right to left.
e. nearly vertically upward.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. You live at a latitude of 73° N. What is the angle between the northern horizon and the north celestial pole?
a. 73°
b. 27°
c. 17°
d. 23°
e.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. You live at a latitude of 39° S. What is the angle between the southern horizon and the south celestial pole?
a. 45°
b. 23.5°
c. 39°
d. 51°
e. The answer depends on the day of the year.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. You live at a latitude of 28° N. What is the angle between the northern horizon and the north celestial pole?
a. 62°
b. 28°
c. 40°
d. 23°
e.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. You live at a latitude of 16° S. What is the angle between the southern horizon and the south celestial pole?
a. 74°
b. 164°
c. 16°
d. 23°
e.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. You live at a latitude of 39° S. What is the angle between the southern horizon and the south celestial pole?
a. 45°
b. 23.5°
c. 39°
d. 51°
e. The answer depends on the day of the year.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. If the north celestial pole appears on your horizon, what is your latitude?
a. 90° N
b. 90° S
c.
d. 45° N
e. The latitude of the observer cannot be determined from the information given.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. What is the approximate latitude of the observer in the diagram below?

 

 

a. 90° N
b. 90° S
c. 50° N
d. 50° S
e.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. What is the approximate latitude of the observer in the diagram below?

 

 

a. 20° N
b. 20° S
c. 70° N
d. 70° S
e.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. An observer in the Northern Hemisphere takes a time exposure photograph of the night sky. If the illustration below depicts the photograph taken by the observer, which direction was the camera pointing?

 

 

a. straight north
b. straight east
c. straight south
d. straight west
e. straight up, directly overhead

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. An observer in the Northern Hemisphere takes a time exposure photograph of the night sky. If the illustration below depicts the photograph taken by the observer, which direction was the camera pointing?

 

 

a. straight north
b. straight east
c. straight south
d. straight west
e. straight up, directly overhead

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

  1. An observer in the Southern Hemisphere takes a time exposure photograph of the night sky. If the illustration below depicts the photograph taken by the observer, which direction was the camera pointing?

 

 

a. straight north
b. straight east
c. straight south
d. straight west
e. straight up, directly overhead

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. An observer in the Southern Hemisphere takes a time exposure photograph of the night sky. If the illustration below depicts the photograph taken by the observer, which direction was the camera pointing?

 

 

a. straight north
b. straight east
c. straight south
d. straight west
e. straight up, directly overhead

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. An observer in the Northern Hemisphere takes a time exposure photograph of the night sky. If the illustration below depicts the photograph taken by the observer, which direction was the camera pointing?

 

 

a. straight north
b. straight east
c. straight south
d. straight west
e. straight up, directly overhead

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. An observer in the Southern Hemisphere takes a time exposure photograph of the night sky. If the illustration below depicts the photograph taken by the observer, which direction was the camera pointing?

 

 

a. straight north
b. straight east
c. straight south
d. straight west
e. straight up, directly overhead

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

Table 2-1

 

Star

Name

Apparent Visual

Magnitude

d Dra   3.07
a Cet   2.53
r Per   3.98
Nim   8.07
  a CMa -1.46

 

 

  1. Refer to Table 2-1. Which star in the table would appear the brightest to an observer on Earth?
a. a Cet
b. a CMa
c. Nim
d. r Per
e. d Dra

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Refer to Table 2-1. Based on the information in the table, what is the ratio of the intensity of Dra to that of Nim?
a. 2.512
b. 5
c. 8.07
d. 11.14
e. 100

 

 

ANS:  E                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Refer to Table 2-1. Which star in the table would not be visible to the unaided eye of an observer on Earth?
a. a Cet
b. a Cma
c. Nim
d. r Per
e. d Dra

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Star A has an apparent visual magnitude of 13.4 and star B has an apparent visual magnitude of 15.4. Star A is ____ than star B.
a. 2 times fainter
b. 2 times brighter
c. 6.3 times fainter
d. 6.3 times brighter
e. 29.8 times fainter

