Test Bank For Clinical Psychology Science Practice And Culture 3rd Edition By Andrew

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Clinical Psychology Science Practice And Culture 3rd Edition By Andrew – Test Bank 

 

Test Bank – Chapter 2

Evolution of Clinical Psychology

 

Note: New or modified questions are marked with an *.

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. The discipline of clinical psychology came into existence around the beginning of the
  2. A)
  3. B)
  4. C)
  5. D)

Ans:  C

 

  1. _________ was an early pioneer in the field of mental health who advocated for better treatment of the mentally ill in England.
  2. A) William Tuke
  3. B) Phillippe Pinel
  4. C) Eli Todd
  5. D) Henry Murray

Ans:  A

 

  1. _________ was an early pioneer in the field of mental health who advocated for better treatment of the mentally ill in France.
  2. A) Eli Todd
  3. B) Edward Lee Thorndike
  4. C) Phillippe Pinel
  5. D) Hermann Rorschach

Ans:  C

 

  1. Eli Todd is most notable for
  2. A) creating an inkblot personality test that is still used by many clinical psychologists.
  3. B) advocating for humane treatment of the mentally ill in the U. S.
  4. C) coining the term “clinical psychology.”
  5. D) creating the first widely used test of intelligence.

Ans:  B

 

  1. Dorothea Dix’s efforts to improve the treatment of the mentally ill resulted in the creation of institutions in
  2. A) the United States.
  3. B)
  4. C)
  5. D) all of the above

Ans:  D

 

  1. The first psychological clinic was founded
  2. A) by Lightner Witmer.
  3. B) in the 1890s.
  4. C) at the University of Pennsylvania.
  5. D) all of the above

Ans:  D

 

  1. At the first psychological clinic, the clients were primarily
  2. A) children with school-related problems.
  3. B) adults with personality disorders.
  4. C) children and adults with depression.
  5. D) couples experiencing relationship problems.

Ans:  A

 

  1. The journal founded by Lightner Witmer was entitled
  2. A) Treatment of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
  3. B) The Psychological Clinic
  4. C) Behavior Change
  5. D) Psychology and Behavior

Ans:  B

 

  1. Lightner Witmer originally defined clinical psychology as related to the disciplines of
  2. A) social work.
  3. B)
  4. C)
  5. D) all of the above

Ans:  D

 

  1. Emil Kraepelin
  2. A) is considered a pioneer of the diagnosis of mental disorders.
  3. B) authored an objective personality test that remains widely used among clinical psychologists today.
  4. C) all of the above
  5. D) none of the above

Ans:  A

 

  1. The first edition of the DSM was published in
  2. A)
  3. B)
  4. C)
  5. D)

Ans:  C

 

  1. The DSM is published by the
  2. A) American Psychological Association.
  3. B) National Association of Social Workers.
  4. C) American Psychotherapy Association.
  5. D) American Psychiatric Association.

Ans:  D

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true?
  2. A) Each edition of the DSM has included fewer pages and diagnoses than the previous edition.
  3. B) Specific diagnostic criteria have been a characteristic of the DSM since its first edition.
  4. C) all of the above
  5. D) none of the above

Ans:  D

 

*14. Which of the following are included among the “proposed criteria sets” of the DSM-5 for possible inclusion in future DSM versions?

  1. A) persistent complex bereavement
  2. B) internet gambling disorder
  3. C) attenuated psychosis syndrome
  4. D) all of the above

Ans:  D

 

  1. David Wechsler created
  2. A) an inkblot test of personality.
  3. B) a popular objective questionnaire measuring symptoms of depression.
  4. C) a test of intelligence.
  5. D) the MMPI.

Ans:  C

 

  1. The MMPI
  2. A) is an objective test of personality.
  3. B) was created prior to the Rorschach Inkblot test.
  4. C) all of the above
  5. D) none of the above

Ans:  A

 

  1. Psychotherapy began to play a significant role in the history of clinical psychology around
  2. A) 1900-1910.
  3. B) 1940-1950.
  4. C) 1970-1980.
  5. D) 1990-2000.

