Test Bank For Computer Science An Overview 11th Edition By J. Glenn Brookshear

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Computer Science An Overview 11th Edition By J. Glenn Brookshear – Test Bank

 

Test Bank—Chapter Two (Data Manipulation)

The following table is from Appendix C of the text. It is included here so that it can be incorporated in tests for student reference. Questions in this test bank refer to this table as the “language description table.”

Op-

code  Operand                                   Description

1       RXY       LOAD the register R with the bit pattern found in the memory cell whose address is XY.                                                    Example: 14A3 would cause the contents of the memory cell located at address A3 to be placed

in register 4.

2       RXY       LOAD the register R with the bit pattern XY.

Example: 20A3 would cause the value A3 to be placed in register 0.

3       RXY       STORE the bit pattern found in register R in the memory cell whose address is XY.

Example: 35B1 would cause the contents of register 5 to be placed in the memory cell whose

address is B1.

4        0RS         MOVE the bit pattern found in register R to register S.

Example: 40A4 would cause the contents of register A to be copied into register 4.

5        RST         ADD the bit patterns in registers S and T as though they were two’s complement representations

and leave the result in register R.

Example: 5726 would cause the binary values in registers 2 and 6 to be added and the sum placed

in register 7.

6        RST         ADD the bit patterns in registers S and T as though they represented values in floating-point

notation and leave the floating-point result in register R.

Example: 634E would cause the values in registers 4 and E to be added as floating-point values

and the result to be placed in register 3.

7        RST         OR the bit patterns in registers S and T and place the result in register R.

Example: 7CB4 would cause the result of ORing the contents of registers B and 4 to be placed in

register C.

8        RST         AND the bit patterns in register S and T and place the result in register R.

Example: 8045 would cause the result of ANDing the contents of registers 4 and 5 to be placed in

register 0.

9        RST         EXCLUSIVE OR the bit patterns in registers S and T and place the result in register R.

Example: 95F3 would cause the result of EXCLUSIVE ORing the contents of registers F and 3 to

be placed in register 5.

A       R0X        ROTATE the bit pattern in register R one bit to the right X times. Each time place the bit that

started at the low-order end at the high-order end.

Example: A403 would cause the contents of register 4 to be rotated 3 bits to the right in a circular

fashion.

B       RXY       JUMP to the instruction located in the memory cell at address XY if the bit pattern in register R

is equal to the bit pattern in register number 0. Otherwise, continue with the normal sequence of

execution. (The jump is implemented by copying XY into the program counter during the execute

phase.)

Example: B43C would first compare the contents of register 4 with the contents of register 0. If

the two were equal, the pattern 3C would be placed in the program counter so that the next

instruction executed would be the one located at that memory address. Otherwise, nothing would

be done and program execution would continue in its normal sequence.

C       000          HALT execution.

Example: C000 would cause program execution to stop.

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. Which of the following is not contained in a CPU?

 

  1. Instruction register B. Program counter
  2. General-purpose register D. Memory cell

 

ANSWER: D

 

  1. Which of the following instructions (as described in the language description table) changes the contents of a memory cell?

 

  1. 10AB               B.  20AB               C.  30AB               D.  40AB

 

ANSWER: C

 

  1. Which of the following instructions (as described in the language description table) places 00000000 in register A?

 

  1. 1A00                B.  2A00                C.  3A00                D.  200A

 

ANSWER: B

 

  1. Which of the following instructions (as described in the language description table) places 00000000 in register 5?

 

  1. 25FF                 B.  9555                 C.  15FF                 D.  8555

 

ANSWER: B

 

  1. Which of the following instructions (as described in the language description table) will not change the contents of register 5?

 

  1. 1508                 B.  2508                 C.  A503                D.  A508

 

ANSWER: D

 

  1. Which of the following instructions (as described in the language description table) is equivalent to requesting that register A be rotated to the left by three bits?

 

  1. AA05               B.  AA03               C.  AA08               D.  AA01

 

ANSWER: A

 

  1. Which of the following instructions (as described in the language description table) changes the contents of register 7?

 

  1. 4077                 B.  4075                 C.  4057                 D.  37BB

 

ANSWER: C

 

  1. Which of the following is not a form of parallel processing?

 

  1. SISD B.  MIMD             C.  SIMD

 

ANSWER: A

 

  1. In which of the following locations is information most readily available for manipulation by the CPU?

 

  1. Cache memory                 B.  Main memory
  2. Mass storage D. General-purpose registers

 

ANSWER: D

 

  1. The bus in a computer is an example of which form of communication?

 

  1. Serial B. Parallel              C. Neither A nor B

 

ANSWER: B

 

  1. Which of the following instructions does not fall in the category of arithmetic/logic instructions?

 

  1. ROTATE         B.  ADD                 C.  OR                    D.  JUMP

 

ANSWER: D

 

  1. Which of the following instructions falls in the category of data transfer instructions?

 

  1. LOAD              B.  AND                 C.  ROTATE         D.  JUMP

 

ANSWER: A

 

  1. Which of the following is not a component of a machine instruction?

 

  1. Op-code           B.  Port                   C.  Operand

 

ANSWER: B

 

  1. Which of the following is not an activity performed entirely within a CPU?

 

  1. Fetch instructions                          B.  Perform Boolean operations
  2. Perform arithmetic operations    D.  Move data between registers

 

ANSWER: A

 

  1. What mask in register F would cause the instruction 8AAF (refer to the language description table) to put a 0 in the most significant bit of register A without disturbing the other bits?

 

  1. 11111110       B.  00000001       C.  10000000       D.  011111111

 

ANSWER: D

 

  1. What mask in register F would cause the instruction 7AAF (refer to the language description table) to put a 1 in the most significant bit of register A without disturbing the other bits?

 

  1. 11111110       B.  00000001       C.  10000000       D.  011111111

 

ANSWER: C

 

  1. Which of the following instructions will not produce the same result as the other two? (Refer to the language description table.)

 

  1. A502                B.  A506                C.  A50A

 

ANSWER: B

 

  1. Which of the following instructions will not produce the same result as the other two? (Refer to the language description table.)

 

  1. 9555                 B.  2500                 C.  1500

 

ANSWER: C

 

  1. If register A contained the pattern 00000000, which of the following instructions could alter the contents of register 0? (Refer to the language description table.)

 

  1. 700A B.  800A                C.  900A

 

ANSWER: B

 

  1. Which of the following instructions (as described in the language description table) is essentially an unconditional jump?