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Polaris is a second magnitude star, and Phi Pegasi is about 16 times fainter than Polaris. What is the approximate magnitude of Phi Pegasi?
a. 18
b. -14
c. 3
d. -3
e. 5

 

 

ANS:  E                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Do the constellations visible in the sky at a particular time of night (say 9 P.M.) follow a seasonal pattern?
a. No, the same constellations are visible at 9 P.M. on any clear night of the year.
b. No. As the year progresses, the constellations visible at 9 P.M. are the same but their shapes change.
c. Yes, at 9 P.M. during a clear winter night ALL of the constellations you can see are different from the ones that appear at the same time during a summer night.
d. Yes, at 9 P.M. during a summer night most of the constellations you can see are different from those you can see on a winter night. However, there are some constellations that are visible all year long.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Which of the following statements correctly describes the relationship between stars and constellations?
a. Only stars close to the ecliptic (the Earth’s orbital plane) are located in constellations.
b. Every star is located in a constellation.
c. Only the brighter stars are in constellations.
d. Only those stars that were visible to the ancient Greeks are located in constellations.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. How much of the night sky is north of the celestial equator?
a. less than one-half, because of the tilt of the equator to the ecliptic plane
b. more than one-half, because of the precession of the poles
c. exactly one-half
d. all of the night sky

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. If you point toward the zenith right now and then point there again 6 hours later, you will have pointed twice in the same direction relative to
a. your horizon.
b. the sun.
c. the moon.
d. the fixed stars.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. If an observer walks north toward increasing latitude, the number of circumpolar stars would
a. remain constant.
b. decrease.
c. increase.
d. Unknown unless you also state the longitude of the observer.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. If you were standing on the Earth’s equator, which of the following in the sky would pass through your zenith during the entire day (24 hours)?
a. the north celestial pole
b. the south celestial pole
c. the celestial equator
d. the nadir

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. If you are standing at the Earth’s north pole, which of the following would be located at the zenith?
a. the nadir
b. the star Vega
c. the celestial equator
d. the north celestial pole

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Stars in the same constellation
a. probably formed at the same time.
b. must be part of the same cluster of stars in space.
c. must have been discovered at about the same time at the same location in space.
d. may actually be very different distances away from the observer and from each other.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

  1. During the month of June the north celestial pole points towards Polaris, but during the month of December it points
a. just north of Polaris.
b. just south of Polaris.
c. towards the star Vega.
d. towards the star Thuban.
e. still towards Polaris.

 

 

ANS:  E                    PTS:   1

 

  1. In one way of naming stars, a(n) ____ letter indicates its brightness relative to the other stars in the constellation.
a. English
b. Arabic
c. Greek
d. Cyrillic

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. ____ is the brightest star in the constellation of Ursa Majoris.
a. b Ursa Majoris
b. g Ursa Majoris
c. a Ursa Majoris
d. Wrong! Ursa Majoris is the name of the brightest star.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Seen from the northern latitudes, the star Polaris
a. is never above the horizon during the day.
b. always sets directly in the west.
c. is always above the northern horizon.
d. is never visible during the winter.
e. is the brightest star in the sky.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Precession of the rotation axis of Earth is caused by
a. the force of gravity from the sun and moon on Earth’s equatorial bulge.
b. the force of gravity from Neptune and Jupiter on the Earth-moon system.
c. the magnetic field of Earth.
d. the formation and subsequent melting of glaciers during the ice-ages.
e. the impact of asteroids.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Precession of the rotation axis of Earth takes ____ to complete a cycle.
a. 24 hours
b. one year
c. 260 years
d. 26,000 years
e. 260,000 years

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

  1. How much of the night sky is north of the celestial equator?
a. less than one-half, because of the tilt of the equator to the ecliptic plane
b. more than one-half, because of the precession of the poles
c. exactly one-half
d. all of the night sky

