Test Bank For Dental Radiography Principles and Techniques, 5Th Edition By Joen Iannucci

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Dental Radiography Principles and Techniques, 5Th Edition By Joen Iannucci – Test Bank

 

Chapter 01: Radiation History

Iannucci: Dental Radiography, 5th Edition

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Radiation is defined as
a. a form of energy carried by waves or streams of particles.
b. a beam of energy that has the power to penetrate substances and record image shadows on a receptor.
c. a high-energy radiation produced by the collision of a beam of electrons with a metal target in an x-ray tube.
d. a branch of medicine that deals with the use of x-rays.

 

 

ANS:  A

Radiation is a form of energy carried by waves or streams of particles. An x-ray is a beam of energy that has the power to penetrate substances and record image shadows on a receptor. X-radiation is a high-energy radiation produced by the collision of a beam of electrons with a metal target in an x-ray tube. Radiology is a branch of medicine that deals with the use of x-rays.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 2            OBJ:   1

TOP:   CDA, RHS, III.B.2. Describe the characteristics of x-radiation

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. A radiograph is defined as
a. a beam of energy that has the power to penetrate substances and record image shadows on a receptor.
b. a picture on film produced by the passage of x-rays through an object or body.
c. the art and science of making radiographs by the exposure of an image receptor to x-rays.
d. a form of energy carried by waves or a stream of particles.

 

 

ANS:  B

An x-ray is a beam of energy that has the power to penetrate substances and record image shadows on a receptor.  A radiograph is a picture on film produced by the passage of x-rays through an object or body. Radiography is the art and science of making dental images by the exposure of a receptor to x-rays.  Radiation is a form of energy carried by waves or streams of particles.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Page 2            OBJ:   1

TOP:   CDA, RHS, III.B.2. Describe the characteristics of x-radiation

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. Your patient asked you why dental images are important. Which of the following is the correct response?
a. An oral examination with dental images limits the practitioner to what is seen clinically.
b. All dental diseases and conditions produce clinical signs and symptoms.
c. Dental images are not a necessary component of comprehensive patient care.
d. Many dental diseases are typically discovered only through the use of dental images.

 

 

ANS:  D

An oral examination without dental images limits the practitioner to what is seen clinically. Many dental diseases and conditions produce no clinical signs and symptoms.  Dental images are a necessary component of comprehensive patient care. Many dental diseases are typically discovered only through the use of dental images.

 

DIF:    Application    REF:   Page 2            OBJ:   2

TOP:   CDA, RHS, III.B.2. Describe the characteristics of x-radiation

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.5 General

 

  1. The x-ray was discovered by
a. Heinrich Geissler
b. Wilhelm Roentgen
c. Johann Hittorf
d. William Crookes

 

 

ANS:  B

Heinrich Geissler built the first vacuum tube in 1838.  Wilhelm Roentgen discovered the x-ray on November 8, 1895.  Johann Hittorf observed in 1870 that discharges emitted from the negative electrode of a vacuum tube traveled in straight lines, produced heat, and resulted in a greenish fluorescence. William Crookes discovered in the late 1870s that cathode rays were streams of charged particles.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 2            OBJ:   4

TOP:   CDA, RHS, III.B.2. Describe the characteristics of x-radiation

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.5 General

 

  1. Who exposed the first dental radiograph in the United States using a live person?
a. Otto Walkoff
b. Wilhelm Roentgen
c. Edmund Kells
d. Weston Price

 

 

ANS:  C

Otto Walkoff was a German dentist who made the first dental radiograph.  Wilhelm Roentgen was a Bavarian physicist who discovered the x-ray.  Edmund Kells exposed the first dental radiograph in the United States using a live person.  Price introduced the bisecting technique in 1904.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 4            OBJ:   5

TOP:   CDA, RHS, III.B.2. Describe the characteristics of x-radiation

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.5 General

 

  1. Current fast radiographic film requires ____ % less exposure time than the initial exposure times used in 1920.
a. 33
b. 98
c. 73
d. 2

 

 

ANS:  D

Current fast radiographic film requires 98% less exposure time than the initial exposure times used in 1920.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Page 5            OBJ:   6

TOP:   CDA, RHS, III.B.2. Describe the characteristics of x-radiation

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.5 General

 

  1. Who modified the paralleling technique with the introduction of the long-cone technique?
a. C. Edmund Kells
b. Franklin W. McCormack
c. F. Gordon Fitzgerald
d. Howard Riley Raper

 

 

ANS:  C

  1. Edmund Kells introduced the paralleling technique in 1896. Franklin W. McCormack reintroduced the paralleling technique in 1920. F. Gordon Fitzgerald modified the paralleling technique with the introduction of the long-cone technique. This is the technique currently used. Howard Riley Raper modified the bisecting technique and introduced the bite-wing technique in 1925.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 4            OBJ:   7

TOP:   CDA, RHS, III.B.2. Describe the characteristics of x-radiation

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.5 General

 

  1. Which of the following is an advantage of digital imaging?
a. Increased patient radiation exposure
b. Increased patient comfort
c. Increased speed for viewing images
d. Increased chemical usage

 

 

ANS:  C

Patient exposure is reduced with digital imaging. Digital sensors are more sensitive to x-rays than film. Digital sensors are rigid and bulky, causing decreased patient comfort. The image from digital sensors is uploaded directly to the computer and monitor without the need for chemical processing. This allows for immediate interpretation and evaluation. The image from digital sensors is uploaded directly to the computer and monitor without the need for chemical processing.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Page 6            OBJ:   7

