Test Bank Of Anatomy Physiology 7th edition By PattonThibodeau

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7th edition or Anatomy PattonThibodeau Physiology – Test Bank

Patton and Thibodeau: Anatomy & Physiology, 7th Edition

 

Patton and Thibodeau: Anatomy & Physiology, 7th Edition

 

Chapter 1: Organization of the Body

 

Test Bank

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. A scientific theory is a fact.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 4

TOP:    Science and Society

 

  1. A theory that is supported by repeated observation and experimentation is called a hypothesis.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 4

TOP:    Science and Society

 

  1. A theory may eventually become a law.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 4

TOP:    Science and Society

 

  1. In humans, all respiration occurs in the lungs.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 6

TOP:    Characteristics of Life

 

  1. Anatomy is the study of the functions of an organism and its parts, as opposed to the study of its structure.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 5

TOP:    Anatomy

 

  1. Conductivity and responsiveness are highly developed in both muscle and nerve cells in living organisms.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 6

TOP:    Characteristics of Life

 

  1. The movement of digested nutrients through the wall of the digestive tube into the body fluids and to cells for use is called absorption.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 6

TOP:    Characteristics of Life

 

  1. Biology is the study of life.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 5

TOP:    Anatomy

 

  1. Cell specialization is a necessary characteristic in order for the human body to function as it does.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 8             TOP:    Cellular Level

 

  1. Complementarity of structure means the function of a part may or may not be related to its structure.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 17

TOP:    Interaction of Structure and Function

 

  1. Blood production is a function of the integumentary system.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 9 (Table 1-2)

TOP:    Body Systems

 

  1. The Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria are examples of organelles.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 8

TOP:    Organelle Level

 

  1. An endomorph usually has a muscular physique.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 18

TOP:    Body Type and Disease

 

  1. Certain patterns of body fat distribution in endomorphs are associated with greater risk for heart disease.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 18

TOP:    Body Type and Disease

 

  1. Certain patterns of body fat distribution in endomorphs are associated with the development of diabetes.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 18

TOP:    Body Type and Disease

 

  1. When in anatomical position, the person is standing erect with arms at the sides and palms dorsal.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 10

TOP:    Anatomical Position

 

  1. Ipsilateral simply means on the same side.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 10

TOP:    Anatomical Position

 

  1. Bilateral symmetry is characteristic of external body organization, but not necessarily of internal organization.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 10

TOP:    Anatomical Position

 

  1. The frontal plane divides the body into right and left sides.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 16

TOP:    Body Planes and Sections

 

  1. Visceral peritoneum refers to the membrane that covers the organs within the abdominal cavity.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 11

TOP:    Body Cavities

 

  1. The abdominal cavity is separated from the pelvic cavity by a fibrous connective tissue membrane.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 11           TOP:    Body Cavities

 

  1. The dorsal cavity consists of the cranial and spinal cavities.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 11

TOP:    Body Cavities

 

  1. The ventral cavity consists of the thoracic and abdominal cavities.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 10

TOP:    Body Cavities

 

  1. The head, neck, arms, and legs make up the axial skeleton.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 13

TOP:    Body Regions

 

  1. The head can be subdivided into cranial and facial cavities.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 10 | Page 11

TOP:    Body Cavities

 

  1. The term crural refers to the hip.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 13 (Table 1-4)

TOP:    Body Regions

 

  1. The umbilicus is the crossing point for the horizontal and vertical lines dividing the abdomen into quadrants.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 14

TOP:    Umbilicus

 

  1. The bone of the upper arm is deep to the muscles that surround and cover it.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 15           TOP:    Directional Terms

 

  1. The kidneys are medial and anterior to the vertebrae.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 15           TOP:    Directional Terms

 

  1. The eyes, ears, and arms all show bilateral symmetry of the body.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 10

TOP:    Anatomical Position

 

  1. The study of immunology investigates the movement of the blood.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 9 (Table 1-2)

TOP:    Transportation and Defense

 

  1. In a functional homeostatic system, an increase of blood glucose will elicit physiological reactions that will decrease blood glucose.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 19           TOP:    Homeostasis

 

  1. The lymphatic system plays an important role in immunity.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 9 (Table 1-2)                              TOP:    Body Systems

 

  1. The human body maintains a static, rather than a dynamic, homeostasis.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 18 | Page 19 (Box 1-1)

TOP:    Homeostasis

 

  1. Most individuals show almost total dominance by a single somatotype component.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 18

TOP:    Body Type and Disease

 

  1. Positive feedback maintains homeostasis by resisting or reducing any deviation from normal values.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 23

TOP:    Positive Feedback Control Systems

 

  1. Homeostatic mechanisms work on a negative feedback principle.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 21 | Page 22

TOP:    Basic Components of Control Mechanisms

 

  1. The release of oxytocin to stimulate labor during the birth of a baby is an example of negative feedback.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 23 (Box 1-3)

TOP:    Positive Feedback Control Systems

 

  1. Ultrasonography is the oldest and most widely used method of noninvasive imaging of internal body structures.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 17

TOP:    Medical Imaging of the Body

 

  1. The value of computed tomography is that an image is displayed along a transverse (cross-sectional) plane.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 17

TOP:    Medical Imaging of the Body

 

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging can produce sharper images of soft tissue than x-radiation can.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 17

TOP:    Medical Imaging of the Body

 

  1. The study of aging processes and other changes that occur as a person gets older is called gerontology.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 25

TOP:    Cycle of Life

 

  1. Etiology is the study of the occurrence, distribution, and transmission of diseases in human populations.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 26 (Box 1-4)

TOP:    Disease Terminology

 

  1. Pathophysiology is the study of the body in the healthy condition.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 26 (Box 1-4)

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. Bacteria generally have a well-defined nucleus.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 26

TOP:    Basic Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. Abnormal tissue growths are called neoplasms.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 26

TOP:    Basic Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. Categories of risk factors or predisposing conditions may overlap.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 28 | Page 29

TOP:    Disease Terminology

 

  1. Physiology deals with structure, whereas anatomy deals with function.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 5

TOP:    Anatomy and Physiology

 

  1. Systemic anatomy describes the study of the body parts with the aid of scanning electron microscopy.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 5

TOP:    Anatomy and Physiology

 

  1. The nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs are components of the circulatory system.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 9 (Table 1-2)                              TOP:    Body Systems

 

  1. The nervous system is composed of brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 9 (Table 1-2)                              TOP:    Body Systems

 

  1. The pancreas contributes to more than one organ system.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 9 (Table 1-2)                              TOP:    Body Systems

 

  1. The endocrine system includes the pancreas, pituitary, adrenals, and other glands.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 9 (Table 1-2)                              TOP:    Body Systems

 

  1. A negative feedback control system produces a change opposite of that which activated the system.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 23

TOP:    Negative Feedback Control Systems

 

  1. In the thermostatically regulated furnace example of negative feedback, the furnace functions as the sensor.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 21 | Page 22

TOP:    Basic Components of Control Mechanisms

 

  1. Negative feedback systems are excitatory.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 23

TOP:    Negative Feedback Control Systems

 

  1. The process of childbirth in which the baby’s head causes increased stretch of the reproductive tract, information that feeds back to the brain triggering the release of oxytocin, is an example of negative feedback.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 26 (Box 1-3)

TOP:    Positive Feedback Control Systems

 

  1. The membrane lining the inside of the abdominopelvic cavity is the visceral peritoneum.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 11

TOP:    Body Cavities

 

  1. The gallbladder resides in the left lower quadrant.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 14 (Figure 1-8)                           TOP:    Abdominopelvic Quadrants

 

  1. Ventral and posterior are synonymous terms.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 15

TOP:    Directional Terms

 

  1. A coronal section would divide the body into equal right and left halves.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 16

TOP:    Body Planes and Sections

 

  1. The cell theory provides the major single distinction between living and nonliving things.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 6

TOP:    Characteristics of Life

 

  1. The tissues in the body can be divided into as few as four major types.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 8

TOP:    Tissue Level

 

  1. With reference to the left elbow, the left shoulder would be the contralateral shoulder.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 10

TOP:    Anatomical Position

 

  1. In anatomy, the thigh is considered part of the leg.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 13

TOP:    Body Regions

 

  1. Because humans walk upright, dorsal can be substituted for posterior.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 15

TOP:    Directional Terms

 

  1. Because humans walk upright, superficial can be substituted for superior.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 15

TOP:    Directional Terms

 

  1. A fever indicates that your body has lost control of the body temperature set point.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 21 (Box 1-2)

TOP:    Changing the Set Point

 

  1. Most of the feedback mechanisms in the body are positive feedback mechanisms.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 26

TOP:    Positive Feedback Mechanisms

 

  1. Responsiveness and conductivity are highly developed in nerve cells.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 6

TOP:    Characteristics of Life

 

  1. Responsiveness and conductivity are highly developed in muscle cells.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 6

TOP:    Characteristics of Life

 

  1. Secretion refers to the removal of waste from the body.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 6

TOP:    Characteristics of Life

 

  1. The process of absorption must precede the process of digestion.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 6

TOP:    Characteristics of Life

 

  1. The exchange of gases between the blood and the lung is referred to as internal respiration.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 6

TOP:    Characteristics of Life

 