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. A sketch of the Earth with its north and south poles and equator is shown.  The zenith is located in the sky over your head if you are at

 

a. Earth’s equator.
b. Earth’s north pole.
c. Earth’s south pole.
d. any of these.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

  1. During one day and night in the mid-northern hemisphere, the stars near the north celestial pole
a. rise in the east.
b. set in the west.
c. circle the north celestial pole counter-clockwise.
d. circle the north celestial pole clockwise.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. As seen from the Earth’s southern hemisphere, the celestial equator passes
a. north of overhead.
b. south of overhead.
c. through the north celestial pole.
d. through the south celestial pole.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. At the Earth’s north pole, the north celestial pole is directly overhead and stars near the horizon travel in straight lines
a. straight up from the horizon.
b. straight up from the horizon slanting toward the right.
c. straight up from the horizon slanting toward the left.
d. parallel to the horizon.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

COMPLETION

 

  1. ____________________ is a measure of the light energy that hits one square meter in one second.

 

ANS:  Intensity or Flux

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. The ____________________ is the point on the celestial sphere directly above an observer, regardless of where the observer is located on Earth.

 

ANS:  Zenith

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. Star A has an apparent visual magnitude of 6.3 and star B has an apparent visual magnitude of 5.3. Star A is ____________________ times ____________________ than star B.

 

ANS:  2.5; fainter

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. Earth’s rotation axis ____________________ slowly so that in a few thousand years Polaris will no longer be the North Star.

 

ANS:  precesses

 

PTS:   1

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. All the constellations in the sky were created by the Greeks.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

 

  1. A second magnitude star in Ursa Major is brighter than a fourth magnitude star in Orion.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The Greek letter designation conveys information about a star’s location and brightness.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The celestial equator always passes directly overhead.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The celestial equator always crosses the horizon at the east point and west point.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Navigators can find their latitude in the northern hemisphere by measuring the angle from the northern horizon to the north celestial pole.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

 

  1. A scientific model is a mental conception that provides a framework that helps us think about some aspect of nature.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The constellation of Orion is currently visible in the evenings in January. Precession will not affect this and Orion will still be visible in January 13,000 years from now.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

 

  1. A 3rd magnitude star is 3 times brighter than a 1st magnitude star.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

 

  1. As Earth rotates, circumpolar stars appear to move counterclockwise around the north celestial pole.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Hipparchus devised the magnitude system in the late 1700’s.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Polaris has always been the star nearest the north celestial pole.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Describe the path that a star on the celestial equator follows from the time it rises until it sets for a person at a latitude of 60° N and a person at the equator.

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. Describe the location of Polaris in the sky relative to the horizon as seen by observers in Alaska (lat. = 60° N), Texas (lat. = 33° N), Ecuador (lat. = 0°), and Australia (lat. = 30° S).

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. What information does a star’s Greek-letter designation convey?

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. What advantage is there in referring to a star by its Greek-letter designation and constellation name rather using its traditional name?

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. How are the celestial poles and equator defined by Earth’s rotation?

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. How is a constellation different from an asterism?

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. What causes precession and why does it “move” the celestial equator among the stars?

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

PTS:   1

CHAPTER 4—THE ORIGIN OF MODERN ASTRONOMY

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Which of the following people did NOT accept a heliocentric model for the universe?
a. Kepler
b. Copernicus
c. Tycho
d. Galileo
e. Newton

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The book “De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium”
a. describes how Galileo’s observations and Kepler’s calculations proved the Copernican theory.
b. describes the construction of Galileo’s telescope and his observations.
c. is a dialog written to convince the general public of the merits of the Copernican theory.
d. first described the Copernican theory.
e. describes the Tychonian theory.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

  1. A(n) ____ is a small circle whose center is located on the circumference of another larger circle.
a. equant
b. deferent
c. retrograde loop
d. ellipse
e. epicycle

