Test Bank Of Essentials Of Understanding Abnormal Behavior 3rd Edition by David

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Essentials of Understanding Abnormal Behavior 3rd Edition by David

Chapter 1: Abnormal Behavior

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Which statement about the field of abnormal psychology is accurate?
a. Abnormal psychology seeks to describe, explain, predict, and modify behaviors associated with various mental health conditions.
b. Abnormal psychology is not yet considered a scientific field of research because diagnosis is so subjective.
c. Abnormal psychology focuses on the study of only the most bizarre behavior that creates problems for society.
d. Abnormal psychology is most interested in narrowing a disorder to specific behavioral factors that can be modified.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   The Field of Abnormal Psychology

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.01 Define abnormal psychology.      KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Mental illness results primarily from ____.
a. genetic factors
b. environmental factors
c. sociocultural factors
d. an interaction of many factors

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Introduction   OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.01 Define abnormal psychology.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Dr. Thompson collects information in order to describe, assess, and understand an individual’s psychological disorder. Dr. Thompson is engaged in ____.
a. investigative therapy
b. systematic sensitization
c. psychodiagnosis
d. experimental research

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   The Field of Abnormal Psychology

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.01 Define abnormal psychology.      KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

 

  1. A psychologist states that “Juan’s abnormal behavior is likely due to a combination of biology and inadequate interpersonal skills.” The psychologist is ____.
a. predicting the future symptoms of Juan
b. giving Juan a psychodiagnosis
c. offering an explanation for Juan’s problem
d. describing how to control Juan’s symptoms

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   The Field of Abnormal Psychology

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.01 Define abnormal psychology.      KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

 

  1. College administrators suspended Lee Loughner after they became concerned about Loughner’s potential to commit dangerous behaviors. Why didn’t authorities pursue a civil commitment?
a. Loughner’s therapist did not feel he posed a danger to others.
b. None of the local mental health facilities had space to house him.
c. Loughner’s behavior did not rise to the level of justifying a commitment.
d. Loughner’s behavior was not considered odd in comparison to his peer group.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   The Field of Abnormal Psychology

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.01 Define abnormal psychology.      KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. When psychologists talk about modifying abnormal behavior, they are referring to ____.
a. attempting to understand the underlying cause of that behavior
b. restricting the freedom of dangerous clients
c. attempting to anticipate the future behaviors of clients
d. using psychotherapy to improve a person’s behavioral, emotional, or cognitive state

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   The Field of Abnormal Psychology

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.01 Define abnormal psychology.      KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Which statement defines psychotherapy most accurately?
a. Systematic interventions designed to improve behavior, emotion, or cognition
b. The scientific study of abnormal behavior
c. A system of observing abnormal behavior in an attempt to classify it
d. The application of a theoretical model to explain the cause of abnormal behavior

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   The Field of Abnormal Psychology

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.01 Define abnormal psychology.      KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Clinical psychologists usually have ____ degrees; psychiatrists have ____ degrees.
a. bachelor’s (B.S.); medical (M.D.)
b. medical (M.D.); doctorate (Ph.D.)
c. doctorate (Ph.D. or Psy.D); medical (M.D.)
d. master’s (M.S.); doctorate (Ph.D.)

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Mental Disorders (see Table 1.1)

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.01 Define abnormal psychology.      KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Harold is a mental health professional who has a medical degree and prescribes antidepressants and antipsychotic medication for his patients. After graduating from medical school, he completed a three-year residency in his field. We can guess that Harold is a ____.
a. social worker
b. psychiatrist
c. clinical psychologist
d. psychoanalyst

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Mental Disorders (see Table 1.1)

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.01 Define abnormal psychology.      KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Linda, Jayne, and Sheryl all are called “doctors.” All are mental health professionals. However, Linda has a Psy.D., Jayne has an M.D., and Sheryl has a D.S.W. We can predict that ____.
a. Sheryl is a psychiatrist
b. Linda is a social worker
c. Linda is a clinical psychologist
d. Jayne is a clinical psychologist

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Mental Disorders (see Table 1.1)

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.01 Define abnormal psychology.      KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Psychiatrists must have an M.D.; clinical psychologists must have a Ph.D. or Psy.D., and psychiatric social workers require ____.
a. a master’s (M.S.) degree
b. an M.D
c. only a bachelor’s (B.S.) degree
d. a Ph.D.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Mental Disorders (see Table 1.1)

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.01 Define abnormal psychology.      KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Johanna has specialized training, and works with individuals who drink too much or abuse drugs. We can guess that Johanna is a ____.
a. substance abuse counselor
b. school psychologist
c. psychiatric social worker
d. psychiatrist

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Mental Disorders (see Table 1.1)

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.01 Define abnormal psychology.      KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Suree is studying to be a clinical psychologist from an accredited program. She will learn that, with respect to bias in diagnosing clients, ____.
a. mental health practitioners are not immune from inheriting the prejudicial attitudes and stereotypes of the larger society
b. psychologists are less likely than other mental health professionals to overpathologize clients on the basis of race, gender, or social class
c. clinical psychologists receive better training than other mental health professionals for recognizing their tendency to hold prejudicial attitudes toward clients
d. mental health professionals are more likely to hold prejudicial attitudes and biases against males than against females

