Test Bank Of Essentials of Physical Anthropology 3rd Edition By Clark Spencer Larsen

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Test Bank Of Essentials of Physical Anthropology 3rd Edition By Clark Spencer Larsen

 

CHAPTER 03: Genetics: Reproducing Life and Producing Variation

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Somatic cells include all of the following EXCEPT:
a. lung cells. c. skin cells.
b. gametes. d. neurons.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Explain the difference between the two types of eukaryotic cells

TOP:   The cell          MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Prokaryotes first appeared:
a. 10,000 years ago. c. 3.5 bya.
b. 1 mya. d. 65 mya.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Describe the major parts of a cell and the function of the organelles

TOP:   The cell          MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. _______ DNA is heteroplasmic, meaning it can differ among different parts of a person’s body.
a. Nuclear c. Ribosomal
b. All d. Mitochondrial

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Explain what mtDNA is and why it is important in research about both modern and ancient humans  TOP:    The DNA molecule                    MSC:             Remembering

 

  1. Nucleotide bases in nuclear DNA include all of the following EXCEPT:
a. thymine. c. uracil.
b. adenine. d. cytosine.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Identify the four nitrogen bases of DNA and explain how they combine

TOP:   DNA: the blueprint of life              MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The following are complementary bases in DNA:
a. adenine and thymine. c. guanine and thymine.
b. adenine and cytosine. d. guanine and uracil.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Identify the four nitrogen bases of DNA and explain how they combine

TOP:   The DNA molecule                        MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. DNA replication produces:
a. four identical daughter cells. c. two single strands of DNA.
b. two identical copies of itself. d. four single strands of DNA.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               OBJ:   Explain how DNA reproduces itself

TOP:   The DNA molecule                        MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. In mammals, the male parent’s gametes determine the sex of his offspring because:
a. the X chromosome originates only from females.
b. sperm are more powerful than eggs.
c. the Y chromosome is present in males only.
d. the X chromosome determines sex.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       OBJ:   Describe the human karyotype

TOP:   The cell: its role in reproducing life and producing variation

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Gametes are:
a. diploid. c. produced during mitosis.
b. haploid. d. somatic.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               OBJ:   Describe and/or draw the process of meiosis

TOP:   The cell: its role in reproducing life and producing variation

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Haplotypes are:
a. not likely to recombine during crossovers.
b. likely to recombine during crossovers.
c. genes that code for similar things.
d. genetic material that come from one parent only.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       OBJ:   Describe and/or draw the process of meiosis

TOP:   Meiosis: production of gametes      MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Down syndrome can occur:
a. as a result of translocation during mitosis.
b. because of nondisjunction, which yields an extra chromosome.
c. most frequently in the offspring of women under the age of 40.
d. most frequently in the offspring of men under the age of 40.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Describe and/or draw the process of meiosis | Describe the human karyotype

TOP:   Meiosis: production of gametes      MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. In his work on pea plants, Mendel found that plant height was inherited independently of the type or color of the seed coat. This finding:
a. applies only to genes on the same chromosome.
b. demonstrates the law of independent assortment.
c. explains gene linkage.
d. explains inheritance only in simple organisms.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Define Mendel’s law of segregation and law of independent assortment and explain their importance to the study of genetics                TOP:   Polymorphisms: variations in specific genes

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. DNA is important for protein synthesis because it:
a. is the biological code for the production of hormones and enzymes.
b. serves as a template to which amino acids are attached in protein production.
c. provides the code to produce proteins.
d. transfers information from RNA to proteins.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Describe the process of protein synthesis and the roles that DNA and RNA play

TOP:   Producing proteins: the other function of DNA               MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Proteins consist of:
a. genes. c. chains of DNA nucleotides.
b. RNA plus mRNA. d. chains of amino acids.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Describe the process of protein synthesis and the roles that DNA and RNA play

TOP:   Producing proteins: the other function of DNA               MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Transcription:
a. occurs in the nucleus.
b. occurs in the ribosome.
c. results in the production of proteins.
d. results in the transformation of mitochondria.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Describe the process of protein synthesis and the roles that DNA and RNA play

TOP:   Producing proteins: the other function of DNA               MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. RNA differs from DNA in that it uses:
a. uracil instead of adenine. c. guanine instead of uracil.
b. uracil instead of guanine. d. uracil instead of thymine.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Describe the process of protein synthesis and the roles that DNA and RNA play