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.2. Demonstrate basic knowledge of digital radiography

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.5 General

 

  1. Which discovery was the precursor to the discovery of x-rays?
a. Beta particles
b. Alpha particles
c. Cathode rays
d. Radioactive materials

 

 

ANS:  C

Beta particles are fast moving electrons emitted from the nucleus of radioactive atoms and are not associated with x-rays. Alpha particles are emitted from the nuclei of heavy metals and are not associated with x-rays. Wilhelm Roentgen was experimenting with cathode rays when he discovered x-rays. Radioactive materials are certain unstable atoms or elements that are in the process of spontaneous disintegration or decay.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Page 3            OBJ:   4

TOP:   CDA, RHS, III.B.2. Describe the characteristics of x-radiation

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.5 General

 

  1. Which of the following would you place in the patient’s mouth in order to take dental x-rays?
a. Image
b. Image receptor
c. Radiograph
d. Dental radiograph

 

 

ANS:  B

An image is a picture or likeness of an object.  An image receptor is the recording medium (film, phosphor plate, or digital sensor) that is placed in the patient’s mouth to record the image produced by the x-rays.  A radiograph is an image of two-dimensional representation of a three- dimensional object. A dental radiograph is the dental image produced on a recording medium.

 

DIF:    Application    REF:   Page 2            OBJ:   1

TOP:   CDA, RHS, III.B.2. Describe the characteristics of x-radiation

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.5 General

Chapter 03: Radiation Characteristics

Iannucci: Dental Radiography, 5th Edition

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. In dental radiography, the term ________ is used to describe the mean energy or penetrating ability of the x-ray beam.
a. quality
b. quantity
c. intensity
d. wavelength

 

 

ANS:  A

Quality is used to describe the mean energy or penetrating ability of the x-ray beam. Quantity refers to the number of x-rays produced. Intensity is defined as the product of the quantity and quality per unit of area per time of exposure. Wavelength determines the energy and penetrating power of radiation.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 24          OBJ:   1

TOP:   CDA, RHS, III.B.1. Demonstrate knowledge of the factors affecting x-ray production

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true of wavelength in reference to radiation?
a. X-rays with shorter wavelength have less penetrating power.
b. X-rays with longer wavelength have less penetrating power.
c. X-rays with longer wavelength are less likely to be absorbed by matter.
d. Milliamperage controls the wavelength and energy of the x-ray beam.

 

 

ANS:  B

X-rays with longer wavelength have less penetrating power and x-rays with shorter wavelengths have more penetrating power. X-rays with longer wavelength are more likely to be absorbed by matter. Kilovoltage controls the wavelength and energy of the x-ray beam.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 24          OBJ:   2

TOP:   CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. ______________ is a measurement of force that refers to the potential difference between two electrical charges.
a. Exposure time
b. Wavelength
c. Voltage
d. Ampere

 

 

ANS:  C

Exposure time refers to the interval of time during which x-rays are produced. Wavelength can be defined as the distance between the crest of one wave and the crest of the next wave. Voltage is a measurement of force that refers to the potential difference between two electrical charges. Ampere is the unit of measure used to describe the number of electrons, or current, flowing through the cathode filament.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Pages 3-4       OBJ:   1

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. When the kilovoltage is increased
a. electrons move from the anode to the cathode with more speed.
b. photons move from the anode to the cathode with more speed.
c. electrons move from the cathode to the anode with more speed.
d. photons move from the cathode to the anode with more speed.

 

 

ANS:  C

Electrons move from the cathode to the anode. When the voltage is increased, electrons move from the cathode to the anode with more speed, striking the target with greater energy and force.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Page 24          OBJ:   2

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true of the use of voltage in dental x-ray equipment?
a. Dental x-ray equipment requires the use of 3 to 5 volts.
b. Dental x-ray equipment requires the use of less than 60 kilovolts.
c. Dental x-ray equipment uses more than 70 kilovolts.
d. Dental x-ray equipment requires the use of 60 to 70 kilovolts.

 

 

ANS:  D

The filament circuit requires 3 to 5 volts; however, an exposure requires the use of 60 to 70 kilovolts (kV). The use of less than 60 kV does not allow adequate penetration. Current dental x-ray equipment uses between 60 and 70 kV; requires the use of 60 to 70 kV.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Pages 24-25   OBJ:   2

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. When contrasted with the use of 70 kV for dental x-rays, the use of 60 kV produces
a. more penetrating dental x-rays with longer wavelength.
b. less penetrating dental x-rays with longer wavelength.
c. more penetrating dental x-rays with shorter wavelength.
d. less penetrating dental x-rays with shorter wavelength.

 

 

ANS:  B

The use of 60 kV produces less penetrating dental x-rays with longer wavelengths than 70 kV. The use of 70 kV for dental x-rays produces more penetrating dental x-rays with shorter wavelength than the use of 60 kV.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Pages 24-25   OBJ:   2

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. The kVp represents
a. the mean x-ray tube voltage.
b. the mean filament voltage.
c. the maximum or peak voltage of an alternating current.
d. the maximum or peak voltage of a direct current.