Ans:  B

 

  1. Currently, the most popular singular psychotherapy orientation among clinical psychologists is the _________ orientation.
  2. A) behavioral
  3. B) cognitive
  4. C) psychodynamic
  5. D) humanistic

Ans:  B

 

  1. The historic Boulder conference took place in
  2. A)
  3. B)
  4. C)
  5. D)

Ans:  C

 

  1. Which of the following assessment methods was created most recently?
  2. A) MMPI
  3. B) Thematic Apperception Test
  4. C) NEO-PI-R
  5. D) Rorschach Inkblot Method

Ans:  C

 

  1. At the 1896 convention of the American Psychological Association, when Lightner Witmer encouraged his colleagues to “throw light upon the problems that confront humanity,” he meant that they should
  2. A) develop a diagnostic manual.
  3. B) open psychological clinics.
  4. C) convince local politicians to improve the conditions of inpatient facilities for the seriously mentally ill.
  5. D) organize and lobby for the right to prescribe medication.

Ans:  B

 

  1. _________, more than any other activity, characterized clinical psychology during the earliest years of the profession.
  2. A) Cognitive psychotherapy
  3. B) Behavioral psychotherapy
  4. C) Motivational interviewing
  5. D) Assessment of intelligence

Ans:  D

 

  1. From roughly 1900-1950, the treatment of mental illness
  2. A) did not exist.
  3. B) was conducted primarily by clinical psychologists.
  4. C) was conducted primarily by physicians.
  5. D) was conducted primarily by counseling psychologists.

Ans:  C

 

  1. _____ opened the York Retreat, a residential treatment center where the mentally ill would always be cared for with kindness, dignity, and decency.
  2. A) Philippe Pinel
  3. B) William Tuke
  4. C) Dorthea Dix
  5. D) Eli Todd

Ans:  B

 

  1. Lightner Witmer founded the first psychological journal called
  2. A) Psychology Today.
  3. B) The Journal of American Psychology.
  4. C) The Psychological Clinic
  5. D) none of the above

Ans:  C

 

  1. Emil Kraepelin developed a two-category system of mental illness consisting of
  2. A) internalizing and externalizing disorders.
  3. B) exogenous and endogenous disorders.
  4. C) depressive and anxious disorders.
  5. D) none of the above

Ans:  B

 

*27. The current diagnostic manual used by psychologists and psychiatrists is the

  1. A) DSM-IV
  2. B) DSM-5
  3. C) CDC-2
  4. D) CDC-3

Ans:  B

 

*28. _____ is included in the DSM-5’s “proposed criteria sets” and is a disorder in which a person experiences mild or brief delusions, hallucinations, or other psychotic phenomena.

  1. A) Internet gambling disorder
  2. B) Attenuated psychosis syndrome
  3. C) Persistent complex bereavement
  4. D) Schizophrenogenic mother syndrome

Ans:  B

 

Short Answer Questions

 

  1. Who founded the first psychological clinic?

Ans:  Lightner Whitmer

 

  1. What population and what problems were addressed in the first psychological clinic?

Ans:  School children; problems in the school setting related to learning or behavior

 

  1. Who is considered the “father of descriptive psychiatry?”

Ans:  Emil Kraepelin

 

*4. What organization is the author of the DSM-5?

Ans:  American Psychiatric Association

 

  1. David Wechsler is most famous for creating _____.

Ans:  an intelligence test designed specifically for adults or the Wechsler-Bellevue test

 

  1. The Rorschach Inkblot Method and the Thematic Apperception Test are both examples of _____.

Ans: projective personality tests

 

  1. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory is an example of a(n) _____ personality test.

Ans:  objective

 

  1. What historical event elevated psychotherapy to become one of the most common activities of clinical psychologists?

Ans:  World War II

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. Briefly explain how the size and scope of the DSM has changed since its original edition.

Ans:  It has generally expanded in size and scope with every new edition.  The largest increase took place from DSM-II to DSM-III.

 

*2. Compare and contrast the proposed disorder attenuated psychosis syndrome with the official disorder schizophrenia.

