Test Bank For The Last Dance Encountering Death and Dying 10th Edition By Lynne Ann



Test Bank For The Last Dance Encountering Death and Dying 10th Edition By Lynne Ann

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Sample Questions


Chapter 04

Death Systems: Mortality and Society



Multiple Choice Questions

  1. (p. 139)Which of the following are components of a “death system,” as described by Robert Kastenbaum?

    1. Places
    2. Times
    3. Objects
    4. Regulations
    A. 1, 3, and 4
    B. 1, 2, and 4
    C. 1, 2, and 3
    D. 2, 3, and 4


  1. (p. 140)Which of the following are functions of a “death system?”

    1. Caring for the dying
    2. Making sense of the death
    3. Disposing of the dead
    4. Utilizing the environment
    A. 1, 2, and 3
    B. 1, 2, and 4
    C. 1, 3, and 4
    D. 2, 3, and 4



  1. (p. 140-141)What does the death certificate do?

    1. Verifies identification of deceased
    2. Affects disposition of property rights
    3. Identifies the mode of death
    4. Aids in crime detection
    A. 1, 2, and 3
    B. 1, 3, and 4
    C. 1, 2, and 4
    D. 2, 3, and 4


  1. (p. 141)What is considered the most important legal procedure following a death?
    A. Obituary
    B. Death notice
    C. Official registration of death
    D. Coroner’s report


  1. (p. 141)The most important legal procedure following a death is considered to be the
    A. official registration of the death.
    B. publishing of the death notice.
    C. reading of the will of the deceased.
    D. distribution of property of the deceased.


  1. (p. 141)The modes of death recognized by law include all of the following categories EXCEPT
    A. accident.
    B. homicide.
    C. mature death.
    D. suicide.



  1. (p. 141)What are the different modes of death on a typical death certificate?
    A. Accidental, suspicious, homicidal, and natural
    B. Intentional, suspicious, homicidal, and natural
    C. Accidental, suicidal, homicidal, and natural
    D. Suicidal, unintentional, homicidal, and natural


  1. (p. 141 and 143)When death occurs in suspicious circumstances or is sudden and there is no physician to sign the death certificate, who determines and certifies the cause of death?
    A. Attending police officer
    B. Coroner
    C. Next of kin
    D. Funeral director


  1. (p. 143)A significant difference between a medical examiner and a coroner is that the
    A. coroner is responsible for suicide prevention efforts whereas the medical examiner is not.
    B. coroner must have specialized training in forensic pathology.
    C. coroner is usually an elected official whereas the medical examiner is usually appointed.
    D. coroners are qualified medical doctors.


  1. (p. 143)What is the application of medical knowledge to questions of law?
    A. Medico-legalization
    B. Court appointed medical examination
    C. Forensic pathology
    D. Thanatechnological


  1. (p. 143)What is the coroner or medical examiner also known as?
    A. A death investigator
    B. The bondsman
    C. U.S. Standards officer
    D. Deputy



  1. (p. 144)When can an autopsy be performed?

    1. When required by law
    2. After consent of the next of kin is obtained
    3. When the deceased has made a body donation
    4. When the research hospital needs a subject
    A. 1, 2, and 3
    B. 1, 2, and 4
    C. 2, 3, and 4
    D. 1, 3, and 4


  1. (p. 144)Except when required by law, an autopsy can be performed only after
    A. the funeral director has been contacted by family and the funeral plans are in place.
    B. the cause of death is determined and the corpse is deemed not contagious.
    C. the next of kin’s consent.
    D. the provisions of the Informed Anatomical Donor form are in place.


  1. (p. 147-148)Which of the following items is NOT matched correctly?
    A. Murder: the deliberate intentional killing of another human being
    B. Voluntary manslaughter: the killing of another human being in performance of a public duty
    C. Involuntary manslaughter: the unintentional killing of another human being as a result of criminal carelessness
    D. Noncriminal homicide: the killing of another human being involving self-defense


  1. (p. 148)In a study of more than 300 homicides in a major American city, it was found that more than half of the
    A. suspects had experienced significant social disadvantages.
    B. suspects were released before reaching trial.
    C. cases resulted from domestic violence.
    D. cases were directly tied to financial gain.



  1. (p. 148)In a study of more than 300 homicides in a major American city, it was found that
    A. the more affluent the victim, the more likely the killer would be punished.
    B. the more violent the method of killing, the more likely the killer would be punished.
    C. the more intimate the relationship between killer and victim, the less likely the killer would be punished.
    D. the more affluent the killer, the less likely the killer would be punished.


