Test Bank For Motivation Theory Research and Application 6th Edition by Herbert L. Petri 





Test Bank For Motivation Theory Research and Application 6th Edition by Herbert L. Petri 


Sample  Questions



CHAPTER 2  – Test Bank


Genetic Contributions to Motivated Behavior


[Note: After each question, the correct answer, the textbook page from which it comes, and the question type is provided.]


  1. According to Eibl-Eibesfeldt (1972), the “eyebrow flick,” or brief lifting of the eyebrows in humans, signals:
  2. recognition of someone who is familiar
  3. recognition of someone who is a possible threat
  4. the first move in an aggressive encounter
  5. an intention of courtship

[a  35  factual]


  1. A genetically programmed bit of behavior that occurs when circumstances are appropriate and that require no learning is called:
  2. habit
  3. instinct
  4. imprinting
  5. inhabitation

[b  36  factual]


  1. Among the problems with the early instinct theories was the idea of the nominal fallacy, which means that:
  2. labeling or naming something does not explain it
  3. the idea of instincts was a fallacy; there are no such things as instincts
  4. instincts are either inhibited or become habits
  5. instincts are the same as learned behaviors

[a  36  factual]


  1. Which of the following did William James NOT believe about instincts? Instincts were:
  2. similar to reflexes
  3. elicited by sensory stimuli
  4. only seen in animals
  5. occur blindly the first time

[c  36  conceptual]



  1. Which of the following was NOT a component of instincts, according to William McDougall?
  2. cognition
  3. learning
  4. emotion
  5. conation

[b  37  conceptual]


  1. According to William McDougall, which of the following is NOT true?
  2. instincts consist of cognitive, affective and conative components
  3. all behavior is instinctive
  4. some instinctive behavior is purposive
  5. instincts can never be changed or modified

[d  37  conceptual]


  1. The anthropomorphic method of analysis used by McDougall:
  2. stresses the continuity between humans and animals
  3. clearly distinguished between instinct and learning
  4. is recognized today as being too objective
  5. could only be applied to animals

[a  38  conceptual]


  1. Which of the following is NOT a valid criticism of early instinct theories?
  2. arbitrary lists of instincts do not help us understand behaviors
  3. scientists do not agree on how many types of instincts exist
  4. behaviors are responses to both internal and external stimuli
  5. the idea that behavior may come from genetic programs

[d  39  conceptual]


  1. The branch of biology that concerns itself with the study of the evolution, development and function of behavior of animals and humans in their natural habitats is called:
  2. anthropology
  3. psychology
  4. ethology
  5. ethnography

[c  39  factual]


  1. A list of all behaviors observed in a species is called:
  2. an ethogram
  3. a species gram
  4. a species list
  5. an ethnographic list

[a  40  factual]



  1. According to Craig (1918), _____ is to well-coordinated, fixed patterns of responding as _____ is to restless, searching, adaptive behavior.
  2. consummatory; appetitive
  3. appetitive; consummatory
  4. taxis; fixed action pattern
  5. displacement; taxis

[a  40  factual]


  1. According to ethological theory, behaviors are inhibited by:
  2. fixed action patterns
  3. appetitive action patterns
  4. innate releasing mechanisms
  5. learned releasing mechanisms

[c  40  factual]


  1. Environmental stimuli which act as keys to allow behavior to occur are called:
  2. innate releasing mechanisms
  3. sign stimuli
  4. fixed action patterns
  5. action specific energy

[b  40  factual]


  1. In Tinbergen’s study of mating in stickleback fish, the female triggers the male courtship ritual. She would be called the:
  2. social releaser
  3. appetitive behavior
  4. action specific energy
  5. innate releasing mechanism

[a  40  conceptual]


  1. An example of a _____ stimulus is when a bird prefers an egg that is larger than its normal- size egg.
  2. social
  3. supernormal
  4. subliminal
  5. extraordinary

[b  40  conceptual]


  1. Rowland’s (1989) finding that female sticklebacks preferred dummy males who were larger than normal male sticklebacks fits ethological theory because it shows how:
  2. mate size is important in the mating behavior of sticklebacks
  3. preference for a superoptimal male stimulus does not provide advantages
  4. organisms’ reactions to environmental stimuli are learned
  5. males are able to interact with females

