Test Bank For Cognition Exploring The Science of the Mind 6th Edition by Daniel Reisberg

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Cognition Exploring The Science of the Mind 6th Edition by Daniel Reisberg

 

SAMPLE QUESTIONS

 

Chapter 01: The Science of the Mind

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Which of the following topics is NOT commonly studied within cognitive psychology?
a. dreaming c. memory
b. decision making d. attention

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Scope of Cognitive Psychology

OBJ:   1.1                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Cognitive processes are NOT necessary for which daily activity?
a. reading a newspaper c. talking on the phone
b. studying for a test d. breathing

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Scope of Cognitive Psychology

OBJ:   1.1                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Alyssa wants to be a psychologist but is unsure which topic within psychology most interests her. Which of the following topics would be LEAST likely to lead her into cognitive psychology?
a. amnesia c. Lyme’s disease
b. language acquisition d. problem-solving strategies

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Scope of Cognitive Psychology

OBJ:   1.1                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. The phrase “Betsy wants to bring Jacob a present. She shook her piggy bank” is easily understood by most people because
a. our previous knowledge fills in the necessary details.
b. introspection allows us to understand how Betsy feels.
c. English is a simple language to understand.
d. the sentences are short.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Broad Role for Memory

OBJ:   1.1                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following statements is LEAST likely to apply to patient H.M.?
a. “He cannot remember what he did earlier today, including events that took place just an hour ago.”
b. “He read this story last month, but he was still surprised by how the story turned out.”
c. “Even though he has encountered the nurse many times, he is still unable to recognize her.”
d. “He remembers emotional information, like the news of someone dying.”

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   The Scope of Cognitive Psychology

OBJ:   1.2                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. H.M. provides an illustration for which major theme of the chapter?
a. Introspection is not sufficient evidence in and of itself.
b. Cognition is interested in mental processes, as well as activities that depend on these processes.
c. Memory is not very important.
d. Damage to a small part of the brain can have a negligible effect on behavior.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   The Scope of Cognitive Psychology

OBJ:   1.2                 MSC:  Evaluating

 

  1. Patients suffering from clinical amnesia are characterized by a disorder in their
a. memory.
b. ability to recognize patterns.
c. speech.
d. ability to comprehend language.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Amnesia and Memory Loss

OBJ:   1.2                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The phrase “fool me once, shame on you; fool me twice, shame on me” would not apply to H.M. Why?
a. H.M. was never fooled.
b. H.M. was incapable of learning.
c. H.M. was able to learn certain things, like if someone was lying to him.
d. H.M. values practical jokes.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Amnesia and Memory Loss

OBJ:   1.2                 MSC:  Evaluating

 

  1. The term “introspection” refers to the
a. process by which one individual seeks to infer the thoughts of another individual.
b. procedure of examining thought processing by monitoring the brain’s electrical activity.
c. process of each person looking within, to observe his or her own thoughts and ideas.
d. technique of studying thought by interpreting the symbols used in communication.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Limits of Introspection

OBJ:   1.3                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. A participant is asked to look within himself or herself and report on his or her own mental processes. This method is called
a. self-evaluation. c. introspection.
b. self-monitoring. d. mentalistic study.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Limits of Introspection

OBJ:   1.3                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Introspection CANNOT be used to study
a. topics that are strongly colored by emotion.
b. mental events that are unconscious.
c. processes that involve conceptual knowledge.
d. events that take a long time to unfold.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   The Limits of Introspection

OBJ:   1.3                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following statements about introspection is FALSE?
a. It is based on opinions, not facts.
b. It is subjective.
c. It provides strong evidence for hypothesis-testing.
d. It was an early form of evidence.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   The Limits of Introspection

OBJ:   1.3                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Genie wonders why she can never remember the names of new acquaintances. In search of an answer, she analyzes her mental behaviors and feelings about meeting new people. Genie is engaged in which process?
a. subvocal rehearsal c. learning history analysis
b. introspection d. goal retrieval

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   The Limits of Introspection

OBJ:   1.3                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Introspection is considered the first step toward a science of cognitive psychology because
a. it was the first systematic attempt to observe and record the content of mental processes.
b. interpretation of our mental lives requires training.
c. conscious events are just as important as unconscious events.
d. it provided the first testable claims.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   The Limits of Introspection

OBJ:   1.3                 MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Which of the following statements is NOT a concern about the use of introspection as a research tool?
a. A verbal report based on introspection may provide a distorted picture of mental processes that were nonverbal in nature.
b. Different participants use different terms to describe similar experiences.
c. At present, there is enormous uncertainty about the relationship between the activity in the brain and the ideas and thoughts available to introspection.
d. Participants’ motivation may influence what they choose to disclose.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   The Limits of Introspection

OBJ:   1.3                 MSC:  Evaluating

 

  1. Which of the following statements provides the most serious obstacle to the use of introspection as a source of scientific evidence?
a. When facts are provided by introspection, we have no way to assess the facts themselves, independent of the reporter’s particular perspective on them.
b. Introspection requires an alert, verbally expressive investigator; otherwise, the evidence provided by introspection will be of poor quality.
c. Introspection provides evidence about some mental events but cannot provide evidence about unconscious processes or ideas.
d. The process of reporting on one’s own mental events can take a lot of time and can slow down the processes under investigation.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   The Limits of Introspection

OBJ:   1.3                 MSC:  Evaluating

 