  1. Cytoplasm is considered to be at the chemical level of organization.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 8

TOP:    Chemical Level

 

  1. A cell is characterized by a cell membrane and a single nucleus surrounded by cytoplasm containing organelles.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 8

TOP:    Cellular Level

 

  1. The next most complex level of organization after the organ level is the organism level.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 8 | Page 9

TOP:    System Level

 

  1. The anatomical position is the reference position for the directional terms of the body.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 10

TOP:    Anatomical Position

 

  1. The diaphragm divides the abdominal cavity from the pelvic cavity.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 11 (Figure 1-5)                           TOP:    Body Cavities

 

  1. For convenience in locating abdominal organs, the abdomen is divided into six imaginary regions.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 14

TOP:    Abdominal Regions

 

  1. Superficial and inferior are opposite directional terms in humans.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 15

TOP:    Directional Terms

 

  1. Proximal and distal are opposite directional terms in humans.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 15

TOP:    Directional Terms

 

  1. A mid-coronal section would divide the body into bilaterally symmetrical halves.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 10 | Page 16

TOP:    Anatomical Position | Body Planes and Sections

 

  1. A mid-sagittal section would divide the body into bilaterally symmetrical halves.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 10 | Page 16

TOP:    Anatomical Position | Body Planes and Sections

 

  1. Cannon’s concept of homeostasis refers to conditions that are set and stay the same all the time.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 19

TOP:    Homeostasis

 

  1. Eponyms are preferred in naming structures or processes in the body because they are easier to learn and give more information than the Latin-based names.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 6

TOP:    Language of Science and Medicine

 

  1. Controls in an experiment are used to limit the affect of outside influences on the result of the experiment.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 4

TOP:    Science and Society

 

  1. Metabolism refers only to those processes in the body that build larger molecules from joining two or more smaller molecules.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 6

TOP:    Characteristics of Life

 

  1. If two structures are on opposite sides of the body, they can be said to be contralateral to each other.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 10

TOP:    Anatomical Position

 

  1. Blood flows through the lumen of a blood vessel.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 15

TOP:    Terms Related to Organs

 

  1. The apical portion of an organ refers to the apex or widest part of that organ.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 15

TOP:    Terms Related to Organs

 

  1. The cortical portion of a structure is more superficial than the medullary portion of that structure.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 15

TOP:    Terms Related to Organs

 

  1. A feed-forward control system is another term for a positive control system.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 24

TOP:    Feed-Forward in Control Systems

 

  1. Sagittal, coronal, and transverse are directional terms used to describe the location of structures relative to a reference point.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 15 | Page 16

TOP:    Body Planes and Sections

 

  1. The structure of the mitochondria would be studied by someone interested in the gross anatomy of the body.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 5             TOP:    Anatomy

 

  1. A prion is a type of virus that has been linked to the development of “mad cow disease.”

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 26

TOP:    Basic Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. The body has two main cavities: the thoracic and abdominopelvic.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 10

TOP:    Body Cavities

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Which of the following describes anatomy?
A. Using devices to investigate parameters such as heart rate and blood pressure
B. Investigating human structure via dissections and other methods
C. Studying the unusual manner in which an organism responds to painful stimuli
D. Examining the physiology of life

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 5

TOP:    Anatomy and Physiology

 

  1. Systemic anatomy is a term that refers to:
A. physiological investigation at a microscopic level.
B. anatomical investigation that begins in the head and neck and concludes at the feet.
C. anatomical investigation that uses an approach of studying the body by systems—groups of organs having a common function.
D. anatomical investigation at the molecular level.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 5

TOP:    Anatomy and Physiology

 

  1. Physiology can be subdivided according to the:
A. type of organism studied.
B. organizational level studied.
C. systemic function studied.
D. all of the above.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 5

TOP:    Physiology

 

  1. Physiology:
A. recognizes the unchanging (as opposed to the dynamic) nature of things.
B. investigates the body’s structure.
C. is concerned with organisms and does not deal with different levels of organization such as cells and systems.
D. is the science that examines the function of living organisms and their parts.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 5

TOP:    Physiology

 

  1. Withdrawing from a painful stimulus is an example of:
A. excretion.
B. growth.
C. responsiveness.
D. secretion.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 6

TOP:    Characteristics of Life

 

  1. Metabolism refers to:
A. the chemical basis of life.
B. the sum of all the physical and chemical reactions occurring in the body.
C. an organization of similar cells specialized to perform a certain function.
D. a subdivision of physiology.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 6

TOP:    Characteristics of Life

 

  1. A somatotype characterized by having a muscular physique is called a(n):
A. endomorph.
B. mesomorph.
C. ectomorph.
D. none of the above.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 18 (Box 1-1)

TOP:    Body Type and Disease

 

  1. Homeostasis can best be described as:
A. a constant state maintained by living and nonliving organisms.
B. a state of relative constancy.
C. adaptation to external environment.
D. changes in body temperature.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 18 | Page 19

TOP:    Homeostasis

 

  1. From smallest to largest, the levels of organization of the body are:
A. organism, chemical, tissue, cellular, organ, system, organelle.
B. chemical, microscopic, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organism.
C. organism, system, organ, tissue, cellular, organelle, chemical.
D. chemical, organelle, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organism.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 8 | Page 9

TOP:    Levels of Organization

 

  1. The smallest living units of structure and function in the body are:
A. molecules.
B. cells.
C. organelles.
D. atoms.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 8

TOP:    Levels of Organization

 

  1. An organization of many similar cells that are specialized to perform a certain function is called a(n):
A. tissue.
B. organism.
C. system.
D. organ.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 8

TOP:    Tissue Level

 

  1. An organ is one organizational step lower than a(n):
A. system.
B. cell.
C. organelle.
D. tissue.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 8

TOP:    Organ Level

 

  1. Which of the following is not one of the basic components in a feedback control loop?
A. Effector mechanism
B. Transmitter
C. Sensor
D. Integrating center

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 21 | Page 22

TOP:    Basic Components of Control Mechanisms

 

  1. All of the following systems and their organs participate in the actions of transport and defense within the human body except the:
A. urinary system.
B. cardiovascular system.
C. lymphatic system.
D. respiratory system.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 9 (Table 1-2)                              TOP:    Transportation and Defense

 

  1. The body’s thermostat is located in the:
A. heart.
B. cerebellum.
C. pituitary.
D. hypothalamus.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 22

TOP:    Basic Components of Control Mechanisms

 

  1. The reproductive system includes all of the following except the:
A. testes.
B. ovaries.
C. ureter.
D. penis.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 9 (Table 1-2)                              TOP:    Body Systems

 

  1. The contraction of the uterus during the birth of a baby is an example of:
A. negative feedback.
B. positive feedback.
C. inhibitory feedback.
D. deviating feedback.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 23 (Box 1-3)

TOP:    Positive Feedback Control Systems

 

  1. Negative feedback mechanisms:
A. minimize changes in blood glucose levels.
B. maintain homeostasis.
C. are responsible for an increased rate of sweating when air temperature is higher than body temperature.
D. are all of the above.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 21 | Page 22

TOP:    Negative Feedback Control Systems

 

  1. The lungs are located in the:
A. thoracic cavity.
B. mediastinum.
C. abdominal cavity.
D. cranial cavity.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 11 (Table 1-3)                            TOP:    Body Cavities

 

  1. The mediastinum contains all the following except the:
A. trachea.
B. venae cavae.
C. right lung.
D. esophagus.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 11 (Table 1-3)                            TOP:    Body Cavities

 

  1. The gallbladder lies in the:
A. abdominal cavity.
B. pelvic cavity.
C. dorsal cavity.
D. mediastinum.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 11 (Table 1-3)                            TOP:    Body Cavities

 

  1. The number of abdominal regions is:
A. three.
B. five.
C. seven.
D. nine.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 14

TOP:    Abdominal Regions

 

  1. The abdominal region in which the urinary bladder is found is the:
A. hypogastric.
B. epigastric.
C. right lumbar.
D. left iliac.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 14

TOP:    Abdominal Regions

 

  1. A surgeon removing a gallbladder should know to find it in the:
A. right lumbar region.
B. right hypochondriac region.
C. hypogastric region.
D. umbilical region.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 14

TOP:    Abdominal Regions

 

  1. The abdominal region in which the appendix is found is the:
A. hypogastric.
B. right iliac.
C. right lumbar.
D. right hypochondriac.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 14

TOP:    Abdominal Regions

 

  1. Popliteal refers to the:
A. calf.
B. ankle.
C. cheek.
D. area behind the knee.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 13 (Table 1-4)                            TOP:    Descriptive Terms for Body Regions

 

  1. A plane through the body that divides the body into right and left sides is called:
A. sagittal.
B. frontal.
C. coronal.
D. transverse.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 16

TOP:    Body Planes and Sections

 

  1. The abdominal quadrants are located with what structure as their midpoint?
A. Umbilicus
B. Pubic bone
C. Xiphoid process
D. Iliac crest

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 14

TOP:    Abdominopelvic Quadrants

 

  1. Humans have similar right and left sides of the body, at least superficially. This is an example of:
A. anatomical position.
B. anterior symmetry.
C. ipsilateral position.
D. bilateral symmetry.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 10

TOP:    Anatomical Position

 