 

 

ANS:  E                    PTS:   1

 

  1. A(n) ____ is a commonly accepted set of scientific ideas and assumptions.
a. theory
b. paradigm
c. hypothesis
d. natural law
e. model

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. A(n) ____ is a single conjecture that can be tested.
a. hypothesis
b. paradigm
c. natural law
d. model
e. theory

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. A(n) ____ is well supported (observationally and/or experimentally) system of rules and principles that can be applied to a wide variety of circumstances.
a. hypothesis
b. paradigm
c. theory
d. model

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Retrograde motion (east to west among the stars) is observed
a. for some planets as Earth passes between that planet and the sun.
b. for the sun during the entire year.
c. for Earth’s moon during an entire month.
d. none of the above.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Spring tides occur
a. at new moon and first quarter moon.
b. at first quarter and third quarter moons.
c. at new moon and full moon.
d. at third quarter and full moons.
e. at noon and midnight.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. ____ occur when the moon is first or third quarter.
a. Neap tides
b. Spring tides
c. Total solar eclipses
d. Annular eclipses
e. A coppery red moon will

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The geometry of an ellipse is described by two numbers: the ____ which is half the longest diameter of the ellipse and the ____ which tells us the shape of the ellipse.
a. radius, eccentricity
b. radius, deferent
c. semimajor axis, deferent
d. semimajor axis, epicycle
e. semimajor axis, eccentricity

 

 

ANS:  E                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The semimajor axis of an ellipse is
a. the ratio of the longest diameter of the ellipse to that of the shortest diameter of the ellipse.
b. half the length of the shortest diameter of the ellipse.
c. half the length of the longest diameter of the ellipse.
d. the distance between the two foci of the ellipse.
e. the ratio of the distance between the two foci to the length of half the longest diameter of the ellipse.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. ____ orbit is one in which an object orbiting Earth has an orbital period equal to the rotation period of Earth.
a. A daily
b. A lunar
c. An epicycle
d. A geosynchronous
e. An open

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Parallax is
a. the apparent motion of an object due to the motion of the observer.
b. the distance between two foci of an ellipse.
c. the small circle that the planets slid along in Ptolemy’s geocentric universe.
d. the circular orbits used in Copernicus’ heliocentric universe.
e. half the length of the shortest diameter of an ellipse.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Tycho failed to detect ______ for the nova of 1572 indicating it was ______.
a. parallax; beyond the orbit of Earth’s moon
b. parallax;  inside the Earth’s atmosphere close to Earth
c. light; beyond the orbit of Earth’s moon
d. light; inside the Earth’s atmosphere close to Earth

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Ptolemy’s model of the universe
a. was heliocentric.
b. included elliptical orbits.
c. contained epicycles.
d. all of the above.
e. none of the above.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The Copernican system was no more accurate than the Ptolemaic system in predicting the positions of the planets because ___________just as in the Ptolemaic system.
a. the Copernican system assumed the Earth was at rest at the center
b. the Copernican system used elliptical planetary orbits
c. the Copernican system used uniform circular motion
d. the Copernican system assumed all planets orbited the sun

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Galileo’s observations of a complete set of  phases of Venus proved
a. that Venus orbited the sun.
b. that Earth orbited the sun.
c. that all of the planets orbited the sun.
d. that the moon orbited Earth.
e. that Venus had an atmosphere.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Galileo’s telescopic discoveries of mountains on the moon and spots on the sun were controversial because they suggested that the sun and moon
a. were the same kind of object.
b. were not perfect spheres.
c. were inhabited.
d. orbited each other.
e. did not orbit Earth.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Tycho’s universe was the same as the Copernican universe except that
a. Earth did not move.
b. the sun did not move.
c. the moon orbited the sun.
d. the orbits were elliptical with the sun at one focus.
e. the orbits followed uniform circular motion.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Tycho Brahe’s greatest contribution to astronomy was
a. his model of the universe.
b. his telescopic observations.
c. his discovery of three laws of motion.
d. his 20 years of careful observations of the planets.
e. a and b above