 

 

ANS:  C

The kVp represents the maximum or peak x-ray tube voltage of an alternating current.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 24          OBJ:   1 | 2

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. When kilovolt is increased, a
a. lower energy x-ray beam with increased penetrating ability results.
b. lower energy x-ray beam with decreased penetrating ability results.
c. higher energy x-ray beam with increased penetrating ability results.
d. higher energy x-ray beam with decreased penetrating ability results.

 

 

ANS:  C

A higher energy x-ray beam with increased penetrating ability results. When kilovolt peak is increased, a higher energy x-ray beam with increased penetrating ability results.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 24          OBJ:   2

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. (1) Density is the overall darkness or blackness of a dental image. (2) When the kilovoltage is increased while other exposure factors remain constant, the resultant image exhibits a decreased density and appears lighter.
a. Both statements are true.
b. Both statements are false.
c. The first statement is true; the second statement is false.
d. The first statement is false; the second statement is true.

 

 

ANS:  C

The first statement is true; however, when the kilovolt is increased while other exposure factors remain constant, the resultant image exhibits an increased density and appears darker. Both statements are true. Density is the overall darkness or blackness of a dental image. The first statement is true; however, the second statement is false.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 25          OBJ:   1 | 3

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. When lower kilovoltage settings are used, an image with ____ will result.
a. high contrast
b. low contrast
c. many shades of gray
d. there is no change in contrast

 

 

ANS:  A

When low kilovoltage settings are used, an image with high contrast will result; an image with few shades of gray will result (high contrast).

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 25          OBJ:   3

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. An image with “low” contrast
a. is useful for the detection of periodontal or periapical disease and has many shades of gray.
b. is useful for the detection and progression of dental caries and has many shades of gray.
c. is useful for the detection of periodontal or periapical disease and has many black and white areas.
d. is useful for the detection and progression of dental caries and has many black and white areas.

 

 

ANS:  A

An image with low contrast has many shades of gray and is useful for the detection of periodontal or periapical disease. An image with high contrast has many black and white areas and is useful for the detection and progression of dental caries. An image with low contrast is useful for the detection of periodontal or periapical disease, but it has many shades of gray.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 25          OBJ:   3

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. Exposure time is measured in
a. kV.
b. milliamperage.
c. density.
d. impulses.

 

 

ANS:  D

kV is a measure of voltage. Milliamperage is a measure of the number of electrons flowing through the cathode filament. Density is a measure of the darkness of the film. Exposure time is measured in impulses; one impulse occurs every 1/60 of a second on older machines and every 1/100 of a second on newer machines.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 26          OBJ:   1 | 5

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. The quantity of the x-rays produced is controlled by
a. voltage.
b. kilovoltage.
c. kilovoltage peak.
d. milliamperage.

 

 

ANS:  D

Voltage controls the maximum penetrating power of the electrons. Kilovoltage is the term for 1000 volts as dental exposures require large amounts of voltage. Kilovoltage peak represents the maximum voltage available and is only found with alternating current machines. The quantity of the x-rays produced is controlled by milliamperage.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 26          OBJ:   1 | 4

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. Milliamperage regulates the _________ of electrons produced at the cathode filament.
a. quality
b. quantity
c. speed
d. power

 

 

ANS:  B

Voltage regulates the quality (speed or power) of electrons produced at the cathode filament. Milliamperage regulates the quantity of electrons produced at the cathode filament.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Page 26          OBJ:   4

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. In regard to increasing density
a. an increase in either kV or mA will increase density.
b. an increase in kV will increase density, but an increase in mA will not increase density.
c. an increase in mA will increase density, but an increase in kV will not increase density.
d. neither an increase in kV nor an increase in mA will increase density.

 

 

ANS:  A

In regard to increasing density, an increase in either kV or mA will increase density.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Pages 25, 27   OBJ:   3 | 5

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. Which of the following changes will increase x-ray beam intensity?
a. Decreasing the kilovoltage
b. Decreasing the milliamperage
c. Decreasing the exposure time
d. Decreasing the source-to-film distance

 

 

ANS:  D

Decreasing the kilovoltage will decrease x-ray beam intensity. Decreasing the milliamperage will decrease x-ray beam intensity. Decreasing the exposure time will decrease x-ray beam intensity. Decreasing the source-to-film distance will increase x-ray beam intensity.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Pages 27, 28   OBJ:   6

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. According to the inverse square law, the intensity of radiation is __________ proportional to the ______________ from the source of radiation.
a. directly; distance
b. directly; square of the distance
c. inversely; distance
d. inversely; square of the distance

 

 

ANS:  D

The intensity of radiation is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source of radiation.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Page 27          OBJ:   1 | 7

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. According to the inverse square law, if the length of the PID is halved, the resultant beam is ___________ as intense.
a. four times
b. twice
c. half
d. one quarter

 

 

ANS:  D

According to the inverse square law, if the length of the PID is halved, the resultant beam is four times as intense.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Pages 27, 29   OBJ:   7

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. Aluminum filters are used to remove _______-energy, ________ wavelength x-rays.
a. low; longer
b. high; longer
c. low; shorter
d. high; shorter

 

 

ANS:  A

Aluminum filters are used to remove low-energy, longer wavelength x-rays.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 29          OBJ:   8

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. Aluminum filters
a. remove more penetrating x-rays from the beam.
b. decrease the mean penetrating ability of the x-ray beam.
c. remove high-energy x-rays from the beam.
d. reduce the intensity of the x-ray beam.