  1. In cognition, as in other sciences, we first develop ________ and then ________ them.
a. tests; prove c. hypotheses; prove
b. theories; test d. hypotheses; test

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   The Limits of Introspection

OBJ:   1.3 | 1.4          MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. A behaviorist, like John Watson, is LEAST likely to believe which of the following statements?
a. Our experiences influence our behaviors and our minds.
b. Children are a good source for data.
c. The mind is not amenable to scientific inquiry because it is not easily observed.
d. When it comes to collecting data, introspection is as valuable as behavior.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   The Years of Behaviorism

OBJ:   1.3 | 1.4          MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Historically, the movement known as behaviorism was encouraged by scholars’ concerns regarding
a. psychotherapy.
b. an exaggerated focus on participants’ responses.
c. research based on introspection.
d. a focus on brain mechanisms and a corresponding inattention to mental states.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Years of Behaviorism

OBJ:   1.4                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Behaviorists study organisms’
a. expectations. c. dreams.
b. desires and motivations. d. responses.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Years of Behaviorism

OBJ:   1.4                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Behaviorists argued that ________ were most important in analyzing behavior.
a. expectations c. wishes
b. beliefs d. learning histories

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Years of Behaviorism

OBJ:   1.4                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following would a classical behaviorist be LEAST likely to study?
a. a participant’s response to a particular situation
b. a participant’s beliefs
c. changes in a participant’s behavior that follow changes in the environment
d. principles that apply equally to human behavior and to the behavior of other species

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   The Years of Behaviorism

OBJ:   1.4                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Modern psychology turned away from behaviorism in its classic form because
a. human behavior is routinely determined by our understanding of stimuli.
b. humans are more similar to computers than to other species studied in the laboratory.
c. psychology rejected behaviorism’s emphasis on an organism’s subjective states.
d. an organism’s behavior can be changed by learning.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   The Years of Behaviorism

OBJ:   1.4                 MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. If Sheila says, “Pass the salt, please,” you are likely to pass her the salt. You’ll probably respond in the same way if Sheila (a chemistry major) instead asks, “Could you please hand me the sodium chloride crystals?” This observation seems to indicate that our behavior is
a. primarily controlled by the physical characteristics of the stimuli we encounter.
b. shaped by the literal meanings of the stimuli we encounter.
c. determined by simple associations among the stimuli we encounter.
d. governed by what the stimuli we encounter mean to us.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   The Years of Behaviorism

OBJ:   1.4                 MSC:  Evaluating

 

  1. The process of taking observable information and inferring a cause is known as
a. mentalistic inference. c. cause and effect.
b. the transcendental method. d. introspection.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   The Roots of the Cognitive Revolution

OBJ:   1.4                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. One important difference between classical behaviorism and cognitive psychology is that cognitive psychology
a. argues that unobservable mental states can be scientifically studied.
b. rejects the use of human participants.
c. insists on studying topics that can be directly and objectively observed.
d. emphasizes the evolutionary roots of human behavior.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Roots of the Cognitive Revolution

OBJ:   1.4                 MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Cognitive psychology often relies on the transcendental method, in which
a. mental events are explained by referring to events in the central nervous system.
b. information from introspection transcends behavioral data.
c. researchers seek to infer the properties of unseen events on the basis of the observable effects of those events.
d. theories are tested via computer models.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Roots of the Cognitive Revolution

OBJ:   1.4                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The philosopher Immanuel Kant based many of his arguments on transcendental inferences. A commonplace example of such an inference is a
a. physicist inferring what the attributes of the electron must be on the basis of visible effects that it causes.
b. computer scientist inferring what the attributes of a program must be on the basis of his or her long-range goals for the program’s functioning.
c. biologist inferring how an organism is likely to behave in the future on the basis of assessment of past behaviors.
d. behaviorist inferring how a behavior was learned on the basis of a deduction from well-established principles of learning.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   The Roots of the Cognitive Revolution

OBJ:   1.4                 MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Cognitive psychologists try to make inferences about causes, based on the observed effects. In this way, cognitive psychologists are most like
a. crime scene investigators. c. chefs.
b. garbage collectors. d. construction workers.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   The Roots of the Cognitive Revolution

OBJ:   1.4                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. The “cognitive revolution” is named as such because:
a. the focus changed from behaviors to the processes underlying those behaviors.
b. the change was accompanied by violence.
c. the focus changed from animals to humans.
d. philosophers such as Kant were strongly opposed to the change.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Roots of the Cognitive Revolution

OBJ:   1.4                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. The multicomponent model of working memory shows that
a. cognitive theories must be accompanied by a model.
b. we can only test things we can physically see.
c. theories are built around testable predictions.
d. evidence from multiple sources often leads to confusion.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   The Roots of the Cognitive Revolution

OBJ:   1.5                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Subvocalization is also known as
a. the reading buffer. c. the inner ear.
b. the inner voice. d. memory speech.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Working Memory: A Proposal

OBJ:   1.5                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The technical term for talking to oneself when rehearsing verbal material is
a. vocal memory. c. subvocalization.
b. schizophrenia. d. subconscious reading.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Working Memory: A Proposal

OBJ:   1.5                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Within the working-memory system, mental “assistants” are available to allow the storage of information soon to be needed but not currently in use. A crucial “scratch pad” is the
a. output buffer. c. response-planning system.
b. executive assistant. d. articulatory rehearsal loop.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Working Memory: A Proposal