 

  1. B033                B.  B133                                C.  B233                                D.  B333

 

ANSWER: A

 

  1. Which step of the machine cycle examines the op-code of the next instruction to be executed?

 

  1. Load                                B.  Fetch                C.  Decode            D.  Execute

 

ANSWER: C

 

  1. An ARM based processor is an example of what kind of computer architecture?

 

  1. DSL                  B.  CISC                C.  RISC                D.  Pentium

 

ANSWER: C

 

Fill-in-the-blank/Short-answer Questions

 

  1. If register 0 contains the pattern 01101001 before executing the instruction A003 (see the language description table), what bit pattern will be in register 0 after the instruction is executed?

 

____________

 

ANSWER: 00101101

 

  1. If registers 5 and 6 contain the bit patterns 5A and 58 respectively, what bit pattern will be in register 4 after executing the instruction 5456? (See language description table.)

 

____________

 

ANSWER: B2

 

  1. If registers 5 and 6 contain the bit patterns 5A and 58 respectively, what bit pattern will be in register 4 after executing the instruction 6456? (See language description table and assume a floating-point format in which the most significant bit is the sign bit, the next three bits represent the exponent field in excess notation, and the last four bits represent the mantissa.)

 

____________

 

ANSWER: 69

 

  1. Write the answer to each of the following logic problems.

 

10101010               10101010           10101010

AND 11110000            OR 11110000       XOR 11110000

 

ANSWER: 10100000, 11111010, and 01011010

 

  1. Suppose registers E and F contained AA and CC, respectively. What bit pattern would be in register D after executing each of the following instructions (see language description table)?

 

  1. 7DEF                __________

 

  1. 8DEF __________

 

  1. 9DEF __________

 

ANSWER: A. EE    B. 88    C. 66

 

  1. If registers 0, 1, and 2 contain the patterns A5, A5, and B7, respectively, which of the following instructions will result in a jump to location AA? (Refer to the language description table.)

 

  1. B0AA               B.  B1AA               C.  B2AA

 

____________

 

ANSWER: A and B

 

  1. If registers 0 and 1 contain the patterns B5 and F0, respectively, what will be in register 1 after executing each of the following instructions? (Refer to the language description table.)

 

  1. A102                __________

 

  1. 4001 __________

 

  1. 4010 __________

 

ANSWER: A. 3C    B. B5    C. F0

 

  1. Suppose the instruction B1A5 (as described in the language description table) is stored in main memory at addresses E0 and E1. Moreover, suppose registers 0 and 1 both contain the pattern FF. What value will be in the CPU’s program counter immediately after executing the instruction?

 

____________

 

ANSWER: A5

 

  1. Suppose the instruction B1A5 (as described in the language description table) is stored in main memory at addresses E0 and E1. Moreover, suppose registers 0 and 1 contain the patterns FF and 75, respectively. What value will be in the CPU’s program counter immediately after executing the instruction?

 

____________

 

ANSWER: E2

 

  1. Encode each of the following commands in terms of the machine language described in the language description table.

 

  1. __________ LOAD register 7 with the value A5.

 

  1. __________ LOAD register 7 with the contents of the memory cell at address A5.

 

  1. __________ ADD the contents of registers 5 and 6 as thought they were values in two’s

complement notation and leave the result in register 4.

 

  1. __________ OR the contents of registers 5 and 6, leaving the result in register 4.

 

ANSWER: A. 27A5     B. 17A5     C. 5456 (or 5465)     D. 7456 (or 7465)

 

  1. Encode each of the following commands in terms of the machine language described in the language description table.

 

  1. __________ ROTATE the contents of  register 7 to the right 5 bit positions.

 

  1. __________ JUMP to the instruction at address B2 if the content of register 2 equals that of

register 0.

 

  1. __________ ADD the contents of registers 5 and 6 as thought they were values in floating-

point notation and leave the result in register 4.

 

  1. __________ AND the contents of registers 5 and 6, leaving the result in register 4.

 

ANSWER: A. A705     B. B2B2     C. 6456 (or 6465)     D. 8456 (or 8465)

 

  1. Decode each of the following instructions that were encoded using the language description table.

 

  1. 4034                 ___________________________________________________________

 

  1. 8023                 ___________________________________________________________

 

  1. B288                                ___________________________________________________________

 

  1. 2345                 ___________________________________________________________

 

ANSWER: A. MOVE the contents of register 3 to register 4.

  1. AND the contents of registers 2 and 3, leaving the result in register 0.
  2. JUMP to the instruction at address 88 if the contents of register 2 equals that of register 0.
  3. LOAD register 3 with the pattern 45.

 

  1. Decode each of the following instructions that were encoded using the language description table.

 

  1. A004                ___________________________________________________________

 

  1. 1234                 ___________________________________________________________

 

  1. 5678                 ___________________________________________________________

 

  1. C000                ___________________________________________________________

 

ANSWER: A. ROTATE the contents of register 0 to the right by four bit positions.

  1. LOAD register 2 with the bit pattern from the memory cell at address 34.
  2. ADD the contents of registers 7 and 8 as though they represented values encoded in two’s

complement notation and leave the result in register 6.

  1. HALT.

 

  1. The following table shows a portion of a machine’s memory containing a program written in the language described in the language description table. Answer the questions below assuming that the machine is started with its program counter containing 00.

 

address   content

00     21

01     0B

02     14

03     04

04     C0

05     00

 

  1. What bit pattern will be in register 4 when the machine halts?

 

___________

 

 

  1. What bit pattern will be in register 1 when the machine halts?

 

___________

 

ANSWER: A. C0    B. 0B

 

  1. The following table shows a portion of a machine’s memory containing a program written in the language described in the language description table. Answer the questions below assuming that the machine is started with its program counter containing 00.

 

address   content                                  address   content

00    10                07    00

01    02                08    C0

02    24                09    00

03    04                0A    C0

04    B4                0B    00

05    0A                0C    C0

06    C0                0D    00

 

  1. What bit pattern will be in register 0 when the machine halts?

 

___________

 

  1. What bit pattern will be in register 4 when the machine halts?

 

___________

 

  1. What bit pattern will be in the program counter when the machine halts?

 

___________

 

ANSWER: A. 24     B. 04     C. 08

 

  1. The following table shows a portion of a machine’s memory containing a program written in the language described in the language description table. Answer the questions below assuming that the machine is started with its program counter containing 00.

 

address   content                                  address   content

00    25                07    00

01    03                08    C0

02    20                09    00

03    F9                0A    C0

04    53                0B    00

05    05                0C    C0

06    33                0D    00

 

  1. What bit pattern will be in register 5 when the machine halts?

 

____________

 

  1. What bit pattern will be in register 0 when the machine halts?

 

____________

 

  1. What bit pattern will be in register 3 when the machine halts?

 

____________

 

  1. What bit pattern will be at memory location 00 when the machine halts?

 

____________

 

ANSWER: A. 03     B. F9     C. FC     D. FC

 

  1. The following table shows a portion of a machine’s memory containing a program written in the language described in the language description table. Answer the questions below assuming that the machine is started with its program counter containing 00.

