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Drugs, Crime, and Justice 1st Edition by Steven R. Belenko , Cassia C. Spohn –
When a drug enters the body via oral ingestion, smoking, snorting, or injection, the chemicals move through the bloodstream and must cross what barrier to produce an effect?
Psychoactive drugs operate at this level, meaning that they affect the action of the neurotransmitters that control brain function.
Although drugs differ in the length of time they act on the neurochemical systems of the brain, the drugs are broken down by the body into other chemical substances called
A synergistic effect is achieved when
*a.the combined effect of two drugs is greater than the sums of each drug taken individually
b.the combined effect of two drugs is less than the sums of each drug taken individually.
c.the combined effect of two drugs is no different than the sums of each drug taken individually.
d.the combined effect of two drugs is the same as the sums of each drug taken individually.
In addition to the amount of drugs possessed or sold by offenders, criminal penalties are further influenced by
a.what kind of drug is confiscated
b.where the offender is apprehended
*c.the weight and purity of the drug
d.the chemical make up of the drug
What is the effective dose (ED) of a drug?
a.the level at which a drug becomes ineffective
*b.the amount of a drug needed to achieve a specific psychoactive effect
c.the point at which a drug’s effect is increased
d.the amount of a drug needed to reverse a specific psychoactive effect
The lethal dose (LD) of a drug refers to
a.the amount of a drug that triggers criminal behavior
b.the point at which a drug becomes addictive
c.the amount of a drug needed to become effective
*d.the amount of a drug at which death occurs
The effective dose (ED) to lethal dose (LD) ratio is important because:
a.it is indicative of the purity of a drug
b.it illustrates the likelihood of addiction
*c.it is a good indicator of the relative toxicity (safety) of a drug
d.it provides insight as to the purity of a specific drug
A habitual cocaine user who no longer feels the same physiological high after using the same dosage over time is an example of:
If a person develops a tolerance to one class of drug and then uses another drug from a similar drug class, he or she may experience a phenomenon known as:
The American Psychiatric Association’s DSM stands for:
a.Drug Statistics Manual
b.Dependence Statistical Manual
*c.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual
d.Disorder Statistical Manual
If a drug abuser is defined as a person who is experiencing negative consequences because of his or her repeated drug use, which of the following is an example of the symptoms of drug abuse:
b.responsible family member
c.clean bill of health
*d.failure to fulfill major role obligations
Taking a drug like Percocet to get high instead of for pain relief is an example of:
NIDA stands for
a.National Institute on Drug Addiction
b.National Institute on Dependence and Addiction
*c.National Institute on Drug Abuse
d.National Institute on Drug Analysis
Compulsive drug use that results in a person becoming overly concerned with the process of finding, buying and taking of a drug to the point that it becomes the central part of his or her life is experiencing:
One of the most significant signs that a person has become physically dependent on a drug is that when he or she stops using the drug, he or she experiences:
The least effective way to take a psychoactive drug is:
This refers to the overall weight of a drug and includes any additives or adulterants:
The actual amount of a drug needed to bring about a psychoactive effect is called:
The percentage of a drug sample that is the actual psychoactive ingredient is its:
If an offender is caught in possession of 20grams of cocaine and it is only 10% pure cocaine, he or she will be charged for having this much cocaine:
In 1970, the 1914 Harrison Act was replaced and overridden with the:
*a.Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act
b.Comprehensive Drug Addiction Prevention and Control Act
c.Comprehensive Drug Advocacy Program and Control Act
d.Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Criminal Act
Although penalties and mandatory sentences increased under the 1970 legislation, they were subsequently strengthened with the Anti-Drug Abuse Acts of:
a.1980 & 1986
b.1986 & 1987
d.1980 & 1990
Although the 4th Amendment to the Constitution prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures and requires police to announce their presence, the 1970 Act permitted these kinds of searches under certain conditions:
This government body decides whether or not a particular drug is scheduled and where it will be classified:
*a.Drug Enforcement Agency
b.U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
c.National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse
d.National Institute on Drug Abuse
Cannabis sativa uniquely contains a combination of stimulant, depressant, and hallucinogenic properties, and is more generally called:
The high visibility of recreational marijuana use among Mexican farm workers and urban musicians eventually brought about the passage of the federal:
a.Marihuana Anti-Drug Act of 1940
*b.Marihuana Tax Act of 1937
c.Anti-Cannabis Act of 1935
d.Marihuana Containment Act of 1938
THC, the primary psychoactive ingredient in marijuana stands for:
A naturally derived opium drug is called:
A synthetically derived opium drug is called:
In 1860, the first state law against morphine was passed in:
All opiate drugs are Schedules II-V, with the exception of this Schedule I opiate drug:
Once marketed as a cough suppressant in 1898 by the Bayer Corporation, this psychoactive opiate is derived from morphine and also chemically similar:
Chronic heroin use can lead to a greater chance of contracting HIV, hepatitis B, or hepatitis C because users often:
a.swallow heroin pills
*c.intravenously inject heroin
All of the following are examples of synthetic opioids except:
The highest percentage of current opioid prescription abusers comes from the following age range:
Drugs colloquially referred to as tranquilizers or “downers” are more appropriately called:
Sedative-hypnotics called ____________ work by slowing down neural activity, depressing respiration and also heart rate.