[a  40  conceptual]


  1. The response that a key stimulus releases is called the:
  2. fixed action pattern
  3. stimulation response
  4. innate action pattern
  5. superoptimal response

[a  41  factual]


  1. Which of the following is NOT a property of a fixed action pattern? The fixed action pattern is:
  2. stereotyped
  3. independent of immediate external control
  4. entirely learned
  5. spontaneous

[c  41-42  factual]


  1. According to the text, the main difference between taxes and fixed action patterns (FAPs) is:
  2. taxes are innate and FAPs are learned
  3. FAPs are innate and taxes are learned
  4. taxes are responsive to change, but FAPs are not
  5. taxes are unresponsive to change, while FAPs are modifiable

[c  42  conceptual]


  1. Low intensity, incomplete responses indicating that energy is beginning to accumulate in an instinctive behavior system is typical of which type of behavior?
  2. fixed action patterns
  3. intention movements
  4. prepared behaviors
  5. appetitive behaviors

[b  43  factual]


  1. In an encounter with another person, changing one’s stance by shifting one’s weight and increasing one’s distance from the other person is an example of:
  2. an intention movement
  3. an appetitive behavior
  4. a fixed action pattern
  5. a learned behavior

[a  43  factual]


  1. If two or more sign stimuli are present simultaneously, which general type of behavior is likely to result?
  2. aggressive
  3. conflict
  4. dominant
  5. displacement

[b  44  factual]


  1. The alternating between attack and escape responses of a male stickleback when it meets another male intruding in its territory is an example of what type of behavior?
  2. displacement
  3. redirected behavior
  4. simultaneous ambivalent behavior
  5. successive ambivalent behavior

[d  44  factual]


  1. When two equally strong motives are in conflict and are inhibiting each other, what type of behavior is likely to occur?
  2. displacement
  3. redirected behavior
  4. simultaneous ambivalent behavior
  5. successive ambivalent behavior

[a  44  factual]


  1. Which of the following is NOT a category of conflict behavior?
  2. successive ambivalent behavior
  3. redirected behavior
  4. reaction chain behavior
  5. ethological displacement

[c  44 conceptual]


  1. The arched back of a cat may be an expression of two motives (for example, to attack and to flee), which would be an example of which type of behavior?
  2. displacement
  3. redirected behavior
  4. simultaneous ambivalent behavior
  5. successive ambivalent behavior

[c  44  factual]


  1. If a person’s boss yells at her at work, and she comes home and yells at her kids, it could be an example of:
  2. ethological displacement
  3. simultaneous ambivalent behavior
  4. redirected behavior
  5. ethological enhancement activity

[c  44  conceptual]



  1. In the mating behavior of the stickleback, males and females perform certain behaviors in an alternating sequence known as:
  2. a reaction chain
  3. a fixed action chain
  4. a species-typical chain
  5. imprinting

[a  44  factual]


  1. A socialization process in which a young individual forms an attachment to its parents is called:
  2. imprinting
  3. social learning
  4. social signaling
  5. instinctive attachment

[a  45  factual]


  1. The object of attachment is _____, while the process of becoming attached is _____.
  2. innate; learned
  3. learned; innate
  4. instinctive; innate
  5. fixed; variable

[b  46  factual]


  1. Which of the following is NOT characteristic of imprinting as described in the text? Imprinting:
  2. occurs most readily during a sensitive period of the organism’s life
  3. is permanent and irreversible
  4. is independent of reinforcement

d          . is only effective for females

[d  46  conceptual]


  1. After hatching, a graylag goose follows the first moving object it sees, for example, a person. Later, at sexual maturity, the goose shows no interest in conspecifics (other graylag geese).  This case would be an example of:
  2. instinct
  3. social learning
  4. imprinting
  5. reward

[c  46  conceptual]



  1. According to the text, the _____ program is genetically established and is modifiable, while the _____ program is genetically established, but is not modifiable.
  2. open; closed
  3. closed; open
  4. variable; fixed
  5. open; fixed

[a  48  factual]


  1. According to Seligman (1970), _____ behaviors are either instinctive or very easily learned, while _____ behaviors involve the formation of associations between events and responses.
  2. prepared; contraprepared
  3. prepared; unprepared
  4. contraprepared; prepared
  5. unprepared; prepared