  1. (p. 150)A person who kills a member of his or her family is usually judged by society to be
    A. not as threatening as someone who kills a stranger.
    B. not responsible for the act due to insanity.
    C. subject to the same code of justice as anyone else.
    D. a major threat to the public at large.


  1. (p. 151)How does the separation of civil and criminal law affect the modern system of justice?
    A. Modern law views the accused as having a problem with a particular person.
    B. Modern law views violence as an outgrowth of social and psychological problems rather than as individual acts.
    C. Modern law considers the accused and the victim as equals in the legal equation.
    D. Modern law views homicide as an act committed against the state rather than against an individual.


  1. (p. 151)Research indicates that capital punishment is
    A. an exception to the notion that killing solves problems.
    B. an effective deterrent for criminal behavior.
    C. the strong penalty needed to make the criminal justice system work.
    D. not an effective deterrent to murder.


  1. (p. 152)Devices such as a “life-preserving” coffin refers to a container that is
    A. hermetically sealed.
    B. elaborate and memorable with photos.
    C. equipped to ensure very slow decay of the corpse.
    D. equipped with a signaling device.



  1. (p. 152)The coffin bell-pull device was invented to
    A. warn the community about impending disasters.
    B. prevent premature burial.
    C. hasten death from plagues.
    D. assist undertakers during burial.


  1. (p. 153)Historically, death has been ascertained by the absence of
    A. heartbeat and breathing.
    B. consciousness.
    C. brain waves.
    D. heartbeat and brain waves.


  1. (p. 154)All of the following are methods of determining clinical death EXCEPT
    A. cessation of heartbeat.
    B. cessation of breathing.
    C. decomposition of the body’s cells.
    D. establishing brain death.


  1. (p. 154)What is an irreversible process of deterioration in the body’s systems and organs?
    A. Cellular death
    B. Brain death
    C. Livor mortis
    D. Rigor mortis


  1. (p. 154)An irreversible process of deterioration in the body’s systems and organs is
    A. clinical decomposition.
    B. cellular death.
    C. electro-encephalogramic death.
    D. brain death.



  1. (p. 155)Who outlined the four levels that must be addressed concerning the definition and determination of death?
    A. Robert Veatch
    B. Christian Barnard
    C. Karen Gervais
    D. Jurō Wada


  1. (p. 157)Under what circumstances would the irreversible loss of flow of vital fluids approach to defining death be unclear?
    A. When a patient has lost a lot of blood
    B. When a patient’s vital functions are artificially sustained by machines
    C. When a patient has undergone an amputation
    D. When a patient has a near-death experience


  1. (p. 157-160)Which of the following are included in Veatch’s four approaches to defining and determining death?

    1. Irreversible loss of flow of vital fluids
    2. Irreversible loss of the soul from the body
    3. Irreversible loss of communication with a higher spirit
    4. Irreversible loss of the capacity for bodily integration
    A. 1, 2, and 3
    B. 1, 2, and 4
    C. 2, 3, and 4
    D. 1, 3, and 4


  1. (p. 158)In the approach to defining death based on irreversible loss of the soul from the body, what is commonly believed to be related to the soul?
    A. Breath or heart
    B. Feelings or emotions
    C. Physical movement
    D. Thought process



  1. (p. 162)The Uniform Determination of Death Act was proposed by the
    A. American Bar Association.
    B. President’s Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine.
    C. Harvard Medical School Ad Hoc Committee to Examine Brain Death.
    D. American Medical Association.


  1. (p. 162)According to the Uniform Determination of Death Act, an individual is dead when he/she has irreversible

    1. cessation of the capacity for bodily integration.
    2. circulatory and respiratory cessation.
    3. absence of functions of the entire brain, including the brain stem.
    4. cessation of the capacity for consciousness.
    A. 1 and 2
    B. 1 and 3
    C. 2 and 3
    D. 2 and 4


  1. (p. 165)The most important factor in determining if someone is a suitable candidate for an organ transplant is
    A. emotional stability.
    B. he or she has a reasonable likelihood of recovery with a transplant.
    C. he or she has an ability to deal with stress.
    D. age.