 

address   content                                  address   content

00    25                07    00

01    03                08    34

02    A5                09    04

03    02                0A    B0

04    35                0B    03

05    03                0C    C0

06    24                0D    00

 

  1. What bit pattern will be in register 5 when the machine halts?

 

____________

 

  1. What bit pattern will be in the program counter when the machine halts?

 

____________

 

  1. What bit pattern will be at memory location 04 when the machine halts?

 

____________

 

ANSWER: A. C0     B. 05     C. 00

 

  1. Below is a short routine written in the machine language described in the language description table and stored in a machine’s memory beginning at address 50. What must be in the memory cell at address 40 to avoid an unending loop?

 

Address    Instruction

50               2001

52               1340

54               8330

56               B352

58                …

 

________________________________________

 

ANSWER: Any bit pattern whose least significant bit is 0

 

  1. The following table shows a portion of a machine’s memory containing a program written in the language described in the language description table. Answer the questions below assuming that the machine is started with its program counter containing 00.

 

address   content                                  address   content

00    B0                07    C0

01    03                08    00

02    25                09    23

03    B0                0A    B0

04    0C                0B    03

05    C0                0C    B0

06    00                0D    07

 

  1. How many instructions will be executed before the machine halts?

 

____________

 

  1. What bit pattern will be in the program counter when the machine halts?

 

____________

 

ANSWER: A. 4     B. 09

 

  1. The following table shows a portion of a machine’s memory containing a program written in the language described in the language description table. Answer the questions below assuming that the machine is started with its program counter containing 00.

 

address   content                                  address   content

00    20                07    12

01    02                08    B2

02    21                09    0C

03    01                0A    B0

04    22                0B    06

05    01                0C    C0

06    52                0D    00

 

  1. What bit pattern will be in register 2 when the machine halts?

 

___________

 

  1. How many times will the instruction at address 06 be executed before the machine halts?

 

___________

 

ANSWER: A. 02     B. 2

 

  1. What is used to differentiate memory used for instructions and memory used for data?

 

ANSWER: Nothing. Instructions and data can located anywhere in main memory.  The machine alone has no way of knowing what portions are used for data and what portions are instructions.

 

Vocabulary (Matching) Questions

 

The following is a list of terms from the chapter along with descriptive phrases that can be used to produce questions (depending on the topics covered in your course) in which the students are ask to match phrases and terms. An example would be a question of the form, “In the blank next to each phrase, write the term from the following list that is best described by the phrase.”

 

Term                                       Descriptive Phrase

op-code                                                 The part of a machine instruction that identifies the basic operation to

be performed

machine language                               A means of encoding instructions

machine cycle                                      The process of fetching and executing instructions that is repeated

over and over by the CPU

register                                                   A location within a CPU for temporary data storage

masking                                                 A means of isolating particular bits within a bit pattern

bus                                                          The communication path between a CPU and main memory

memory-mapped I/O                         The technique of communicating with peripheral devices as though

they were memory cells

pipeling                                                  A means of processing more than one instruction at a time

instruction register                               Register whose contents is modified upon performing the fetch step of the machine cycle

stored-program concept                     A technique of recording programs in main memory from where they

can be accessed and executed

program counter                                  Used by the CPU to keep its place in the program being executed

main memory from where they can be retrieved and executed

controller                                               The interface between “a computer” and a peripheral device

modem                                                  Modulator-demodulator

port                                                         The “connection” through which a CPU communicates with a

peripheral device

USB                                                        A communication system by which a variety of peripheral devices can

be connected to a computer

clock                                                      Used to synchronize the operations within a computer

status word                                           A means by which a peripheral device reports its condition

bps                                                          A means of measuring the rate of data transfer

CISC                                                      A computer whose machine language  contains many complex

Instructions

cache                                                     High-speed memory located within the CPU which is used to retain a copy of portions of main memory that is of current interest

handshaking                                         Refers to the two-way communication that takes place between a

computer an a peripheral device

bandwidth                                             Refers to a communication path’s maximum capacity for transferring

data

DMA                                                      The ability of a peripheral device to communicate directly with a

computer’s main memory

 

General Format Questions

 

  1. Describe the machine cycle.

 

ANSWER:  Fetch an instruction and increment the program counter, decode the instruction, and execute the instruction.

 

  1. Explain the concept of throughput and techniques by which throughput is increased.

 

ANSWER: Throughput measures the amount of “work” performed by a computer rather than the speed with which the computer executes instructions. Throughput is increased by introducing parallel processing techniques such as pipeling or parallel processing via multiprocessor designs.

 

  1. What is the difference between a conditional jump instruction and an unconditional jump instruction?

 

ANSWER: A conditional jump instruction will result in a “jump” to another location only under certain conditions whereas an unconditional jump instruction will result in a “jump” to another location under all conditions.

 

  1. The following is a routine encoded in the machine language described in the language description table. Explain (in a single sentence) what the routine does. (Explain what the entire routine does as a unit rather than reciting what each instruction does.)

 

12A0

32B0

12A1

32B1

12A2

32B2

 

ANSWER: It copies the contents of memory cells A0 through A2 to memory cells B0 through B2.

 

  1. The following is a routine encoded in the machine language described in the language description table. Explain (in a single sentence) what the routine does. (Explain what the entire routine does as a unit rather than reciting what each instruction does.)

 

210F

12A0

8212

32A0

 

ANSWER: It places 0s in the four most significant bits of memory cell A0 without disturbing the other four bits.

 

  1. The following table shows a portion of a machine’s memory containing a program written in the language described in the language description table. What will happen if the machine is started with its program counter containing 00?

 

address   content

00     21

01     B0

02     31

03     04

04     C0

05     00

 

ANSWER: The machine will change the last instruction to a jump instruction and continue to repeat the same routine over and over.

 

  1. Using the machine language described in the language description table, write a sequence of instructions that will place the pattern FF in the memory cell at address A0.

 

ANSWER: 2XFF, 3XA0 (where X can be any register but must be the same in both instructions)

 

  1. Using the machine language described in the language description table, write a sequence of instructions that will place a 1 in the most significant bit of the memory cell at address A0 without disturbing the other bits.

 

ANSWER: 2X80, 1YA0, 7YXY, 3YA0 (where X and Y can be any distinct registers)

 

  1. Using the machine language described in the language description table, write a sequence of instructions that will add five to the value (represented in two’s complement notation) stored at memory address A0.

 

ANSWER: 2X05, 1YA0, 5YXY, 3YA0 (where X and Y can be any distinct registers)

 

  1. Using the machine language described in the language description table, write a sequence of instructions that will subtract one from the value (represented in two’s complement notation) stored at memory address A0.