Quaaludes, a new type of barbiturate developed in the mid-1960s and once considered a relatively safe drug became this Schedule drug in 1985 after extensive abuse of it in the 1970s.
The following are all Schedule IV, significantly safer benzodiazepines, except for:
This stimulant drug was once considered a “miracle” drug in the late 19th century because of its multiple medicinal uses.
This amphetamine was first created in 1887 as a nasal spray and intended to reduce asthma symptoms as well as other respiratory ailments:
Amphetamines are Schedule II-IV drugs and legally prescribed to help people suffering from:
c.attention deficit hyper activity disorder (ADHD)
*d.all of the above
“Ice,” “Crank,” and “Crystal-Meth” are common names for this type of drug:
This class of drugs is known for its effects upon sensory perceptions that often trigger auditory and visual disturbances by acting on the neurotransmitter serotonin.
In 1938 Swiss chemist Albert Hoffman’s accidental ingestion led to the discovery of this fungus derived hallucinogen:
The Schedule II drug, Phencyclidine, developed in the 1950s and used as an anesthetic, and was once thought to be safer than barbiturates is better known as:
Because it is a dissociative drug, chronic use of PCP can result in:
*b.memory loss and depression
Another name for the hallucinogenic drug called psilocybin is:
Mescaline, a hallucinogenic drug that has been used in Native American religious rituals is derived from the tips of a cactus plant and is more commonly known as:
Although psilocybin, mescaline, and peyote are all Schedule I drugs, this drug is still allowed to be used in Native American Church (NAC) ceremonies:
This drug, also known as a date rape drug, is not legally available in the United States, although it can be obtained by prescription in other countries.
In order for a psychoactive drug to be effective it must pass the blood-brain barrier.
Psychoactive drugs are legally classified and the allowable penalties for violating laws are usually determined based upon the amount of the drug possessed or sold by offenders.
The purity of street drugs is accurately known and therefore they are not necessarily more dangerous than prescription drugs.
The American Psychiatric Association’s DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual) defines drug abuse and drug dependence as two kinds of substance abuse disorders.
Swallowing a psychoactive drug is the least effective way to take it because of the effects of stomach enzymes and slow absorption rates.
Even without a prescription, It is legal to possess some of the drugs listed in the Controlled Substances Act Schedules.
It is important to understand the different classes and types of drugs because oftentimes in the past some state and federal laws have erroneously classified certain drugs, such as referring to all illegal drugs as “narcotics”.
One of the primary reasons that marijuana retains its illegal status is that most drug offenders began their abuse of drugs with it.
Developed in the 1970s and made by treating powdered cocaine with highly flammable chemicals, freebase cocaine quickly lost popularity as it proved dangerous to users who were injured, sometimes severely.
One of the possible effects of the drug LSD is a phenomenon known as synesthesia in which there is a “crossover” of sensations, meaning smells may be experienced as lights and colors and sounds can be seen.
Nicknamed the “hug drug,” Ecstasy, works by decreasing the levels of the neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine.
The quicker a psychoactive drug enters the brain the __________ the effect.
When a person is no longer able to control or manage his or her drug use, _________ and _______ are two key aspects to understanding how this loss of control happens.
a.tolerance and addiction
b.dependence and physiology
c.addiction and physiology
*d.tolerance and dependence
The allowable charges and penalties that our criminal justice system can exercise against a drug offender is dependent on the ________ of the drug either sold or possessed.
- route of administration
The landmark legislation contained within the ___________ remains the foundation for the federal control of drugs.
a.Drug Control Act
*b.Controlled Substances Act
c.Criminal Substances Act
d.Criminal Drug Act
__________ was a popular tincture given as a pain reliever, a sleep-aid, and an intoxicant in Europe during the 1500s.
___________ drugs are of particular concern to law enforcement and the criminal justice system because of their associations with violent crime including its trafficking practices.
The use of __________ are generally sought after by younger drug users who seek to enhance late-night dance parties such as raves, and also to make dancing and music at clubs more enjoyable.