OBJ:   1.5                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. In using the articulatory rehearsal loop, the central executive temporarily relies on storage in
a. a phonological buffer. c. a subvocal bank.
b. episodic memory. d. a visual form in visual memory.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Working Memory: A Proposal

OBJ:   1.5                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Working memory acts to
a. store an unlimited amount of information.
b. store a limited amount of information for an unlimited amount of time.
c. keep relevant information active for a short period of time.
d. store irrelevant information so it does not influence long-term memory.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Working Memory: Some Initial Observations

OBJ:   1.5                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Span tests measure
a. the size of the phonological buffer.
b. working-memory capacity.
c. whether there is a central executive.
d. articulatory loop processing.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Working Memory: Some Initial Observations

OBJ:   1.5                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. In an experimental procedure, participants hear a sequence of letters and then, a moment later, are required to repeat back the sequence. The longest sequence for which participants can easily do this is likely to contain approximately ________ letters.
a. 3 c. 7
b. 5 d. 12

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Working Memory: Some Initial Observations

OBJ:   1.5                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. You give your friend a series of lists of letters to remember. With each perfectly recalled list, you increase the list length by one or two items, until he begins to make errors. This sort of test examines
a. working-memory span. c. brain activity.
b. the limits of concurrent articulation. d. memory for abstract objects.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Working Memory: Some Initial Observations

OBJ:   1.5                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Imagine a friend is giving you her new phone number. You have nothing with which to write the number down, so you try to remember it. Which cognitive process will you engage in to accomplish this task?
a. amnesia c. introspection
b. long-term memory d. working memory

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Working Memory: Some Initial Observations

OBJ:   1.5 | 1.8          MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Consider the sentence, “Sam, tired from hours of reading and working on his term paper, fell into bed at last.” When you reach the sentence’s 13th word (“fell”), you need to remember how the sentence began; otherwise, you won’t know who fell into bed. The memory used for this task is called ________ memory.
a. episodic c. generic
b. working d. long-term

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Working Memory: Some Initial Observations

OBJ:   1.5 | 1.8          MSC:  Applying

 

  1. You want to order a pizza and need to pay with a credit card. You glance at your credit card number and then put the card back into your wallet. When it comes time to pay, you can only remember the first four numbers. Which of the following provides the best explanation as to why?
a. Working memory is limited to 15 items, and your card has 16 digits.
b. Your credit card number is mostly fours and twos and you get confused.
c. The pizza delivery guy keeps talking while you are rehearsing the digits.
d. Working-memory capacity is reduced because you have to hold the phone.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Working Memory: Some Initial Observations

OBJ:   1.5 | 1.8          MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Someone who is born deaf is likely to encounter working memory errors if the sign for a given word
a. is too complicated.
b. is similar to another sign for another word.
c. has more than ten letters.
d. has been seen recently.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   The Nature of the Working-Memory Evidence

OBJ:   1.5 | 1.8          MSC:  Applying

 

  1. A participant hears the sequence “F, D, P, U, G, Q, R,” and then, a moment later, must repeat the sequence aloud. If errors occur in this procedure, they are likely to involve
a. sound-alike confusions, for example, “T ” instead of “D.”
b. look-alike confusions, for example, “O ” instead of “Q.”
c. confusions with near neighbors in the alphabet, for example, “G ” instead of “F.”
d. confusions because of strong associations, for example, “I ” instead of “Q ” because of the familiarity of “IQ.”

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Working Memory: A Proposal

OBJ:   1.5                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Finish the analogy: boss is to worker as ________ is to phonological buffer.
a. scratch pad c. articulatory loop
b. central executive d. cognition

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Working Memory: A Proposal

OBJ:   1.6                 MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. We know the articulatory rehearsal loop is separate from the other components of working memory because
a. the multicomponent model is true.
b. manipulations like concurrent articulation compromise the loop but do not affect the other components.
c. it is used for storage and the other components are not.
d. problem solving does not require the rehearsal loop.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Evidence for the Working-Memory System

OBJ:   1.5                 MSC:  Evaluating

 

  1. Theorists have proposed that working memory is best understood as a system involving multiple components. The activities of this system are controlled by a resource called the
a. buffer. c. central processor.
b. supervisor. d. central executive.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Evidence for the Working-Memory System

OBJ:   1.5                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The task of saying, “tah, tah, tah,” while taking a span test to assess working memory is known as
a. concurrent articulation. c. subvocalization.
b. working-memory speech. d. the phonological buffer.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Evidence for the Working-Memory System

OBJ:   1.6                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Participants in an experiment are shown a series of digits and then asked to repeat them back a moment later. While being shown the sequence, the participants are required to say, “tah, tah, tah,” out loud, over and over again. The evidence indicates that the recitation of “tah, tah, tah” will
a. have no effect on participants’ memory performance.
b. provide a rhythm that helps organize participants’ rehearsal of the digits, thereby improving their memory performance.
c. block participants from using their inner voices to rehearse the digits, thereby interfering with the memory task.
d. force participants to rely on the central executive rather than on a less powerful lower-level assistant, thereby improving memory performance.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Evidence for the Working-Memory System

OBJ:   1.6                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Participants are shown a series of complex shapes (that are not easily named) and asked to draw them from memory after they have been taken away. Which of the following statements about this exercise is true?
a. On average, participants can correctly draw ten of the shapes from memory.
b. Participants can use the process of subvocalization to help them remember the shapes.
c. Concurrent articulation decreases performance dramatically.
d. Saying, “tah, tah, tah,” out loud while doing this task should not affect performance.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Evidence for the Working-Memory System