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Contemporary Trends in Abnormal Psychology

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.07 Describe some contemporary trends in abnormal psychology.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Dr. Price’s client has values and a lifestyle that differ markedly from her own. Dr. Price is more likely to ____.
a. overpathologize her client
b. underpathologize her client
c. increase her cultural sensitivity
d. acquire knowledge about the worldviews of a diverse population

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Contemporary Trends in Abnormal Psychology

UABB.SUES.17.01.03 Discuss how sociopolitical experiences and cultural differences affect definitions of abnormality.                        KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. Which statement about multiculturalism in the United States is correct?
a. The idea of cultural sensitivity is irrelevant to abnormal psychology.
b. White are no longer the numerical majority in the United States.
c. There is little relationship between culture and normal development.
d. There is a need to provide culturally-relevant psychotherapy.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Contemporary Trends in Abnormal Psychology

UABB.SUES.17.01.03 Discuss how sociopolitical experiences and cultural differences affect definitions of abnormality.                        KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Early research on psychopathology, such as that by Emil Kraepelin, supported which viewpoint about abnormality?
a. social
b. biological
c. psychological
d. psychopathological

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Causes of Mental Illness: Early Viewpoints

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.06 Summarize early explanations regarding the causes of mental disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. According to Thomas Szasz, ____.
a. mental illness is a fictional creation by society used to control and change people
b. the causes for most mental disorders will ultimately be found in brain pathology
c. individuals who are suffering from mental illnesses have biological diseases
d. medication is far superior to psychotherapy in the treatment of psychopathology

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Cultural and Sociopolitical Influences on Behavior

UABB.SUES.17.01.03 Discuss how sociopolitical experiences and cultural differences affect definitions of abnormality.                        KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. The American Psychiatric Association has published a manual that is the most widely used classification system of psychological disorders. What is this manual called?
a. International Classification of Diseases (ICD)
b. Physicians’ Desk Reference (PDR)
c. Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual (PDM)
d. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Mental Disorders

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.02 Explain what mental disorders are and what prevalence means.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Kunti, a Black slave who works on a Southern plantation in the eighteenth century, tries to escape to freedom. A psychological diagnosis at that time would likely be that Kunti ____.
a. has a normal desire to be free
b. suffers from drapetomania
c. suffers from an anxiety disorder
d. is expressing a statistical anomaly

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Cultural and Sociopolitical Influences on Behavior

UABB.SUES.17.01.03 Discuss how sociopolitical experiences and cultural differences affect definitions of abnormality.                        KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Thomas Szasz believed that ____.
a. unusual belief systems are not necessarily wrong
b. abnormal behavior reflects an illness
c. psychologists are better trained than other professionals to diagnose abnormality
d. people who have problems of living are suffering from mental illness

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Cultural and Sociopolitical Influences on Behavior

UABB.SUES.17.01.03 Discuss how sociopolitical experiences and cultural differences affect definitions of abnormality.                        KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. The definition of mental disorders used by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders requires that ____.
a. potential genetic factors be ruled out as possible causes of the disorder
b. the disorder cause significant distress or difficulty with day-to-day functioning
c. all or most symptoms must be verified by an objective, independent observer
d. the individual be removed from all medication to allow accurate diagnosis

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Mental Disorders

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.02 Explain what mental disorders are and what prevalence means.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

  1. Dr. Henry conducts an epidemiological study to assess the lifetime prevalence of schizophrenia in the United States. Dr. Henry is assessing ____.
a. the likely causes of schizophrenia in the population as a whole
b. the number of people in the United States who have had schizophrenia within a certain period of time
c. the percentage of people in a population who have schizophrenia during a given interval of time
d. the age of onset for people in the United States who have schizophrenia

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Mental Disorders

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.02 Explain what mental disorders are and what prevalence means.

KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. A researcher who investigates the proportion of individuals who have a disorder during a particular period of time like the past year is best described as studying the ____ of the disorder.
a. incidence
b. prevalence
c. lifetime prevalence
d. criteria

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Mental Disorders

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.02 Explain what mental disorders are and what prevalence means.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. A researcher who investigates the percentage of people in the population who have had a mental disorder at any point in their lives is studying the ____ of the disorder.
a. incidence
b. prevalence
c. criteria
d. lifetime prevalence

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Mental Disorders

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.02 Explain what mental disorders are and what prevalence means.

KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. Which statement about psychiatric disorders in the United States is accurate?
a. Depression and anxiety are more common in men than in women.
b. Compared to adults, a larger percentage of children have anxiety disorders.
c. Twenty-five percent of adults suffer from a diagnosable mental health disorder in a given year.
d. Phobias are more common in the elderly than in the young.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Mental Disorders

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.02 Explain what mental disorders are and what prevalence means.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. One finding of the Merikangas et al. (2010) epidemiological study is that ____.
a. males and females tend to differ in the kinds of disorders they experience
b. adolescents have a lower rate of mood disorders than adults
c. almost half of adolescents meet criteria for at least one psychological disorder
d. people living in rural areas have a much higher incidence of mental disorders

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Mental Disorders

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.02 Explain what mental disorders are and what prevalence means.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Researchers in the United States have found that ____.
a. the rate of mental disorders in the population has been steadily decreasing over the past 50 years
b. adolescents and adults are equally likely to suffer from anxiety disorders
c. women are more likely than men to suffer from mental disorders
d. forty percent of adolescents diagnosed with one disorder meet the criteria for at least one additional disorder

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Mental Disorders

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.02 Explain what mental disorders are and what prevalence means.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. According to Bagalman and Napili. (2013), what percentage of adults suffer from serious psychological disorders such as schizophrenia in a given year?
a. 5.8 percent
b. 8.5 percent
c. 12.6 percent
d. 16.3 percent

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Mental Disorders

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.02 Explain what mental disorders are and what prevalence means.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Jason says, “Mental illness is not a choice or caused by what people do.” Jason’s remark ____.
a. contradicts the myth that people are responsible for their condition
b. supports the myth that mentally disturbed people can use willpower to recover
c. supports the myth that mental illness runs in families
d. contradicts the myth that mentally disturbed people can cure themselves

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Overcoming Social Stigma and Stereotypes

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.04 Explain why it is important to confront the stigmatization associated with mental illness.           KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. At one time, Abraham Lincoln, William James, news anchor Mike Wallace, and author J.K. Rowling each suffered from a mental disorder. Consequently, their examples contradict the myth that ____.
a. mentally disordered people must have had bad parents
b. mental illness makes a person useless
c. mentally disturbed people must have inherited their disorders
d. mentally disordered people only need to exercise willpower to recover

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior (see Myth vs Reality box)

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.04 Explain why it is important to confront the stigmatization associated with mental illness.           KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. Eli refuses to let his daughter marry Avi because Avi’s brother suffers from depression. Eli believes that his daughter could be killed by Avi’s brother. Eli believes which myth about mental illness?
a. Mental disorders are transmitted by touch.
b. We can easily identify people with mental disorders.
c. People with mental disorders cannot be cured.
d. People with mental disorders are dangerous.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   The Field of Abnormal Psychology (see Myth vs Reality box)

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.04 Explain why it is important to confront the stigmatization associated with mental illness.           KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

 

  1. Dr. Chu reports that “mental patients are no more dangerous than other people.” What does research suggest about the doctor’s statement?
a. Research shows that there is no correlation between any psychiatric diagnosis except antisocial personality disorder and dangerousness.
b. Research shows that patients are considerably more dangerous than others in the population, even after they are medicated.
c. Research shows that individuals with diagnoses of both a mental disorder and a substance abuse disorder are slightly more dangerous than other patients.
d. Research shows that mental patients are actually considerably less dangerous than are others in the population because they are so withdrawn.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   The Field of Abnormal Psychology (see Myth vs Reality box)

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.04 Explain why it is important to confront the stigmatization associated with mental illness.           KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Throughout history, most popular ideas about abnormal behavior have been ____.
a. rooted in the beliefs of a given time period and society
b. largely unrelated to the provision of treatment
c. remarkably accurate given how little is known even today
d. based on systematically conducted research

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.05 Discuss how explanations of abnormal behaviors have changed over time.

KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. Professor Martin, a historian who studies ancient cultures, would likely suggest that prehistoric societies attributed mental illness to ____.
a. social stressors
b. demonic possession or sorcery
c. chemical imbalance
d. biological disequilibrium

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.05 Discuss how explanations of abnormal behaviors have changed over time.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Trephining refers to the process of ____.
a. putting leaches on the body to remove bad blood
b. making a person chant and pray to drive out evil spirits
c. changing one’s diet to improve one’s physical and mental health
d. boring a hole in the skull to let evil spirits escape

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.05 Discuss how explanations of abnormal behaviors have changed over time.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. During what period of time would a behavior disorder most likely be treated with the surgical method called trephining?
a. The Stone Age
b. Biblical times
c. The Golden Age of Greece
d. The 19th and 20th centuries

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.05 Discuss how explanations of abnormal behaviors have changed over time.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Exorcism involves ____.
a. increasing one’s activity level to help recover from a mental illness
b. chipping a hole in the skull of a person believed to be possessed by demons
c. conducting a religious ceremony over a person to cast out evil spirits
d. examining the brains of people who have severe mental disorders

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.05 Discuss how explanations of abnormal behaviors have changed over time.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. The first naturalistic explanation of abnormal behavior can be traced to ____.
a. early twentieth century psychosurgery
b. Philippe Pinel in eighteenth-century Paris
c. Hippocrates in ancient Greece
d. Galen in ancient Rome

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.05 Discuss how explanations of abnormal behaviors have changed over time.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Suppose an archaeologist unearthed an ancient Greek document that contained instructions for the treatment of mental disorders such as melancholia and mania. What would the writing probably state?
a. “Hypnotize the person and encourage the person to express his or her negative emotions.”
b. “Have the family treat the person with rest, good diet, and moderate exercise.”
c. “Treat the person as you would a witch and force them to renounce the devil.”
d. “Take a sharp stone and cut a hole in the person’s skull to let out the evil demons.”