  1. (p. 165)Where and when was the first ‘breathing lung’ transplant performed?
    A. South Africa, 1967
    B. United States, 2012
    C. Japan, 2001
    D. United Kingdom, 1989



  1. (p. 166)According to the Uniform Anatomical Gift Act, organ donation can be made by
    A. the United Network for Organ Sharing.
    B. the Centers for Rare Diseases to further research.
    C. a decision made by the hospital ethics committee.
    D. the next of kin unless there was a known objection by the deceased.


  1. (p. 166)The Uniform Anatomical Gift Act was revised in what year to simplify organ donation?
    A. 1968
    B. 1984
    C. 1998
    D. 2006


  1. (p. 167)What date was the National Organ Transplant Act Enacted and by whom?
    A. 2008 by registered medical ethicists appointed by the president of the United States
    B. 1991 by the Surgeon General
    C. 1989 by UNOS and OPTN
    D. 1984 by the U.S. Congress


  1. (p. 168)In the text, what are “ick” and “jinx” factors related to?
    A. Organ donation
    B. Autopsies
    C. Japan’s brain death debate
    D. Cemeteries in your neighborhood


  1. (p. 168)Under the provisions of the National Organ Transplantation Act, it is currently illegal to buy or sell human organs and tissues except
    A. eyes.
    B. bone marrow.
    C. hair.
    D. blood.



  1. (p. 169)Who regulates organ procurement organizations?
    A. The surgeon general’s office
    B. The federal government
    C. The local health department
    D. The National Conference on Commissions


  1. (p. 171)Until quite recently, the style used by physicians in Japan for giving information to their patients was called?
    A. “Open door”
    B. “Closed door”
    C. “Free-will”
    D. “Need-to-know”


  1. (p. 171)What accounts for the reluctance to actively pursue organ transplantation in Japan?
    A. Japanese physicians practice “open door” medicine.
    B. Japanese are concerned about keeping the body intact.
    C. The criteria for brain death are applied too strictly.
    D. Death is viewed as a medically determined phenomenon.


  1. (p. 172)What does the debate in Japan regarding brain death and organ transplantation illustrate?
    A. How culture influences attitudes and practices related to dying and death
    B. The difficulty of getting a law passed
    C. The confusion surrounding brain death and organ transplantation
    D. How important the issue of defining death is



True / False Questions

  1. (p. 141)Death certificates aid in crime detection.



  1. (p. 147)An autopsy may help resolve questions about malpractice.


  1. (p. 147)Homicide is separated into two categories, criminal and non-criminal.


  1. (p. 148)State laws differ in how they distinguish categories of manslaughter.


  1. (p. 148)Involuntary manslaughter is a type of criminal homicide.


  1. (p. 151)Apart from certain crimes on which the Supreme Court has not ruled, the only capital crime in the United States is murder.


  1. (p. 165)The first kidney transplant was from one identical twin to another in 1954.


  1. (p. 165)In 1976, the first successful heart transplant occurred in the United States.


  1. (p. 166)There is currently no shortage of organs for transplant.



  1. (p. 167)The United Network for Organ Sharing is under contract with the federal government to maintain lists of people waiting for transplants.


  1. (p. 167)MatchingDonors.com is a government certified website for organ transplantations.


  1. (p. 168)Under the National Organ Transplant Act, it is legal to sell human organs if the recipient is in a terminal condition.


  1. (p. 169)The Federal government regulates organ procurement and bodies and body parts used for research and education.

Chapter 06

End-of-Life Issues and Decisions



Multiple Choice Questions

  1. (p. 214)By acknowledging the inevitability of death we
    A. can prepare for it.
    B. become sad and worried.
    C. are more open to near death experiences.
    D. may divest of financial burdens.


  1. (p. 214)In which of the following is the individual’s right to autonomy violated?
    A. An older woman who refuses to undergo back surgery
    B. An older man whose physician and family coerce him to have foot surgery
    C. An infant whose parents elect for surgery to correct a congenital heart defect
    D. An athlete who seeks a second opinion based on his coach’s suggestion


  1. (p. 214-215)Three principles of medical ethics are
    A. competence, information, non-maleficence.
    B. autonomy, beneficence, justice.
    C. impartiality, prognosis, support.
    D. public acceptance, honesty, freedom.