TOP:   Producing proteins: the other function of DNA               MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Transfer RNA:
a. seeks complementary triplet strands of mRNA codons.
b. contains codons that correspond to specific amino acids.
c. brings amino acids together to form polypeptide chains.
d. all of the above

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Describe the process of protein synthesis and the roles that DNA and RNA play

TOP:   Producing proteins: the other function of DNA               MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The gene responsible for lactose persistence among adults in Europe is a _______ gene.
a. structural c. regulatory
b. dominant d. Hox

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Distinguish between the role of regulatory and structural genes

TOP:   Genes: structural and regulatory     MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Hox genes:
a. appear to function in similar ways across diverse groups of organisms.
b. function only in fruit flies.
c. control which amino acids get plugged into polypeptide chains.
d. control the development of language in humans.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Explain the importance of homeotic (Hox) genes and what effects a mutation in these genes could have           TOP:              Genes: structural and regulatory                MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Meiosis results in the production of:
a. two gametes. c. a single gamete.
b. four gametes. d. none of the above

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Describe the process of protein synthesis and the roles that DNA and RNA play

TOP:   Genes: structural and regulatory     MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Homeotic (Hox) genes are:
a. structural genes.
b. responsible for the development and location of key body parts.
c. responsible for determining the sex of offspring.
d. not used during embryonic development.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Explain the importance of homeotic (Hox) genes and what effects a mutation in these genes could have           TOP:              Meiosis: production of gametes                MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Human ABO blood types are determined by:
a. regulatory genes. c. multiple genes.
b. multiple alleles. d. homeotic genes.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Explain why the “one gene-one protein” model of genetics is not completely correct

TOP:   Polymorphisms: variations in specific genes                              MSC:   Remembering

 

  1. Microsatellites are:
a. small satellite transmitters used in genetic research.
b. useful for determining group but not individual identification.
c. highly individualized repetitive stretches of nuclear DNA.
d. known from Watson and Crick’s 1950’s research.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Explain why the “one gene-one protein” model of genetics is not completely correct

TOP:   Polymorphisms: variations in specific genes                              MSC:   Remembering

 

  1. An individual that is homozygous at the locus that determines ABO blood type may have any of the following EXCEPT type _______ blood.
a. AB c. A
b. O d. B

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Explain why the “one gene-one protein” model of genetics is not completely correct

TOP:   Polymorphisms: variations in specific genes                              MSC:   Remembering

 

  1. Individuals whose blood type is A and who carry both dominant and recessive genes at this locus have a genotype of:
a. AA. c. AB.
b. AO. d. OO.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Explain why the “one gene-one protein” model of genetics is not completely correct

TOP:   Polymorphisms: variations in specific genes                              MSC:   Applying

 

  1. The presence of a recessive allele:
a. can always be determined from the phenotype.
b. can be masked in the phenotype.
c. is expressed in the phenotype alongside a dominant allele.
d. can never be expressed in the phenotype.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Explain the difference between phenotype and genotype

TOP:   Genotypes and phenotypes: genes and their expressions           MSC:   Remembering

 

  1. The expression of polygenic traits is:
a. never determined by the influence of environmental factors.
b. determined by genes at several loci.
c. determined by multiple genes at one locus.
d. determined solely by the influence of environmental factors.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Explain why the “one gene-one protein” model of genetics is not completely correct

TOP:   The complexity of genetics            MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. A trait’s heritability is the proportion of its variation that:
a. is genetic.
b. cannot be explained.
c. is the product of genes and environment.
d. results from the environment alone.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Explain the difference between phenotype and genotype          TOP:    The complexity of genetics

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. In 2004, the Human Genome Project published a human genome map indicating that _______ genes are responsible for the human body’s proteins.
a. 100,000 c. 20,000–25,000
b. 50,000 d. 200,000–250,000

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Define the goals and accomplishments of the Human Genome Project

TOP:   Anthropology matters! The Human Genome Project: a genetic revolution

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR):
a. allows us to use genetic methods to explore the origins and movements of populations.
b. is used to amplify tiny sequences of DNA for study.
c. allows us to study small amounts of DNA available in ancient skeletons.
d. all of the above

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               OBJ:   Identify methods used to study DNA