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.05 Discuss how explanations of abnormal behaviors have changed over time.

KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. This individual practiced medicine in Rome and related mental illness to the brain and central nervous system. His greatest contribution may have been compiling all medical knowledge from Hippocrates’ time to his own. Who is he?
a. Pinel
b. Mesmer
c. Weyer
d. Galen

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.05 Discuss how explanations of abnormal behaviors have changed over time.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. During the Middle Ages, mental illness was ____.
a. based on a disease model
b. handled with care and humane treatment
c. based on scientific principles
d. seen as a the result of supernatural forces

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.05 Discuss how explanations of abnormal behaviors have changed over time.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. The early Christian Church believed that ____.
a. demons could be released through the cathartic method
b. many behaviors we call mental disorders were the result of supernatural forces
c. science was the most effective way to understand abnormal human behavior
d. abnormal behavior was primarily the result of biological abnormality

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.05 Discuss how explanations of abnormal behaviors have changed over time.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Imagine that half the clerical employees in one building of a school begin to have headaches, feel agitated, scratch themselves furiously, feel numbness in their fingers, and faint. There is no biological explanation. This incident would most likely be seen by psychologists as an example of ____.
a. mass madness
b. exorcism
c. hypnotic susceptibility
d. mesmerism

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.05 Discuss how explanations of abnormal behaviors have changed over time.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Imagine that you could use a time machine to travel back to the thirteenth century. You see groups of people in a village jumping, dancing, and having convulsions in the town square. All over Europe, you find similar groups of raving people. You would have witnessed the ____.
a. phenomenon called trephining
b. mass madness called St. Vitus’s Dance
c. phenomenon called lycanthropy
d. mass madness called mesmerism

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.05 Discuss how explanations of abnormal behaviors have changed over time.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. What was the Malleus Maleficarum?
a. A compilation of all medical knowledge regarding abnormal behavior from the Greeks and Romans
b. A description of how to treat madness in the Dark Ages
c. A guide to building hospitals for the mentally ill that were more humane
d. A guidebook for identifying and exterminating witches

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.05 Discuss how explanations of abnormal behaviors have changed over time.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Historians of the witchcraft age concluded that ____.
a. the mentally ill were especially prone to being perceived as witches
b. few people were ever accused of being witches and almost none were killed
c. many witches were actually intellectually disabled, not mentally disordered
d. almost all witches were both mentally disordered and intellectually disabled

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.05 Discuss how explanations of abnormal behaviors have changed over time.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Humanism is the ____.
a. scientific study of behavior to identify its causes and to modify it
b. philosophical movement that emphasizes human welfare and individual uniqueness
c. biological theory of abnormal behavior first used by the ancient Greeks
d. practice of identifying and executing individuals believed to witches

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.05 Discuss how explanations of abnormal behaviors have changed over time.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. The humanistic movement of the Renaissance ____.
a. emphasized the value of the cathartic method
b. presented the first biogenic theory of abnormal behavior in recorded history
c. challenged the notion of demonic possession
d. led directly to deinstitutionalization of mentally disordered individuals

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.05 Discuss how explanations of abnormal behaviors have changed over time.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. “I reject the idea of witchcraft. Disturbed people are sick people who deserve our sympathy, not torture and death.” Who would have been most likely to say these words?
a. Pope Innocent VIII
b. Ivan Pavlov
c. John B. Watson
d. Johann Weyer

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.05 Discuss how explanations of abnormal behaviors have changed over time.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Who ordered the chains to be removed from inmates at a mental asylum and is considered a founder of the moral treatment movement?
a. Clifford Beers
b. Johann Weyer
c. Philippe Pinel
d. Dorothea Dix

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.05 Discuss how explanations of abnormal behaviors have changed over time.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. “Although I lived in a different country than Philippe Pinel, I also worked to establish moral treatment for mental patients.” Who might have said this?
a. William Tuke
b. Galen
c. Jean-Martin Charcot
d. Friedrich Anton Mesmer

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.05 Discuss how explanations of abnormal behaviors have changed over time.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Imagine that we travel back in time and meet two Americans. The first says, “I am sometimes called the father of U.S. psychiatry. I used bloodletting to treat my mental patients, but I insisted they be treated with respect.” The second says, “Although I was only a schoolteacher, when I saw the deplorable conditions under which mental patients were living, I devoted my life to establishing suitable mental hospitals.” The first person was ____; the second was ____.
a. Benjamin Rush; Dorothea Dix
b. William Tuke; Clifford Beers
c. Clifford Beers; Dorothea Dix
d. Benjamin Rush; Friedrich Anton Mesmer

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.05 Discuss how explanations of abnormal behaviors have changed over time.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. A history book states, “Benjamin Rush introduced humane policies into American mental hospitals, but it took Dorothea Dix to make significant positive reforms in mental hospital care. After her work, inhumane treatment was eliminated in the United States.” What, if anything, is incorrect in this statement?
a. No portion of the statement is incorrect.
b. It is incorrect to say that Dix made significant positive reforms.
c. It is incorrect to say that inhumane treatment was eliminated.
d. It is incorrect to say that Rush introduced humane policies.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.05 Discuss how explanations of abnormal behaviors have changed over time.

KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. Frenchman Philippe Pinel and American Benjamin Rush were both concerned with ____.
a. the development of private, profitable “madhouses”
b. the moral treatment of patients in hospitals
c. helping patients gain easy access to medications
d. instituting the use of shamans to be culturally sensitive

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.05 Discuss how explanations of abnormal behaviors have changed over time.

KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. Dr. Lawrence believes that mental illness has an emotional basis. We can therefore conclude that Dr. Lawrence holds a(n) ____ view of mental illness.
a. organic
b. biological
c. psychological
d. emotional

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Causes of Mental Illness: Early Viewpoints

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.06 Summarize early explanations regarding the causes of mental disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Which statement would be consistent with the ideas of Emil Kraepelin?
a. Mental illness is fundamentally a social construct.
b. Abnormality is a deviation from ideal personality traits.
c. Every culture has its own unique set of symptoms and disorders.
d. Symptoms of mental health disorders tend to occur in clusters.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Causes of Mental Illness: Early Viewpoints

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.06 Summarize early explanations regarding the causes of mental disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. Dr. Juarez discovers that certain symptoms of behavior reliably occur in clusters. Her discovery would be seen as ____.
a. evidence of a syndrome
b. support for a psychological viewpoint
c. an illustration of epidemiology
d. support for a biological viewpoint

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Causes of Mental Illness: Early Viewpoints

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.06 Summarize early explanations regarding the causes of mental disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. According to Kraepelin, mental disorders can be seen in terms of symptom clusters that have their own cause, course, and outcome, and are considered ____ in origin.
a. sociocultural
b. biological
c. psychological
d. culturally universal

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Causes of Mental Illness: Early Viewpoints

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.06 Summarize early explanations regarding the causes of mental disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. A psychologist says, “There are certain emotional disorders for which we can find no evidence of brain pathology.” This psychologist’s statement reflects a(n) ____ viewpoint.
a. organic
b. biogenic
c. humanistic
d. psychological

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Causes of Mental Illness: Early Viewpoints

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.06 Summarize early explanations regarding the causes of mental disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. Mesmer’s lasting contribution to psychology is his ____.
a. research showing the relationship between syphilis and general paresis
b. development of a textbook for psychiatry that described the major disorders
c. demonstration that psychological factors can be highly therapeutic
d. demonstration that the masses can fall for a false set of beliefs

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Causes of Mental Illness: Early Viewpoints

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.06 Summarize early explanations regarding the causes of mental disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Imagine that you are in Paris in 1775. People tell you their physical and mental health is remarkably improved when they experience a strange sleeplike trance. Later, you hear that the man who performed these remarkable cures was investigated and declared a fraud. What forerunner of hypnosis were the people of Paris discussing?
a. catharsis
b. mesmerism
c. exorcism
d. trephining

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Causes of Mental Illness: Early Viewpoints

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.06 Summarize early explanations regarding the causes of mental disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Dr. Johns researches mental disorders using laboratory methods. He stresses the importance of directly observable behaviors and the conditions or stimuli that evoke, reinforce, or extinguish them. Dr. Johns adheres to which early viewpoint of mental illness?
a. humanism
b. behaviorism
c. psychoanalysis
d. mesmerism

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Causes of Mental Illness: Early Viewpoints

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.06 Summarize early explanations regarding the causes of mental disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. The advent of psychotropic drugs in the 1950s was considered a major revolution in the treatment of mental disorders because ____.
a. the medications slowly reduced patients’ symptoms
b. patients were able to focus their attention without resorting to therapy
c. use of medications contradicted the idea of the psychological basis of mental illness
d. stays in mental hospitals were shortened and became more cost-effective

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Contemporary Trends in Abnormal Psychology

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.07 Describe some contemporary trends in abnormal psychology.

KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. Which perspective proposes that people can develop new meaning and purpose even though limitations caused by illness exist?
a. recovery movement
b. psychoanalytic theory
c. psychological resilience
d. clinical intuition

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Contemporary Trends in Abnormal Psychology

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.07 Describe some contemporary trends in abnormal psychology.

KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. ____ is the industrialization of health care through which large organizations determine what type and duration of treatment clients can have.
a. Managed health care
b. Multicultural psychology
c. Moral therapy
d. The drug revolution

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Contemporary Trends in Abnormal Psychology

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.07 Describe some contemporary trends in abnormal psychology.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. A psychologist states the following: “Because they have higher birthrates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States are already a numerical majority. This increase in diversity has led to the field called multicultural psychology, which is interested in increasing the cultural sensitivity of mental health professionals.” What portion of this statement is incorrect?
a. It is incorrect to say that multicultural psychology is interested in increasing cultural sensitivity.
b. It is incorrect to say that racial minorities have higher birthrates.
c. It is incorrect to say that minorities are currently the majority.
d. It is incorrect to say that diversity has led to multicultural psychology.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Contemporary Trends in Abnormal Psychology

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.07 Describe some contemporary trends in abnormal psychology.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

 

  1. Which branch of psychology seeks to add balance to our view of human functioning by studying, developing and achieving scientific understanding of the human qualities associated with thriving individuals?
  2. behaviorism
  3. positive psychology
  4. psychoanalysis
  5. biological psychology

 

ANS: B REF: Contemporary Trends in Abnormal Psychology

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.07 Describe some contemporary trends in abnormal psychology.