 

 

ANS:  D

Aluminum filters remove less penetrating x-rays from the beam. Aluminum filters increase the mean penetrating ability of the x-ray beam. Aluminum filters remove low-energy x-rays from the beam. Aluminum filters reduce the intensity of the x-ray beam.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Page 29          OBJ:   8

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. You have been using a dental x-ray machine that has a 4-inch PID. Your new machine has an 8-inch PID. Given that all exposure factors remain the same, according to the inverse square law, the resultant beam would be ___________ as intense.
a. four times
b. twice
c. half
d. one quarter

 

 

ANS:  D

According to the inverse square law, if the length of the PID is doubled, the resultant beam is one quarter as intense.

 

DIF:    Application    REF:   Page 29          OBJ:   8

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. (1) As kilovoltage, milliamperage, and time increase, x-ray beam intensity decreases. (2) As distance and filtration increase, the intensity of the x-ray beam increases.
a. Both statements are true.
b. Both statements are false.
c. The first statement is true; the second statement is false.
d. The first statement is false; the second statement is true.

 

 

ANS:  B

Both statements are false; 1. An increase in kilovoltage, milliamperage, and/or time will increase the intensity of the x-ray beam. 2. An increase in distance and/or filtration will decrease the intensity of the x-ray beam.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Page 27          OBJ:   8

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. You have taken your first dental image on your patient. The contrast is high and you are looking for periodontal disease. You are using a DC machine and you have control of your settings. You have a 60- to 70-kV range and a 6- to 8-mA range. You had the kV set at 60, the mA set at 7, and the impulses set at 6/100. While leaving all other settings the same, which setting would you adjust to create better contrast for detecting periodontal disease?
a. Increase kV to 70.
b. Increase mA to 8.
c. Decrease mA to 6.
d. Increase time to 7/100.

 

 

ANS:  A

The only factor that affects contrast is kV. kV affects the penetrating ability of the x-ray beam. A higher kV creates a lower contrast image (more shades of gray) while a lower kV creates a higher contrast image (more black and white). A low-contrast image is preferred for detecting periodontal and periapical diseases. A high-contrast image is preferred for detecting caries. Increasing mA affects density, not contrast. Decreasing mA affects density, not contrast. Increasing and decreasing time affect density, not contrast.

 

DIF:    Application    REF:   Page 25          OBJ:   2 | 5

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

 

  1. You are going to take dental images on your patient. He is larger than average. What machine setting adjustment should you make prior to taking dental images?
a. Increase kV.
b. Increase mA.
c. Increase impulses.
d. You don’t need to make any adjustments.

 

 

ANS:  C

Although an increase in kV will increase density, it is recommended that the only setting you change is impulses. Although an increase in mA will increase density, it is recommended that the only setting you change is impulses. It is recommended that impulses be increased when taking dental images on a patient who is larger than average. Failure to do so will result in an image that is too light and may require retakes or an adjustment of the enhancement software.

 

DIF:    Application    REF:   Page 26          OBJ:   6

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

Chapter 11: Dental Radiographs and the Dental Radiographer

Iannucci: Dental Radiography, 5th Edition

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Dental images are a(n) _______________ comprehensive patient care.
a. adjunct to
b. necessary component of
c. option for
d. supplement to

 

 

ANS:  B

Dental images are a necessary component of comprehensive patient care.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 113        OBJ:   2

TOP:   CDA, RHS, II.C.3.d. Address patient concerns about radiation, including informed consent or patient refusal of radiography              MSC:  NBDHE, 2.5 General

 

  1. Which of the following would you need in order to perform efficient, accurate dental imaging procedures on your patients?
a. Sufficient knowledge
b. Technical skills
c. Sufficient knowledge and technical skills
d. Neither sufficient knowledge nor technical skills

 

 

ANS:  C

The dental radiographer requires sufficient knowledge and technical skills to perform dental imaging procedures.

 

DIF:    Application    REF:   Page 113        OBJ:   2

TOP:   CDA, RHS, II.C.3.d. Address patient concerns about radiation, including informed consent or patient refusal of radiography              MSC:  NBDHE, 2.5 General

 

  1. An oral examination limits the practitioner to knowledge of what is seen clinically. Dental images allow the practitioner to see many conditions that are not apparent clinically.
a. Both statements are true.
b. Both statements are false.
c. The first statement is true; the second statement is false.
d. The first statement is false; the second statement is true.

 

 

ANS:  A

An oral examination limits the practitioner to knowledge of what is seen clinically. Dental images allow the practitioner to see many conditions that are not apparent clinically.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Page 113        OBJ:   2

TOP:   CDA, RHS, II.C.3.d. Address patient concerns about radiation, including informed consent or patient refusal of radiography              MSC:  NBDHE, 2.5 General

 

  1. Dental images enable the dental professional to see ___________ conditions that may otherwise go undetected.
a. rare
b. common
c. occasional
d. many

 

 

ANS:  D

Dental images enable the dental professional to see many conditions that may otherwise go undetected.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Page 113        OBJ:   3

TOP:   CDA, RHS, II.C.3.d. Address patient concerns about radiation, including informed consent or patient refusal of radiography              MSC:  NBDHE, 2.5 General

 

  1. According to the text, __________ is one of the most important uses of dental images.
a. habitual rote frequency
b. detection
c. maintaining a routine
d. insurance verification

 

 

ANS:  B

According to the text, “Detection is one of the most important uses of dental images.”