  1. Two major cavities of the human body are:
A. ventral/dorsal.
B. inferior/superior.
C. visceral/parietal.
D. axial/appendicular.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 10

TOP:    Body Cavities

 

  1. The dorsal cavity contains all of the following except the:
A. brain.
B. spinal column.
C. spinal cord.
D. thyroid gland.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 11

TOP:    Body Cavities

 

  1. A plane through the body that divides the body into anterior and posterior portions is:
A. sagittal.
B. median.
C. coronal.
D. transverse.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 16

TOP:    Body Planes and Sections

 

  1. The plane that divides the individual into upper and lower parts is the:
A. sagittal plane.
B. frontal plane.
C. transverse plane.
D. superficial plane.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 16

TOP:    Body Planes and Sections

 

  1. A somatotype characterized by a thin, fragile physique is a(n):
A. ectomorph.
B. mesomorph.
C. endomorph.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 18

TOP:    Body Type and Disease

 

  1. Pathogenesis may be defined as:
A. a specific disease.
B. a group of diseases.
C. the course of disease development.
D. a subgroup of viruses.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 26 (Box 1-4)

TOP:    Disease Terminology

 

  1. The abdominopelvic cavity contains all of the following except the:
A. kidneys.
B. gallbladder.
C. right lung.
D. urinary bladder.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 11 (Table 1-3)                            TOP:    Body Cavities

 

  1. Intracellular parasites that consist of DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat and sometimes by a lipoprotein envelope are called:
A. viruses.
B. bacteria.
C. fungi.
D. protozoa.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 26

TOP:    Basic Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. The term that literally means self-immunity is:
A. autoimmunity.
B. homoimmunity.
C. passive immunity.
D. active immunity.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 27

TOP:    Basic Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. The study of the aging process is called:
A. neonatology.
B. gerontology.
C. dermatology.
D. podiatry.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 25

TOP:    Cycle of Life: Life Span Considerations

 

  1. Epidemiology is the study of the:
A. occurrence of diseases in human populations.
B. distribution of diseases in human populations.
C. transmission of diseases in human populations.
D. all of the above.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 26 (Box 1-4)

TOP:    Disease Terminology

 

  1. Which of the following may put one at risk for developing a given disease?
A. Environment
B. Stress
C. Lifestyle
D. All of the above

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 28

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. Which of the following is not one of the characteristics of life?
A. Digestion
B. Balance
C. Conductivity
D. Circulation
E. Reproduction

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 6 (Table 1-1)                              TOP:    Characteristics of Life

 

  1. An idea that is supported by repeated experiments and observation is called a:
A. fact.
B. theory.
C. concept.
D. hypothesis.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 4

TOP:    Science and Society

 

  1. Molecules are:
A. atoms combined to form larger chemical aggregates.
B. electrons orbiting nuclei.
C. a complex of electrons arranged in concentric shells.
D. composed of cellular organelles.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 8 | Page 9

TOP:    Chemical Level: Basis for Life

 

  1. Mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, and endoplasmic reticulum are examples of:
A. molecules.
B. cytoplasm.
C. organelles.
D. plasma membranes.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 8

TOP:    Levels of Organization

 

  1. When many similar cells specialize to perform a certain function, it is referred to as:
A. tissue.
B. organelle.
C. organ system complex.
D. organism.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 8

TOP:    Tissue Level

 

  1. Several kinds of tissues working together is termed a(n):
A. plasma membrane.
B. organ.
C. organism.
D. organ system.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 8

TOP:    Organ Level

 

  1. Blood production is a function of which system?
A. Reproductive
B. Respiratory
C. Skeletal
D. Lymphatic

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 9 (Table 1-2)                              TOP:    Support and Movement

 

  1. Negative feedback control systems:
A. oppose a change.
B. accelerate a change.
C. have no effect on the deviation from set point.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 23

TOP:    Negative Feedback Control Systems

 

  1. Positive feedback control systems:
A. have no effect on the deviation from set point.
B. accelerate a change.
C. ignore a change.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 23

TOP:    Positive Feedback Control Systems

 

  1. The dorsal body cavity contains the:
A. brain and spinal cord.
B. heart and lungs.
C. reproductive organs.
D. digestive organs.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 11

TOP:    Body Cavities

 

  1. The ventral body cavity contains the:
A. thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities.
B. heart and lungs only.
C. digestive and reproductive organs.
D. brain and spinal cord.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 11

TOP:    Body Cavities

 

  1. The axial portion of the body consists of the:
A. arms, neck, and legs.
B. neck, torso, and arms.
C. torso, arms, legs, and head.
D. head, neck, and torso.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 13

TOP:    Body Regions

 

  1. The abdominopelvic cavity contains all of the following except the:
A. stomach.
B. pancreas.
C. heart.
D. reproductive organs.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 11 (Table 1-3)                            TOP:    Body Cavities

 

  1. Visceral peritoneum would cover which of the following organs?
A. Heart
B. Intestines
C. Lungs
D. Spinal cord

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 11

TOP:    Body Cavities

 

  1. A sagittal section divides the body into:
A. upper and lower portions.
B. right and left portions.
C. front and back portions.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 16

TOP:    Body Planes and Sections

 

  1. A frontal section divides the body into:
A. upper and lower portions.
B. right and left portions.
C. front and back portions.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 16

TOP:    Body Planes and Sections

 

  1. Axilla is a term referring to which body region?
A. Anterior elbow
B. Armpit
C. Posterior knee
D. Groin

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 13 (Table 1-4)                            TOP:    Descriptive Terms for Body Regions

 

  1. Which of the following is not a major tissue of the body?
A. Cutaneous tissue
B. Epithelial tissue
C. Connective tissue
D. Nervous tissue

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 8

TOP:    Tissue Level

 

  1. “Apple-shaped” or “pear-shaped” describes subtypes of what major body type?
A. Mesomorph
B. Ectomorph
C. Endomorph
D. Polymorph

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 18 (Box 1-1)

TOP:    Body Type and Disease

 

  1. Shivering to try to raise your body temperature back to normal would be an example of:
A. the body trying to maintain homeostasis.
B. a positive feedback mechanism.
C. a negative feedback mechanism.
D. both A and C.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 23

TOP:    Homeostasis | Negative Feedback Control Systems

 

  1. Eponyms are:
A. scientific terms that sound alike but are spelled differently.
B. scientific terms that can have more than one meaning.
C. scientific terms that are based on a person’s name.
D. none of the above.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 6

TOP:    The Language of Science and Medicine

 

  1. An organ is one organizational step higher than a(n):
A. system.
B. cell.
C. organelle.
D. tissue.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 8

TOP:    Organ Level

 

  1. Which of the following does not describe anatomical position?
A. Head pointing forward
B. Body standing erect
C. Arms extended from the shoulders, palms up
D. All of the above describe the body in the anatomical position.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 10

TOP:    Anatomical Position

 

  1. Someone studying gross anatomy would not study which of the following?
A. The location of the heart and chambers of the heart
B. Muscles of the arms and legs
C. The nucleus of the cell
D. All of the above would be studied

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 5

TOP:    Anatomy

 

  1. The parietal pleura covers:
A. the lungs
B. the heart
C. the walls of the thoracic cavity
D. both A and B above.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 11

TOP:    Body Cavities

 

  1. The hollow part of an organ or body structure is called:
A. the cortical part of the organ.
B. the lumen of the organ.
C. the medullary part of the organ.
D. the apical part of the organ.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 15

TOP:    Terms Related to Organs

 

  1. The narrowest part of an organ or body structure is called:
A. the cortical part of the organ.
B. the lumen of the organ.
C. the medullary part of the organ.
D. the apical part of the organ.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 15

TOP:    Terms Related to Organs

 

  1. Which of the following is not a directional term of the body?
A. Apical
B. Proximal
C. Superficial
D. Deep

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 15

TOP:    Terms Related to Organs

 

  1. Which of the following is a protein substance with no DNA or RNA and is thought to be the cause of mad cow disease?
A. Virus
B. Bacteria
C. Prion
D. Protozoan

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 26

TOP:    Pathogenic Organisms

 

  1. Of the pathogenic organisms, these are the most complex.
A. Viruses
B. Tapeworms
C. Bacteria
D. Protozoa

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 26

TOP:    Pathogenic Organisms

 

  1. If the secretion of oxytocin during childbirth operated as a negative feedback control loop, what effect would it have on uterine contractions?
A. Oxytocin would stimulate stronger uterine contractions.
B. Oxytocin would inhibit uterine contractions.
C. There would be no changes in the strength of the uterine contractions.
D. Uterine contractions would initially become weak and then gain strength after the release of the hormone.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 23

TOP:    Positive Feedback Control Systems

 

  1. What is the anatomical direction term that means nearer the surface?
A. Deep
B. Distal
C. Proximal
D. Superficial

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 15           TOP:    Directional Terms

 

  1. An x-ray technician has been asked to make x-ray films of the liver. Which of the abdominopelvic regions must be included?
A. Right hypochondriac, epigastric, and left hypochondriac
B. Right hypochondriac, right lumbar, and right iliac
C. Right iliac, hypogastric, and left iliac
D. Right lumbar, umbilical, and left lumbar

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 14

TOP:    Abdominal Regions

 