OBJ:   1.6                 MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Bert has sustained damage to a part of his left temporal lobe, which is important for language production. Which of the following problems would we expect to see if Bert were given a WM test?
a. He would not be able to memorize visual shapes.
b. He would have difficulty rehearsing items with verbal labels.
c. His WM would be entirely nonexistent.
d. No WM problems would be observed.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Evidence for the Working-Memory System

OBJ:   1.6 | 1.8          MSC:  Applying

 

  1. An elderly woman has suffered a stroke in her left temporal lobe and consequently can no longer name common nouns. This provides evidence that language is located in the left hemisphere for most people. What kind of evidence is this?
a. introspection c. neuroscience
b. unique population d. behavioral

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   The Nature of the Working-Memory Evidence

OBJ:   1.7                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Which of the following kinds of evidence is LEAST likely to be used in cognitive psychology?
a. case studies of patients with brain damage
b. behavioral findings such as response times
c. brain activity in the form of fMRI
d. self-reported dreams

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Nature of the Working-Memory Evidence

OBJ:   1.7                 MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Even though the articulatory loop cannot be seen directly, we are confident it exists because
a. it is the only possible explanation.
b. without it, we could not remember phone numbers.
c. people with anarthria show deficits in the phonological buffer.
d. behavioral manipulations, like articulatory suppression, suggest it is a distinct component.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   The Nature of the Working-Memory Evidence

OBJ:   1.7                 MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT central to research in neuropsychology?
a. the use of introspection
b. how brain dysfunctions affect performance
c. brain development
d. brain-imaging technology

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Nature of the Working-Memory Evidence

OBJ:   1.7                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Evidence from anarthric (speechless) patients suggests that
a. the muscles necessary for speech are also needed for subvocalization.
b. subvocalization does not use words.
c. the muscles needed for speech are not needed for subvocalization.
d. these patients are unable to subvocalize.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   The Nature of the Working-Memory Evidence

OBJ:   1.7                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Recent developments in brain-imaging technology can help us in cognitive psychology. For example, we can now tell exactly which parts of the brain are especially engaged in working-memory rehearsal. These techniques are the central sources of data for
a. modeling. c. developmental imaging.
b. neuropsychology. d. cognitive neuroscience.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   The Nature of the Working-Memory Evidence

OBJ:   1.7                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Evidence from neuroimaging studies suggests that subvocalization is most closely related to
a. speaking out loud, because the same muscles are used.
b. remembering a feeling.
c. visual imagery.
d. planning to speak, because some of the same brain regions are active, as in normal speech planning.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   The Nature of the Working-Memory Evidence

OBJ:   1.7                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Cognitive psychology relies on evidence from multiple domains (behavioral, neuroscience, trauma, etc.) because
a. we cannot see the cognitive processes directly.
b. all evidence is good evidence.
c. converging evidence provides additional opportunities for predictions.
d. other sciences require evidence from many places.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Nature of the Working-Memory Evidence

OBJ:   1.7                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Working memory provides one example of how
a. important memory is to cognition.
b. cognitive processes are essential to most daily tasks.
c. children develop memory.
d. we could not function without a multicomponent system.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Working Memory in a Broader Context

OBJ:   1.7                 MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. It is important to gather evidence from several sources because
a. alternative explanations for any single piece of evidence could exist.
b. it is easier to explain a lot of data, relative to a little data.
c. a single study is likely to be decisive.
d. people often make mistakes.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   The Nature of the Working-Memory Evidence

OBJ:   1.7                 MSC:  Analyzing

 

ESSAY

 

  1. You’ve just ordered your lunch and are waiting for your food to be delivered when your friend Jill says “I don’t understand why you would need to take a whole class on cognitive psychology. It doesn’t seem that important to our everyday lives.” Describe to Jill all the ways she will rely on cognitive processing during this meal.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   The Scope of Cognitive Psychology

OBJ:   1.1                 MSC:  Creating

 

  1. Describe the case of H.M. What does his story tell us about the role that memory plays in our sense of self?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Amnesia and Memory Loss            OBJ:   1.2

MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Compare and contrast the introspection, behaviorist, and cognitive approaches to studying mental activities. Which approach do you find most compelling, and why?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   The Cognitive Revolution               OBJ:   1.3 | 1.4

MSC:  Evaluating

 

  1. Mikey is four years old and has begun acting out. Every time he throws a tantrum, his mother rushes over to console him. In analyzing this behavior, what sort of factors would most interest a behaviorist? On what factors would a cognitive psychologist using the transcendental method focus? What conclusions will each psychologist reach?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   The Years of Behaviorism | The Roots of the Cognitive Revolution

OBJ:   1.4                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Despite the fact that we cannot see (with the naked eye) mental activity, cognitive psychologists are able to scientifically study these processes. Explain why this is possible by describing Kantian logic. Next, provide at least three measureable variables and explain why they could be reliably used as proxies for mental behavior.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   The Roots of the Cognitive Revolution

OBJ:   1.4                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Imagine you are trying to memorize a new phone number. How would Baddeley and Hitch explain the process by which this would occur?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Working Memory: A Proposal        OBJ:   1.5