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Page 113        OBJ:   3

TOP:   CDA, RHS, II.C.3.d. Address patient concerns about radiation, including informed consent or patient refusal of radiography              MSC:  NBDHE, 2.5 General

 

  1. Through the use of dental images, the dental radiographer can detect ________ that cannot be detected clinically.

 

  1. diseases
  2. lesions
  3. conditions of teeth and bones
a. 1, 2, 3
b. 1, 2
c. 2, 3
d. 3 only

 

 

ANS:  A

Through the use of dental images, the dental radiographer can detect diseases, lesions, and conditions of teeth and bones that cannot be detected clinically.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 113        OBJ:   3

TOP:   CDA, RHS, II.C.3.d. Address patient concerns about radiation, including informed consent or patient refusal of radiography              MSC:  NBDHE, 2.5 General

 

  1. When dental images are properly prescribed, exposed, and processed, the benefit of disease detection ____________ the risk of small doses of x-radiation.
a. does not outweigh
b. is considered equal
c. slightly outweighs
d. far outweighs

 

 

ANS:  D

When dental images are properly prescribed, exposed, and processed, the benefit of disease detection far outweighs the risk of small doses of x-radiation.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 113        OBJ:   4

TOP:   CDA, RHS, II.C.3.d. Address patient concerns about radiation, including informed consent or patient refusal of radiography              MSC:  NBDHE, 2.5 General

 

  1. A ______________ may be a dental radiographer.

 

  1. dental hygienist
  2. dental assistant
  3. dentist
a. 1, 2, 3
b. 1, 2
c. 1, 3
d. 3 only

 

 

ANS:  A

A dental hygienist, dental assistant, or dentist may be a dental radiographer.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 114        OBJ:   6

TOP:   CDA, RHS, II.C.3.d. Address patient concerns about radiation, including informed consent or patient refusal of radiography              MSC:  NBDHE, 2.5 General

 

  1. Assigned responsibilities of dental auxiliaries in regard to dental imaging may include
a. diagnosing disease on dental images.
b. prescribing dental images.
c. education of patients about dental imaging.
d. creating a treatment plan based on the findings of dental images.

 

 

ANS:  C

Only the dentist can diagnose disease from a dental image. Auxiliaries can educate patients about dental imaging. Only the dentist can prescribe dental images. Auxiliaries can educate patients about dental imaging. Auxiliaries can educate patients about dental imaging. Only the dentist can create a treatment plan based on the findings from the dental images. Auxiliaries can educate patients about dental imaging.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Page 114        OBJ:   7

TOP:   CDA, RHS, II.C.3.d. Address patient concerns about radiation, including informed consent or patient refusal of radiography              MSC:  NBDHE, 2.5 General

 

  1. When should you avoid taking retakes?
a. Whenever it is convenient because the dose is so low
b. Only if the patient is uncomfortable with exposure
c. Only if older (pre-1975) equipment is used
d. At all times

 

 

ANS:  D

Retakes resulting in unnecessary patient exposure to x-radiation must be avoided at all times.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Page 114        OBJ:   8

TOP:   CDA, RHS, II.C.3.d. Address patient concerns about radiation, including informed consent or patient refusal of radiography              MSC:  NBDHE, 2.5 General

 

  1. To avoid occupational exposure to x-radiation, the dental radiographer must always (Note: Though all are true, one is the most critical and encompasses the others.)
a. maintain an adequate distance.
b. have proper positioning.
c. have proper shielding.
d. avoid the primary beam.

 

 

ANS:  D

To avoid occupational exposure to x-radiation, the dental radiographer must always avoid the primary beam.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Page 115        OBJ:   8

TOP:   CDA, RHS, II.C.3.d. Address patient concerns about radiation, including informed consent or patient refusal of radiography              MSC:  NBDHE, 2.5 General

 

  1. (1) You can use dental images to help educate your patient on his dental caries and periodontal disease. (2) You can also use dental images to help your patient see a picture of common conditions that cannot be seen clinically. These include cysts, extra teeth, and retained roots.
a. Both statements are true.
b. Both statements are false.
c. The first statement is true, and the second statement is false.
d. The first statement is false, and the second statement is true.

 

 

ANS:  A

Dental images can be used to educate patients. Common diseases, lesions, and conditions found on dental images including the following: missing teeth, extra teeth, impacted teeth, dental caries, periodontal disease, tooth abnormalities, retained roots, cysts, and tumors.

 

DIF:    Application    REF:   Page 114        OBJ:   5

TOP:   CDA, RHS, II.C.3.d. Address patient concerns about radiation, including informed consent or patient refusal of radiography              MSC:  NBDHE, 2.5 General

 

  1. (1) It is your responsibility to maintain competence in taking dental images; taking continuing education courses is one example. (2) You should always do your best to properly position and expose receptors in a manner that is accurate, time efficient, and comfortable for your patient.
a. Both statements are true.
b. Both statements are false.
c. The first statement is true, and the second statement is false.
d. The first statement is false, and the second statement is true.