  1. As a nurse, you are assisting a physician with the examination of a patient. The physician asks you to tell the patient, who is lying on the examination table, to assume the anatomical position. How would you instruct the patient to assume this position?
A. Have the patient stand up and place his arms at his sides, palms facing forward, with hands and feet facing forward.
B. Have the patient stand up and place his arms at his sides, palms facing posteriorly, with hands and feet facing forward.
C. Have the patient stand up and place his arms behind him, palms facing to the side, with feet facing forward.
D. Have the patient stand up and place his arms at his sides, palms facing down, with feet facing forward.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 10

TOP:    Anatomical Position

 

  1. Of the 11 major body systems, which is the least involved in maintaining homeostasis?
A. Circulatory
B. Endocrine
C. Lymphatic
D. Reproductive

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 9             TOP:    System Level

 

  1. During a routine physical examination, a patient with an endomorphic somatotype with a large waistline and overall “apple shape” should be advised that such a distribution of fat may lead to what conditions?
A. Heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, and colitis
B. Heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, and diabetes
C. Heart disease, stroke, low blood pressure, and colitis
D. Prostate cancer, low blood pressure, and diabetes

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 18 (Box 1-1)

TOP:    Body Type and Disease

 

  1. If your reference point is “farthest from the trunk of the body” versus “nearest to the trunk of the body,” where does the knee lie in relation to the ankle?
A. Distal
B. Proximal
C. Superficial
D. Superior

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 15           TOP:    Directional Terms

 

MATCHING

 

Match each organ to its corresponding system.

A. respiratory
B. digestive
C. urinary
D. reproductive
E. endocrine
F. cardiovascular
G. integumentary
H. muscular
I. skeletal
J. nervous

 

 

  1. tendons

 

  1. pituitary gland

 

  1. skin

 

  1. capillaries

 

  1. ligaments

 

  1. spinal cord

 

  1. bronchial tree

 

  1. testes and ovaries

 

  1. large and small intestines

 

  1. ureters

 

  1. ANS:   H                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 9 (Table 1-2)                              TOP:    Body Systems

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 9 (Table 1-2)                              TOP:    Body Systems

 

  1. ANS:   G                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 9 (Table 1-2)                              TOP:    Body Systems

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 9 (Table 1-2)                              TOP:    Body Systems

 

  1. ANS:   I                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 9 (Table 1-2)                              TOP:    Body Systems

 

  1. ANS:   J                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 9 (Table 1-2)                              TOP:    Body Systems

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 9 (Table 1-2)                              TOP:    Body Systems

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 9 (Table 1-2)                              TOP:    Body Systems

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 9 (Table 1-2)                              TOP:    Body Systems

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 9 (Table 1-2)                              TOP:    Body Systems

 

Match each term to its associated region.

A. abdominal
B. brachial
C. cervical
D. coxal
E. cutaneous
F. digital
G. femoral
H. lumbar

 

 

  1. thigh

 

  1. arm

 

  1. anterior torso

 

  1. lower back between ribs and pelvis

 

  1. fingers and toes

 

  1. hip

 

  1. skin

 

  1. neck

 

  1. ANS:   G                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 13 (Table 1-4)                            TOP:    Body Regions

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 13 (Table 1-4)                            TOP:    Body Regions

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 13 (Table 1-4)                            TOP:    Body Regions

 

  1. ANS:   H                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 13 (Table 1-4)                            TOP:    Body Regions

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 13 (Table 1-4)                            TOP:    Body Regions

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 13 (Table 1-4)                            TOP:    Body Regions

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 13 (Table 1-4)                            TOP:    Body Regions

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 13 (Table 1-4)                            TOP:    Body Regions

 

Match each term to its correct corresponding statement.

A. superior
B. inferior
C. anterior
D. posterior
E. medial
F. lateral
G. proximal
H. distal
I. superficial

 

 

  1. The great toe is _____ to the little toe.

 

  1. The skin is _____ to the muscles beneath it.

 

  1. The vertebrae are located on the _____ aspect of the body.

 

  1. The hand is _____ to the shoulder.

 

  1. The abdomen is _____ to the head.

 

  1. The lungs are _____ to the intestines.

 

  1. The nose is located on the _____ surface of the head.

 

  1. The knee is _____ to the ankle.

 

  1. The ear is on the _____ aspect of the head.

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 15

TOP:    Directional Terms

 

  1. ANS:   I                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 15

TOP:    Directional Terms

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 15

TOP:    Directional Terms

 

  1. ANS:   H                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 15

TOP:    Directional Terms

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 15

TOP:    Directional Terms

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 15

TOP:    Directional Terms

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 15

TOP:    Directional Terms

 

  1. ANS:   G                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 15

TOP:    Directional Terms

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 15

TOP:    Directional Terms

 

Match the systems with the functions.

A. reproduction and development
B. processing, regulation, maintenance
C. outer protection
D. support and movement
E. communication, control, integration
F. transportation and defense

 

 

  1. nervous system

 

  1. muscular system and skeletal system

 

  1. circulatory system and lymphatic system

 

  1. respiratory system, digestive system and endocrine system

 

  1. reproductive system

 

  1. integumentary system

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 9 (Table 1-2)                              TOP:    Body Systems

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 9 (Table 1-2)                              TOP:    Body Systems

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 9 (Table 1-2)                              TOP:    Body Systems

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 9 (Table 1-2)                              TOP:    Body Systems

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 9 (Table 1-2)                              TOP:    Body Systems

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 9 (Table 1-2)                              TOP:    Body Systems

 

Match each characteristic of life with the correct corresponding statement.

A. conductivity
B. excitation
C. growth
D. circulation
E. respiration
F. responsiveness
G. digestion
H. absorption
I. secretion
J. reproduction

 

 

  1. movement of digested nutrients through the wall of the digestive tract into body fluids for transport to the cell

 

  1. the characteristic of life that permits an organism to sense, monitor, and respond to changes in the external environment

 

  1. the production of specialized substances for diverse body functions

 

  1. responsiveness and this characteristic are highly developed in nerve cells

 

  1. movement of body fluids and other substances from one part of the body to another

 

  1. the removal of waste produced by many body functions

 

  1. comes about as a result of a normal increase in size or number of cells

 

  1. the exchange of gases between the organism and the environment

 

  1. the formation of new individuals

 

  1. the process by which complex food substances are broken down into simple substances that can be absorbed by the cells

 

  1. ANS:   H                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 6 (Table 1-1)                              TOP:    Characteristics of Life

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 6 (Table 1-1)                              TOP:    Characteristics of Life

 

  1. ANS:   I                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 6 (Table 1-1)                              TOP:    Characteristics of Life

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 6 (Table 1-1)                              TOP:    Characteristics of Life

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 6 (Table 1-1)                              TOP:    Characteristics of Life

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 6 (Table 1-1)                              TOP:    Characteristics of Life

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 6 (Table 1-1)                              TOP:    Characteristics of Life

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 6 (Table 1-1)                              TOP:    Characteristics of Life

 

  1. ANS:   J                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 6 (Table 1-1)                              TOP:    Characteristics of Life

 

  1. ANS:   G                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 6 (Table 1-1)                              TOP:    Characteristics of Life

 

Match each term with its corresponding definition or explanation.

A. prion
B. tumor
C. fungi
D. gene mutation
E. bacteria
F. malnutrition
G. protozoa
H. virus

 

 

  1. an intracellular parasite that consists of an RNA or DNA core surrounded by a protein coat

 

  1. a type of protein that converts normal protein in the nervous system into abnormal proteins that cause loss of function

 

  1. a tiny, primitive cell that lacks a nucleus and can cause infection

 

  1. an abnormal growth or neoplasm

 

  1. altered DNA that causes abnormal proteins to be made that do not perform their intended function

 

  1. a one-celled organism whose DNA is organized into a nucleus that can parasitize human tissue

 

  1. simple organisms that are similar to plants but lack chlorophyll, which allows plants to make their own food; because these organisms cannot make their own food, they parasitize human tissue

 

  1. ANS:   H                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 26

TOP:    Basic Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 26

TOP:    Basic Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 26

TOP:    Basic Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 26

TOP:    Basic Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 26

TOP:    Basic Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. ANS:   G                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 26

TOP:    Basic Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 26

TOP:    Basic Mechanisms of Disease

 

Match the terms related to organs to their definition or explanation.

A. medullary
B. basal
C. apical
D. cortical
E. lumen

 

 

  1. the base or widest part of the organ

 

  1. the outer region or layer of an organ

 

  1. the hollow part of an organ or tube of the body

 

  1. the inner region of an organ

 

  1. the narrow part or point of an organ

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 15

TOP:    Terms Related to Organs

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 15

TOP:    Terms Related to Organs

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 15

TOP:    Terms Related to Organs

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 15

TOP:    Terms Related to Organs

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 15

TOP:    Terms Related to Organs

 

Match each description with its level of organization.