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Dr. Mnemonic conducted a study in which neural activity was measured (with fMRI) while participants were presented with either digits or abstract images to memorize. He found that the left temporal lobe was active when the digits were presented, and the right parietal lobe was active for the abstract images. Interpret these results in terms of the multicomponent model. Does it support this model or refute it? Why?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   The Nature of the Working-Memory Evidence

OBJ:   1.5                 MSC:  Evaluating

 

  1. Describe how cognitive psychologists arrive at knowledge by answering the following questions about working memory (WM).
  2. Describe the multicomponent model of WM.
  3. What is anarthria? What are the implications of this disorder for the multicomponent model of WM?
  4. Describe one other source of knowledge, besides special populations, that can be used to evaluate the multicomponent model of WM.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Working Memory: A Proposal        OBJ:   1.5 | 1.7

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Imagine you are briefly presented with, and asked to memorize, the following letters for an immediate recall test: Q, R, T, B, O, W, A. How would you go about remembering those items? (Make sure you use appropriate terminology.) Now, imagine that you are given the same memory task but asked to say the word “the” while the letters are being presented. How would this second condition influence your mental behavior? What effect would it have on your performance?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   Evidence for the Working-Memory System

OBJ:   1.6                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Think of a real-world situation in which you would rely on working memory. Describe the situation and at least one real-world factor that would affect (positively or negatively) your working memory in that situation. Create your own example and do not use one that was discussed in the book or in class.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Working Memory in a Broader Context

OBJ:   1.8                 MSC:  Creating

 

Chapter 03: Visual Perception

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. If visual information conflicts with other information, we usually
a. trust the visual input.
b. distrust the visual input, as our eyes can play tricks on us.
c. trust input from other senses, like auditory input.
d. become confused and give up.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Visual System

OBJ:   3.1                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. The importance of vision for humans is reflected in the
a. close proximity of the eyes to the visual cortex.
b. inability of brain damage to disrupt the visual system.
c. lack of a “blind spot” in humans.
d. relative size of the visual cortex.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   The Visual System

OBJ:   3.1                 MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. The ________ is the part of the eye involved in transducing light energy into neural energy.
a. lens c. pupil
b. cornea d. retina

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Photoreceptors

OBJ:   3.1                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following would NOT be considered part of the fovea?
a. a cluster of cones in the center of the retina
b. the area of the retina found far out in the periphery
c. the region of the retina with the greatest acuity
d. the area of the retina on which we place a target image in order to see the target clearly

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   The Photoreceptors

OBJ:   3.1                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following statements does NOT illustrate the difference between rods and cones?
a. Rods are sensitive to lower levels of light.
b. Only cones are able to discriminate color (hue).
c. There are three types of rods (for three different wavelengths of light) and only one type of cone.
d. Cones have greater acuity.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   The Photoreceptors

OBJ:   3.1                 MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. ________ are located primarily in the fovea, while ________ are located primarily in the periphery.
a. Cones; rods
b. Rods; cones
c. Short-wave cones; long-wave cones
d. Long-wave cones; short-wave cones

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Photoreceptors

OBJ:   3.1                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following statements about the retina is FALSE?
a. The photoreceptors communicate directly with the ganglion cells.
b. The axons of ganglion cells form the optic nerve.
c. You have a “blindspot” in the retina where there are no rods or cones.
d. Bipolar cells communicate with both photoreceptors and ganglion cells.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   The Photoreceptors

OBJ:   3.1                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following statements about the visual stimulus, light, is FALSE?
a. Light is characterized in wavelengths that vary in frequency and amplitude.
b. Color (hue) is represented by the amplitude of the wavelength.
c. Our visual system is only able to detect a small proportion of all of the electromagnetic spectrum.
d. Red light is associated with longer waves, relative to blue light.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Photoreceptors

OBJ:   3.1                 MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) acts as
a. a way station between the eye and the occipital cortex, located in the thalamus.
b. an important area in the amygdala, associated with long-term memory.
c. a relay station to the amygdala.
d. the location in the temporal cortex where auditory information is stored.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Lateral Inhibition

OBJ:   3.1                 MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. A researcher wishes to determine exactly when a particular neuron is firing. A technique well suited to this purpose is
a. neuropsychological testing. c. stereotaxis.
b. lesion studies. d. single-cell recording.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Single Neurons and Single-Cell Recording

OBJ:   3.2                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Single-cell recordings measure the ________ of individual neurons.
a. shape c. release of neurotransmitters
b. pattern of firing d. synaptic connections

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Single Neurons and Single-Cell Recording

OBJ:   3.2                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Through single-cell recordings, researchers have identified the ________ neurons in the visual system.
a. receptive fields of c. shape of
b. connections between d. problems with some

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Single Neurons and Single-Cell Recording

OBJ:   3.2                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Because of its center-surround organization, a neuron that has its entire receptive field exposed to bright light will
a. fire rapidly.
b. stop firing entirely.
c. maintain the same rate of firing as if there was no light presented.
d. fire slowly until the light turns off, then begin firing rapidly.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Single Neurons and Single-Cell Recording

OBJ:   3.2 | 3.3          MSC:  Applying

 

  1. A researcher has identified the receptive field for a neuron and has determined that the receptive field has a center-surround organization. If the researcher were to shine light into the entire receptive field, including both the center and the surrounding areas, we would expect the neuron to
a. continue firing at its resting rate. c. decrease its firing rate.
b. increase its firing rate. d. cease firing.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Multiple Types of Receptive Fields