Ans:  In attenuated psychosis syndrome, the person experiences mild or brief delusions, hallucinations, or other psychotic phenomena.  These are the same kinds of symptoms experienced by people with schizophrenia, but in attenuated psychosis syndrome, the symptoms would be more fleeting, less intense, and the person’s perception of reality would remain largely intact.

 

  1. Briefly explain the fundamental differences between projective personality tests (e.g, Rorschach, TAT) and objective personality tests (e.g., MMPI, MMPI-2, NEO-PI-R).

Ans:  Projective tests involve presenting the client with ambiguous stimuli.  They assume that the way an individual perceives and makes sense of the blots corresponds to the way they perceive and make sense of the world around them.  Objective tests are typically pencil-and-paper self-report instruments with more restricted ranges of responding (e.g., multiple choice or true-false rather than free response).  Objective tests have generally had less questionable reliability and validity than projective tests.

 

  1. Briefly summarize three of the ways in which war has influenced the history of clinical psychology.

Ans:  Army Alpha and Beta intelligence tests during World War I, used to measure the intelligence of recruits and soldiers, were precursors to today’s intelligence tests.  Wechsler’s clinical experiences during World War I aided his creation of the Wechsler-Bellevue.  Following World War II, veterans returned with “shell shock,” and other psychological symptoms; the U.S. government provided significant funding to train additional clinical psychologists to treat these veterans.  The Nazi presence in Europe during the 1930s forced many influential figures in clinical psychology (e.g., Sigmund Freud) to feel to the United States.  Clinical psychologists play a critical role in treating veterans from recent military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan; the VA is one of the country’s largest providers of mental health services.

 

Test Bank – Chapter 4

Cultural Issues in Clinical Psychology

 

Note: New or modified questions are marked with an *.

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. From 1990 to 2000,
  2. A) the Asian American/Pacific Islander population in the U.S. decreased slightly.
  3. B) the Latino/Latina/Hispanic population in the U.S. grew by about 50%.
  4. C) all of the above
  5. D) none of the above

Ans:  B

 

  1. In 2000, the number of first-generation immigrants in the U. S. represented about ____% of the U. S. population.
  2. A) 2
  3. B) 5
  4. C) 10
  5. D) 20

Ans:  C

 

  1. Authors such as Pedersen (1990, 1999, 2008) have labeled _____ as the “fourth force” in the history of psychology.
  2. A) multiculturalism
  3. B) humanism
  4. C) the prescription privileges movement
  5. D) behaviorism

Ans:  A

 

  1. Which of the following is true?
  2. A) Currently, when the American Psychological Association considers accrediting a graduate program in psychology, there are criteria related to multiculturalism that must be met.
  3. B) Although none have yet emerged, the American Psychological Association plans to introduce new divisions within its organization devoted to cultural issues such as gender, religion, sexual orientation, and ethnicity.
  4. C) all of the above
  5. D) none of the above

Ans:  A

 

  1. Which of the following is true?
  2. A) The current edition of the APA ethical code includes no reference to issues of multiculturalism.
  3. B) Currently, APA includes divisions devoted to issues of ethnicity and religion, but no divisions devoted to issues of gender or sexual orientation.
  4. C) all of the above
  5. D) none of the above

Ans:  D

 

*6. The DSM-5 includes

  1. A) an Outline for Cultural Formulation.
  2. B) a Cultural Formulation Interview.
  3. C) a cultural concepts of distress glossary.
  4. D) All of the above.

Ans:  D

 

  1. Sutso
  2. A) is an example of a culture-bound syndrome described in the most recent edition of the DSM.
  3. B) involves anxiety and gastrointestinal problems related to hexing or witchcraft by another person.
  4. C) is found almost exclusively in Australia.
  5. D) all of the above

Ans:  A

 

*8. Taijin kyofusho

  1. A) is an example of a cultural concept of distress described in DSM-5.
  2. B) is experienced by members of some Japanese cultures.
  3. C) involves a person avoiding interpersonal situations because he believes his appearance offends others.
  4. D) all of the above

Ans:  D

 

*9. Cultural concepts of distress

  1. A) are listed in a glossary in DSM-5.
  2. B) were discontinued beginning in DSM-III.
  3. C) include major depressive disorder and schizophrenia.
  4. D) All of the above.