A. Chemical level
B. Organelle level
C. Cellular level
D. Tissue level
E. Organ level
F. System level
G. Organism level

 

 

  1. The highest level of organization

 

  1. Level that includes mitochondria

 

  1. Level composed of the smallest structure that possesses the basic characteristics of living matter

 

  1. Level at which the tissues work together to perform a specific function

 

  1. Level of organization composed of macromolecules

 

  1. Level described as cells working together to perform a specific function

 

  1. Level of organization at which a group of organs work together to perform specific complex functions

 

  1. ANS:   G                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 9

TOP:    Levels of Organization

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 8

TOP:    Levels of Organization

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 8

TOP:    Levels of Organization

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 8

TOP:    Levels of Organization

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 7

TOP:    Levels or Organization

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 8

TOP:    Levels of Organization

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 8

TOP:    Levels of Organization

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. In simple terms, what are the characteristics of life?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 6             TOP:    Characteristics of Life

 

  1. Discuss the principle of complementarity of structure and function.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 17           TOP:    Interaction of Structure and Function

 

  1. Diagram a homeostatic control mechanism, including the three basic components.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 20 | Page 21

TOP:    Homeostatic Control Mechanisms

 

  1. How does childbirth demonstrate positive feedback?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 23 (Box 1-3)

TOP:    Positive Feedback Control Systems

 

  1. Give an example of how categories of risk factors or predisposing conditions may overlap.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 27 | Page 28

TOP:    Disease Terminology

 

  1. Explain one way in which culture has affected science. Explain one way in which science has affected culture.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 4             TOP:    Science and Society

 

  1. Explain the feed-forward control system and give an example of one in the body

 

ANS:

Answers will vary

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 24           TOP:    Feed-Forward in Control Systems

 

OTHER

 

  1. Challenge: Using either a living or nonliving system, give an example of a system that tries to maintain a relatively constant condition by using a negative feedback mechanism.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 22

TOP:    Basic Components of Control Mechanisms

Chapter 3: Anatomy of Cells

 

Test Bank

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Mature cells that comprise the human body are highly specialized and complex.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 67

TOP:    Functional Anatomy of Cells

 

  1. An important function of the cell membrane is the maintenance of cell integrity.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 69 (Table 3-3)

TOP:    Cell Membrane

 

  1. Peroxisomes contain enzymes that detoxify harmful substances.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 76

TOP:    Peroxisomes

 

  1. The outer portion of the cell membrane is hydrophobic, or water-loving.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 70

TOP:    Cell Membrane

 

  1. Ribosomes attached to the endoplasmic reticulum are responsible for making proteins to be exported out of the cell.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 73

TOP:    Rough ER

 

  1. The functions of the nucleus are regulated by RNA.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 78

TOP:    Nucleus

 

  1. The major direct cell connections are tight junctions, gap junctions, and desmosomes.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 83

TOP:    Cell Connections

 

  1. Tight junctions do not allow molecules to spread through the cracks between cells.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 83 | Page 84

TOP:    Cell Connections

 

  1. Gap junctions are found in the small intestine. They allow molecules to flow between cells.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 83

TOP:    Cell Connections

 

  1. The number of mitochondria in a cell is basically related to its degree of activity.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 77

TOP:    Mitochondria

 

  1. The cell’s internal supporting framework is called the cytoskeleton.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 79

TOP:    Cytoskeleton

 

  1. The size of a cell’s nucleolus is indirectly related to the amount of protein the cell produces.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 78

TOP:    Nucleus

 

  1. Heart muscle cells are joined by gap junctions to facilitate the movement of electrical impulses.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 83

TOP:    Cell Connections

 

  1. Cell connections called desmosomes are like Velcro holding cells together.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 83

TOP:    Cell Connections

 

  1. Cilia are longer and more numerous than flagella.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 82

TOP:    Cell Extensions

 

  1. Nucleic acid is DNA.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 78

TOP:    Nucleus

 

  1. The thinnest cell fibers are tiny, hollow tubes called microtubules.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 79 | Page 80

TOP:    Cell Fibers

 

  1. The plasma membrane can be described as a double layer of phospholipid molecules.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 70           TOP:    Cell Membrane

 

  1. Generally, the more active a cell is, the fewer mitochondria it will contain.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 77           TOP:    Mitochondria

 

  1. Light microscopy is inferior to electron microscopy.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 80 (Figure 3-15)

TOP:    Cell Fibers

 

  1. The “typical” cell described in Chapter 3 is very similar to most of the cells in the human body.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 68

TOP:    The Typical Cell

 

  1. The watery fluid in the cell is called cytosol.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 69 (Table 3-3)                            TOP:    Cell Structures

 

  1. Water-soluble substances easily pass through the cell membrane.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 71

TOP:    Cell Membrane

 

  1. Glycoproteins on the cell membrane would prevent someone with type A blood from accepting type B blood.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 72           TOP:    Cell Membrane

 

  1. Rough endoplasmic reticulum looks rough because there are mitochondria attached to it.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 73

TOP:    Endoplasmic Reticulum

 

  1. Proteins in the cell membrane can control the movement of material through the cell membrane.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 72

TOP:    Cell Membrane

 

  1. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum is the organelle that supplies membrane material for use throughout the cell.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 74

TOP:    Endoplasmic Reticulum

 

  1. Ribosomes are only found attached to endoplasmic reticulum.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 74

TOP:    Ribosomes

 

  1. The main function of the ribosome is to provide energy to the cell.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 74

TOP:    Ribosomes

 

  1. The Golgi apparatus helps to prepare material for export from the cell.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 74

TOP:    Golgi Apparatus

 

  1. The protein-processing units of the Golgi apparatus are called cisterna.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 74

TOP:    Golgi Apparatus

 

  1. In certain situations, cells “commit suicide.” This function would be carried out by the lysosomes.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 76           TOP:    Lysosomes

 

  1. The catalase in the peroxisomes reacts to detoxify carbon dioxide.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 77

TOP:    Peroxisomes

 

  1. The inner folds of the mitochondria are called cisterna.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 77

TOP:    Mitochondria

 

  1. It is likely that a muscle cell would have more mitochondria than a fat cell.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 77           TOP:    Mitochondria

 

  1. One of the main functions of the mitochondria is to supply the cell with ATP.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 77

TOP:    Mitochondria

 

  1. The name nucleus comes from the Greek word for color.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 78

TOP:    Nucleus

 

  1. Chromosomes and chromatin are both forms of DNA.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 78           TOP:    Nucleus

 

  1. Muscles contain a high concentration of microtubules.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 80           TOP:    Cell Fibers

 

  1. The body of a female does not produce cells with flagella.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 83           TOP:    Cell Extensions

 

  1. Schleiden and Schwann were the first scientists to see cells.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 67

TOP:    Introduction

 

  1. The largest human cell is the female ovum or egg cell.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 67

TOP:    Functional Anatomy of Cells

 

  1. Another term for cytosol is intracellular fluid.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 69

TOP:    Cell Structures

 

  1. The fluid mosaic model describes the chromatin material found in the nucleus.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 70

TOP:    Cell Membrane

 

  1. One function of the smooth ER is to help maintain a low Ca++ concentration in the cell’s interior.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 74

TOP:    Endoplasmic Reticulum

 

  1. A major part of ribosomes is deoxyribonucleic acid.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 74

TOP:    Ribosomes

 

  1. The proteasomes contain enzymes that assist in protein synthesis.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 76

TOP:    Proteasomes

 

  1. Proteasomes only destroy abnormal or misfolded proteins in the cell.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 76

TOP:    Proteasomes

 

  1. Small proteins called ubiquitins assist the proteasomes in accomplishing their function.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 76

TOP:    Proteasomes

 

  1. An organelle called a vault, composed of RNA and protein, functions to shuttle molecules to and from the nucleus.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 79 (Box 3-2)

TOP:    Vaults

 

  1. An angstrom is larger than a nanometer.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 67 (Table 3-1)                            TOP:    Units of Size

 

  1. Two types of lipids, phospholipids and cholesterol, are important molecules in the cell membrane.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 70

TOP:    Cell Membrane

 

  1. Rafts are stiff groupings of membrane molecules that are rich in cholesterol.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 71

TOP:    Membrane Structure

 

  1. Hormones attach to special cholesterol molecules in the cell membrane.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 72

TOP:    Membrane Function

 

  1. Three ribosomal subunits must come together to form a functioning ribosome.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 74

TOP:    Ribosomes

 

  1. Many ribosomes can work on the same mRNA strand at the same time; when this occurs, the structure is called a polyribosome.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 74

TOP:    Ribosomes

 

  1. A complete ribosome only exists when it is making a protein.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 74           TOP:    Ribosomes

 

  1. In order for the Golgi apparatus to function correctly, both the ribosomes and the rough endoplasmic reticulum must be functioning also.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 74 | Page 75

TOP:    Golgi Apparatus

 

  1. Muscular dystrophy is a disease condition that can be linked to the malfunctioning of proteasomes.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 76

TOP:    Proteasomes

 

  1. The nucleus is the only structure in the cell that contains DNA.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 77

TOP:    Mitochondria

 

  1. Another name for the centrosome is the microtubule organizing center.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 80

TOP:    Centrosomes

 

  1. The centriole is a single cylindrical structure at the boundary of the centrosome.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 81

TOP:    Centrosomes

 

  1. Small protein structures called molecular motors pull loads form one part of the cell to another along the cytoskeleton.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 81 | Page 82

TOP:    Molecular Motors

 

  1. All of the cell extensions—microvilli, cilia, and flagella—have basically the same structure. They only differ in number per cell and length.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 82 | Page 83