 

ANSWER: 2XFF, 1YA0, 5YXY, 3YA0 (where X and Y can be any distinct registers)

 

  1. Using the machine language described in the language description table, write a sequence of instructions that will shift the contents of the memory cell at address A0 three bit positions to the right while filling the holes at the left end with 0s.

 

ANSWER: 1XA0, AX03, 2Y1F, 8XXY, 3XA0 (where X and Y can be any distinct registers)

 

 

Test Bank—Chapter Four (Networks and the Internet)

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. Which of the following is not a way of classifying networks?

 

  1. WAN versus LAN B. Closed versus open
  2. Router versus bridge D. Star versus bus

 

ANSWER: C

 

  1. Ethernet is a means of implementing which of the following network topologies?

 

  1. Star B. WiFi                   C. Bus

 

ANSWER: C

 

  1. Which of the following connects existing networks to form an internet?

 

  1. Bridge B. Router               C. Switch               D. Repeater

 

ANSWER: B

 

  1. Which of the following is a protocol for controlling the right to transmit a message in a network?

 

  1. UDP B. CSMA/CD       C. TCP                   D. FTP

 

ANSWER: B

 

  1. Which of the following is not a means of performing interprocess communication over a network?

 

  1. Client/server B. ICANN             C. Peer-to-peer

 

ANSWER: B

 

  1. Which of the following is assigned the task of providing individual users access to the Internet?

 

  1. Tier-1 ISPs B. Tier-2 ISPs       C. Access ISPs      D. ICANN

 

ANSWER: C

 

  1. Which of the following is not an application of the Internet?

 

  1. FTP B. Email                                C. Telnet                                D. CERT

 

ANSWER: D

 

  1. The primary purpose of which of the following is not the enhancement of security?

 

  1. ICANN B. Firewall             C. Encryption       D. CERT

 

ANSWER: A

 

  1. Which of the following is used to translate between IP addresses and mnemonic addresses?

 

  1. File server B. Mail server       C. Name server    D. FTP server

 

ANSWER: C

 

  1. Which of the following is not a means of connecting networks?

 

  1. Switch B. Server                C. Router               D. Bridge

 

ANSWER: B

 

  1. Which layer of the TCP/IP hierarchy actually transmits a message?

 

  1. Application B. Transport         C. Network            D. Link

 

ANSWER: D

 

  1. Which layer of the TCP/IP hierarchy chops messages into units whose size is compatible with the Internet?

 

  1. Application B. Transport         C. Network            D. Link

 

ANSWER: B

 

  1. Which layer of the TCP/IP hierarchy decides the direction in which message segments are transferred across the Internet?

 

  1. Application B. Transport         C. Network            D. Link

 

ANSWER: C

 

  1. Which layer of the TCP/IP hierarchy decides which application should receive an incoming message?

 

  1. Application B. Transport         C. Network            D. Link

 

ANSWER: A

 

  1. Which layer of the TCP/IP hierarchy presents incoming messages to the computer user?

 

  1. Application B. Transport         C. Network            D. Link

 

ANSWER: A

 

  1. Which layer of the TCP/IP hierarchy reassembles messages as their pieces arrive at the destination?

 

  1. Application B. Transport         C. Network            D. Link

 

ANSWER: B

 

  1. Which layer of the TCP/IP hierarchy is responsible for obtaining the correct address for a message’s destination?

 

  1. Application B. Transport         C. Network            D. Link

 

ANSWER: A

 

  1. Which of the following identifies the application to which a message arriving from the Internet should be given?

 

  1. Protocol B. Port number     C. Domain            D. Hop count

 

ANSWER: B

 

  1. Which standards organization produced the OSI reference model for internet communication?

 

  1. ANSI B. IEEE                 C. ISO

 

ANSWER: C

 

  1. Which of the following is an Internet application that is named after its underlying protocol?

 

  1. Email B. World Wide Web            C. FTP                    D. UDP

 

ANSWER: C

 

  1. Which of the following is not a means of implementing server-side activities?

 

  1. CGI B. JSP                     C. ASP                   D. Applets

 

ANSWER: D

 

  1. Which of the following is not a protocol used in the basic TCP/IP software hierarchy?

 

  1. POP3 B. UDP                   C. TCP                   D. IP

 

ANSWER: A

 

  1. Which generation of wireless network technology uses the packet-switched IP network?

 

  1. 3G B. 4G                      C. 5G                      D. All of the above

 

ANSWER: B

 

Fill-in-the-blank/Short-answer Questions

 

  1. List two network topologies.

 

  1. _____________

 

  1. _____________

 

 

ANSWER: star and bus

 

  1. What are two protocols for implementing the transport level in the “TCP/IP hierarchy”?

 

  1. _____________ B. ______________

 

ANSWER: TCP and UDP

 

  1. Draw a circle the portion of the URL below that identifies the directory containing the file being addressed. Underline the portion that identifies the protocol that should be used when accessing the file. Draw a rectangle around the portion that identifies the file name itself.

 

http://batcave.metropolis.com/heroes/superheroes/batpage.html

 

ANSWER: Circle: superheroes, underline: http, rectangle: batpage.html (or just batpage)

 

  1. Underline the portion of the URL below that identifies the classification (top-level domain) of the registered domain in which the pertinent Web server resides. Draw a rectangle around the portion that indicates the directory path the server should follow to find the designated document.

 

http://batcave.metropolis.com/heroes/superheroes/batpage.html

 

ANSWER: Underline: com, rectangle: heroes/superheroes

 

  1. Draw a rectangle around the portion of the email address below that identifies the “person” who should receive the message. Underline the portion that identifies the location of the mail server that handles the mail for that person.

 

Fido@dogmail.zoo.org

 

ANSWER: Rectangle: Fido, underline: dogmail.zoo.org

 

  1. What bit pattern is represented by 33.42.18 in dotted decimal notation?

 

__________________________________________________

 

ANSWER:  00100001 00101010 00010010 (212A12 in hexadecimal)

 

  1. Express the bit pattern 0001001000001100 in dotted decimal notation.

 

________________

 

ANSWER: 18.12

 

  1. The main purpose of _______ and ________ ISPs is to provide a system of high-speed routers that serve as the Internet’s communication backbone, whereas _________ ISPs concentrate on providing Internet access to the Internet’s users.

 

ANSWER: Tier-1, tier-2, access

 

  1. Name three kinds of servers.

 

  1. ___________________________

 

  1. ___________________________

 

  1. ___________________________

 

ANSWER: Possible answers include: name server, file server, mail server, Web server, etc.

 

  1. List four top-level domains.

 

  1. _____________ B. _______________

 

  1. _____________ D. _______________

 

ANSWER: Possible answers include com, org, edu, gov, net, uk, ca, etc.