Ans:  A

 

  1. According to Sue and Sue (2008), “_____ is defined as the counselor’s acquisition of awareness, knowledge, and skills needed to function effectively in a pluralistic democratic society.”
  2. A) multicultural counseling competence
  3. B) evidence-based practice
  4. C) empathy
  5. D) unconditional positive regard

Ans:  A

 

  1. Which of the following is true?
  2. A) It is generally unacceptable practice for a clinical psychologist to openly and directly acknowledge cultural differences with a client.
  3. B) It is generally acceptable practice for a clinical psychologist to begin treating a culturally dissimilar client with no knowledge of that client’s culture, and to require a client to explain all culturally relevant information to the clinical psychologist.
  4. C) all of the above
  5. D) none of the above

Ans:  D

 

  1. Which of the following is true regarding Asian cultures?
  2. A) As a group, members of Asian cultures tend to emphasize collectivism (as opposed to individualism) more strongly than members of European American cultures.
  3. B) All members of Asian cultures emphasize collectivism over individualism.
  4. C) All women and most men of Asian cultures emphasize collectivism over individualism.
  5. D) All men and most women of Asian cultures emphasize collectivism over individualism.

Ans:  A

 

  1. Based on McGoldrick’s research, Irish American patients
  2. A) may be uncomfortable with questions about inner feelings, especially negative feelings or sexual feelings.
  3. B) may feel guilty about some feelings that wouldn’t be an issue in other cultural groups.
  4. C) all of the above
  5. D) none of the above

Ans:  C

 

  1. Based on Schlosser’s research,
  2. A) a psychologist might never know that they have a Jewish client unless the client discloses this identity.
  3. B) many American Jews will freely disclose their identity upon meeting a psychologist.
  4. C) a Jewish psychologist is automatically culturally competent to treat Jewish patients.
  5. D) all of the above

Ans:  A

 

  1. _____, a common aspect of traditional psychotherapy, may be inconsistent with the cultural values and life experiences of some cultural groups.
  2. A) Verbal self-disclosure of personal problems
  3. B) A 50-minute session in an office building
  4. C) Long-term, insight-oriented treatment approaches
  5. D) all of the above

Ans:  D

 

  1. The etic perspective
  2. A) emphasizes similarities between all people.
  3. B) attaches great importance to differences between cultural groups.
  4. C) was less dominant in the early days of psychology than it is today.
  5. D) all of the above

Ans:  A

 

  1. The _____ perspective recognizes and emphasizes culturally specific norms and considers a client’s behaviors, thoughts, and feelings within the context of that client’s culture.
  2. A) etic
  3. B) emic
  4. C) behavioral
  5. D) individual

Ans:  B

 

  1. The _____ places importance on multiple perspectives, including those that recognize the uniqueness of each individual as well as the similarities between each individual and other individuals.
  2. A) tripartite model of personal identity
  3. B) etic approach
  4. C) behavioral approach
  5. D) evidence-based psychotherapy movement

Ans:  A

 

  1. Which of the following methods of training regarding cultural issues have been attempted by graduate programs in clinical psychology?
  2. A) courses emphasizing issues of culture
  3. B) real-world immersion in varied cultural groups and experiences
  4. C) all of the above
  5. D) none of the above

Ans:  C

 

  1. Which of the following is true?
  2. A) No single “best method” has emerged for training clinical psychologists to be culturally competent.
  3. B) In-class discussion of one’s own cultural background has emerged as the “best method” for training clinical psychologists to be culturally competent.
  4. C) Conducting psychotherapy (under supervision) with members of varied cultures has emerged as the “best method” for training clinical psychologists to be culturally competent.
  5. D) none of the above

Ans:  A

 

  1. Regardless of a the methods used to train clinical psychologists to be culturally competent, an essential ingredient is that the trainee
  2. A) reaches a deeper appreciation of his or her own cultural identity.
  3. B) read detailed descriptions of a variety of cultural groups in the form of professional books or peer-reviewed articles.
  4. C) enroll in courses taught by faculty members whose cultural background is different from that of the trainee.
  5. D) conduct research with participants of culturally diverse backgrounds.