Define tolerance and describe what happens physiologically when one develops tolerance and include the phenomenon known as “cross tolerance.” (15)
Answer should include why it is important to understand how tolerance can compound a drug use problem. It should provide a brief explanation about the way the brain responds to a drug and with regard to cross tolerance, how a person trying a new drug from a similar class can already have a tolerance to this drug because of the use of the other.
Explain the difference between physical dependence, behavioral dependence and the NIDA’s definition of addiction. (17)
The answer on pg. 17 outlines the distinctions between these terms. Students should point out that the NIDA’s definition recognizes addiction as a brain disease.
What was the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Controlled Substance Act of 1970 and what were its far reaching effects? (18-19)
Answers may vary in details but should at least consider the significant impact of these federal guidelines to the state and local level of ant-drug laws. Answers should also include the Nixon Administration’s role and impact on this act.
Identify the 5 classes of psychoactive drugs and give an example of a drug from each class and how it physiologically affects the brain. (18)
The answer to this question is easily found beginning on page 18 and the subsequent subtitles that name each class of drug. Therefore answers may vary but the examples are plentiful and clearly defined and explained. EX: Stimulant- cocaine, Club drug- Ecstasy
While the earliest attacks on alcohol consumption targeted beverages other than beer and wine, by the middle of the 1800s those in the temperance movement called for total abstinence from alcohol.
Despite the passage of Prohibition, disregard for the law was widespread and saw the rise of bootlegging and home brewing.
The “good faith” provision of the Harrison Tax Act of 1914 was ambiguously written and led to interpretation issues that had to be settled by the Supreme Court.
The American Medical Association was a staunch supporter and proponent of the Harrison Tax Act and aided in getting this legislation passed.
The Boggs Act eliminated mandatory minimum sentences for drug offenses and allowed federal judges to suspend sentencing and impose probation on an offender with a prior drug offense.
The Controlled Substances Act of 1970 replaced all prior federal laws regulating illegal drugs including the Harrison Tax Act of 1914 and the Marihuana Tax Act of 1937.
Ronald Reagan’s administration was characterized by its laissez-faire approach to drug law enforcement.
Only liberal sentencing reformers argued that the indeterminate sentencing process often violated a defendant’s rights to due process and equal protection because of its arbitrary nature.
The 1988 Anti-Drug Abuse Act prescribed the death penalty for drug traffickers or any person who caused another’s death while committing a drug felony.
Prosecutors are unable to bypass mandatory minimum sentencing, as they cannot manipulate charges against an offender.
Even though the Prohibition movement slowed down during the Civil War, by the mid-1800s, ____________ of the U.S. population lived in states that prohibited the sale of alcohol.
Prior to 1906 most states had a _____________ attitude toward mind-altering drugs resulting in users not being aware that patent medicines could cause dependence.
Illinois was the first state to regulate ___________ making it illegal to sell or give it away without a prescription.
The _________ Tax Act of 1914 was the first national legislation to regulate the use of psychoactive drugs.
The 1956 Narcotic Control Act established a five-year mandatory sentence on first time offenders and an option for __________ if the offender was over the age of 18 and sold heroin to a person under 18.
a.life in prison
b.a 25year sentence
c.a 50-year sentence
*d.the death penalty
Although Nixon increased the federal budget’s money for the war on drugs, he allocated ________ of the money for prevention and treatment programs.
Today, America’s sentencing policies are _____________.
Sentencing for drug offenses in the U.S. has been dominated by ___________ since the mid 1970s.
*a.presumptive sentencing guidelines
b.variable sentencing guidelines
In 1984 the Sentencing Reform Act created the ______________ authorizing it to develop the federal sentencing guidelines.
a.Federal Sentencing Commission
*b.U.S. Sentencing Commission
c.Comprehensive Commission on Sentencing
d.Federal Guideline Sentencing Commission
The first war on drugs in the United States targeted:
In the late 18th century, he was a professor of medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and also one of the earliest critics of alcohol consumption:
d.Edward Huntington Williams
In Benjamin Rush’s 1784 pamphlet, An Inquiry into the Effects of Ardent Spirits on the Human Mind and Body, “ardent spirits” refers to:
*c.distilled alcoholic beverages
- any beverage containing alcohol
Because Dr. Rush believed that uncontrolled consumption of alcohol led to immorality and criminal behavior, he enlisted the help of these people to use their influence to disseminate his ideas about alcohol’s negative effects.