 

  1. What terms in the following HTML document are linked to other documents?

 

<html>

<head>

<title>This is the title</title>

</head>

<body>

<h1>Favorite Animals</h1>

<p>Of all the animals in the world, the

<a href=”http://pigs.org/pigs.html”>pig</a> is

perhaps the most charming.</p><p>However, the

<a href=”http://hippopotamuscity.org/hippo.html”>

hippopotamus</a> is also cute.</p>

</body>

</html>

 

ANSWER: pig, hippopotamus

 

  1. Fill in the blanks in the HTML document below so that the term “Earth” will be linked to the HTML document “earthinfo.html” in the directory “earthdir” at “earthnews.com.”

 

<html>

<head>

<title>Earth page</title>

</head>

<body>

<p>The planet we live on is called

 

_________________________________________ Earth ____________

 

</p>

</body>

</html>

 

ANSWER: <a href=”http://earthnews.com/earthdir/earthinfo.html”>, </a>

 

  1. Fill in the blanks with the missing tags to the following HTML document.

 

<html>

<head>

______ Title </title>

</head>

_______

<p>Click on

<a href=”http://this..org”> this. _______

______

</body>

</html>

 

ANSWER: The following tags are missing: <title>, >, <body>, </a>, and </p>.

 

  1. Fill in the blank in the following HTML document so that the image called dog.jpg will be displayed at the top of the page.

 

<body>

______________________

<p>Above is a picture of Fido.</p>

</body>

 

ANSWER: <img src = “dog.jpg”>

 

  1. List two features of HTML that conform to the XML style.

 

  1. _____________________________

 

  1. _____________________________

 

ANSWER: Possible answer include: Tags are surrounded by < and >, tags that close an item are the same as the opening tag except that / is added, tag name are in lower case, and others.

 

  1. Identify two protocols used in networks to determine the right to transmit an original message.

 

  1. _________________ B. _________________

 

ANSWER: CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA

 

  1. Identify a protocol used in the implementation of the network layer in the TCP/IP hierarchy.

 

______________

 

ANSWER: IP

 

  1. In each blank below write the HTML tag that performs the indication function.

 

  1. __________ Begins the part that describes what will appear on the computer screen

 

  1. __________ Marks the end of the HTML document

 

  1. __________ Marks the beginning of a paragraph

 

  1. __________ Marks the end of a term that is linked to another document

 

ANSWER: A. <body>      B. </html>      C. <p>      D. </a>

 

  1. The client/server model refers to a form of interprocess communication in which one process, known as the ________________ , runs continuously so that it can be contacted by other processes, known as ________________ , as needed. In contrast is the ____________________ model of interprocess communication in which two processes communicate as equals.

 

ANSWER: server, clients, peer-to-peer

 

  1. Where would be the most likely place to put a firewall to provide each of the following services?

 

  1. ___________________ Protect an entire domain from attacks from the cloud

 

  1. ___________________ Protect an entire domain from spam

 

  1. ___________________ Protect an individual machine from worms and viruses

 

ANSWER: A. At the gateway     B. At the domain’s mail server     C. At the individual machine

 

  1. Write the entire URL required to retrieve the Web document named bulldogs.html from the Web server at animals.org assuming that the document is stored in the directory named dogs.

 

ANSWER: http://animals.org/dogs/bulldogs.html

 

  1. A ___________________ consists of software units that execute as processes on different computers.

 

ANSWER: distributed system

 

  1. Identify two types of VoIP devices.

 

ANSWER: Any two of soft phones, analog telephone adapters, embedded VoIP phones, smartphones.

 

Vocabulary (Matching) Questions

 

The following is a list of terms from the chapter along with descriptive phrases that can be used to produce questions (depending on the topics covered in your course) in which the students are ask to match phrases and terms. An example would be a question of the form, “In the blank next to each phrase, write the term from the following list that is best described by the phrase.”

 

Term                                       Descriptive Phrase

internet                                                  A network of networks

tier-1 ISP                                               An organization that provides the Internet’s communication backbone

access ISP                                             An organization that provides access to the Internet

domain                                                  A name registered with ICANN for identification purposes

protocol                                                 A governing set of rules

cloud                                                      The portion of the Internet lying outside one’s domain

IP address                                             Identifies a machine on the Internet

HTML                                                   A notational system for indicating how a Web document is to be

displayed by a browser

firewall                                                   A means of blocking undesired messages

packet                                                    A message segment that is transmitted over the Internet independently

XML                                                      A “format” for markup languages

FTP                                                         A protocol for transferring files

router                                                     A means of connecting networks to form an internet

dotted decimal                                     A notational system for representing bit patterns

URL                                                       A means of identifying a document on the Web

search engine                                        A means of finding relevant information on the Web

Ethernet                                                 A means of implementing a network with the bus topology

UDP                                                        A protocol for the transport layer

IP                                                            A protocol for the network layer

VoIP                                                       Technology for transmitting telephone calls over the Internet.

 

 

 

General Format Questions

 

  1. What is the difference between a repeater and a bridge?

 

ANSWER: Both repeaters and bridges are used to connect two buses, but a repeater transfers all messages whereas a bridge transfers only those messages destined for the other side.

 

  1. What is the difference between hubs, switches, and routers?

 

ANSWER: A hub is merely a central (short) bus to which computers are connected to form a bus network. A switch connects several bus networks to form a larger network. A router connects two networks to form an internet in which the original two networks continue to function as independent networks.

 

  1. Many people use the terms Internet and world-wide web interchangeably. What is the difference between the Internet and the world-wide web?

 

ANSWER: The Internet is the infrastructure used by the world-wide web. That is, the world-wide web is only one application of the Internet. Other applications include email, ftp, and telnet.

 

  1. What are HTML and XML?

 

ANSWER: HTML is an actual markup language. XML is not a markup language itself. Instead it is a markup language “style.”

 

  1. What are some distinctions between UDP and TCP?

 

ANSWER: UDP is a connectionless protocol whereas TCP establishes a two way communication between the origin and destination of a message. TCP is a reliable protocol in that the origin and destination work together to confirm that the entire message was successfully transferred. In contrast, UDP merely transmits the message without confirming it reception.

 

  1. As an encryption system, what is unique about public-key encryption (that is, why is public-key encryption so named)?

 

ANSWER: In a public-key encryption system, knowing the encryption key does not allow one to decipher a message. Thus, the encryption key can be public knowledge without violating security.

 

  1. Draw a sketch showing how the following HTML document would appear on the computer screen when displayed by a browser.

 

<html>

<head>

<title>This is the title</title>

</head>

<body>

<h1>Mud Art</h1>

</body>

</html>

 

ANSWER: The displayed page contains only the words “Mud Art” displayed as a major heading. The words “This is the title” are NOT part of the displayed page.