TOP:   How do we know? Ancient DNA opens new windows on the past

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Genetic analysis of haplotypes and variants among living and precontact Native Americans indicates that Native Americans:
a. underwent a huge decline in genetic diversity after Columbus’s arrival in the New World.
b. living today appear to be as diverse genetically as their ancient ancestors thousands of years ago.
c. have a genetic structure and haplogroups that are quite recent.
d. living today appear to be more diverse genetically than their ancient ancestors.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       OBJ:   Identify methods used to study DNA

TOP:   How do we know? Ancient DNA opens new windows on the past

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Somatic cells are characterized by all of the following EXCEPT:
a. each includes a nucleus at some stage of its development.
b. they are used in multiple tissues throughout the body.
c. each contains half a copy of an organism’s DNA.
d. each contains a complete copy of all of an organism’s DNA.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Explain the difference between the two types of eukaryotic cells

TOP:   The cell: its role in reproducing life and producing variation

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Homologous chromosomes:
a. are genetically identical.
b. carry genetic information that influences the same traits.
c. are inherited only from the mother.
d. are members of different pairs.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               OBJ:   Explain how DNA reproduces itself

TOP:   The DNA molecule: replicating the code                         MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. DNA:
a. is single stranded. c. directs cellular function.
b. contains six different nucleotide bases. d. contains the base uracil.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               OBJ:   Explain how DNA reproduces itself

TOP:   The DNA molecule: replicating the code                         MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Chromosome number is reduced during:
a. mitosis. c. translation.
b. recombination. d. meiosis.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               OBJ:   Describe and/or draw the process of meiosis

TOP:   The DNA molecule: replicating the code                         MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) differs from ribonucleic acid (RNA) in that it:
a. was studied during Darwin’s lifetime.
b. is the so-called recipe for all biological characteristics and functions in animals.
c. was discovered by Mendel.
d. is stored in ribosomes.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Describe the process of protein synthesis and the roles that DNA and RNA play

TOP:   The DNA molecule: the genetic code                              MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. If two alleles influencing the expressed phenotype for a trait are equally expressed, this is an

example of:

a. polymorphism. c. pleiotropy.
b. codominance. d. Mendelian inheritance.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Explain why the “one gene-one protein” model of genetics is not completely correct

TOP:   The complexity of genetics            MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. In his experiments with garden peas, Mendel found that one physical unit is inherited from the father and one from the mother. This provided evidence for:
a. Mendel’s law of independent assortment.
b. Thomas Hunt Morgan’s ideas of mutation.
c. Mendel’s law of segregation.
d. Mendel’s concept of nondisjunction.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Define Mendel’s law of segregation and law of independent assortment and explain their importance to the study of genetics                TOP:   Polymorphisms: variations in specific genes

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. A doctor finds that the mammary glands of a woman are not functioning due to a genetic abnormality that influences the structural design of the thoracic cavity. This is likely the result of a mutation:
a. on the sex chromosomes. c. in HSV-1.
b. in a Hox gene. d. none of the above

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Explain the importance of homeotic (Hox) genes and what effects a mutation in these genes could have           TOP:              Polymorphisms: variations in specific genes

MSC:  Understanding

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Use what you know about meiosis to explain Mendel’s law of segregation and law of independent assortment.

 

ANS:

Although Mendel did not know about chromosomes, he recognized that what we now know to be alleles segregate predictably. He demonstrated with garden peas that the father contributes one physical unit and the mother the other; this is what is known as his law of segregation. For example, a child with blood type AB has received the A allele from one parent and the B allele from the other parent. This discovery was critical in explaining what Darwin was unable to account for, namely how new variation arises with reproduction.

Mendel’s law of independent assortment refers to the discovery that each physical unit (gene) passes from parent to offspring independently of other genes. In the case of the pea plant, plant height was inherited independently from the type or color of the seed coat. We now know that this principle applies only to genes from different chromosomes; because meiosis involves separation of homologous chromosomes, genes on the same chromosome (especially if near each other) have a greater chance of being inherited together. They are less subject to recombination. Gene linkage refers to a group of genes from the same chromosome being inherited together and is an exception to Mendel’s law of independent assortment.

 

DIF:    Difficult

OBJ:   Define Mendel’s law of segregation and law of independent assortment and explain their importance to the study of genetics                TOP:   Meiosis: production of gametes

MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Describe the steps involved in protein synthesis.