 

  1. Dr. Seligman has devoted his career to developing a scientific understanding of the factors that allow individuals to thrive. He is most likely a ____ psychologist.
  2. positive
  3. clinical
  4. humanistic
  5. behavioral

 

ANS: A REF: Contemporary Trends in Abnormal Psychology

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.07 Describe some contemporary trends in abnormal psychology.

 

  1. Positive psychologists believe that if we identify qualities associated with effective coping and resilience, we can teach people strategies that ____.
  2. lead to a strong spiritual approach to life
  3. lead to the development of compassion toward the mentally ill
  4. help them regulate emotions and avoid developing mental illness
  5. help them to become more responsible for themselves

 

ANS: C REF: Contemporary Trends in Abnormal Psychology

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.07 Describe some contemporary trends in abnormal psychology.

 

  1. The ____ arose in response to the pessimistic views held by the public and mental health professionals regarding the life prospects of those coping with serious mental illness.
  2. humanism movement
  3. recovery movement
  4. reform movement
  5. multicultural movement

 

ANS: B REF: Contemporary Trends in Abnormal Psychology

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.07 Describe some contemporary trends in abnormal psychology.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. As conceptualized by the recovery movement, recovery involves ____.
  2. psychotropic medication and talk therapy
  3. individuals taking responsibility for their own wellbeing
  4. spiritual training that help the mentally ill cope with life’s challenges
  5. the development of new meaning and purpose in one’s life

 

ANS: D REF: Contemporary Trends in Abnormal Psychology

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.07 Describe some contemporary trends in abnormal psychology.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Positive psychology is ____.
  2. the philosophical and scientific study of positive human functioning and the strengths and assets of individuals, families, and communities
  3. the perspective that those with mental illness can recover and live satisfying, hopeful, and contributing lives, even with the limitations caused by their illness
  4. a philosophical movement that emphasizes human welfare and the worth and uniqueness of the individual
  5. a shift to more humane treatment of people who are mentally disturbed by using psychotropic medications

 

ANS: A REF: Contemporary Trends in Abnormal Psychology

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.07 Describe some contemporary trends in abnormal psychology.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. The belief in an animating life force or energy beyond what we can perceive with our senses is known as ____.
  2. psychopathology
  3. spirituality
  4. witchcraft
  5. religiousness

 

ANS: B REF: Contemporary Trends in Abnormal Psychology

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.07 Describe some contemporary trends in abnormal psychology.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Drugs that are used to treat or manage psychiatric symptoms by influencing brain activity associated with emotions and behavior are known as ____.
  2. psychological medications
  3. neurological medications
  4. psychosomatic medications
  5. psychotropic medications

 

ANS: D REF: Contemporary Trends in Abnormal Psychology

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Which naturally occurring chemical was discovered to radically calm some patients who had been psychiatrically hospitalized for years?
  2. argon
  3. potassium
  4. lithium
  5. carbon

 

ANS: C REF: Contemporary Trends in Abnormal Psychology

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.07 Describe some contemporary trends in abnormal psychology.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. What is the effect of chlorpromazine?
  2. It restores cognitive function in individuals with dementia.
  3. It treats agitation in patients with schizophrenia.
  4. It reduces feelings of sadness and despair.
  5. It relieves anxiety by calming the nervous system.

 

ANS: B REF: Contemporary Trends in Abnormal Psychology

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.07 Describe some contemporary trends in abnormal psychology.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Psychotropic drugs are helpful because they ____.
  2. reduce symptoms so those with serious mental illness can focus on therapy
  3. help hospitalized patients return to their pre-illness level of functioning
  4. eliminate the need for therapy because they cure the underlying illness
  5. sedate individuals so that they are far easier to deal with outside hospitals

 

ANS: A REF: Contemporary Trends in Abnormal Psychology

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.07 Describe some contemporary trends in abnormal psychology.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Because of ____, insurance companies have increasing control over psychotherapy and other treatments.
  2. the Affordable Care Act
  3. managed health care
  4. the newest version of the DSM
  5. licensure requirements

 

ANS: B REF: Contemporary Trends in Abnormal Psychology

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.07 Describe some contemporary trends in abnormal psychology.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Insurance carriers may reimburse only for ____; in other words, they may deny coverage for unproven treatments.
  2. inpatient treatment
  3. outpatient treatment
  4. substance abuse treatment
  5. evidence-based treatment

 

ANS: D REF: Contemporary Trends in Abnormal Psychology

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.07 Describe some contemporary trends in abnormal psychology.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Which factor spawned renewed interest and research into brain-behavior relationships?
  2. The development of the humanism movement
  3. The return to scientific based approaches to psychopathology
  4. The success of psychopharmacology
  5. The rise of technology-assisted therapy

 

ANS: C REF: Contemporary Trends in Abnormal Psychology

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.07 Describe some contemporary trends in abnormal psychology.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Therapists are using technological devices in their work with clients more frequently. Which new approach uses helmets with computer screens that immerse the wearer into a realistic, computer-based world, and has successfully treated phobias, stress disorders, and other problems?
  2. computer-assisted and online programs
  3. smartphone applications
  4. computer-brain interface therapy
  5. virtual reality therapy

 

ANS: D REF: Contemporary Trends in Abnormal Psychology

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.07 Describe some contemporary trends in abnormal psychology.