  1. (p. 215)What is a fundamental principle in medical care which involves doing good or conferring benefits that enhance personal or social well-being?
    A. Autoficence
    B. Comfort measures only (CMO)
    C. Beneficence
    D. Medical heroics



  1. (p. 215)What is a fundamental principle in medical care which is the injunction to “do no harm?”
    A. Nonmaleficence
    B. Beneficence
    C. Assistance
    D. Etiologicality


  1. (p. 215)Informed consent is based on a patient’s competency to give consent, adequate understanding of proposed treatment, and
    A. faith in the doctor’s advice.
    B. consent must be given freely.
    C. appropriateness of treatment goals.
    D. the agreement of family or close friends.


  1. (p. 216)What year did informed consent achieve formal legal definition?
    A. 1929
    B. 1945
    C. 1957
    D. 1963


  1. (p. 216)Informed consent ideally occurs within a context where the
    A. health-care provider will decide what is best.
    B. patient and health-care provider share in decision making.
    C. patient decides whether to follow the advice of the doctor.
    D. patient seeks a second opinion.


  1. (p. 216)A study in 1961 found that, __________ doctors had a strong tendency to withhold information.
    A. few
    B. most
    C. military
    D. hospital-based



  1. (p. 219)The SUPPORT STUDY was designed to
    A. help families find an appropriate hospice program.
    B. aid hospitals in developing end-of-life protocols.
    C. unionize hospital personnel.
    D. assess communication between physician and patient at the end-of-life.


  1. (p. 219)Patients at the end-of-life may not want disruptive medical interventions. The preference can be recognized in a medical setting by designating the patient as
    A. prognosis and preferences.
    B. tacit communications.
    C. comfort measures only.
    D. withhold and withdraw.


  1. (p. 222)Ethical questions regarding the “right to die” first came to public attention in the landmark court case involving
    A. Nancy Beth Cruzan.
    B. Karen Ann Quinlan.
    C. Nancy Ellen Jobes.
    D. Elizabeth Bouvia.


  1. (p. 222)All of the following occurred with Karen Ann Quinlan EXCEPT
    A. Quinlan’s parents requested that she be removed from a mechanical respirator.
    B. the request of Karen’s parents was opposed by the hospital officials and resulted in a judicial suit.
    C. the Supreme Court of New Jersey ruled in favor of the hospital officials and Karen remained on the respirator.
    D. Karen’s case became the focal point for issues pertaining to “death with dignity.”


  1. (p. 222)The controversy surrounding the Karen Ann Quinlan case centered on the
    A. abuse of prescription drugs.
    B. separation of church and state.
    C. issue of transplantation.
    D. right to forgo life-sustaining treatment.



  1. (p. 222)What position did the state of Missouri initially take in the Nancy Beth Cruzan case?
    A. It contended that Nancy’s parents did not have the right to remove artificial feeding.
    B. It contended that the medical center did not have the right to remove Nancy’s feeding tube.
    C. It deferred to federal law requiring Nancy to be sustained by artificial feeding.
    D. It deferred to medical professionals to determine Nancy’s fate.


  1. (p. 223)What is a state of profound unconsciousness lasting a few days or weeks?
    A. Persistent vegetative state
    B. Minimally conscious state
    C. Coma
    D. Post-coma unresponsiveness


  1. (p. 223)What disorder of consciousness has been characterized as “awake but unaware” and also has been called “hopelessly conscious?”
    A. Coma
    B. Vegetative state
    C. Locked-in syndrome
    D. Minimally conscious state (MCS)


  1. (p. 224)The case of Terry Schiavo was compounded by the fact that
    A. her husband argued that she was conscious, and not in a PVS (persistent vegetative state).
    B. the U.S. Supreme Court declined to grant judicial review.
    C. she was subpoenaed to testify at a congressional “field hearing.”
    D. she had not completed her advance directive.


  1. (p. 227)Studies of the Oregon Death with Dignity Act show that the decision to request a prescription for lethal medication was associated mainly with patients’ concerns about loss of dignity, loss of ability to have an enjoyable life, and loss of
    A. cognitive functioning.
    B. independence in toileting.
    C. youthful looks.
    D. autonomy.



  1. (p. 227)Currently, physician-assisted death is permitted by legislation enacted in
    A. California and Ohio.
    B. Nevada and Michigan.
    C. Oregon and Washington.
    D. New York and Pennsylvania.