 

  1. Draw a sketch showing how the following HTML document would appear on the computer screen when displayed by a browser.

 

<html>

<head>

<title>This is the title</title>

</head>

<body>

<h1>Favorite Animals</h1>

<p>Of all the animals in the world, the

<a href=”http://pigs.org/pigs.html”>pig</a> is

perhaps the most charming.</p><p>However, the

<a href=”http://hippopotamuscity.org/hippo.html”>

hippopotamus</a> is also cute.</p>

</body>

</html>

 

ANSWER: Something like this:

 

Favorite Animals

Of all the animals in the world, the pig

is perhaps the most charming.

However, the hippopotamus is also cute.

 

  1. What would happen if a user clicked the mouse on the term “pig” while viewing the HTML document shown below?

 

<html>

<head>

<title>This is the title</title>

</head>

<body>

<h1>Favorite Animals</h1>

<p>Of all the animals in the world, the

<a href=”http://pigs.org/pigs.html”>pig</a> is

perhaps the most charming.</p><p>However, the

<a href=”http://hippopotamuscity.org/hippo.html”>

hippopotamus</a> is also cute.</p>

</body>

</html>

 

ANSWER: The browser would retrieve and display the document pigs.html.

 

  1. To what do the terms “server side” and “client side” refer?

 

ANSWER: They indicate whether the identified activity is performed by the client or the server when using the client/server model for interprocess communication.

 

  1. What assumptions are made when a URL is denoted by merely zoo.org?

 

ANSWER: It is assumed that the protocol is http and that the document desired is the default document in the default directory.

 

  1. Briefly summarize the steps performed by each of the four layers in the TCP/IP hierarchy at the computer at which a message originates.

 

ANSWER: Application layer: originates the message and obtains destination’s IP address. Transport layer: chops message into segments and assigns sequence numbers. Network layer: determines intermediate address. Link layer: transmits message segments.

 

  1. Briefly summarize what is meant by the term “cloud computing.”

 

ANSWER: Cloud computing refers to distributed systems in which pools of shared computers on the network can be allocated for use by clients as needed.

 

  1. What is the primary difference between using Telnet and SSH to connect to a remote server?

 

ANSWER: The SSH protocol encrypts communication to prevent network eavesdroppers from intercepting passwords or other sensitive information.

Test Bank—Chapter Eleven (Artificial Intelligence)

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of procedural knowledge?

 

  1. Knowing the rate of growth of the world’s population
  2. Knowing how to tie your shoes
  3. Knowing your name
  4. Knowing the exchange rate of different national currencies

 

ANSWER:  B

 

  1. Which of the following is not a component of a production system?

 

  1. Control system B. Collection of states
  2. Associative memory D. Collection of productions

 

ANSWER:  C

 

  1. Which of the following is actually constructed during a heuristic search?

 

  1. State graph B. Search tree       C. Production system

 

ANSWER:  B

 

  1. A heuristic is applied during a search process in hopes of producing a

 

  1. Depth-first search B. Breadth-first search

 

ANSWER:  A

 

  1. If the heuristic being used is the-number-of-tiles-out-of-place, which of the following eight-puzzle will be given priority for further consideration by a heuristic search?

 

  1. 1  2  3              B.        2  3              C.    1  3                  D.        1  3

4 5                          1  5  6                      4  2  6                      4  2  6

7 8 6                       4  7  8                      7  5  8                      7  5  8

 

ANSWER:  A

 

  1. If a heuristic search is used to solve the eight-puzzle from the starting configuration below using the-number-of-tiles-out-of-place as the heuristic, which of the following nodes will not be considered during the search?

 

1      2

4  5  3

7  8  6

 

  1. 1  2                  B.    1  5  2              C.    1  5  2              D.    1  2  3

4  5  3                      4      3                      4  3                              4  5

7  8  6                      7  8  6                      7  8  6                      7  8  6

 

ANSWER:  C

 

  1. Which of the following learning technique results in an agent merely performing a pre-recorded sequence of steps?

 

  1. Imitation B. Supervised training C. Reinforcement

 

ANSWER:  A

 

  1. In an artificial neural network, which of the following pairs of input connection weights would cause a neuron with two inputs and a threshold value of 3 to produce an output of 1 only when both of its inputs are 1?

 

  1. 0, 0 B. 2, 0                    C. 0, 2                    D. 2, 2

 

ANSWER:  D

 

  1. In an artificial neural network, which of the following pairs of input connection weights would cause a neuron with two inputs and a threshold value of 2 to produce an output of 0 only when both of its inputs are 0?

 

  1. 0, 0 B. 3, 0                    C. 0, 3                    D. 3, 3

 

ANSWER:  D

 

  1. In an artificial neural network, what must be true about the threshold value of a neuron that processes an output of 1 when all of its inputs are 0?

 

  1. It is less than -2.
  2. It is not positive.
  3. Both A and B are true.
  4. Nothing can be determined without knowing the weights.

 

ANSWER:  B

 

  1. A memory system that is able to provide related information is called

 

  1. Read-only memory (ROM) B. Associative memory
  2. An artificial neural network D. Main memory

 

ANSWER:  B

 

  1. In an artificial neural network, what input values will cause the neuron below to produce an output of 1.

 

 

 

  1. All three 0
  2. All three 1
  3. Any combination in which the center input is 0 and at least one other input is 1
  4. Any combination in which at least one input is 1

 

ANSWER:  C

 

  1. In an artificial neural network, which of the Boolean operations AND, OR, and XOR can a single neuron with two inputs be programmed to compute?

 

  1. AND only B. OR only            C. XOR only         D. AND and OR only

 

ANSWER:  D

 

  1. The diagram below represents an associative memory as described in the text. What stable state will the system reach if it is initiated with the top and bottom neurons excited and the others inhibited?

 

 

 

  1. All neurons excited B. Only the side neurons excited
  2. No neurons excited D. Only the top and bottom neurons excited

 

ANSWER:  D

 

  1. The diagram below represents an associative memory as described in the text. What stable state will the system reach if it is initiated with the top and left-most neurons excited and the others inhibited?

 

 

 

  1. All neurons excited B. No stable state will be reached.
  2. No neurons excited D. Only the top and left-most neurons excited

 

ANSWER:  C

 

  1. The diagram below represents an associative memory as describe in the text. Under what condition will the center neuron become excited?

 

 

 

  1. Any of the other neurons excited B. Will never be excited
  2. Any two of the other neurons excited D. At least three of the other neurons excited

 

ANSWER:  D

 

  1. Which of the following programming methodologies seeks to develop software by a “trial and error” approach?

 

  1. Object-oriented programming B. Structured programming
  2. Evolutionary programming D. Declarative programming

 

ANSWER:  C

 

  1. At what “stage” of analysis is the meaning of a pronoun such as he or she identified?

 

  1. Syntactic analysis B. Semantic analysis          C. Contextual analysis

 

ANSWER:  C

 

  1. At what “stage” of analysis are the sentences

 

There were exactly twelve books on the table.

and

There were twelve books on the table, no more and no less.