 

  1. Psychoanalysis views abnormal behavior as an intrapsychic process, which is defined as psychological processes ____.
  2. occurring within the mind
  3. occurring between two minds
  4. that cause conflict and disruption
  5. that are related to deficits in brain activity

 

ANS: A REF: Causes of Mental Illness: Early Viewpoints

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.06 Summarize early explanations regarding the causes of mental disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. The acceptance of organic or biological causes for mental disorders was enhanced by medical breakthroughs such as Louis Pasteur’s (1822–1895) ____.
  2. development of the first antibiotics
  3. development of vaccines for illnesses
  4. germ theory of disease
  5. pathological theory of disease

 

ANS: C REF: Causes of Mental Illness: Early Viewpoints

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.06 Summarize early explanations regarding the causes of mental disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. The term self-efficacy most broadly refers to a belief in ____, which can boost a person’s chances of recovery from mental illness.
  2. the need for acceptance of prejudice and discrimination
  3. one’s ability to succeed in a specific situation
  4. one’s ability to overcome mental illness
  5. the effectiveness of psychotherapy

 

ANS: B REF: Overcoming Social Stigma and Stereotypes

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Which two forms of stigma do individuals with mental illness have to address?
  2. public stigma and self-stigma
  3. self-efficacy and self-stigma
  4. prejudice and public stigma
  5. stereotypes and social stigma

 

ANS: A REF: Overcoming Social Stigma and Stereotypes

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.04 Explain why it is important to confront the stigmatization associated with mental illness.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. To combat social stigma, there have been concerted efforts to ____.
  2. keep the mentally ill safe by utilizing inpatient hospital services
  3. enact laws that protect those with mental illness from discrimination
  4. criminalize discrimination against those with mental illness
  5. increase public awareness and provide accurate information about mental illness

 

ANS: D REF: Overcoming Social Stigma and Stereotypes

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.04 Explain why it is important to confront the stigmatization associated with mental illness.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Many people learn about mental disorders by ____.
  2. taking classes on the subject
  3. watching movies and television
  4. knowing someone with mental illness.
  5. reading self-help books

 

ANS: B REF: Overcoming Social Stigma and Stereotypes (see Mental Illness in the Media box)

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Which perspective holds that we should view behaviors in the social and political context in which they occur?
  2. sociological perspective
  3. sociopolitical perspective
  4. sociopathological perspective
  5. socioeconomic perspective

 

ANS: B REF: Cultural and Sociopolitical Influences on Behavior

UABB.SUES.17.01.03 Discuss how sociopolitical experiences and cultural differences affect definitions of abnormality.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Psychologists now recognize that all behaviors, whether normal or abnormal, originate from the ____.
  2. cultural context in which the individual lives
  3. biological makeup of the individual
  4. psychological makeup of the individual
  5. circumstances of the individual’s upbringing

 

ANS: A REF: Cultural and Sociopolitical Influences on Behavior

UABB.SUES.17.01.03 Discuss how sociopolitical experiences and cultural differences affect definitions of abnormality.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Distressing symptoms can often be changed through ____, which involves systematic intervention designed to improve a person’s behavioral, emotional, or cognitive state.
  2. psychotropic medication
  3. behavioral modification
  4. psychotherapy
  5. medical therapy

 

ANS: C REF: The Field of Abnormal Psychology

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.01 Define abnormal psychology.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. According to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (2012), up to ____ of adults with severe mental disorders are not receiving treatment.
a. 27 percent
b. 37 percent
c. 47 percent
d. 57 percent

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Mental Disorders

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.02 Explain what mental disorders are and what prevalence means.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Chart the major ideas and historical figures in the history of treating the mentally ill, from the era of witchcraft in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries through the rise of the Reform Movement in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

 

ANS:

 

During the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries in Europe, when the Roman Catholic Church was under attack, witchcraft became a common explanation for deviant behavior. At one time, treatment was relatively mild for people who were seen as being involuntarily possessed by the devil. Exorcisms involving incantations, purges, fasting, and other rituals were used to restore people to sanity. Harsher treatments were reserved for those considered voluntarily in league with the devil. Eventually, the distinction blurred. In 1484, the pope called for the identification and extermination of witches. More than 100,000 people were executed. Historians suggest that mental disorders were at the roots of witchcraft persecution.

 

The Renaissance marked a time of increased rationality and concern about human welfare and dignity called humanism. Johann Weyer, a German physician, courageously challenged church teachings on witchcraft and argued that these people suffered from physical or social problems. Treatment of mentally ill people continued to be cruel throughout the 1600s and 1700s. At the beginning of the 1800s in France (Philippe Pinel), England (William Tuke), and the United States (Benjamin Rush), a new viewpoint called moral treatment came about. It argued that people who were treated humanely could be restored to sanity. Later, Dorothea Dix campaigned for reforms in mental hospitals and established hospitals for the poor in the United States. The treatment of mental patients has often been exposed as inadequate or heartless. Still, most people would agree that conditions are better today than at any time in the past.