  1. (p. 227)In May 2013, which state senate passed and the governor signed the Patient Choice and Control at End-of-Life Act?
    A. North Carolina
    B. New Mexico
    C. Vermont
    D. New Hampshire


  1. (p. 227)Which act allows physicians to prescribe lethal medication to terminally ill patients?
    A. California Patient Compassion Act (CPCA)
    B. Oregon Death with Dignity Act (ODDA)
    C. United States Terminal Sedation Act (USTSA)
    D. New York Samaritan Death Act (NYSDA)


  1. (p. 228)Who provided aid-in-dying to more than 100 people and led a crusade to legalize physician-assistant suicide?
    A. Thomas Youk
    B. Jack Kevorkian
    C. John Pridonoff
    D. Madeline Jacobs


  1. (p. 229)In the medical management of pain, what rule states that a harmful effect of treatment, even if it results in death, is permissible if the harm is not intended and occurs as a side effect of a beneficial action?
    A. Oregon Death with Dignity rule
    B. Rule of double effect
    C. Euthanasia rule
    D. Rule of beneficence



  1. (p. 229)Euthanasia comes from the Greek
    A. quick death.
    B. easy death.
    C. forever sleep.
    D. deliberate death.


  1. (p. 230)Which industrialized countries are identified in the text as permitting euthanasia to patients who request death?

    1. United States and Japan
    2. Netherlands and Belgium
    3. Belgium and Luxembourg
    4. United Kingdom and Japan
    A. 1 and 2
    B. 2 and 3
    C. 1 and 4
    D. 2 and 4


  1. (p. 230)Which of the following statements presents a case against euthanasia using the “wedge” or “slippery slope” argument?
    A. “Euthanasia may or may not be moral, but by permitting it we may unwittingly pave the way for acts that are clearly immoral.”
    B. “Euthanasia is contrary to the Hippocratic Oath, which pledges physicians to sustain life not take it.”
    C. “Euthanasia may or may not be ethical, but by permitting it we may unwittingly create a burden on the judiciary when such decisions enter the legal arena.”
    D. “Euthanasia is contrary to good ethical judgment because medical science is not infallible and a mistaken diagnosis could cause a needless death.”


  1. (p. 234)Which of the following is a statement by a competent person about choices for medical treatment, should he or she become unable to make such decisions or communicate them in the future?
    A. Holographic will
    B. Advance directive
    C. Natural death act
    D. Beneficent consent



  1. (p. 234)An advanced directive is best defined as
    A. any statement made by a competent person about choices for medical treatment, should he or she become unable to make or communicate such choices.
    B. an amendment to a will.
    C. a situation of dying without having made a will.
    D. the process by which an estate is settled and distributed in advance of the death.


  1. (p. 234)The living will is a
    A. type of conditional will.
    B. donation of gifts from an estate before the benefactor is deceased.
    C. type of advance directive.
    D. naming of an estate trustee in case of death.


  1. (p. 234)A living will allows an individual to
    A. describe the things they want to do before they die.
    B. refuse life-sustaining treatment in the event he or she is terminally ill.
    C. communicate instructions to their family for estate and funeral planning.
    D. require a physician to keep them alive at all costs.


  1. (p. 234)Which state became the first to adopt a Natural Death Act giving legal recognition to the living will?
    A. California
    B. Florida
    C. New Jersey
    D. New Mexico


  1. (p. 234)Which state was the first to give legal recognition to the living will?
    A. California
    B. Florida
    C. New Jersey
    D. New Mexico



  1. (p. 237)Which organization created the Five Wishes document?
    A. Aging with Dignity
    B. Florida Bar Association
    C. American Medical Association
    D. American Association of Retired Persons


  1. (p. 237)What document combines a living will and a health care power of attorney?
    A. Double Power Will
    B. Physician Order for Life-Sustaining Treatment
    C. Viatical settlement
    D. Five Wishes


  1. (p. 238)The Patient Self-Determination Act requires providers of services under Medicare and Medicaid to do which of the following?
    A. Inform patients of their rights to appoint a health care proxy and draw up written instructions regarding treatment.
    B. Refuse admission to patients who fail to sign an advance directive.
    C. Document the patient’s Five Wishes.
    D. Determine patient’s length of stay.


  1. (p. 242)According to Barton Bernstein, the first legal stage in cases of terminal illness
    A. occurs immediately after the patient dies.
    B. involves the patient in long-range planning and arranging legal and financial affairs.
    C. involved writing one’s Five Wishes.
    D. involves delivering the will for probate.