TOP:    Cell Extensions

 

  1. Primary cilia are unable to move because they lack the central pair of microtubules and motor molecules.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 82 | Page 83

TOP:    Cell Extensions

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. The basic unit of structure and function in the human body is a(n):
A. atom.
B. cell.
C. gene.
D. DNA molecule.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 67

TOP:    Introduction

 

  1. Which of the following recognize and destroy nonself cells?
A. Gland cells
B. Immune cells
C. Nerve cells
D. Red blood cells

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 67 (Table 3-2)                            TOP:    Examples of Cell Types

 

  1. Main cell structures include all of the following except:
A. organelles.
B. plasma membrane.
C. blood plasma.
D. cytoplasm.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 69

TOP:    Cell Structures

 

  1. Which of the following is not a function of the plasma membrane?
A. Self-identification
B. Receptor site for messages
C. Selective barrier
D. Control center of the cell

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 69 (Table 3-3)

TOP:    Some Major Cell Structures and Their Functions

 

  1. The structure in white blood cells associated with the enzymatic breakdown of foreign material is the:
A. lysosome.
B. Golgi apparatus.
C. ribosome.
D. centriole.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 76

TOP:    Lysosomes

 

  1. The major function of ribosomes is to synthesize:
A. proteins.
B. carbohydrates.
C. fats.
D. cholesterol.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 74

TOP:    Ribosomes

 

  1. The organelles that can digest and destroy microbes that invade the cell are:
A. peroxisomes.
B. mitochondria.
C. ribosomes.
D. lysosomes.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 76

TOP:    Lysosomes

 

  1. Which organelle processes and packages material to be secreted?
A. Nucleolus
B. Ribosome
C. Mitochondrion
D. Golgi apparatus

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 74

TOP:    Golgi Apparatus

 

  1. Projections from the cell that move materials and mucus are:
A. cilia.
B. flagella.
C. microvilli.
D. microtubules.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 82 | Page 83

TOP:    Cell Extensions

 

  1. Granules or threads within the nucleus are called:
A. microfilaments.
B. chromatin.
C. nucleotides.
D. microtubules.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 78

TOP:    Nucleus

 

  1. Skin cells (epithelial) are held tightly together by:
A. gap junctions.
B. desmosomes.
C. tight junctions.
D. adhesions.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 83

TOP:    Cell Connections

 

  1. The major energy production site of the cell is the:
A. Golgi apparatus.
B. mitochondrion.
C. endoplasmic reticulum.
D. ribosome.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 77

TOP:    Mitochondria

 

  1. The cell extension that assists epithelial cells in absorption is:
A. cilia.
B. flagella.
C. microvilli.
D. desmosomes.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 82 | Page 83

TOP:    Cell Extensions

 

  1. A specialized cell structure that propels the sperm is the:
A. flagellum.
B. cilium.
C. microvillus.
D. microtubule.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 83

TOP:    Cell Extensions

 

  1. DNA is a major constituent of which cell organelle?
A. Lysosome
B. Ribosome
C. Chromosome
D. Nucleus

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 78

TOP:    Nucleus

 

  1. An area of cytoplasm that coordinates the building and breaking of microtubules is called:
A. cytoplasm A.
B. mitochondria.
C. centrosome.
D. ribosomes.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 80

TOP:    Centrosome

 

  1. The structure that separates the contents of a cell from the surrounding tissue is known as:
A. Golgi apparatus.
B. plasma membrane.
C. cytoplasm.
D. centrosome.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 70

TOP:    Cell Membrane

 

  1. A cell’s digestive system is the:
A. mitochondria.
B. cilia.
C. peroxisomes.
D. lysosomes.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 76

TOP:    Lysosomes

 

  1. Tiny indentations of the plasma membrane that resemble caves are called:
A. mitochondria.
B. caveola.
C. cisternae.
D. vesicles.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 71 (Box 3-1)

TOP:    Caveolae

 

  1. The ____ is often called the microtubule organizing center.
A. centrosome
B. cytoskeleton
C. centriole
D. ribosome

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 80

TOP:    Centrosome

 

  1. Each of the following is an example of the plasma membrane function except:
A. boundary.
B. self-identification.
C. receptor sites.
D. production of proteins.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 72           TOP:    Cell Membrane

 

  1. Which of the following is a functional characteristic of ribosomes?
A. Manufacture of mRNA
B. Protein synthesis
C. DNA replication
D. Housing of DNA

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 74

TOP:    Ribosomes

 

  1. ATP production occurs within which organelle?
A. Rough endoplasmic reticulum
B. Golgi apparatus
C. Flagellum
D. Mitochondrion

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 77           TOP:    Mitochondria

 

  1. Preparation of protein molecules for cellular exportation is the function of which of the following organelles?
A. Golgi apparatus
B. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
C. Rough endoplasmic reticulum
D. Mitochondria

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 74           TOP:    Golgi Apparatus

 

  1. In nondividing cells, DNA appears as threads that are referred to as:
A. chromatin.
B. chromosomes.
C. histones.
D. none of the above.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 78           TOP:    Nucleus

 

  1. The nucleolus is composed chiefly of:
A. mRNA.
B. rRNA.
C. tRNA.
D. DNA.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 78

TOP:    Nucleus

 

  1. The largest human cell, measuring about 150 µm, is a:
A. white blood cell.
B. female sex cell or ovum.
C. liver cell.
D. male sex cell or sperm.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 67

TOP:    Introduction

 

  1. In the cell membrane, the hydrophilic part of the phospholipid molecule:
A. faces the exterior of the cell.
B. faces the interior of the cell.
C. is in the center of the phospholipid bilayer.
D. is both A and B.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 70           TOP:    Cell Membrane

 

  1. In the cell membrane, the hydrophobic part of the phospholipid molecule:
A. faces the exterior of the cell.
B. faces the interior of the cell.
C. is in the center of the phospholipid bilayer.
D. is both A and B.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 70           TOP:    Cell Membrane

 

  1. The presence of which substance in the cell membrane keeps it from breaking too easily?
A. Cholesterol
B. Protein
C. Phospholipids
D. Glycoproteins

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 70

TOP:    Cell Membrane

 

  1. The identification function of the cell membrane is carried out by the:
A. cholesterol molecules.
B. phospholipid molecules.
C. glycoprotein molecules.
D. channel proteins.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 72

TOP:    Cell Membrane

 

  1. Which of the following is not a function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
A. Provide a site for ribosome attachment
B. Supply membrane for use throughout the cell
C. Make steroid hormones
D. Make glycoproteins

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 73 | Page 74

TOP:    Endoplasmic Reticulum

 

  1. Which of the following is not true about ribosomes?
A. Make protein
B. Composed of a large and small unit
C. Surrounded by a membrane structure
D. Made of RNA

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 74           TOP:    Ribosomes

 

  1. The membranous structure containing substances that protect the cell from harm are:
A. ribosomes.
B. lysosomes.
C. peroxisomes.
D. both B and C.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 76 | Page 77

TOP:    Lysosomes and Peroxisomes

 

  1. Which of the following statements does not describe the nucleolus?
A. It is found in the nucleus.
B. It has a membrane similar to the nucleus.
C. It is made of nucleic acids.
D. All of the above are true about the nucleolus.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 78           TOP:    Nucleus

 

  1. A list of the cell fibers from largest to smallest would read:
A. microtubules, intermediate filaments, microfilaments.
B. microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate filaments.
C. microfilaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules.
D. microfilaments, microtubules, intermediate filaments.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 79 | Page 80

TOP:    Cell Fibers

 

  1. The cell extension that contains microfilaments is:
A. microvilli.
B. flagella.
C. cilia.
D. All cell extensions contain microfilaments.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 82

TOP:    Cell Extensions

 

  1. Which of the following organelles is considered a membranous organelle?
A. Lysosome
B. Ribosome
C. Nucleolus
D. Both A and B

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 69 (Table 3-3)

TOP:    Some Major Cell Structures and Their Functions

 

  1. Which of the following organelles is considered a nonmembranous organelle?
A. Golgi apparatus
B. Ribosome
C. Mitochondria
D. Both A and B

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 69 (Table 3-3)

TOP:    Some Major Cell Structures and Their Functions

 

  1. The barrier function of the plasma membrane is accomplished by the:
A. receptor proteins.
B. glycoproteins.
C. rafts in the cell membrane.
D. phospholipid bilayer.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 70 | Page 72

TOP:    Cell Membrane

 

  1. Which structures in the cell membrane are a stiff grouping of membrane molecules that are rich in cholesterol?
A. Glycoproteins
B. Rafts
C. Phospholipids
D. Receptor proteins

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 71

TOP:    Membrane Structure

 

  1. Which of the following is not true of the rough endoplasmic reticulum?
A. It makes lipids and carbohydrates.
B. It is made of broad flattened sacs.
C. It has many ribosomes attached to it.
D. All of the above are true of rough endoplasmic reticulum.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 73

TOP:    Endoplasmic Reticulum

 

  1. The enzyme is an important chemical in the functioning of the:
A. mitochondria.
B. proteasomes.
C. peroxisomes.
D. lysosomes.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 76 | Page 77

TOP:    Peroxisomes

 

  1. Which of the following structures contains DNA?
A. Nucleus
B. Mitochondria
C. Ribosome
D. Both A and B

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 77 | Page 78

TOP:    Mitochondria and Nucleus

 

  1. Damage to the centrosome and centrioles in a cell would have the greatest impact on which cell function?
A. Energy production
B. Protein synthesis
C. Cell division
D. Synthesis of lipids and carbohydrates

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 80 | Page 81

TOP:    Centrosomes

 

  1. Which cell extension lacks a central pair of microtubules, is not found in blood cells, and functions in the kidney to monitor urine flow?
A. Microvilli
B. Primary cilium
C. Cilia
D. Flagella

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 82 | Page 83

TOP:    Cell Extensions

 

MATCHING

 

Match each cell structure with its corresponding description or function.