Ans:  A

 

  1. _____ is the way a person responds to living in a new cultural environment, particularly regarding the balance between adopting elements of the new culture and retaining elements of the original culture.
  2. A) Microaggression
  3. B) Integration
  4. C) Acculturation
  5. D) Heterogeneity

Ans:  C

 

  1. _____ is the acculturation strategy in which the individual adopts much of the new culture and abandons much of the original culture.
  2. A) Assimilation
  3. B) Separation
  4. C) Marginalization
  5. D) Integration

Ans:  A

 

  1. Modifying psychological treatments that work for members of diverse cultures is known as _____.
  2. A) rebounding
  3. B) cultural channeling
  4. C) ethnic facilitation
  5. D) cultural adaptation

Ans:  D

 

  1. Which of the following places the major “forces” in psychology in the correct order, beginning with the first?
  2. A) psychoanalysis, behaviorism, humanism, multiculturalism
  3. B) behaviorism, multiculturalism, psychoanalysis, humanism
  4. C) humanism, behaviorism, multiculturalism, psychoanalysis
  5. D) multiculturalism, humanism, behaviorism, psychoanalysis

Ans:  A

 

  1. The American Psychological Association has created divisions addressing all of the following areas of diversity except
  2. A)
  3. B)
  4. C) ethnic minorities.
  5. D) all of the above

Ans:  D

 

  1. _____ is a culture-bound syndrome in which hexing, witchcraft, or the evil influence of another person brings forth anxiety and gastrointestinal problems.
  2. A) Susto
  3. B) Rootwork
  4. C) Ghost sickness
  5. D) none of the above

Ans:  B

 

Short Answer Questions

 

  1. Name two principles or standards from the APA’s (2002) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct that address multiculturalism.

Ans:  Principle E: Respect for People’s Rights and Dignity, Standard 2.01 Boundaries of Competence, Standard 3.01 Unfair Discrimination, Standard 9.06 Interpreting Assessment Results

 

  1. What is the cultural concept of distress in which one person can “send” psychological problems to another, usually as the result of envy or hatred toward the other’s success?

Ans:  maladi moun

 

  1. _____ is the term used to describe the variability of members within a cultural group.

Ans:  Heterogeneity

 

  1. _____ is when an individual entering a new culture adopts much of the new culture and abandons much of his or her original culture.

Ans:  Assimilation

 

  1. _____ is when an individual entering a new culture adopts much of the new culture and retains much of his or her original culture.

Ans:  Integration

 

  1. To modify a treatment with empirical support for a specific cultural group is called _____.

Ans:  cultural adaptation

 

  1. The _____ perspective emphasizes the similarities between all people, while the _____ perspective emphasizes cultural-specific norms.

Ans:  etic, emic

 

  1. What are the three levels of the tripartite model of personal identity?

Ans:  individual level, group level, universal level

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. Briefly explain how the height of basketball star Yao Ming illustrates the concept of heterogeneity within a culture.

Ans:  Chinese men, as a group, tend to be relatively short (compared to most other ethnicities represented in the U.S.).  However, not all men follow this tendency; there are exceptions to the rule.  Yao Ming is one such exception, as he stands 7 feet, 6 inches tall.  Thus, regarding psychological variables (which may be less immediately obvious than height), it is important for clinical psychologists to be aware of both cultural norms and the possibility that a particular client may be an exception to those norms.

 

  1. Culture shapes the way that a client understands the problem for which he or she is seeking treatment. What questions does Comas-Diaz (2011) recommend be asked of new client to assess his or her understanding of his or her own psychological problem? List at least three questions.

Ans:  What do you call your problem (or illness, or distress)?  What do you think your problem does to you?  What do you think the natural cause of your problem is?  Why do you think this problem has occurred?  How do you think this problem should be treated?  How do you want me to help you?  Who else (e.g., family, friends, religious leader) do you turn to for help?  Who (e.g., family, friends, religious leader) should be involved in decision-making about this problem?

 

  1. Explain the difference between the four different acculturation strategies: assimilation, separation, marginalization, and integration.