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Which of the following books of tabulated predicted planet positions was not based on uniform circular motion?
a. the Rudolphine Tables by Kepler
b. the Prutenic Tables based on Copernicus’ model
c. the Alphonsine Tables based on Ptolemy’s observations and calculations

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The force of gravity from one object extends to infinity never going to zero. When we say that gravitation is universal we mean that
a. the Earth exerts gravitational force on objects on its surface.
b. the Earth exerts a gravitational force on its moon and vice versa.
c. the Earth, moon, and sun exert gravitational forces on each other.
d. all material objects in the universe exert gravitational forces on one another.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Newton concluded that a force from the Earth had to act on the moon because
a. a force is needed to keep the moon in motion in its orbit.
b. a force is needed to pull the moon outward.
c. a force is needed to accelerate the moon toward Earth away from straight-line motion.
d. the moon moved at a constant velocity in a straight line.
e. all of the above.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The ____ of an object is a measure of the amount of matter it contains. On the other hand ____ is a measure of the gravitational force on an object.
a. weight; mass
b. mass; weight
c. energy; force
d. force; energy
e. momentum; energy

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The diagram below illustrates a portion of the model for the universe described by

 

 

a. Kepler.
b. Tycho.
c. Ptolemy.
d. Copernicus.
e. Galileo.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Kepler’s second law implies that
a. a planet should move at its greatest speed when it is closest to the sun.
b. the most massive planets will have the greatest speed in their orbits.
c. the speed of a planet in its orbit depends on the size of the epicycle.
d. the mass of the planet determines how far the planet is from the sun.
e. the deferent and the epicycle have to be attached to the sun and not Earth.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Kepler’s first law of planetary motion implies that
a. the planets move at a constant speed at all points in their orbits.
b. the planets all move around Earth in elliptical orbits.
c. uniform circular motion is adequate to describe the motion of all planets.
d. planets move in elliptical orbits around the sun.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Gravity obeys an inverse square relation. This statement implies that the force due to gravity between two masses
a. will increase as the distance between the two masses increases.
b. will decrease as the square of the distance between the two masses increases.
c. will cause the two masses to move away from each other.
d. will cause the two masses to move in a straight line.
e. will cause the two masses to orbit each other.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The force due to gravity between two objects depends on

 

I. the mass of each object.
II. the distance each object is from Earth.
III. the distance between the two objects.
IV. the speed of light.

 

a. I & II
b. I & III
c. II & IV
d. I, II, & III
e. I, II, III, & IV

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Halley’s comet has an orbital period of 76 years, what is the average distance of Comet Halley from the sun?
a. 51 AU
b. 18 AU
c. 114 AU
d. 660 AU
e. 38 AU

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. An object has been located orbiting the sun at a distance from the sun of 65 AU. What is the approximate orbital period of this object?
a. 65 years
b. 275,000 years
c. 4225 years
d. 8.1 years
e. 524 years

 

 

ANS:  E                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Saturn is on average 10 AU from the sun. What is the approximate orbital period of Saturn?
a. 10 years
b. 32 years
c. 100 years
d. 1000 years
e. 1,000,000 years

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The period of Jupiter’s orbit around the sun is approximately 12 years. What is the approximate distance from the sun to Jupiter?
a. 144 AU
b. 1728 AU
c. 42 AU
d. 5.2 AU
e. 2.3 AU

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Which of the following planets can be seen as a crescent phase from Earth?
a. Mercury
b. Venus
c. Mars
d. both a and b
e. all of the above

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

  1. If the mass of the Earth decreased by a factor of two with no change in radius, your weight would
a. increase by a factor of 4.
b. increase by a factor of 2.
c. stay the same.
d. decrease by a factor of 2.
e. decrease by a factor of 4.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