[b  48  factual]


  1. Trying to teach a dog to yawn for food is apparently impossible. Seligman would classify this behavior as:
  2. unprepared
  3. contraprepared
  4. prepared
  5. unprepared

[b  48  conceptual]


  1. Organisms with short life spans would be more likely to have _____ programs, while longer-lived organisms would be more likely to benefit from _____ programs.
  2. closed; open
  3. open; closed
  4. short; long
  5. fixed; flexible

[a  48  factual]


  1. According to Eibl-Eibesfeldt (1972) and other researchers, many facial expressions in humans:
  2. are learned at an early age
  3. are extremely variable from culture to culture
  4. cannot be properly interpreted by scientists
  5. may signal recognition or other social communication

[d  49  factual]



  1. An important aspect of the shyness studies of Kagan and colleagues (1988) is that it shows:
  2. that certain traits like shyness are entirely genetic, regardless of environment
  3. that certain traits like shyness are entirely learned, regardless of genetics
  4. shyness is due entirely to cultural norms
  5. how nature and nurture interact to produce some behaviors

[d  50  conceptual]


  1. According to ethologists, which of the following is NOT true about eye contact?
  2. it may signal a potential threat
  3. it may indicate liking or attraction
  4. it may provide information or communicate feelings
  5. it is relevant only in close interpersonal relationships

[d  52  conceptual]


  1. Which of the following is NOT a function of intraspecific aggression?
  2. to spread conspecifics out over a larger physical area
  3. to provide the strongest animals with the best territories
  4. to provide protection of the young from predators
  5. to allow the weakest animal to be killed, insuring “survival of the fittest”

[d  54  conceptual]


  1. Studies done by Ekman and others indicate that
  2. many human facial expressions might be considered universal
  3. human facial expressions vary from culture to culture around the world
  4. facial expressions are not important for communication among humans
  5. appeasement gestures help initiate violent or aggressive behaviors between people

[a  50  conceptual]


  1. Human adults tend to retain juvenile traits into adulthood more than other primates. This is called:
  2. juvenile plasticity
  3. neoteny
  4. stereotypy
  5. appeasement

[b  51  conceptual]


  1. “Hair flipping” behavior in human females, ritualized flight, and smiling then looking away can all be construed as what type of behavior?
  2. dominant
  3. submissive
  4. flirting
  5. aggressive

[c  52  conceptual]



  1. According to Mattingly and others, speech and language:
  2. may serve as both a representation of our experiences and as a phonetic releaser system
  3. have no genetic component, only learned components
  4. are entirely innate
  5. can be learned only during a critical period from birth to two years of age

[a  53  factual]


  1. Three major types of intraspecific aggression mentioned by Lorenz in his book, On Aggression, are:
  2. predatory attack, mobbing behavior, and critical reaction
  3. quiet biting attack, mobbing behavior, and critical reaction
  4. defensive attack, mob attack, and predatory attack
  5. group attack, group reaction, and mobbing behavior

[a  54  factual]


  1. Which of the following is NOT an advantage of intraspecific aggression?
  2. encourages mobbing behavior
  3. spreads animals out
  4. strongest animals get best territories
  5. protects young from predators

[a  54  conceptual]


  1. According to ethologists and evolutionary psychologists,
  2. no links exist between sexual and aggressive behaviors.
  3. aggressive motivation and sexual motivation appear to be closely related
  4. aggression has always been maladaptive throughout our evolutionary history
  5. aggression is the dominant force of nature for all animals

[b  56  conceptual]


  1. Researchers who investigate how animals interpret information, or who study whether or not animals have conscious awareness, most likely would be in the field of:
  2. cognitive neuroscience
  3. animal development
  4. cognitive ethology
  5. experimental psychology

[c  57  factual]


  1. A relatively new field of research, defined as “the analysis of the human mind as a collection of evolved mechanisms, the contexts that activate those mechanisms and the behavior generated by those mechanisms” is known as:
  2. cognitive neuroscience
  3. evolutionary psychology
  4. biological psychology
  5. positive psychology

[b 58  factual]


  1. Evolutionary psychologists are interested in evolved mechanisms that helped resolve specific _____ concerned with survival or reproduction.
  2. interspecific aggression
  3. intraspecific aggression
  4. fixed action patterns
  5. adaptive problems

[d  58  factual]

CHAPTER 4 – Test Bank


Physiological Mechanisms of Regulation


[Note: After each question, the correct answer, the textbook page from which it comes, and the question type is provided.]