In 1828, this Presbyterian minister published Six Sermons on the Nature, Occasions, Signs, Evils, and Remedy of Intemperance:
This organization, aligned with the Prohibition movement, was founded in 1874:
b.Federal Bureau of Narcotics
c.American Medical Association
*d.Women’s Christian Temperance Union
The Anti-Saloon League was founded in:
This legislation, passed in 1919, prohibited the distribution of beverages containing more than 0.5% alcohol:
d.Controlled Substances Act
The 18th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution instituting Prohibition was ratified in:
The 21st Amendment to the U.S. Constitution repealing Prohibition was ratified in:
Some argue that the Volstead Act was integral to the establishment in America of:
a.stricter drug laws
d.the criminal justice system
This drug, a derivative of morphine, was developed in Germany by the Bayer Corporation to relieve coughing and other respiratory ailments:
This famous psychologist used and recommended cocaine to his patients for its energizing and stimulating effects:
In 1875, this city enacted one of the nation’s first anti-drug laws in response to the growing concerns aboutChinese railroad workers who smoked opium:
This was the first state to pass a law banning opium smoking in 1885:
Although this novel, by Upton Sinclair, brought attention to the horrors of the meat packing industry, it resulted in Congress passing the Pure Food and Drug Act requiring manufacturers to list the ingredients of all patent medicines:
c.The Great Gatsby
His novel The Jungle led to the passing of the Pure Food and Drug Act in 1906 and required manufacturers to list ingredients of all patent medicines:
The Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 led to the creation of the:
a.Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
b.Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA)
c.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
*d.Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
This drug was not among those prohibited in the Harrison Tax Act:
He was the first commissioner of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics:
*d.Harry J. Anslinger
The Uniform Narcotic Act allowed states to treat this drug as a narcotic thereby subjecting it to the same regulations as all narcotics:
Passed in 1951, this Act addressed concerns with the post-WWII resurgence of drug trafficking and drug addiction:
a.Marijuana Tax Act
b.Uniform Narcotic Act
Early on in President Nixon’s administration, Congress passed the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act which is more commonly known as the:
*b.Controlled Substances Act
d.Uniform Narcotic Act
This federal agency conducts drug research and education:
a.Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
b.Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA)
*c.National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
d.Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
This President was more committed to rehabilitation and treatment than to drug law enforcement:
c.George H. W. Bush
The appearance of this illegal substance during the Reagan years contributed to the moral panic over drug use:
This First Lady entered the anti-drug scene with her “Just Say No” campaign:
A parole board determining the release date of a convicted offender after a judge imposes a minimum and maximum sentence is an example of:
All sentencing guidelines are based primarily on the following two factors:
a.severity of offense and prior prison time
b.offender’s prior criminal record and age
c.age at time of offense and offender’s prior drug use
*d.severity of offense and offender’s prior criminal record
The two following states have a list factors that should not influence a presumptive sentence: (select two)
From 1978-1998, a person in this state convicted of attempting to deliver, or delivering 650 grams of cocaine or heroin required a life sentence without the possibility of parole:
Interdiction efforts in the war on drugs refers to:
a.increasing the drug supplies entering the U.S. in order to expose traffickers
b.bypassing state laws to make drug arrests
c.appealing to foreign heads of state to join the war on drugs
*d.reducing the supply of drugs entering the U.S.
These two programs, operating under the U.S. State Department, target source-country drug cultivation in an effort to curb the supply of drugs entering the U.S.:
a.Andean Counterdrug Initiative (ACI) & Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA)
b.Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) & International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement (INCLE)
*c.International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement (INCLE) & Andean Counterdrug Initiative (ACI)
d.Food and Drug Administration (FDA) & Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA)
The Organized Crime Drug Enforcement Task Force (OCDETF) was established in 1982 to undertake all of the following except:
a.identifying national and international drug trafficking organizations
b.coordinating investigation efforts into money laundering
*c.research on drug use in foreign markets
d.targeting infrastructures of drug trafficking businesses
The federal budget for interdiction in 2013 was:
Assess and compare the different approaches to illegal drug use under Barack Obama and George H. W. Bush. Which approach do you believe is more effective and why?(89-90)
Answers will vary on which approach is found more effective, but responses should include a distinction between Obama who favors prevention and treatment and Bush who favors a zero tolerance, more punitive approach to the illegal drug issue.
What was the significance of the Harrison Tax Act of 1914 and what were the implications of its “good faith” clause? (95-96)
Answers should mention it was the first piece of national legislation regulating the use of psychoactive drugs, and that the ambiguous “good faith” clause resulted in interpretation issues that went to the Supreme Court for clarification. One or two court cases should be included.
Describe the reasons behind the Marihuana Tax Act of 1937 and how it is related to the Uniform Narcotic Drug Act. (98-99)
Answers should mention that this was the first federal law regulating marijuana use. Also, that marijuana’s reputation for being a drug of choice among Mexican immigrants and jazz musicians gave it a negative association. The Uniform Narcotic Act allowed states to treat marijuana as a narcotic.