  1. In pre-Copernican astronomy, it was almost universally believed that
a. the planets traveled in elliptical orbits about Earth.
b. the center of the universe was the sun with the Milky Way representing other distant planets.
c. the sun was at the center of the universe.
d. Earth was at the center of the universe.
e. None of the above was believed.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

  1. An apparent westward motion of a planet in the sky compared to the background stars (as viewed from Earth) when observed on successive nights is referred to as
a. epicycle.
b. retrograde motion.
c. prograde motion.
d. heliocentric motion.
e. deferent.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The purpose of using epicycles and deferents to explain the motion of the planets in the night sky was to account for
a. prograde motion.
b. Mercury’s and Venus’s limited angular distance from the sun.
c. retrograde motion.
d. non-uniform speed of the planets in their orbits.
e. precession of the equinoxes.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Which of the following objects cannot transit (i.e., pass in front of) the sun as seen from Jupiter?
a. Mars
b. Earth
c. Saturn
d. Mercury
e. Venus

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. When Mars is located directly behind Earth with respect to the sun in its orbit, it is
a. at the midpoint in the sky between east and west at sunset.
b. at the midpoint in the sky between east and west at midnight.
c. at the midpoint in the sky between east and west at sunrise.
d. at the midpoint in the sky between east and west at noon.
e. not visible in the night sky.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The greatest inaccuracy in Copernicus’s model of the solar system was that the planets
a. traveled in circular orbits with uniform motion.
b. traveled on epicycles whose centers followed orbits around the sun.
c. traveled in elliptical orbits.
d. were allowed to travel backwards in their orbits.
e. orbited the sun.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The orbit of the planet Jupiter is an ellipse with the sun at one focus. What is located at the other focus?
a. the asteroid belt
b. Earth
c. Saturn
d. Jupiter
e. nothing

 

 

ANS:  E                    PTS:   1

 

  1. A comet in a highly elliptical orbit is found to have a semimajor axis equal to one astronomical unit (AU). According to Kepler’s 3rd law, what would be the sidereal period of this comet?
a. more than one year
b. one year
c. less than one year
d. 76 years; the same for every comet
e. Not enough information is given to determine this.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The eccentricity of a planet’s orbit describes
a. westward motion in the night sky when observed on successive nights.
b. the deviation in shape when compared to a circle.
c. its tilt with respect to the ecliptic plane.
d. the tilt of the planet’s rotational axis with respect to the ecliptic.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Which of the following statements best describes Kepler’s 3rd law of planetary motion?
a. The smaller the diameter of a planet, the faster its rotational period is.
b. The orbital period of a planet is directly proportional to the diameter of the planet.
c. The smaller the orbit, the longer its orbital period is.
d. The larger the orbit, the longer its orbital period is.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Why did Galileo’s observations of moons orbiting Jupiter disagree with geocentric model of the universe of his time?
a. The moons moved in non-circular orbits about Jupiter.
b. The moons did not appear to orbit the sun.
c. The moons did not appear to orbit Earth.
d. The moons appeared to be too small, and therefore too far away, to be considered part of the solar system.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. In Ptolemy’s view of the universe, a planet moves on an epicycle whose center moves around the Earth on the deferent circle.
a. Correct
b. FALSE; Ptolemy put the sun at the center.
c. FALSE; The planet stays on the deferent circle.
d. FALSE; Earth is at the center of the epicycle.
e. FALSE; Both c and d are correct.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The vernal equinox is the point on the sky where the sun crosses the ____________ going north and east.
a. north celestial pole
b. south celestial pole
c. celestial equator
d. horizon

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The Almagest
a. is the book that first described the heliocentric solar system.
b. is a collection of the science and mathematics of the Greeks.
c. caused the author to be sentenced to house arrest.
d. is a book of astrological myths and predictions produced by the Arabs.
e. first described the Copernican theory.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Galileo’s telescopic discovery of moons orbiting Jupiter was important because it showed that
a. the universe could contain centers of motion other than Earth.
b. Earth might move along an orbit and not leave the moon behind.
c. Jupiter was much more massive than Earth.
d. all of the above.
e. a and b above.