A. plasma membrane
B. smooth endoplasmic reticulum
C. Golgi apparatus
D. nucleolus
E. nucleus
F. ribosome
G. lysosome
H. mitochondria
I. peroxisomes
J. rough endoplasmic reticulum
K. proteasomes

 

 

  1. tubular network in the cell with no ribosomes that synthesize lipids and carbohydrates

 

  1. outer boundary of the cell made up of phospholipids and proteins

 

  1. functions in processing and packaging of protein molecules to be exported from the cell

 

  1. protein factory made up of two subunits

 

  1. structure in the cell nucleus that makes ribosomes

 

  1. major source of ATP synthesis, the “power house” of the cell

 

  1. vesicles or sacs in the cell that can destroy large molecules or even the cell itself

 

  1. vesicles that contain catalase that are important in metabolic reactions involving hydrogen peroxide

 

  1. structures that destroy improperly folded protein molecules that could possibly harm the cell

 

  1. one of the largest structures in the cell, contains DNA

 

  1. broad flattened sacs that extend from the nucleus and have ribosomes attached to them

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 73 | Page 74

TOP:    Endoplasmic Reticulum

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 70 | Page 71

TOP:    Cell Membrane

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 74

TOP:    Golgi Apparatus

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 74

TOP:    Ribosomes

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 78

TOP:    Nucleus

 

  1. ANS:   H                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 77

TOP:    Mitochondria

 

  1. ANS:   G                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 76

TOP:    Lysosomes

 

  1. ANS:   I                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 76 | Page 77

TOP:    Peroxisomes

 

  1. ANS:   K                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 76

TOP:    Proteasomes

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 78

TOP:    Nucleus

 

  1. ANS:   J                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 73

TOP:    Endoplasmic Reticulum

 

Match each term to the phrase that describes it best.

A. microtubules
B. intermediate filaments
C. microfilaments
D. centrosomes
E. cilia
F. flagella
G. microvilli
H. desmosomes
I. tight junctions
J. gap junctions
K. primary cilium
L. centrioles

 

 

  1. cell fiber that can be found in muscle cells

 

  1. cell extension that is found on the sperm cell

 

  1. cell connections that are like small “spot welds”

 

  1. cell extension that increases surface area for more efficient absorption

 

  1. largest of the cell fibers; act like “engines” for the cell

 

  1. microtubule organizing centers that also play a role in cell division

 

  1. cell connections that form tunnels between cells and are found in heart muscles

 

  1. cell fibers that are slightly thicker than microfilaments

 

  1. cell extensions that are shorter than flagella and are found lining the respiratory tract

 

  1. cell connection that forms a “collar” around groups of cells

 

  1. tiny cylinders that can be found near the boundaries of the centrosomes

 

  1. cell extension that lacks the center pair of microtubules and can function as sensory organelles; not found in blood cells, but most other cells have them

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 80

TOP:    Cell Fibers

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 83

TOP:    Cell Extensions

 

  1. ANS:   H                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 83

TOP:    Cell Connections

 

  1. ANS:   G                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 82

TOP:    Cell Extensions

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 80

TOP:    Cell Fibers

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 80

TOP:    Centrosome

 

  1. ANS:   J                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 83

TOP:    Cell Connections

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 80

TOP:    Cell Fibers

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 82 | Page 83

TOP:    Cell Extensions

 

  1. ANS:   I                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 83 | Page 84

TOP:    Cell Connections

 

  1. ANS:   L                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 81

TOP:    Centrosomes

 

  1. ANS:   K                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 82 | Page 83

TOP:    Cell Extensions

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. Describe the structure of the cell membrane and explain what is meant by the fluid mosaic model.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 70 | Page 72                               TOP:    Cell Membrane

 

  1. Explain the functions of the cell membrane.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 72           TOP:    Cell Membrane

 

  1. Explain what structure on the cell membrane makes it difficult to transplant an organ from one person into another.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 72           TOP:    Cell Membrane

 

  1. Name and give the functions of the membranous organelles of the cell.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 69 (Table 3-3)

TOP:    The Typical Cell

 

  1. Name and give the functions of the nonmembranous organelles of the cell.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 69 (Table 3-3)

TOP:    The Typical Cell

 

  1. Name and explain the function of the three types of cell fibers in the cell.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 79 | Page 80

TOP:    Cell Fibers

 

  1. What is the function of the centrosome and by what other name is it known?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 80 | Page 81

TOP:    Centrosome

 

  1. What are molecular motors and what is their function in the cell?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 81 | Page 82

TOP:    Molecular Motors

 

  1. Explain the structure and function of the microvilli.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 82           TOP:    Cell Extensions

 

  1. Explain the structure and function of cilia and flagella. What is the only type of human cell that has a flagella?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 82 | Page 83

TOP:    Cell Extensions

 

  1. Explain the structure and function of the primary cilium in the cell. Which cell type does not have a primary cilium?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 82 | Page 83

TOP:    Cell Extensions

 

  1. Describe the structure and function of the nucleus. Include the structure and function of the nucleolus.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 78           TOP:    Nucleus

 

  1. Name and describe the three types of cell connections.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 83 | Page 84

TOP:    Cell Connections

 

OTHER

 

  1. Challenge: Joanne, a 75-year-old patient, has an active peptic ulcer. Describe the cellular organelles involved in synthesizing digestive enzymes for the stomach.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 69 (Table 3-3)

TOP:    Cytoplasm and Organelles

 

  1. Challenge: Rebecca received a second-degree sunburn and was very uncomfortable for several days. Her skin began to heal and some of the epithelial tissue began to peel off in layers. Explain the cell connections that allow the skin cells to hold on to each other in a sheet.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 83 | Page 84                               TOP:    Cell Connections

 

  1. Challenge: Explain the process by which a protein is processed in preparation for being released by the cell, starting at the ribosome and ending at the cell membrane.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 74 | Page 75                               TOP:    Golgi Apparatus

Patton and Thibodeau: Anatomy & Physiology, 7th Edition

 

Chapter 13: Central Nervous System

 

Test Bank

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. The central nervous system includes the brain, spinal cord, and autonomic nerves.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 413

TOP:    Central Nervous System Introduction

 

  1. The central nervous system includes all of the nervous system except the peripheral nervous system.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 413

TOP:    Central Nervous System Introduction

 

  1. The meninges are protective coverings, continuous around the brain and spinal cord.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 413

TOP:    Coverings of the Brain and Spinal Cord

 

  1. Meningitis refers to inflammation of the brain.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 415 (Box 13-1)                          TOP:    Meningitis

 

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid circulates in the subarachnoid space of the meninges.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 416

TOP:    Formation and Circulation of Cerebrospinal Fluid

 

  1. Besides providing protection, the cerebrospinal fluid can influence the respiratory center.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 416

TOP:    Cerebrospinal Fluid

 

  1. Fluid accumulation in the subarachnoid space is referred to as internal hydrocephalus.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 418

TOP:    Hydrocephalus

 

  1. The spinal cord completely fills the spinal cavity in the vertebrae.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 418

TOP:    Structure of the Spinal Cord

 

  1. A physician can use lumbar puncture to withdraw cerebrospinal fluid from the subarachnoid space in the lumbar region of the spinal cord.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 417 (Box 13-2)                          TOP:    Lumbar Puncture

 

  1. Fluid accumulation in the lateral and third ventricles is called external hydrocephalus.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 418

TOP:    Hydrocephalus

 

  1. Funiculi consist of tracts divided into smaller bundles called nerve fibers.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 418 | Page 419                           TOP:    Structure of the Spinal Cord

 

  1. Spinal reflex centers are located in the gray matter of the spinal cord.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 421

TOP:    Functions of the Spinal Cord

 

  1. Peripheral motor neuron cell bodies are located in the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal nerves.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 418

TOP:    Structure of the Spinal Cord

 

  1. For voluntary skeletal muscle activity, impulses originate in the cerebrum but coordination of the activity is a function of the cerebellum.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 425 | Page 426                           TOP:    Functions of the Cerebellum

 

  1. The thalamus acts as a relay station for ascending sensory impulses.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 426

TOP:    Thalamus

 

  1. One of the major functions of the thalamus is its influence on the activity of the endocrine system.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 426         TOP:    Thalamus

 

  1. The central sulcus divides the cerebrum into two hemispheres.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 424

TOP:    Structure of the Cerebrum

 

  1. Basal ganglia are islands of gray matter deep in the cerebellum.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 429         TOP:    Cerebral Cortex

 

  1. The secondary motor area is found in the gyrus just posterior to the primary motor area.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 435