OBJ:   3.2                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. A researcher wishes to define the receptive field for a particular neuron in the visual cortex. To do this, the researcher will need to specify
a. the portion of the neuron that receives input from neighboring neurons.
b. an area within the visual field wherein the cell will fire if the target appears.
c. where the neuron is located within the visual cortex.
d. the brain area from which the neuron is receiving its input.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Multiple Types of Receptive Fields

OBJ:   3.2                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Cells detecting the boundary of a surface are subject to less lateral inhibition than cells detecting the center of the same surface. This leads to an effect called
a. lateral enhancement. c. the boundary rule.
b. edge enhancement. d. the all-or-none law.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Lateral Inhibition

OBJ:   3.3                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Cells A and B receive the same high levels of stimulation, but Cell A shows a lower level of activity relative to Cell B. A likely explanation for this fact is that Cell A
a. is defective.
b. is receiving input from the edge of a surface, while Cell B is receiving input from a portion of the surface away from the edge.
c. is being laterally inhibited by other nearby cells.
d. has a higher resting level than Cell B.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Lateral Inhibition

OBJ:   3.3                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Lateral inhibition leads to which perceptual experience?
a. The middle of an object is emphasized.
b. The edge of an object is enhanced.
c. Edges of objects tend to fade into the background.
d. Colors appear brighter next to a textured background.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Lateral Inhibition

OBJ:   3.3                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Ganglion cells A, B, and C are next to each other in the retina and inhibit each other laterally. If light is hitting the entire receptive fields of A and B, but only partially hitting the receptive field of C, what will happen?
a. A will be the most active cell.
b. B will be the most active cell.
c. C will be the most active cell.
d. All cells will be equally active.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Lateral Inhibition

OBJ:   3.3                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Patients who have suffered damage to the occipital-parietal pathway (the “where” system) will have difficulties with which of the following tasks?
a. visually identifying a toothbrush on the counter in front of them
b. describing the function of the toothbrush without touching it
c. reaching in the correct direction to retrieve the toothbrush
d. knowing how to use the toothbrush once they have retrieved it

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Parallel Processing in the Visual System

OBJ:   3.4                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Parvo cells are similar to magno cells in what way?
a. size of the cell c. pattern of firing
b. size of the receptive field d. location in the visual system

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Parallel Processing in the Visual System

OBJ:   3.4                 MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. The specialization evident in visual processing shows that
a. the visual system relies on parallel processing.
b. all of the various aspects of visual processing occur within the occipital cortex.
c. the visual system relies exclusively on serial processing.
d. all visual processing occurs in the right hemisphere.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Parallel Processing in the Visual System

OBJ:   3.4                 MSC:  Evaluating

 

  1. You are at the zoo watching a tiger sleep. It suddenly awakes and lurches in your direction. Spatial position would NOT provide information about the tiger’s
a. form. c. motion patterns.
b. color. d. dangerous nature.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Visual Maps and Firing Synchrony

OBJ:   3.4                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. To perceive the visual world, we have to reunite various elements of a scene together so that these elements are perceived in an integrated fashion. Which of the following is NOT likely to be involved in this task?
a. attention
b. memory
c. spatial position
d. different groups of neurons firing in synchrony

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Visual Maps and Firing Synchrony

OBJ:   3.4                 MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Which of the following characteristics is NOT used to diagnose visual stimuli by neurons in the visual system?
a. the rate of firing of the neuron
b. the rhythm of the firing of the neuron
c. the chemicals released by the neuron
d. the shape of the neuron

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Visual Maps and Firing Synchrony

OBJ:   3.4                 MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Visual agnosia is associated with damage to which of the following?
a. area V1
b. the “where” system, which carries information from the occipital cortex to the parietal cortex
c. the “what” system, which carries information from the occipital cortex to the temporal cortex
d. area MT

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Parallel Processing in the Visual System

OBJ:   3.5                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Julie has sustained damage to the “what” system in her brain. She will likely have difficulty with which of the following tasks?
a. remembering where she put her keys
b. identifying a chair
c. providing directions to the store
d. hitting a baseball with a bat

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Parallel Processing in the Visual System

OBJ:   3.5                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Some people have sustained brain damage and lost the ability to identify color. Other people sustained damage to a different area of the brain and lost the ability to detect motion. What does this indicate about our visual system?
a. Identifying color is more important than identifying motion.
b. Neither color nor motion detection is critical to survival, if it can be erased through brain damage.
c. We have specialized areas for processing different kinds of visual information.
d. The brain is unable to simultaneously process information in multiple ways.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Parallel Processing in the Visual System

OBJ:   3.5                 MSC:  Evaluating

 

  1. The primary visual cortex is located
a. immediately behind one’s eyeballs.
b. in the middle of the brain, near the thalamus.
c. at the part of the cortex that is farthest from the eyes.
d. in the parietal lobe.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Parallel Processing in the Visual System

OBJ:   3.5                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. ________ cells in the LGN are specialized for spatial analysis and form detection, whereas ________ cells are specialized for the detection of motion and depth.
a. Magnocellular; parvocellular c. Parvocellular; p-cells
b. M-cells; magnocellular d. Parvocellular; magnocellular

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Parallel Processing in the Visual System

OBJ:   3.5                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Brad is able to read a clock, but is unable to see the arms of a clock move from position to position. He is suffering from
a. akinetopsia. c. visual neglect.
b. change blindness. d. prosopagnosia.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   What If…       OBJ:   3.5