 

 

ANS:  A

It is your responsibility as a dental radiographer to maintain or improve professional competence by attending continuing education courses and lectures, studying professional books and journals, and reviewing and updating dental imaging techniques. The dental radiographer must be committed to performing his or her assigned duties in a time-efficient manner. The dental radiographer must be committed to producing high-quality, diagnostic dental images. To produce a diagnostic dental image, the radiographer must properly position and expose the receptor.

 

DIF:    Application    REF:   Page 116        OBJ:   12

TOP:   CDA, RHS, II.C.3.d. Address patient concerns about radiation, including informed consent or patient refusal of radiography              MSC:  NBDHE, 2.5 General

Chapter 23: Extraoral Imaging

Iannucci: Dental Radiography, 5th Edition

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. An extraoral image is placed __________ the mouth during x-ray exposure. Extraoral imaging is used to image _________ areas of the skull or jaws.
a. outside; small
b. outside; large
c. inside; small
d. inside; large

 

 

ANS:  B

An extraoral image is placed outside the mouth during x-ray exposure. Extraoral imaging is used to image large areas of the skull or jaws.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 256        OBJ:   2

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.i. Define factors that influence quality of the radiographic image

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. (1) A thyroid collar is used for Waters, submentovertex, and reverse Towne projections. (2) A thyroid collar is not used for the lateral jaw, lateral cephalometic, and the posteroanterior projections.
a. Both statements are true.
b. Both statements are false.
c. The first statement is true; the second statement is false.
d. The first statement is false; the second statement is true.

 

 

ANS:  D

A thyroid collar is not used for extraoral projections.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Page 265        OBJ:   4

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.i. Define factors that influence quality of the radiographic image

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. (1) Temporomandibular joint tomography is used to evaluate the condyle, articular eminence, and glenoid fossa. (2) Other landmarks are blurred in TMJ tomography.
a. Both statements are true.
b. Both statements are false.
c. The first statement is true; the second statement is false.
d. The first statement is false; the second statement is true.

 

 

ANS:  A

Temporomandibular joint tomography is used to evaluate the condyle, articular eminence, and glenoid fossa. TMJ tomography is a technique used to show structures located within a selected plane of tissue while blurring structures outside the selected plane.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Page 271        OBJ:   5

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.i. Define factors that influence quality of the radiographic image

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. Which of the following would you evaluate using an extraoral image?
a. Gutta percha placement in the root canal
b. Level of crestal bone
c. Recurrent decay
d. Growth and development

 

 

ANS:  D

The intraoral image is used to evaluate gutta percha root canal fillings; the integrity of the crest of alveolar bone; recurrent decay. The extraoral image is typically used to evaluate growth and development.

 

DIF:    Application    REF:   Page 256        OBJ:   2

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.i. Define factors that influence quality of the radiographic image

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. Extraoral images may be used in conjunction with intraoral images. Extraoral images are not as defined or sharp as intraoral images.
a. Both statements are true.
b. Both statements are false.
c. The first statement is true; the second statement is false.
d. The first statement is false; the second statement is true.

 

 

ANS:  A

Extraoral images may be used in conjunction with intraoral images. Extraoral images are not as defined or sharp as intraoral images.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 256        OBJ:   2

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.i. Define factors that influence quality of the radiographic image

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. Which of the following is the most commonly used extraoral film size?
a. 3 ´ 5
b. 4 ´ 6
c. 5 ´ 7
d. 8 ´ 10

 

 

ANS:  C

The 8 ´ 10 is the most commonly used extraoral film size.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 264        OBJ:   3

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.A.3.b. Select appropriate image receptor size depending on patient characteristics and exposure technique indicated  MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. An occlusal receptor (size ____) may be used for some extraoral images.
a. 0
b. 1
c. 2
d. 4

 

 

ANS:  D

An occlusal receptor (size 4) may be used for some extraoral images.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 264        OBJ:   3

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.A.3.b. Select appropriate image receptor size depending on patient characteristics and exposure technique indicated  MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. An occlusal receptor ________ be used for some extraoral images. When used extraorally, it covers a ________ area than a screen film.
a. may; smaller
b. may not; smaller
c. may; larger
d. may not; larger

 

 

ANS:  A

An occlusal receptor may be used for some extraoral images. When used extraorally, it covers a smaller area than a screen film.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Page 264        OBJ:   3

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.A.3.b. Select appropriate image receptor size depending on patient characteristics and exposure technique indicated  MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. The front side of the cassette is typically constructed of ________ and permits the passage of the x-ray beam, whereas the back side is made of _________ to reduce scatter radiation.
a. metal; metal
b. plastic; plastic
c. plastic; metal
d. metal; plastic

 

 

ANS:  C

The front side of the cassette is typically constructed of plastic and permits the passage of the x-ray beam, whereas the back side is made of metal to reduce scatter radiation.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 264        OBJ:   3

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.i. Define factors that influence quality of the radiographic image

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. Which of the following is the fastest recommended screen and screen film combination?
a. Calcium tungstate screen with blue light
b. Calcium tungstate screen with green light
c. Rare earth screen with blue light
d. Rare earth screen with green light

 

 

ANS:  D

The rare earth screen with green light is the fastest recommended screen and screen film combination.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Page 264        OBJ:   3

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.i. Define factors that influence quality of the radiographic image

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. For the transcranial projection, the central ray is directed toward a point _____ inches above and 0.5 inches behind the opening of the ear canal.
a. 0.5
b. 1.0
c. 2.0
d. 4.0

 

 

ANS:  C

For the transcranial projection, the central ray is directed toward a point 2.0 inches above and 0.5 inches behind the opening of the ear canal.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 271        OBJ:   5

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.i. Define factors that influence quality of the radiographic image

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. Scatter radiation
a. increases film fog.
b. increases image contrast.
c. decreases film fog.
d. decreases density.