  1. Which of the following is NOT a taste receptor on the tongue?
  2. sweet
  3. sour
  4. vegetable
  5. umami

[c  101  conceptual]


  1. The finding that an individual exposed to an unchanging diet will eat less than if an individual had access to a varied diet is called:
  2. variability hypothesis
  3. sensory specific satiety
  4. sameness sensory theory
  5. dietary need for change

[b  103  factual]


  1. Questions concerning why we ingest food or water may involve studying all of these EXCEPT:
  2. homeostatic mechanisms
  3. memory processes
  4. stimulus qualities of food
  5. the cerebellum

[d  103  conceptual]


  1. The observation that an animal or person exposed to an unchanging diet will eat less than if they had access to a variety of foods has been called the:
  2. Ziegarnik effect
  3. Law of effect
  4. Yerkes-Dodson Law
  5. sensory specific satiety

[d  103 factual]



  1. Three components of food are:
  2. carbohydrates, fats, proteins
  3. carbohydrates, amino acids, proteins
  4. triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose
  5. amino acids, lipids, glucose

[a  103  factual]


  1. Which of the following is NOT true of the local theory of motivation?
  2. it assumes that signals controlling hunger and thirst are produced by the brain
  3. it was based on Cannon and Washburn’s experiments with swallowed balloons
  4. it assumes signals controlling hunger are produced in the peripheral organs of the body
  5. it has been shown to be inadequate to explain hunger and thirst

[a  105  conceptual]


  1. A _____ theory of motivation assumes that signals that control motives such as hunger are produced in the peripheral body organs.
  2. central
  3. controllable
  4. local
  5. hypothalamic

[c  105  factual]


  1. A specific brain structure known to be involved in regulating such behaviors as feeding, drinking, sexual behavior, fear, and aggressiveness is the:
  2. cerebellum
  3. thalamus
  4. pituitary gland
  5. hypothalamus

[d  106  factual]


  1. The _____ model assumes that regulatory mechanisms exist within the body that sample the internal environment and when the body moves away from optimum generates motivation to return to a balanced state.
  2. balanced
  3. homeostatic
  4. central
  5. localized

[b  107  factual]


  1. A homeostatic mechanism that controls when we eat and how much we eat is called:
  2. long-term regulation
  3. generativity regulation
  4. sensitivity selection
  5. short-term regulation

[d  107  factual]


  1. In animals, research has shown that lesions to the ventromedial hypothalamus:
  2. help the animal maintain optimal weight
  3. produce hyperphagia
  4. cause the animal to become anorexic
  5. produce adipsia

[b  108  factual]


  1. Animals with lesions to the lateral hypothalamus show:
  2. hyperphagia
  3. aphagia
  4. dyskinesia
  5. aphasia

[b  108  factual]


  1. Which of the following is NOT true about the assumptions of the glucostatic theory of hunger?
  2. receptors in the hypothalamus are sensitive to changes in levels of blood glucose
  3. decreases in blood sugar detected by receptors in the LH trigger eating
  4. increases in blood sugar detected by receptors in the VMH inhibit eating
  5. the LH has sole control over hunger and eating

[d  109  conceptual]


  1. Relative to the glucostatic theory of hunger all of the following are true about research EXCEPT that research has:
  2. shown that a dual system of excitatory and inhibitory centers controls eating behavior
  3. failed to uphold the idea of a dual system of excitatory and inhibitory centers
  4. shown that lesions to the LH result in other behavior deficits
  5. shown that the LH and VMH are involved to some extent in regulating hunger motivation

[a  109  conceptual]


  1. Stretch receptors, which signal motivation to turn off hunger, have been located in the:
  2. hypothalamus
  3. liver
  4. duodenum
  5. stomach

[d  110  factual]


  1. Research has shown that the hormone _____ acts as an appetite stimulant whereas the hormone _____ acts as an appetite suppressant.
  2. ghrelin; obestatin
  3. CCK; ghrelin
  4. obestatin; ghrelin
  5. CCK; GLP-1

[a  110  conceptual]