 

 

ANS:  E                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Direct motion of a planet is its normal motion ____________ among the stars.
a. west to east along the ecliptic
b. east to west along the ecliptic
c. west to east along the celestial equator
d. east to west along the celestial equator

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Galileo used a telescope to discover
a. spots on the sun.
b. craters on the moon.
c. moons around Jupiter.
d. moon-like phases of Venus.
e. all of these.

 

 

ANS:  E                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Copernicus
a. proposed that the earth orbited the sun.
b. showed how retrograde motion could be explained without epicycles if the planets all orbited the sun.
c. neither of a, b.
d. both a and b.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Kepler used Tycho’s observations to show that the planets
a. followed perfectly circular orbits.
b. followed perfectly cubical orbits.
c. all circled the earth.
d. followed elliptical orbits.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Newton’s law of gravitational force is expressed as follows:
a. An object with no force on it moves in a straight line with constant velocity.
b. An object with a force on it is accelerated in the direction of the force an amount inversely proportional to its mass and directly proportional to the size of the force.
c. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
d. The force between two objects is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the distance between them squared.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Which type of curve would accurately represent a closed orbit?
a. ellipse
b. hyperbola
c. parabola
d. straight line

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Tides occur because the gravitational force of the moon on  Earth ____ with increasing distance from the moon.
a. stays constant
b. increases
c. decreases

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The ____ produce(s) tides on the Earth.
a. moon alone
b. sun alone
c. moon and sun

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. What is the circular velocity of an object orbiting Earth at a distance of 100,000 km from Earth’s center?

G = 6.67´1011 m3×kg1×s2; MEarth = 5.98´1024 kg

a. 2 m/s
b. 20 m/s
c. 200 m/s
d. 2000 m/s
e. 20,000 m/s

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

  1. A(n) ____ orbit is one where the orbiting object is always above the same location on Earth’s surface.
a. elliptical
b. geosynchronous
c. closed
d. hyperbolic
e. parabolic

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The circular velocity of a satellite orbiting Earth is given by . In this equation,
a. M represents the mass of the satellite, and r is its radius.
b. M represents the mass of Earth, and r the radius of Earth.
c. M represents the mass of the satellite, and r the distance from Earth to the satellite.
d. M represents the mass of Earth, and r the distance from Earth to the satellite.
e. M represents the mass of the satellite, and r the distance from Earth’s surface to the satellite.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

  1. When two objects of unequal masses orbit each other, the center of mass is
a. at the center of the more massive object.
b. at the center of the least massive object.
c. half way between the centers of each object.
d. always closer to the less massive of the two objects.
e. always closer to the more massive of the two objects.

 

 

ANS:  E                    PTS:   1

 

  1. When we say that gravitation is universal we mean that
a. objects with no forces on them move with constant speed.
b. an object with a force on it accelerates in the direction of the force.
c. it is a repulsive force of all matter in the universe.
d. the force of gravity from one object extends to infinity.
e. both answers c and d.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

COMPLETION

 

  1. ____________________ made very accurate observations of the positions and movements of the planets that were later used to help develop the Rudolphine Tables.

 

ANS:  Tycho Brahe

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. The first observations of objects in the solar system that orbited neither the sun nor Earth were made by ____________________.

 

ANS:  Galileo

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. Uranus’s orbital period is 84 years. How far is Uranus from the sun?

 

ANS:  19 AU

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. The ____________________ Tables were based on a heliocentric model of the universe and used elliptical orbits for the planets.