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Someone with akinetopsia would have difficulty with all of the following EXCEPT
a. crossing the street. c. playing Pac-Man.
b. pouring a drink. d. recognizing faces.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   What If…       OBJ:   3.5

MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Human brains have a distinct division-of-labor strategy. Each task is achieved as a result of multiple brain areas working together. But the work of the various parts of the brain must be compiled into a finished whole. The issue of how this reassembly works is referred to as the
a. binding problem. c. reassembly law.
b. Humpty Dumpty dilemma. d. ultimate puzzle.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Putting the Pieces Back Together

OBJ:   3.5 | 3.6          MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following does NOT provide an example for parallel processing in the visual system?
a. Rods and cones function simultaneously in the retina.
b. There are magnocellular and parvocellular cells in the LGN.
c. You have two eyes that process different information, but work at the same time.
d. The “what” and “where” streams in the visual association cortex work together.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Parallel Processing in the Visual System

OBJ:   3.6                 MSC:  Evaluating

 

  1. Which of the following would NOT be considered an advantage of parallel processing in the visual system?
a. It is fast.
b. Information is processed only once, making it efficient.
c. Multiple areas can process the information simultaneously.
d. Disparate systems can work together to negotiate an accurate interpretation.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Parallel Processing in the Visual System

OBJ:   3.6                 MSC:  Evaluating

 

  1. The Necker cube is an example of an ambiguous figure. Which of the following statements regarding the cube is FALSE?
a. The information given in the drawing does not cause perception of the cube in one orientation over the other.
b. The lines on the page are neutral in regard to the shape’s configuration in depth.
c. The lines on the page contradict one another and so a cube can never be perceived.
d. There is more than one perceptual interpretation of the cube’s orientation.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Form Perception

OBJ:   3.7                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. The face/vase example illustrates what important principle of perceptual organization?
a. If the figure and the background are ambiguous, the image can be interpreted in multiple ways.
b. The mind interprets depth, even when none is depicted in the image.
c. Faces are easier to see than vases, because of the social aspect of human behavior.
d. The perceiver does not contribute information to an ambiguous image.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Form Perception

OBJ:   3.7                 MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Which of the following statements most accurately represents the order of events involved in interpreting a visual stimulus?
a. First you perceive the components of the stimulus, then you interpret the stimulus.
b. First you interpret the stimulus, then you perceive the components.
c. You perceive the components and interpret the stimulus in a parallel fashion.
d. There is not sufficient data to know how this process occurs.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Organization and “Features”

OBJ:   3.7                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. In order to summarize the Gestalt psychologists’ movement in a few words, one might say
a. “If you can’t see it happen, it isn’t worth studying.”
b. “The perceptual whole is different than the sum of its parts.”
c. “All that is important happens in the subconscious.”
d. “What you see is what you get.”

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Form Perception

OBJ:   3.8                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Which of the following sentences best illustrates the effect that Gestalt principles have on perception?
a. “Go beyond the information given.”
b. “Seeing is believing.”
c. “Think outside the box.”
d. “Believing is seeing.”

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Form Perception

OBJ:   3.8                 MSC:  Evaluating

 

  1. Which of the Gestalt principles states that we tend to perceive objects in groups?
a. similarity c. simplicity
b. proximity d. closure

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Organization and “Features”

OBJ:   3.8                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Jenna sees a picture of a black lab standing in front of its owner. The dog is blocking part of the owner’s leg, so that some of the leg is unavailable to Jenna. How is Jenna likely to perceive this image?
a. She will think the leg continues behind the body of the dog.
b. She will think the leg behind the dog’s body is missing.
c. She will assume that the dog is assisting a man with only one leg.
d. She will not make any assumptions about the image and rely only on the actual stimuli in the picture.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Organization and “Features”

OBJ:   3.8                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. The moon often looks very large when it is low in the sky, but looks smaller when it is high in the sky. Which of the following could account for this phenomenon?
a. The moon changes size when it moves through the sky.
b. The moon looks larger when it is closer to you, and it is closer when it is low in the sky.
c. The moon seems smaller when it is closer to the sun, which is very large.
d. When the moon is lower in the sky, other objects like buildings or trees provide a reference point for size comparisons.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Constancy      OBJ:   3.9

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Molly went to the mall and parked her red car under a tree. When she returned to her car a few hours later, only half of the car was still in the shade. How will Molly perceive this situation?
a. Molly will perceive the car as two different shades, one dark red (in shade) and one brighter red (in sunlight).
b. Molly will perceive the car as a single color, despite the changes in lighting.
c. Molly will perceive the shaded portion of the car as farther away, relative to the part of the car in sunlight.
d. Molly will use the background color of the asphalt to determine that the car is not actually two different colors.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Constancy      OBJ:   3.9

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Despite the fact that sensory stimuli can change from moment to moment, we perceive the details (color, shape, etc.) of an image to be stable because of
a. constancy. c. proximity.
b. memory. d. good continuation.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Constancy      OBJ:   3.9

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Jose is walking toward Dan, who is standing still. As Dan watches Jose move toward him, a series of physical and perceptual events will occur. Which of the following is NOT one of those events?
a. The image of Jose will increase on Dan’s retina.
b. Dan will consciously make the effort to calculate Jose’s distance based on the size of the retinal image.
c. Dan will use the changing relationship between Jose and the background to make inferences about Jose’s movement.
d. Dan will use the changing relationship between Jose and the background to make inferences about Jose’s size.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Constancy      OBJ:   3.9