 

recognized as saying the same thing?

 

  1. Syntactic analysis B. Semantic analysis          C. Contextual analysis

 

ANSWER:  B

 

  1. At what “stage” of analysis is the meaning of the word ball in the following sentence determined?

 

  1. Syntactic analysis B. Semantic analysis          C. Contextual analysis

 

ANSWER:  C

 

  1. Which of the following is a statement of the closed-world assumption?

 

  1. The database contains only partial information.
  2. The database contains only true statements.
  3. If a statement is not a consequence of information in the database, then the statement is false.
  4. The database contains all the information known to humans.

 

ANSWER:  C

 

 

 

 

Fill-in-the-blank/Short-answer Questions

 

  1. List two types of agent actions/responses that are more complex than mere reflect actions.

 

_________________

 

_________________

 

ANSWER: Possible answers include: goal-directed actions and knowledge-based actions.

 

  1. In each blank below place a P or an S to indicate whether the associated activity is performance oriented (P) or simulation oriented (S).

 

____  Writing a program that applies a particular economic theory to see if that theory leads to realistic consequences.

 

____  Writing a program to allow a database system to receive requests verbally.

 

____  Writing a program to control an automated aircraft landing system.

 

____  Writing a program to handle a university’s registration system.

 

ANSWER:  S, P, P, P

 

  1. Place an X in the blanks below that are associated with tasks that could likely be performed by means of relatively simple pattern matching methods as opposed to requiring advanced image analysis techniques.

 

____  Identifying characters on a printed page

 

____  Identifying one domino from another

 

____  Distinguishing the parts of a photograph that represent living organic entities as opposed to inert objects.

 

____  Distinguishing photographs of family outings from those of business meetings

 

ANSWER:  First and second

 

  1. A production system consists of a collection of ___________ representing various configurations of the

 

problem at hand, a collection of ______________ representing potential steps from one “configuration” to

 

another, and a ____________________ whose task is to find a solution to the problem at hand.

 

ANSWER:  States, productions, control system

 

  1. Suppose the task of solving the equation 3x + 2 = 17 were analyzed as a production system.

 

  1. What would be the goal state?

 

__________

 

  1. What would be the production that would probably be applied first?

 

______________________________________________________________________

 

ANSWER:   A. Any set of valid equations containing x = 5.

  1. The most likely answer would be “subtract 2 from both sides of the equation.” Another possibility is “divide both sides of the equation by 3.”

 

  1. How many nodes would be in the search tree generated by a heuristic search when solving the eight-puzzle from the starting configuration below if the-number-of-tiles-out-of-place were used as the heuristic?

 

1  2

4  5  3

7  8  6

 

____________

 

ANSWER:  7 or 8 (depending on whether the student counts both of the final options or stops with only the goal)

 

  1. Suppose the search tree below is being constructed to solve the eight-puzzle using the-number-of-tiles-out-of-place as the heuristic. In each blank under a terminal node, write the heuristic value of the associated node. Then, circle the node that the search would pursue next.

 

1      3

4  2  6

7  5  8

/        |       \

1  3      1  2  3      1  3

4  2  6      4      6      4  2  6

7  5  8      7  5  8      7  5  8

 

___         ___         ___

 

ANSWER: 4, 2, 4. Circle: center node

 

  1. What is the effective input of an artificial neuron whose inputs are 1, 0, 1 and whose associated connection weights are 3, -3, -1, respectively?

 

____________

 

ANSWER:  2

 

  1. Fill in the blank at the output end of each neuron in the artificial neural network below.

 

 

 

ANSWER:  Outputs from the left neurons are both 1, output from the right neuron is 0.

 

  1. Fill in the blanks with input values that will cause the artificial neural network below to produce an output of 1.

 

 

 

ANSWER:  Upper input: 0, lower input: 1

 

  1. Fill in the connection weights so that the artificial neuron below produces an output of 1 only when the upper input is 1 and the lower input is 0.

 

 

 

ANSWER:  1, -1 is a possible answer.

 

  1. Fill in the connection weights so that the artificial neuron below produces an output of 1 only when the upper two inputs are 1 and the lower input is 0.

 

 

 

ANSWER:  1, 1, -1 is a possible answer.

 

  1. The diagram below represents an associative memory as described in the text. What threshold value could be assigned to all the neurons to ensure that no neuron would ever be excited by the others?

 

 

 

_________

 

ANSWER:  Any value bigger than 1

 

  1. The field of research known as _______________________ seeks to apply survival-of-the-fittest

 

theories to the problem solving process. In particular, _________________________ is the subfield that

 

seeks to apply such evolutionary principles to the programming process.

 

ANSWER:  Genetic algorithms, evolutionary programming

 

  1. In each blank below, write syntactic, semantic, or contextual to indicate which form of analysis is required to perform the associated task.

 

______________ Identify the subject in the sentence “John ate the ice cream.”

 

______________ Recognize that the sentence “John ate the ice cream” means the same as the sentence “The ice cream was eaten by John.”

 

______________ Identify the object in the sentence “John ate the ice cream.”

 

______________               Identify the person referred to by the pronoun he in the sentence “He ate the ice cream.”

 

ANSWER:  Syntactic, semantic, syntactic, contextual

 

  1. Fill in the blank entries in the semantic net below to reflect the meaning of the sentence “Dumbo ate peanuts.”

 

 

 

ANSWER:  The type is “eat,” and the object is “peanuts.”

 

  1. Place an X in each blank below that is associated with a conclusion that would require the closed-world assumption in the context of a database that contained a list of subscribers to the New York Times.

 

_____  John Doe subscribes to the New York Times.

 

_____ John Doe does not subscribe to the New York Times.

 

_____ Either Mary Doe or John Doe does not subscribe to the New York Times.

 

_____ Either Mary Doe or John Doe subscribes to the New York Times.

 

ANSWER: Second and third

 

  1. Place an X in each blank below that is associated with a statement that would be considered true by a closed-world database containing only the statement “Kermit is a frog OR Miss Piggy is an actress.”

 

_____  Kermit is a frog.

 

_____  Miss Piggy is not an actress.

 

_____  Kermit is not a frog AND Miss Piggy is not an actress.

 

_____  Kermit is not a frog.

 

ANSWER: Second, third, and fourth

 

 

 

Vocabulary (Matching) Questions

 

The following is a list of terms from the chapter along with descriptive phrases that can be used to produce questions (depending on the topics covered in your course) in which the students are ask to match phrases and terms. An example would be a question of the form, “In the blank next to each phrase, write the term from the following list that is best described by the phrase.”