  1. (p. 242)According to Barton Bernstein, the second legal stage in cases of terminal illness involves which of the following activities?
    A. Deliver the will for probate
    B. Survivors obtain sufficient funds to cover immediate expenses
    C. Notify the attorney and insurance representatives
    D. Medical personnel being notified if the dying patient intends to make an organ donation or anatomical gift



  1. (p. 243)What type of will is made orally?
    A. Conditional will
    B. Holographic will
    C. Nuncupative will
    D. Verbal will


  1. (p. 243 and 247)A codicil relates to
    A. rewriting a will.
    B. amending a will.
    C. making an oral will.
    D. formalizing a will.


  1. (p. 243 and 248)What is the condition when a person dies without having left a valid will?
    A. Intestate
    B. Attestation
    C. In holographic
    D. Testator


  1. (p. 245)The conventional written legal document used for specifying a person’s wishes for the distribution of his or her estate after death is a/an
    A. ethical will.
    B. nuncupative will.
    C. formally executed will.
    D. testament.


  1. (p. 246-247)How can a will be amended?
    A. It cannot be amended after it is signed.
    B. It must be completely replaced if a change is requested.
    C. By executing a codicil.
    D. By the executor during the reading of the will.



  1. (p. 248 and 251)In attempting to settle an estate, the court will make a determined effort to locate heirs. If none can be found the proceeds go to the
    A. United Way.
    B. local non-profit family bereavement care center.
    C. state.
    D. federal government.


  1. (p. 248)If a person dies without leaving a valid will, his or her property will be distributed according to
    A. familial wishes.
    B. federal rules.
    C. state rules.
    D. whatever the spouse requests.


  1. (p. 251)According to the laws of intestate succession, when no surviving heirs can be found, then proceeds from the estate go to
    A. charity.
    B. the state.
    C. the IRS.
    D. the executor.


  1. (p. 253)The potential benefits of life insurance include all of the following EXCEPT it
    A. usually makes funds available immediately after death.
    B. increases social security benefits.
    C. may reduce stress.
    D. may provide relief and a sense of security to the bereaved spouse and other dependents.


  1. (p. 253)In the United States, the first insurance company was established
    A. by the Presbyterian Synod for its ministers.
    B. by the Catholic Archdiocese for its nuns and priests.
    C. by the City of New York for its firefighters.
    D. by the federal government for its soldiers.



  1. (p. 253)When was the first life insurance company established in the United States?
    A. 1759
    B. 1859
    C. 1863
    D. 1763


  1. (p. 254)What type of settlement allows a person with terminal illness to sell his or her life insurance policy before death and receive a percentage of its face value?
    A. volume
    B. viatical
    C. compensatory
    D. percentage



True / False Questions

  1. (p. 214)Personal autonomy is restricted when passengers on an airline are required to wear seat belts.


  1. (p. 216)Physicians in the 1960s tended to withhold information regarding a life threatening condition.


  1. (p. 222)The New Jersey Supreme Court allowed Karen Ann Quinlan’s parents to discontinue her artificial respiration.


  1. (p. 222)In the case involving Nancy Beth Cruzan in 1990, the Missouri Supreme Court ultimately ruled that her parents could have her feeding tube removed.



  1. (p. 225)The right to refuse treatment remains constitutionally protected even when a patient is unable to communicate.


  1. (p. 225)Passive euthanasia is the bringing about of death through the administration of lethal injection.


  1. (p. 225)There is no medical or ethical distinction between withholding and withdrawing treatment.


  1. (p. 231)Some people view removal of artificial nutrition and hydration as intentional killing.


  1. (p. 235)By the end of the twentieth century, less than half of the U.S. had passed some form of living will legislation.


  1. (p. 235)Most Americans lack living wills.


  1. (p. 235)Living wills contain physician orders and must be followed by emergency medical technicians.



  1. (p. 237)The health care proxy must be an attorney not a relative to carry out your wishes.


  1. (p. 240)Do-not-resuscitate orders are a type of advance directive.


  1. (p. 241)Paramedics and EMT’s are legally required to initiate CPR unless there is clear evidence of a valid DNR order.


  1. (p. 244)State laws specify a minimum age of 21 to make a legal will.


  1. (p. 244)Financial advisors do not recommend the “family love letter” as it often contains emotional information and confuses EOL issues and personal desires after death.


  1. (p. 245)Ethical wills are a twentieth century, new means to pass on wisdom, love, and personal values.


  1. (p. 250)Statistics show that most people die without leaving a will.


  1. (p. 256)End-of-life issues and decisions are a private matter bearing directly on families and do not affect the realm of public policy.



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