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. If a cat casts a 5 millimeter image on your retina when it is 10 feet away from you, that same cat will cast an image that is ________ millimeters when it is 20 feet away from you.
a. 5 c. 2.5
b. 10 d. 20

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Constancy      OBJ:   3.9

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Visual illusions often occur because
a. one’s perception of the components of the stimulus are flawed.
b. one’s interpretation of the stimulus is incorrect.
c. one’s cognitive processes change when seeing an illusion.
d. of obstructions in the image.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Illusions         OBJ:   3.9

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following statements most accurately describes visual illusions?
a. The cognitive architecture that helps us in most cases causes illusions in other cases.
b. Illusions are mostly beneficial to perception.
c. Illusions will not occur if you know how to avoid them.
d. Illusions can occur for shape and size, but not for color or brightness.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Illusions         OBJ:   3.9

MSC:  Evaluating

 

  1. One way that we can perceive depth is through our awareness of the adjustment our lens is making. This cue would be
a. a monocular depth cue. c. interposition.
b. a binocular depth cue. d. constancy.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   The Perception of Depth

OBJ:   3.10               MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. The blockage of one’s view by another object can provide information about depth perception. This is termed
a. interposition. c. good continuance.
b. similarity. d. binocular depth cue.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   The Perception of Depth

OBJ:   3.10               MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. A horse is blocking the front of a barn door, obstructing your view of the door. This configuration allows you to determine that the horse is closer to you than the barn door is. This is called
a. good continuation. c. interposition.
b. closure. d. linear perspective.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   The Perception of Depth

OBJ:   3.10               MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT considered a monocular cue for depth perception?
a. interposition c. texture
b. linear perspective d. similarity

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   The Perception of Depth

OBJ:   3.10               MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Krista is sitting on a bench, watching the world go by. She notices the people who are near to her move across her retina more quickly than the cars in the distance move. This effect is called
a. optic flow. c. linear perspective.
b. motion parallax. d. continuation.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   The Perception of Depth

OBJ:   3.10               MSC:  Applying

 

  1. As you move toward an object, the object gets larger on your retina. This is called
a. optic flow. c. similarity.
b. motion parallax. d. linear perspective.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Perception of Depth

OBJ:   3.10               MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The cues to depth perception:
a. are random.
b. are based on principles of physics.
c. change based on one’s age.
d. are inconsistent across individuals.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Perception of Depth

OBJ:   3.10               MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Shadowing can provide a cue for depth. For example, if a shadow appears on the bottom of a circle, the object appears convex. However, if the shadow appears on the top of the object, it appears concave. This happens because
a. we have a part of the visual cortex that is dedicated to the interpretation of shadows that are at the bottom of an object.
b. in the real world, light comes from above more often than from below.
c. we were taught in school how to interpret shadows.
d. we are born with the ability to discriminate depth through use of shadows.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   The Perception of Depth

OBJ:   3.10               MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. It seems inefficient to need to rely on so many different cues for depth perception. Why, then, do we have so many disparate cues?
a. We use different cues in different situations.
b. We are born with the ability to use some cues, but others have to be learned.
c. Although we have many cues, they are all served by the same neural area, which is efficient.
d. Some of the cues are always more accurate than other cues.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   The Role of Redundancy

OBJ:   3.10               MSC:  Analyzing

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Describe the process by which visual information is processed in the brain. Begin by discussing how light is converted into neural energy. Then describe the pathway from the eye to the primary visual cortex. Finally, explain the sophisticated processing that occurs outside of the primary visual cortex.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   The Visual System                          OBJ:   3.1 | 3.4

MSC:  Creating

 

  1. Describe the method and results of Hubel and Weisel’s seminal experiments on the mammalian visual system.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Single Neurons and Single-Cell Recording

OBJ:   3.2                 MSC:  Creating

 

  1. Explain the phenomena of “Mach bands” by describing the role of lateral inhibition in edge detection.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Lateral Inhibition                            OBJ:   3.3

MSC:  Creating

 

  1. Differentiate between the “what” and the “where” streams by describing the function and location of each stream.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Form Perception                             OBJ:   3.4

MSC:  Creating

 

  1. Explain the disorder known as akinetopsia. Make sure you reference the biological changes that cause the disorder and the behavioral changes that result.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   What If…       OBJ:   3.5                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. It has been argued that the visual system relies on a “divide and conquer” strategy. What does this mean? Provide one example of the organization of the visual system that provides support for your conclusion.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Parallel Processing in the Visual System

OBJ:   3.6                 MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Pick one of the ambiguous figures that was mentioned in the chapter. Describe the illusion and why it occurs. Make sure to differentiate between the role the stimulus plays and the role the interpreter plays in the illusion.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Form Perception                             OBJ:   3.7

MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Think of a real-world example wherein two people will interpret the same stimulus very differently. Describe the example and the factors that contribute to the different interpretations.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Form Perception                             OBJ:   3.7

MSC:  Creating

 

  1. Explain the Gestalt perspective of form perception by providing examples and descriptions of at least two Gestalt principles.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Form Perception                             OBJ:   3.8

MSC:  Creating

 

  1. Describe three different cues we can use to perceive depth. What are the advantages and disadvantages to having so many different cues for depth?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Parallel Processing in the Visual System

OBJ:   3.10               MSC:  Understanding

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