 

Term                                       Descriptive Phrase

agent                                                      A responsive entity

Turing test                                             A means of measuring a machine’s ability to perform like a human

image analysis                                     The task of understanding an image

breadth-first                                          A search algorithm that processes all the nodes in a layer, one layer at a time at ever increasing depths

template matching                              To identify by comparing to predefined patterns

production system                               A “universal” approach to the construction of reasoning systems

semantic analysis                                                A task of language processing that identifies the meaning of words

heuristic                                                 A tool for simulating intuition

breadth-first search                             The result of considering all options equally important

image processing                                 The task of identifying characteristics found within an image

state graph                                            A “picture” of all states and productions

inference rule                                        A means of obtaining a statement that is a logical consequence of other statements

real-world knowledge                          The “database” used by an intelligent system to support its reasoning

artificial neural network                     A computer processing model that able to learn by adjusting a set of weights and thresholds

genetic algorithms                               A field of artificial intelligence that applies evolutionary theories to the software development process

associative memory                            The ability to recall related information

expert system                                       A software package for solving problems within a particular field

semantic net                                         A means of representing knowledge

A* algorithm                                        A search algorithm that uses both a heuristic and an accumulated cost in determining the next node to process

contextual analysis                             To relate a sentence to its environment

supervised training                              An agent generalizes known responses for given set of examples

linguistics                                               The study of human communication

 

 

General Format Questions

 

  1. Explain the distinction between declarative knowledge and procedural knowledge.

 

ANSWER: Declarative knowledge consists of knowing facts, whereas procedural knowledge is being able to perform a task.

 

  1. Explain the distinction between image processing and image analysis.

 

ANSWER:  Image processing deals with the issue of clarifying the image such as removing flaws and identifying regions. Image analysis deals with the issues of extracting information from the image.

 

  1. Describe the distinction between a state graph and a search tree.

 

ANSWER: A state graph is a picture of the entire “problem space” whereas a search tree contains only the part of the “problem space” relevant to the problem at hand.

 

  1. Draw the search tree that would be generated by a best-fit heuristic search when solving the eight-puzzle from the starting configuration below assuming that “the number of tiles out of place” were used as the heuristic.

1  2  3

5  6

4  7  8

 

ANSWER:             1  2  3

5  6

4  7  8

/         |        \

2  3      1  2  3      1  2  3

1  5  6      4  5  6      5      6

4  7  8          7  8      4  7  8

|

1  2  3

4  5  6

7      8

/                  \

1  2  3                      1  2  3

4      6                      4  5  6

7  5  8                      7  8

 

  1. Draw the search tree that would be generated by a breadth-first search when solving the eight-puzzle from the starting configuration below.

 

1  2  3

4  5  6

7  8

 

ANSWER: (The order of the rows may vary.)

 

1  2  3

4  5  6

7  8

/                           \

1  2  3                                                      1  2  3

5  6                                                      4  5  6

4  7  8                                                      7      8

/               \                                              /                 \

2  3                      1  2  3                      1  2  3                      1  2  3

1  5  6                      5      6                      4      6                      4  5  6

4  7  8                      4  7  8                      7  5  8                      7  8

 

  1. Explain the distinction between weak AI and strong AI.

 

ANSWER: Weak AI is the conjecture that machines can be programmed to appear to be intelligent. Strong AI is the conjecture that machines can be programmed to be intelligent.

 

  1. Why would the search process used in the text to solve the eight-puzzle not be applicable in cases of competitive games such as chess or checkers?

 

ANSWER: In a competitive game, the “puzzle solver” does not get to choose every move but must alternate with an opponent who is trying to reach different goals.

 

  1. Suppose the eight-puzzle was extended to a four-by-four tray containing 11 tiles with the solved puzzle appearing as below.

 

1      2      3      4

5      6      7      8

9   10   11   12

13   14   15

 

What problem would occur if our heuristic search (using the-number-of-tiles-out-of-place) was applied to solve the puzzle start from the configuration below? How could that problem be overcome?

 

1   11   15   12

5      6      7      8

9   10      2      3

13   14              4

 

ANSWER:  The search will repeatedly move the 2, 3, and 4 tiles around in the bottom right corner because doing otherwise would cause an additional tile to be moved out of its correct position. A solution is to rate the various options by the sum of the heuristic value and the number of moves required to reach the current position rather than merely the heuristic. This allows moves that increase the heuristic to ultimately look better than continuing to repeat moves that do not increase the heuristic.

 

  1. How does the process of “programming” an artificial neural network differ from the traditional programming process?

 

ANSWER: The traditional programming process involves giving machine specific instructions as to what it is to do, whereas “programming” an artificial neural network is a training process involving numerous trail-and-error steps.

 

  1. When trying to understand a natural language, what are the distinctions between syntactic analysis, semantic analysis, and contextual analysis?

 

ANSWER:  Syntactic analysis seeks to identify the grammatical role of each word, semantic analysis seeks to identify the meaning of the sentence, and contextual analysis seeks to resolve ambiguities in meaning by considering the context of the sentence.

 

  1. Do you believe the weak AI conjecture, the strong AI conjecture, or neither? Support your choice.

 

ANSWER:  Answers will vary but all should reflect an understanding of what the conjectures are.

 

  1. What is the frame problem?

 

ANSWER: It is the problem of keeping information up-to-date in an environment in which changes have indirect consequences.

 

  1. For the following map:

 

 

  1. Draw the search tree generated by a breadth-first search in finding a path from Home to Southside. What is the found path?

 

  1. Draw the search tree generated by a best-fit search in finding a path from Home to Southside assuming that “the straight line distance to Southside” were used as the heuristic. What is the found path?

 

  1. Draw the search tree generated by the A* algorithm in finding the path from Home to Southside assuming that “the straight line distance to Southside” were used as the heuristic. What is the found path?

 

ANSWER:  A. (The order of the rows may vary)

 

Home

/               |             \

Cody                  Oak                 Taft

/       \                 /       \               /       \

Southside     Oak     Cody    Pace     Pace    Dade

 

The found path is Home to Cody, and then to Southside

 

 

  1. (The order of the rows may vary)

 

Home

/         |         \

Cody          Oak         Taft

/        \

Cody             Pace

/        \

Taft            Dade

/        \

Taft            Southside

 

The found path is Home to Oak, to Pace, to Dade, and then finally to Southside

 

 

  1. (The order of the rows may vary)

 

Home

/         |         \

Cody          Oak         Taft

|               |

Pace         Dade

|

Southside

 

The found path is Home to Taft, to Dade, and then finally to Southside

 

 

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