  1. The hormone CCK is:
  2. found in greater than normal amounts in genetically obese rats
  3. missing entirely in genetically obese rats
  4. about one-quarter the amount of normal in genetically obese rats
  5. the chief neurotransmitter in the pancreas

[c  112 factual]


  1. Research shows that the hormone _____, which is secreted by the upper intestine in response to food, signals the brain to stop eating.
  2. CCK
  3. insulin
  4. amylin
  5. 2-deoxyglucose

[a  112  conceptual]


  1. Which of the following statements about short-term regulation of feeding is NOT correct? Short term regulation of feeding:
  2. is probably controlled by a glucose-sensitive system
  3. is probably accomplished by receptors in the duodenum and/or liver
  4. may be influenced by a feedback system between the liver and the hypothalamus
  5. is influenced by the level of CCK in the blood

[c  112  conceptual]


  1. The set-point theory of long-term regulation of body weight is:
  2. a glucostatic theory
  3. a lipostatic theory
  4. an internal theory
  5. an external theory

[b  113  factual]


  1. Research by Keesey and others has shown that after lesions to the LH, animals:
  2. are unable to eat or drink
  3. regulate their eating to maintain a lower body set-point
  4. eat more to make up for previous lack of eating
  5. gain weight to match their new set-point

[b  113  conceptual]


  1. Long-term regulation of eating behavior most likely:
  2. is impossible to understand based on current research
  3. involves a system capable of detecting changes in the body’s fat stores
  4. involves a system that detects blood glucose levels
  5. depends on stretch receptors in the stomach

[b  113  factual]


  1. A hormone produced by fat cells and released into the bloodstream in direct proportion to the amount of energy available in the fat stores is:
  2. ghrelin
  3. leptin
  4. CCK
  5. obestatin

[b  114  factual]


  1. Three examples of failure of homeostatic regulation of food intake are:
  2. aphasia, hyperphagia, dyskinesia
  3. anorexia nervosa, bulimia, obesity
  4. anorexia nervosa, hyperphagia, major affective disorder
  5. dyskinesia, dysphoria, anorexia nervosa

[b  115  factual]


  1. All of the following are symptoms of anorexia nervosa except:
  2. loss of at least 15% of body weight due to restriction of food intake
  3. amenorrhea
  4. chronic bingeing and purging
  5. intense fear of gaining weight

[c  116  factual]


  1. Which of the following are physiological changes that occur during anorexia nervosa?
  2. dangerous drop in blood pressure and breathing rate
  3. atrophy of brain tissues and enlargement of fluid-filled spaces in the brain
  4. increase in heart rate and breathing
  5. impairment of various endocrine system functions

[c  118  conceptual]


  1. Abnormal levels of the neurotransmitter _____ have been associated with anorexia nervosa.
  2. dopamine
  3. serotonin
  4. norepinephrine
  5. CCK

[b  118  factual]


  1. Explanations for anorexia nervosa have changed from time to time. Today the best explanation seems to be:
  2. anorexia is purely physiological
  3. anorexia is purely psychological
  4. both physiological and psychological mechanisms are involved
  5. anorexia cannot be explained

[c  120  conceptual]



  1. A primary difference between anorexia nervosa and bulimia is that anorexia patients:
  2. refuse to eat while bulimia patients eat enormous amounts of food in short periods of time
  3. are overly concerned with food while bulimia patients do not show any concern for food
  4. cannot control their eating while bulimia patients carefully control their food intake
  5. have a significantly higher IQ compared to bulimia patients

[a  120  conceptual]


  1. Which of the following is NOT true concerning the diagnostic criteria for bulimia?
  2. recurrent episodes of binge eating
  3. feeling of lack of control over eating behaviors
  4. regular use of laxatives or self-induced vomiting to prevent weight-gain
  5. losing at least 15% of body weight

[d  120  conceptual]


  1. Among bulimic women, which of the following is NOT true? They tend to:
  2. report more negative affective states than normal women
  3. have difficulty handing emotions
  4. be dependent on drugs such as alcohol or cocaine
  5. come from lower socioeconomic conditions

[d  120  conceptual]


  1. Studies of the relationship of anorexia nervosa and bulimia to major affective disorder have suggested that:
  2. depression can cause anorexia or bulimia
  3. changed eating patterns are a variant of major affective disorder
  4. eating disorders are not correlated with major affective disorder
  5. major affective disorders develops after the onset of the eating disorder