 

REF:   Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.05 Discuss how explanations of abnormal behaviors have changed over time.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Briefly discuss the changing views of mental disorders throughout history. Be sure to include in your discussion a comparison of views across cultures and across time periods.

 

ANS:

 

Prehistoric societies appeared to believe in demonology and likely attributed abnormal behaviors to evil spirits that inhabited a victim’s body. Treatment seems to have consisted of trephining (drilling a hole in a person’s brain to let the evil spirit out). The early Greeks, Chinese, Hebrews, and Egyptians treated behavior they perceived as abnormal with exorcism, which consisted of elaborate prayers, noise, emetics, and bodily assaults to excise the evil spirits.

Two influential themes came from Greek and Roman cultures in which (1) a relationship was acknowledged between mental disorder and psychological conflict, and (2) mental disorder was viewed as a physical illness with biological causes. Hippocrates’ treatments included tranquility, moderate exercise, a careful diet, abstinence from sexual activity, and sometimes bloodletting. He understood that often family dynamics can foster deviant behavior. The Roman physician Galen explained the role of the brain and central nervous system in mental functioning; he codified all European medical knowledge from Hippocrates’ time to his own.

After the fifth century, mental disorders in many cultures were again viewed as the result of possession by evil spirits. Treatment during this period reverted to torturous exorcistic procedures to drive out the devil. In the thirteenth century belief in the power of the supernatural was so prevalent that it often created mass madness in whole populations. As the authority of the Catholic Church was increasingly challenged beginning in the fifteenth century, the Malleus Maleficarum was published (1486) as a guide for detecting witches, who were believed to have made a pact with Satan. As a result of the consequent witch hunts over the next 200 years, thousands of innocent men, women, and children were beheaded, burned alive, drowned, and otherwise tortured and mutilated.

 

In the late 1700s the emphasis on evil spirits, demons, and witchcraft gave way to the moral movement, with reformists advocating for more humane treatment of people with mental disorders. Specifically, reformists advocated treating patients kindly and respectfully, offering guidance and support, and encouraging fresh air and activity. In addition to changes in the treatment of the mentally ill, the scientific study of mental disorders was emphasized. People came to realize that psychological disorders were caused by physical factors or personal and social conditions. Along with this realization came the tradition of scientific observation and exploration leading to developments such as the diagnostic classification system of Emile Kraepelin and Freud’s theory of personality. In the twentieth century, a strong emphasis was placed on exploring the biological bases of psychological disorders (including brain functioning, genetic transmission of disorder, and neurochemical factors), as well as on social behaviors acquired through learning.

 

Toward the end of the twentieth century, and extending into the twenty-first, as society has become increasingly multicultural, multiracial, and multilingual, multicultural psychology has had a major impact on the mental health professions. This approach stresses the importance of culture, race, ethnicity, gender, age, socioeconomic class, and other similar factors for understanding and treating abnormal behavior. There is currently an understanding that the multipath model is important for understanding abnormality by considering biological, psychological, social, and sociocultural dimensions for understanding human complexity.

 

REF:         Causes of Mental Illness: Early Viewpoints

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.06 Summarize early explanations regarding the causes of mental disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Describe how mental disorders are diagnosed in the 21st century.

Understanding and treating the distressing behavior caused by mental illness is the main objective of abnormal psychology. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013), the most widely used classification system of mental disorders, indicates that a mental disorder has the following components: (a) involves a significant disturbance in thinking, emotional regulation, or behavior caused by a dysfunction in the basic psychological, biological, or developmental processes involved in normal development; (b) causes significant distress or difficulty with day-to-day functioning; and (c) is not merely a culturally expected response to common stressors or losses or a reflection of political or religious beliefs that conflict with societal norms. This definition is quite broad and raises many questions. First, when are symptoms or patterns of behavior significant enough to have meaning? Second, is it possible to have a mental disorder without any signs of distress or discomfort? Third, what criteria do we use to decide if a behavior pattern is a reflection of an underlying psychological or biological dysfunction and not merely a normal variation or an expectable response to common stressors? Complex definitions aside, most practitioners agree that mental disorders involve behavior or other distressing symptoms that depart from the norm and that harm affected individuals or others. Although the criteria for mental disorders remain a subject of debate, certain behaviors are considered abnormal in most situations. These behaviors include refusal to leave your house; depression so severe that you sleep much of the day; starving yourself because you are terrified of gaining weight; experiencing frequent nightmares involving a trauma you experienced; forgetting your own identity; feeling overwhelmed with fear at the sight of a spider; avoiding contact with objects such as doorknobs because of the fear of germs; believing that others can “hear” your thoughts; seeing aliens inside your home; collecting so many items that your health and safety are jeopardized; and intentionally making your own child sick with the purpose of receiving attention. Even considering varying cultural norms, these situations would be seen as abnormal.

 

REF: Mental Disorders

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.01.01 Define abnormal psychology.

KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

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