Ans:  In assimilation, the individual adopts much of the new culture and abandons much of the original.  In separation, the individual rejects much of the new culture and retains much of the original.  In marginalization, the individual rejects both the new and the original culture.  In integration, the individual adopts much of the new culture and retains much of the original.

 

  1. Briefly describe the three levels of the tripartite model of personal identity.

Ans:  Individual level: all individuals are, in some respects, like no other individuals.  Group level: all individuals are, in some respects, like some other individuals.  Universal level: all individuals are, in some respects, like all other individuals.

Test Bank – Chapter 11

General Issues in Psychotherapy

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. The most common professional activity of clinical psychologists is _____.
  2. A) personality assessment
  3. B) intelligence testing
  4. C) psychotherapy
  5. D) teaching

Ans: C

 

  1. The primary finding of Hans Eysenck’s 1952 review of psychotherapy outcome studies was that
  2. A) psychotherapy was of little benefit, since most clients got better without it.
  3. B) psychotherapy was beneficial when practiced by therapists with doctoral degrees, but not beneficial when practiced by therapists with master’s or bachelor’s degrees.
  4. C) humanistic psychotherapy was significantly more effective than psychodynamic psychotherapy.
  5. D) cognitive psychotherapy was significantly more effective than behavioral psychotherapy.

Ans: A

 

  1. A(n) _____ statistically combines the results of many separate studies to create numerical representations of the effects of psychotherapy as tested across massive numbers of settings, therapists, and patients.
  2. A) tripartite model
  3. B) meta-analysis
  4. C) effectiveness study
  5. D) outcome evaluation

Ans: B

 

  1. The tripartite model, a theory related to the measurement of psychotherapy outcome, was created by _____.
  2. A) Hans Eysenck
  3. B) Hans Strupp
  4. C) Dianne Chambless
  5. D) Bruce Wampold

Ans: B

 

  1. The extent to which a psychotherapy works in “real-world” settings such as clinics, private practices, and hospitals is best described as the _____ of that form of psychotherapy.
  2. A) efficacy
  3. B) effectiveness
  4. C) evidence
  5. D) none of the above

Ans: B

 

  1. Compared to effectiveness studies, efficacy studies of psychotherapy outcome
  2. A) typically have stronger internal validity.
  3. B) typically include a wider variety of clients with more complex diagnostic profiles.
  4. C) all of the above
  5. D) none of the above

Ans: A

 

  1. A study conducted in a controlled laboratory setting is most like a study examining _____.
  2. A) power
  3. B) effectiveness
  4. C) efficiency
  5. D) efficacy

Ans: D

 

  1. Which of the following statements most accurately summarizes the results of the thousands of psychotherapy efficacy studies that have been conducted?
  2. A) Psychotherapy doesn’t work.
  3. B) Psychotherapy works.
  4. C) Psychotherapy with female clients works; psychotherapy with male clients doesn’t work.
  5. D) It is not possible to determine whether psychotherapy works.

Ans: B

  1. Despite the overwhelming evidence offered by efficacy studies,
  2. A) there is a gap between those who conduct efficacy research on psychotherapy and those who practice it.
  3. B) the studies’ results are not always heeded by those who practice therapy in the real world.
  4. C) some practicing clinicians complain that researchers who conduct the studies do so in an artificial, contrived, and irrelevant manner.
  5. D) all of the above

Ans: D

 

  1. The 1995 psychotherapy study published in Consumer Reports magazine
  2. A) is an example of an efficacy study.
  3. B) is an example of an effectiveness study.
  4. C) concluded that treatment by a mental health professional usually did not produce benefits.
  5. D) included a comparison group of individuals who were on the waiting list for psychotherapy but did not receive it.