 

 

ANS:  A

Scatter radiation increases film fog and reduces image contrast.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 264        OBJ:   3

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.i. Define factors that influence quality of the radiographic image

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. A grid can be used to decrease scatter radiation, decrease film fog, and increase contrast on film and PSP receptors. A grid should only be used when it is necessary to improve image quality and increase contrast because it requires increased x-ray exposure.
a. Both statements are true.
b. Both statements are false.
c. The first statement is true; the second statement is false.
d. The first statement is false; the second statement is true.

 

 

ANS:  A

A grid can be used to decrease scatter radiation, decrease film fog, and increase contrast on film and PSP receptors. A grid should only be used when it is necessary to improve image quality and increase contrast because using a grid requires increased x-ray exposure.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Page 264        OBJ:   3

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.i. Define factors that influence quality of the radiographic image

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. A grid is composed of a series of
a. wire mesh that is similar to the screen in a window or door.
b. copper wires around an armature.
c. thin lead strips.
d. thick lead strips.

 

 

ANS:  C

A grid is composed of a series of thin lead strips.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 264        OBJ:   3

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.i. Define factors that influence quality of the radiographic image

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. The grid is placed between the ____________ and the ______________.
a. aluminum filter; PID
b. PID; patient’s head
c. patient’s head; film or PSP receptors
d. film or PSP receptors; cassette

 

 

ANS:  C

The grid is placed between the patient’s head and the film or PSP receptors.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 264        OBJ:   3

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.i. Define factors that influence quality of the radiographic image

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. To compensate for the strips found in the grid, _______________ must be used to expose a film or PSP receptor.
a. increased kilovoltage
b. increased milliamperage
c. increased exposure time
d. decreased exposure time

 

 

ANS:  C

To compensate for the strips found in the grid, increased exposure time must be used to expose a film or PSP receptor.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 264        OBJ:   3

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.i. Define factors that influence quality of the radiographic image

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. The lateral jaw projection
a. requires the use of a special x-ray unit.
b. provides for more diagnostic information than a panoramic image.
c. is used to examine the anterior portion of the mandible.
d. is valuable for patients with limited jaw opening because of a fracture or swelling.

 

 

ANS:  D

Lateral jaw projection is valuable for patients with limited jaw opening because of a fracture or swelling.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 265        OBJ:   5

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.i. Define factors that influence quality of the radiographic image

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. Which of the following choices is a type of lateral jaw projection?
a. Lateral cephalometric projection
b. Reverse Towne projection
c. Waters projection
d. Body of the mandible projection

 

 

ANS:  D

The body of the mandible projection is a lateral jaw projection; the lateral cephalometric projection is considered to be skull imaging; the reverse Towne projection is considered to be skull imaging; the Waters projection is considered to be skull imaging.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 265        OBJ:   5

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.i. Define factors that influence quality of the radiographic image

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. For which of the following projections would be you place the receptor parallel to the patient’s cheek and have the patient tip her head 15 degrees toward the receptor with her chin slightly extended and elevated?
a. Lateral cephalometric projection
b. Ramus of the mandible projection
c. Reverse Towne projection
d. Waters projection

 

 

ANS:  B

For the lateral cephalometric projection, the receptor is placed perpendicular to the floor in a receptor-holding device. The long axis of the receptor is positioned horizontally; the left side of the patient’s head is positioned adjacent to the receptor. The midsagittal plane (an imaginary plane that divides the face in half) must be aligned perpendicular to the floor and parallel to the receptor. For the ramus of the mandible projection, the receptor is placed flat against the patient’s cheek and is centered over the ramus of the mandible. The receptor must also be positioned parallel with the body of the mandible. The head is tipped approximately 15 degrees toward the side being imaged. The chin is extended and elevated slightly. For the reverse Towne projection, the receptor is positioned perpendicular to the floor in a receptor-holding device. The long axis of the receptor is positioned vertically, the patient faces the receptor, with the head tipped down and the mouth open as wide as possible; the chin rests on the chest, and the top of the forehead touches the receptor. For the Waters projection the receptor is positioned perpendicular to the floor in a receptor-holding device. The long axis of the receptor is positioned vertically, and the patient faces the receptor and elevates the chin; the chin touches the receptor, and the tip of the nose is positioned 1/2 to 1 inch away from the receptor. The midsagittal plane must be aligned perpendicular to the floor, and the head is centered over the receptor.