 

ANS:

DNA serves as a template for protein synthesis. Proteins can be structural or regulatory, meaning they either make up tissues or serve in cell function or repair and growth of tissues. Proteins consist of chains of amino acids. Of the twenty amino acids, eleven are made by the body and nine (the essential amino acids) come from particular foods. Protein synthesis is a two-step process. Transcription is the first step; it occurs in the cell’s nucleus. The second step, translation, takes place in the cytoplasm outside the nucleus. Transcription starts out just like the first step of DNA replication: a double strand of DNA unzips. But instead of producing daughter strands of DNA identical to the original parent (as in replication), the exposed bases in the unzipped DNA molecule serve as a template for ribonucleic acid (RNA). RNA has the same nitrogen bases as DNA, except uracil replaces thymine. In RNA, uracil always matches with adenine while guanine continues to pair with cytosine. The single strand of unzipped DNA attracts free-floating RNA nucleotides. The strand of RNA produced is called messenger RNA (mRNA). Messenger RNA splits off from the DNA template and leaves the nucleus, moving into the cytoplasm and attaching itself to ribosomes in the cytoplasm outside the nucleus. The mRNA is a messenger because it carries the code for the protein being synthesized from the nucleus to the ribosome.

In the second step of protein synthesis (translation), strands of transfer RNA (tRNA), which occur as triplets (or anticodons), are built off the mRNA template. The tRNA triplets seek complementary triplet strands of mRNA with which to pair (for example, a triplet of AUC mRNA would pair with complementary UAG tRNA). The three bases of the tRNA triplet represent a specific amino acid. Amino acids are chemically linked by peptide bonds. A chain of these peptide bonds is called a polypeptide. In most cases, multiple polypeptides must bind together and fold into a three-dimensional structure to form a functional protein (for example, hemoglobin is composed of two pairs of polypeptide chains). Once the protein is formed, it breaks away from tRNA and begins its work.

 

DIF:    Difficult

OBJ:   Describe the process of protein synthesis and the roles that DNA and RNA play

TOP:   Producing proteins                          MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. What is the evolutionary significance of meiosis?

 

ANS:

Adaptation by natural selection depends on inherited variability. If individuals were genetically identical, there could be no evolutionary change by natural selection. Darwin was never able to pinpoint the source of the variation or how it was inherited. This was one of the major barriers to acceptance of natural selection by Darwin’s peers during his lifetime. Mendel’s work and the newer science of genetics provide the missing information. Owing to meiosis and sexual reproduction, genetic variation increases in populations. Each gamete contains just one chromosome from a homologous pair, and during reproduction each parent contributes only half of his or her genetic material. The random assortment of chromosomes in cells during the first meiotic division can result in millions of genetically different gametes. Crossover (exchange of pieces of maternal and paternal homologous chromosomes, or recombination) occurs during the reduction division, further increasing variability. This provides the essential genetic diversity required for natural selection to occur.

 

DIF:    Difficult         OBJ:   Describe and/or draw the process of meiosis

TOP:   Meiosis: production of gametes      MSC:  Evaluating

 

  1. Define polygenic and pleiotropic traits and explain their significance for researchers’ efforts to link human genotypes to phenotypes.

 

ANS:

The relationship between most genes and their phenotypes is complex and does not follow simple patterns of Mendelian inheritance (one gene for one trait). Polygenic traits are determined by genes at two or more loci, but the genes cannot be identified individually and the phenotypes are also influenced by environmental factors. In humans, the many polygenic traits include height, skin color, and eye color. Children’s skin color and eye color may be very different from their parents’. Pleiotropy refers to the fact that a single allele can have multiple effects and affect more than one trait. The PKU allele affects mental abilities and the coloration of hair and skin. A person who inherits this allele will have the disease phenylketonuria, characterized by a missing enzyme that leads to mental retardation as well as reduced hair and skin pigmentation. One trait can be affected by more than one gene, and each of those genes may also affect several other traits. Most complex traits in humans are polygenic and pleiotropic, complicating our efforts to link genes to phenotypes.

 

DIF:    Difficult

OBJ:   Explain why the “one gene-one protein” model of genetics is not completely correct

TOP:   Polygenic variation | Pleiotropy      MSC:  Evaluating

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