Ans: B

 

  1. In addition to effectiveness and efficacy, other ways to measure psychotherapy outcome include
  2. A) the neurobiological effects of psychotherapy.
  3. B) medical cost offset.
  4. C) all of the above
  5. D) none of the above

Ans: C

 

  1. The “dodo bird verdict” refers to the finding that
  2. A) behavioral psychotherapy is more beneficial than cognitive psychotherapy.
  3. B) psychodynamic psychotherapy is more beneficial than humanistic psychotherapy.
  4. C) behavioral psychotherapy is more beneficial than all other forms of psychotherapy.
  5. D) various forms of psychotherapy are about equally beneficial

Ans: D

 

  1. The term common factors refers to the idea that
  2. A) intelligence tests by various authors (e.g., Wechsler, Binet) are based on the same underlying factors.
  3. B) various forms of psychotherapy work about equally well because of fundamental, shared components.
  4. C) the techniques used by behavioral, humanistic, psychodynamic, and cognitive psychotherapists are essentially similar.
  5. D) projective and objective personality tests share essentially the same structure.

Ans: B

 

  1. Psychotherapy outcome researchers have proposed that _____ is a common factor across diverse forms of psychotherapy.
  2. A) the therapeutic relationship
  3. B) hope/positive expectations
  4. C) all of the above
  5. D) none of the above

Ans: C

 

  1. The correct order of Lambert and Ogles’s (2004) three-stage sequential model of common factors is
  2. A) support, learning, action.
  3. B) learning, action, support.
  4. C) action, support, learning.
  5. D) learning, support, action.

Ans: A

 

  1. The dodo bird verdict has been challenged by some psychotherapy researchers, including _____.
  2. A) Bruce Wampold
  3. B) Dianne Chambless
  4. C) Stanley Messer
  5. D) all of the above

Ans: B

 

  1. An approach to psychotherapy in which specific therapy techniques are viewed as the treatment of choice for specific disorders is best described as the _____ approach.
  2. A) behavioral
  3. B) prescriptive
  4. C) common-factors
  5. D) relationship-based

Ans: B

 

  1. According to surveys of clinical psychologists since 1960, the most commonly endorsed psychotherapy orientation
  2. A) was the eclectic/integrative orientation until 2010, when the cognitive orientation was most commonly endorsed.
  3. B) has consistently been the behavioral orientation.
  4. C) has consistently been the psychodynamic orientation.
  5. D) was the psychodynamic orientation until the 1980s, and has been the behavioral orientation since that time.

Ans: A

 

  1. According to surveys of clinical psychologists since 1960, the popularity of psychodynamic psychotherapy
  2. A) has generally decreased.
  3. B) has remained constant.
  4. C) decreased through the 1960s and 1970s, but increased in the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s.
  5. D) has increased.

Ans: A

 

  1. According to surveys of clinical psychologists since 1960, the popularity of cognitive therapy
  2. A) has decreased.
  3. B) has increased.
  4. C) increased in the 1960s and 1970s, but decreased in the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s.
  5. D) has remained constant.

Ans: B

 

  1. According to surveys of clinical psychologists since 1960, the humanistic orientation to psychotherapy
  2. A) was the most commonly endorsed orientation in the 1970s.
  3. B) was the most commonly endorsed orientation in the 1990s.
  4. C) all of the above
  5. D) none of the above

Ans: D

 

  1. A survey of clinical psychologists (Norcross & Karpiak, 2012) found that the format of psychotherapy that was practiced by the highest percentage of clinical psychologists was _____.
  2. A) marital/couples
  3. B) individual
  4. C) family
  5. D) group

Ans: B

 

  1. In the stages of change model developed by Norcross, Krebs, and Prochaska (2011), a patient in the _____ stage is aware that a problem exists, considering doing something to address it, but is not ready to commit to any real effort in that direction.
  2. A) precontemplation
  3. B) contemplation
  4. C) preparation
  5. D) action

Ans: B

 

  1. According to a survey of experts in the field of clinical psychology (Norcross, Hedges, & Prochaska, 2002), which of the following is likely to happen in the near future?
  2. A) a rise in the use of cognitive and behavioral approaches to psychotherapy
  3. B) a decline in the use of evidence-based forms of psychotherapy
  4. C) a decline in the use of eclectic/integrative approaches to psychotherapy
  5. D) a rise in the use of classic psychoanalysis

Ans: A

 

  1. A(n) _____ approach to psychotherapy involves selecting the best treatment for a given client based on empirical data from studies of the treatment of similar clients.
  2. A) integrative
  3. B) psychodynamic
  4. C) eclectic
  5. D) behavioral