 

DIF:    Application    REF:   Page 266        OBJ:   5

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.i. Define factors that influence quality of the radiographic image

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. For the _____________ projection, the patient’s face is against the receptor with both the forehead and chin touching the receptor.
a. posteroanterior
b. lateral cephalometric
c. reverse Towne
d. Waters

 

 

ANS:  A

For the posteroanterior projection, the patient faces the receptor; the forehead and nose both touch the receptor. The midsagittal plane is aligned perpendicular to the floor, and the Frankfort plane is aligned parallel to the floor. The head is centered over the receptor. For the lateral cephalometric projection the left side of the patient’s head is positioned adjacent to the receptor. The midsagittal plane (an imaginary plane that divides the face in half) must be aligned perpendicular to the floor and parallel to the receptor. For the reverse Towne projection, the patient faces the receptor, with the head tipped down and the mouth open as wide as possible; the chin rests on the chest, and the top of the forehead touches the receptor. The midsagittal plane must be aligned perpendicular to the floor, and the head is centered on the receptor. For the Waters projection, the patient faces the receptor and elevates the chin; the chin touches the receptor, and the tip of the nose is positioned 1/2 to 1 inch away from the receptor. The midsagittal plane must be aligned perpendicular to the floor, and the head is centered over the receptor.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                              REF:   Page 266        OBJ:   5

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.i. Define factors that influence quality of the radiographic image

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. The beam should be directed _______________ degrees for the ramus of the mandible projection.
a. downward at 15 to 20
b. upward at 15 to 20
c. downward at 45
d. upward at 45

 

 

ANS:  B

The beam should be directed upward at 15 to 20 degrees for the ramus of the mandible projection.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 266        OBJ:   5

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.i. Define factors that influence quality of the radiographic image

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. The left side of the patient’s head is positioned adjacent to the cassette for the _____________ projection.
a. lateral cephalometric
b. posteroanterior
c. Waters
d. submentovertex

 

 

ANS:  A

The left side of the patient’s head is positioned adjacent to the cassette for the lateral cephalometric projection.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 266        OBJ:   5

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.i. Define factors that influence quality of the radiographic image

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. The patient’s head and neck are tipped back as far as possible for the _____________ projection.
a. lateral cephalometric
b. posteroanterior
c. Waters
d. submentovertex

 

 

ANS:  D

The patient’s head and neck are tipped back as far as possible for the submentovertex projection.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 271        OBJ:   5

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.i. Define factors that influence quality of the radiographic image

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. Your patient thinks she has fractured her zygomatic arch. Which of the following projections would you take?
a. Lateral cephalometric
b. Posteroanterior
c. Waters
d. Submentovertex

 

 

ANS:  D

The lateral cephalometric projection is used to evaluate facial growth and development, trauma, and disease and developmental abnormalities. The posteroanterior projection is used to evaluate facial growth and development, trauma, and disease and developmental abnormalities. The Waters projection is used to evaluate the maxillary sinus area. This projection also demonstrates the frontal and ethmoid sinuses, the orbits, and the nasal cavity. The submentovertex projection is used to evaluate fractures of the zygomatic arch.

 

DIF:    Application    REF:   Page 267, Table 23-2                                OBJ:    5

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.i. Define factors that influence quality of the radiographic image

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. You have been asked to take a dental image to locate a fracture at the neck of the condyle. Which projection would you take?
a. Reverse Towne
b. Posteroanterior
c. Waters
d. Submentovertex

 

 

ANS:  A

The purpose of the reverse Towne projection is to identify fractures of the condylar neck and ramus area. The purpose of the posteroanterior projection is to evaluate facial growth and development, trauma, and disease and developmental abnormalities. The purpose of the Waters projection is to evaluate the maxillary sinus area. This projection also demonstrates the frontal and ethmoid sinuses, the orbits, and the nasal cavity. The purpose of the submentovertex projection is to identify the position of the condyles, demonstrate the base of the skull, and evaluate fractures of the zygomatic arch.

 

DIF:    Application    REF:   Page 271        OBJ:   5

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.i. Define factors that influence quality of the radiographic image

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. In order to take this projection, you need to have your patient face the receptor, touch his forehead to the receptor, tuck his chin down to his chest, and open his mouth as wide as he can. Which projection is this?
a. Waters
b. Posteroanterior
c. Reverse Towne
d. Submentovertex

 

 

ANS:  C

For the Waters projection, the patient faces the receptor and elevates the chin; the chin touches the receptor, and the tip of the nose is positioned 1/2 to 1 inch away from the receptor. The midsagittal plane must be aligned perpendicular to the floor, and the head is centered over the receptor. For the posteroanterior projection, the patient faces the receptor; the forehead and nose both touch the receptor. The midsagittal plane is aligned perpendicular to the floor, and the Frankfort plane is aligned parallel to the floor. The head is centered over the receptor. For the reverse Towne projection, the patient faces the receptor, with the head tipped down and the mouth open as wide as possible; the chin rests on the chest, and the top of the forehead touches the receptor. For the submentovertex projection, the patient’s head and neck are tipped back as far as possible; the vertex (top) of the skull touches the receptor. Both the midsagittal plane and the Frankfort plane are aligned perpendicular to the floor. The head is centered on the receptor.

 

DIF:    Application    REF:   Page 271        OBJ:   5

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.i. Define factors that influence quality of the radiographic image

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

 

  1. The purpose of the transcranial projection is to evaluate the articular eminence and _________ surface of the condyle.
a. anterior
b. posterior
c. superior
d. inferior

 

 

ANS:  C

The purpose of the transcranial projection is to evaluate the articular eminence and superior surface of the condyle.

 

DIF:    Recall             REF:   Page 271        OBJ:   5

TOP:   CDA, RHS, I.B.1.b.i. Define factors that influence quality of the radiographic image

MSC:  NBDHE, 2.3 Technique

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