 

ANS:  Rudolphine

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. According to Kepler’s third law, a planet’s orbital period ____________________ is equal to its average distance from the sun ____________________.

 

ANS:  squared, cubed

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. Ocean tides of low amplitude that occur at first and third quarter moons are called ____________________.

 

ANS:  neap tides

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. A(n) ____________________ is a circle whose center moves in a circular orbit around the Earth.

 

ANS:  epicycle

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. Ptolemy formulated a(n) ____________________ model of the solar system to predict positions of the sun, moon, and planets.

 

ANS:  geocentric

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. The first modern astronomer to propose a heliocentric model for the solar system was ____________________.

 

ANS:  Copernicus

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. Which planets are never visible near the eastern horizon at sunset?

 

ANS:

Mercury and Venus

Mercury & Venus

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. ____________________ is a description of the Ptolemaic model of the solar system.

 

ANS:  The Almagest

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. Tables based on a heliocentric model of the universe which used elliptical orbits for the planets were more accurate than ____________________.

 

ANS:  geocentric tables using circles and epicycles

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. Once a theory has been tested thoroughly and is confidently believed by scientists, it becomes a ____________________.

 

ANS:  natural law

 

PTS:   1

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. The Copernican model of the solar system has the planets orbit the sun along elliptical paths.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Copernicus proposed that Earth moved around the sun.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

 

  1. A scientific model can never be exactly correct.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Many classical Greek astronomers believed Earth could not move because they detected no parallax.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The Ptolemaic model of the universe was heliocentric.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Classical Greek astronomers believed the motions of the heavens could be described by uniform circular motion.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Galileo used a telescope to observe the phases of the sun.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

 

  1. If a planet orbits the sun at a distance of 4 AU, then its orbital period is 8 years.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The force due to gravity has the mathematical form .

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The law of gravitation is termed universal because it is a property of all material objects.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The neap tides can only occur when the moon’s position is at or near one of its orbital nodes.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The spring tides occur during the new and full lunar phases.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Parallax is the apparent change in location of an object due to the motion of the observer.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The Copernican model of the solar system has the planets orbit the sun along elliptical paths.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Galileo wrote the Almagest.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Galileo used a telescope to observe the phases of Venus.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Kepler’s 2nd law of planetary motion states that the orbits of the planets are ellipses with the sun at one focus.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Kepler completed the Rudolphine Tables.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The lunar tides on Earth are making the moon recede from Earth.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Describe the differences between the Ptolemaic, Tychonian, and Copernican models of the universe.

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. Describe the Ptolemaic model of the universe. Draw a diagram of the model showing the major components of the model for Earth, the moon, the sun, and the five planets visible to the Greeks.

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. What are Kepler’s three laws?

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. Why were Galileo’s telescopic observations of the phases of Venus critical evidence in favor of the Copernican theory?

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. How did the geocentric model and the heliocentric model of the universe explain retrograde motion?

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. How did Tycho Brahe’s model of the universe differ from that of Ptolemy? How did Tycho Brahe’s model of the universe differ from that of Copernicus?

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. If Copernicus overthrew the geocentric universe, what did Kepler overthrow?

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. What are Newton’s three laws of motion?

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. Why does Ptolemy include epicycles in his model?

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. Describe one observation that would disprove the Ptolemaic model and explain why it would conflict with the model.

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. Discuss which of Galileo’s observations argued against the geocentric model and which of his discoveries argued for the heliocentric model.

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. Using the figures in this chapter, copy the diagrams of Ptolemy and Copernicus side by side, and with arrows and words below the diagrams, describe the differences between them.

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. Why does the circular velocity of an Earth satellite depend on the distance from Earth’s center?

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. How can tidal forces affect the rotation of celestial bodies and their orbital motion? Hint: Consider Earth and the moon.

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. Explain how gravity is used to explain the presence of the tides we experience on Earth.

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. Explain why the spring and neap tides occur periodically.

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

PTS:   1

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