Ans: C

 

  1. A(n) _____ approach to psychotherapy involves blending techniques in order to create an entirely new, hybrid form of therapy.
  2. A) integrative
  3. B) psychodynamic
  4. C) eclectic
  5. D) behavioral

Ans: A

 

  1. Researchers have measured the outcome of psychotherapy by
  2. A) assessing the reduction in spending on medical services when psychotherapy is provided.
  3. B) using PET and fMRI scans to view changes in the brain subsequent to psychotherapy.
  4. C) surveying clients about their experiences in psychotherapy.
  5. D) all of the above

Ans: D

 

  1. Chiles et al. (1999) conducted a review of over 90 studies of the effect of psychotherapy on medical costs and found that, in comparison to clients receiving no psychotherapy, clients receiving psychotherapy
  2. A) had higher medical costs.
  3. B) spent more days in the hospital.
  4. C) all of the above
  5. D) none of the above

Ans: D

 

  1. The tripartite model, created by Hans Strupp and colleagues, essentially suggests that
  2. A) multiple parties may have meaningful and potentially inconsistent views of psychotherapy outcome.
  3. B) various styles of psychotherapy are equally effective due to common factors.
  4. C) the success of the first three sessions of psychotherapy correlate very strongly to the eventual success of psychotherapy after its completion.
  5. D) psychotherapy yields the best results when at least three approaches are blended together into a new, integrative approach.

Ans: A

 

Short Answer Questions

 

  1. What was the conclusion of Hans Eysenck’s (1952) study of psychotherapy?

Ans: Psychotherapy did not work/was generally ineffective.

 

  1. Who are the three parties described in the tripartite model that should be consulted to determine what constitutes a successful therapy outcome?

Ans: the patient, the therapist, society

 

  1. _____ refers to how well psychotherapy works “in the lab.”

Ans: Efficacy

 

  1. What is the dodo bird verdict?

Ans: “Everybody has won and all must have prizes.” All types of psychotherapy are generally equal in effectiveness.

 

  1. List two common factors discussed in the text.

Ans: therapeutic relationship/therapeutic alliance/working alliance, hope, attention

 

  1. In 2010, what was the orientation most endorsed by clinical psychologists?

Ans: cognitive

 

  1. What is the most common format of psychotherapy practiced by clinical psychologists?

Ans: individual

 

  1. A(n) _____ approach to therapy blends techniques to create an entirely new, hybrid form of therapy.

Ans: integrative

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. What is the difference between the efficacy and effectiveness of a form of psychotherapy?

Ans: Efficacy is how well a therapy works “in the lab,” or when tested under controlled conditions with manualized treatment methods and well-defined, selective groups of clients. Effectiveness is how well a therapy works “in the real world.”

 

  1. List and briefly explain three common factors proposed by psychotherapy outcome researchers.

Ans: The therapeutic relationship: also known as therapeutic alliance or working alliance; essentially, a strong relationship or coalition between therapist and client, especially from the client’s point of view. Hope, or positive expectations: Various forms of therapy provide a sense of optimism for clients that their lives will improve. Attention, or the Hawthorne effect: Simply acknowledging problems, rather than ignoring them, is common to all forms of psychotherapy and may contribute to therapeutic gain.

 

  1. Briefly compare and contrast eclectic and integrative approaches to psychotherapy.

Ans: Both involve some form of combining forms of therapy. The eclectic approach involves choosing a particular form of therapy for a particular client based on empirical data from studies of the treatment of similar clients. The integrative approach involves blending techniques to form an entirely new, hybrid form of therapy.

 

  1. List and briefly describe each of the stages in Norcross, Krebs, and Prochaska’s (2011) stages of change model.

Ans: Precontemplation: no intention to change at all. Contemplation: aware that a problem exists, considering doing something about it, but not ready to commit to any real effort. Preparation: intending to take action within a short time (e.g., weeks, a month). Action: actively changing behavior and making notable efforts to overcome the problem. Maintenance: preventing relapse and retaining gains made during the action stage.

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