[d  121  conceptual]


  1. Mary has bulimia. Which of the following is MOST likely a precipitating factor in her binge eating?
  2. loss of object
  3. difficulty handling emotions
  4. conflict with boss
  5. lack of confidence

[b  121  conceptual]


  1. Among the theories of bulimia, which emphasizes that idea that bulimia develops as a result of unrealistic social norms for body shape and appearance?
  2. sociocultural theory
  3. clinical/psychiatric theory
  4. epidemiological/risk factors theory
  5. physiological factors theory

[a  122  factual]


  1. A person who has problems with body image, sex role confusion, heavy life stressors and emotional instability could be at risk for developing bulimia as predicted by which theory?
  2. sociocultural theory
  3. clinical/psychiatric theory
  4. epidemiological/risk factors theory
  5. physiological factors approach

[c  122  conceptual]


  1. According to Goldbloom and Garfinkel (1990), bulimia may be the result of:
  2. increased levels of serotonin in the brain
  3. underactivity of serotonin in the brain
  4. social learning
  5. genetic predisposition

[b  123  factual]


  1. The energy a person consumes every day just to maintain bodily functions at rest is called:
  2. basal metabolism
  3. aerobic metabolism
  4. basic energy metabolism
  5. anaerobic metabolism

[a  125  factual]


  1. Which of the following is the MOST likely factor contributing to increase in body fat as we age?
  2. overeating as a child
  3. being female
  4. increase in stress
  5. reduction in basal metabolism

[d  125  factual]


  1. Which of the following factors does NOT help promote obesity, according to Rodin (1981)?
  2. dieting
  3. having higher than normal insulin levels
  4. being sedentary rather than active
  5. maintaining a lean body mass

[d  127  conceptual]


  1. Hyperinsulinemia contributes to obesity by:
  2. increasing the amount of energy stored as fat
  3. decreasing hunger
  4. inducing binge and purge cycles
  5. increasing metabolism rate

[a  127  factual]



  1. Volumetric thirst is associated with _____ while osmometric thirst is associated with _____.
  2. homeostatic drinking; nonhomeostatic drinking
  3. beer drinking; sweating
  4. fluid loss from cells; fluid loss from extracellular spaces
  5. fluid loss from extracellular spaces; fluid loss from cells

[d  130-132  factual]


  1. ADH is released by the _____ and causes _____.
  2. kidney, water retention
  3. kidney, diabetes insipidus
  4. pituitary, water reabsorption
  5. hypothalamus, water retention

[c  131  factual]


  1. Blood loss, diarrhea and vomiting can all lead to _____.
  2. loss of extracellular fluid or hypovolemia
  3. loss of cellular fluid and diabetes insipidus
  4. loss of cellular fluid and thirst

d  stimulation of the hypothalamus

[a  131  factual]


  1. The brain structure that monitors angiotensin levels and stimulates thirst is the:
  2. hypothalamus
  3. cerebellum
  4. thalamus
  5. subfornical organ

[d  134  factual]


  1. When food is eaten _____ is released by stomach cells leading ultimately to an increase in drinking.
  2. leptin
  3. histamine
  4. obestatin
  5. sodium

[b  135  factual]


  1. Which of the following is NOT a male gender specific sexual behavior?
  2. intromission
  3. thrusting
  4. attractivity
  5. ejaculation

[c  136  conceptual]



  1. The _____ of the anterior hypothalamus is important in sexual behavior of both males and females.
  2. ventromedial
  3. lateral area
  4. medial preoptic area
  5. serotonin area

[c  138  factual]


  1. The hippocampus, hypothalamus, cingulate gyrus, and amygdala are part of the:
  2. cerebral cortex
  3. sympathetic nervous system
  4. limbic system
  5. emotional system

[c  140  factual]


  1. Which of the following is NOT a type of aggression according to Moyer (1971)?
  2. playful
  3. predatory
  4. territorial
  5. irritable

[a  142  conceptual]


  1. Aggression that is learned and then maintained through reinforcement is called:
  2. inter-male aggression
  3. territorial defense
  4. instrumental aggression
  5. irritable aggression

[c  143  factual]



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