TOP:    Motor Functions of the Cortex

 

  1. The vomiting reflex is mediated by the cerebellum.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 424

TOP:    Functions of the Brainstem

 

  1. The shallow grooves of the cerebrum are called sulci.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 429

TOP:    Cerebral Cortex

 

  1. The parietooccipital fissure divides the cerebrum into two hemispheres.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 429

TOP:    Cerebral Cortex

 

  1. The secondary motor area activates groups of muscles rather than individual muscles.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 435

TOP:    Motor Functions of the Cortex

 

  1. The primary motor area, located in the precentral gyrus, is thought to activate individual muscles in the hands and feet.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 435

TOP:    Motor Functions of the Cortex

 

  1. A primary function of the reticular formation is to arouse or alert the cerebral cortex.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 435

TOP:    Consciousness

 

  1. Under normal brain functioning, activation of the reticular formation produces consciousness.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 435

TOP:    Consciousness

 

  1. Barbiturates and amphetamines are two drugs that can arouse the cerebral cortex.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 435

TOP:    Consciousness

 

  1. For most people, the speech center is found in the left hemisphere.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 437

TOP:    Specialization of Cerebral Hemispheres

 

  1. An engram is a measurement of nerve impulse conduction.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 434 (Box 13-7)                          TOP:    Electroencephalogram (EEG)

 

  1. The limbic system of the brain primarily functions in the production of speech.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 436         TOP:    Emotion

 

  1. To describe sensory pathways as “crossed” refers to the fact that each side of the brain registers sensations from the opposite side of the body.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 440

TOP:    Somatic Sensory Pathways in the Central Nervous System

 

  1. The medial lemniscal system involves crude touch sensations, whereas the spinothalamic pathway involves more discriminating touch and pressure sensations.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 440

TOP:    Somatic Sensory Pathways in the Central Nervous System

 

  1. Extrapyramidal tracts can function either to inhibit or to facilitate lower motor neurons.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 442

TOP:    Extrapyramidal Tracts

 

  1. Pyramidal pathways are more often associated with smiles and frowns than are the extrapyramidal pathways.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 442         TOP:    Pyramidal Tracts

 

  1. Ascending tracts carry only sensory information, whereas descending pathways carry only motor information.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 419

TOP:    Functions of the Spinal Cord

 

  1. Repetition of nerve impulses on the same neuron circuitry produces memory.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 437         TOP:    Memory

 

  1. ECGs are associated with the measurement of brain waves.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 434 (Box 13-7)                          TOP:    The Electroencephalogram (EEG)

 

  1. Pyramidal tracts are motor pathways that form pyramids in the medulla.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 442

TOP:    Pyramidal Tracts

 

  1. Extrapyramidal pathways are more often associated with emotional expressions than are pyramidal pathways.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 442

TOP:    Extrapyamidal Tracts

 

  1. Formation of the cerebrospinal fluid occurs mainly in the choroid plexus.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 416

TOP:    Formation and Circulation of Cerebrospinal Fluid

 

  1. The lateral ventricles are located within the cerebellum.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 416

TOP:    Fluid Spaces

 

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid is absorbed into the venous blood via the choroid plexus.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 416

TOP:    Formation and Circulation of Cerebrospinal Fluid

 

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid is not found in the subarachnoid space.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 416

TOP:    Fluid Spaces

 

  1. The four large, fluid-filled spaces within the brain are called ventricles.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 416

TOP:    Fluid Spaces

 

  1. Interference of the cerebrospinal fluid circulation causing the fluid to accumulate in the epidural space is known as external hydrocephalus.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 418

TOP:    Hydrocephalus

 

  1. The type of brain wave associated with deep sleep is theta.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 434 (Box 13-7)                          TOP:    The Electroencephalogram (EEG)

 

  1. The cerebrum is the second largest portion of the brain.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 429

TOP:    Cerebral Cortex

 

  1. Functions of the brainstem include language, memory, and emotions.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 424

TOP:    Functions of the Brainstem

 

  1. The vomiting reflex is mediated by the medulla.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 424

TOP:    Functions of the Brainstem

 

  1. The shallow grooves of the cerebrum are called gyri.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 429

TOP:    Cerebral Cortex

 

  1. The islands of gray matter inside the hemispheres of the cerebrum are known as the cerebral cortex.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 430

TOP:    Cerebral Tracts and Cerebral Nuclei

 

  1. Poliomyelitis results in flaccid paralysis via destruction of posterior horn neurons.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 442

TOP:    Somatic Motor Pathways in the Central Nervous System

 

  1. The dura mater is the periosteum of the cranial bones, and the pia mater attaches the brain tissue.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 414

TOP:    Coverings of the Brain and Spinal Cord

 

  1. The tentorium cerebelli is a sickle-shaped extension of the dura that separates the two hemispheres of the cerebellum.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 415 (Box 13-1)                          TOP:    Coverings of the Brain and Spinal Cord

 

  1. The deepest border of the subdural space is the arachnoid membrane.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 414

TOP:    Coverings of the Brain and Spinal Cord

 

  1. The most superficial border of the subarachnoid space is the dura mater.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 415 (Box 13-1)

TOP:    Coverings of the Brain and Spinal Cord

 

  1. The filum terminale is the name given to the dura mater below the spinal cord.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 415 (Box 13-1)                          TOP:    Coverings of the Brain and Spinal Cord

 

  1. The spinal cord extends from the foramen magnum to the fifth lumbar vertebra.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 418

TOP:    Structure of the Spinal Cord

 

  1. The dorsal root ganglion consists of cell bodies of unipolar sensory neurons.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 418

TOP:    Structure of the Spinal Cord

 

  1. All spinal nerves are mixed nerves.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 418

TOP:    Structure of the Spinal Cord

 

  1. Each white column in the spinal cord consists of large numbers of cell bodies divided into smaller bundles called tracts.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 418 | Page 419                           TOP:    Structure of the Spinal Cord

 

  1. Based on the system of naming tracts in the spinal cord, the spinocerebellar tract would be an ascending tract.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 419 | Page 420

TOP:    Functions of the Spinal Cord

 

  1. Based on the system of naming tracts in the spinal cord, the corticospinal tract would be a descending tract.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 419 | Page 420

TOP:    Functions of the Spinal Cord

 

  1. Rapid mitosis stops at about age 9, but the brain grows in size until about age 18.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 421

TOP:    Brain

 

  1. The two “colorful” structures in the brain, the red nucleus and the substantia nigra, are located in the midbrain.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 423

TOP:    Midbrain

 

  1. All of the functions of the cerebellum have to do with control of smooth muscle or glands.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 425 | Page 426                           TOP:    Functions of the Cerebellum

 

  1. The diencephalon is part of the brain located between the cerebrum and the top of the brainstem.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 426         TOP:    Diencephalon

 

  1. The infundibulum connects the hypothalamus and the pineal body.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 426

TOP:    Hypothalamus

 

  1. Because there is a strong link between the thalamus and emotion, it can produce symptoms of a psychosomatic disease.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 426 | Page 428                           TOP:    Hypothalamus

 

  1. Most axons release neurotransmitters; however, some axons in the hypothalamus release hormones.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 428

TOP:    Hypothalamus

 

  1. A lesion or tumor in the hypothalamus may cause overeating and result in substantial weight gain.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 428

TOP:    Hypothalamus

 

  1. “Jet lag” occurs when the biological clock does not match up with the external clock. It is the job of the pineal body to correct this.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 429         TOP:    Pineal Body

 

  1. All of the lobes of the cerebrum are named after the bones that cover them.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 429

TOP:    Cerebral Cortex

 

  1. Association tracts connect parts of the same cerebral hemisphere.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 430

TOP:    Cerebral Tracts and Cerebral Nuclei

 

  1. Projection tracts pass through the corpus callosum from one hemisphere of the cerebrum to the other.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 430

TOP:    Cerebral Tracts and Cerebral Nuclei

 

  1. The fact that one part of the cerebrum can take on a new function in response to damage to another part of the cerebrum is an example of cerebral plasticity.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 432

TOP:    Functional Areas of the Cortex

 

  1. Slow-wave sleep is usually associated with dreaming.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 436

TOP:    Integrative Functions of the Cortex

 

  1. In one individual, brain waves are consistent in various parts of the brain.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 343 (Box 13-7)                          TOP:    The Electroencephalogram (EEG)

 

  1. The tertiary sensory neurons are entirely in the cerebrum.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 440

TOP:    Somatic Sensory Pathways in the Central Nervous System

 

  1. Decussation of sensory neurons usually occurs at the secondary neuron level before reaching the thalamus.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 440

TOP:    Somatic Sensory Pathways in the Central Nervous System

 

  1. Most of the motor tracts of the central nervous system do not decussate.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 441 (Figure 13-24)

TOP:    Somatic Motor Pathways in the Central Nervous System

 

  1. The outermost protective covering of the brain is the dura mater.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 414

TOP:    Coverings of the Brain and Spinal Cord

 

  1. The epidural space is found only in the area of the spinal cord.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 415 (Box 13-1)                          TOP:    Coverings of the Brain and Spinal Cord

 

  1. Changes in the oxygen content of the cerebrospinal fluid cause a homeostatic response in the respiratory control center.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 416

TOP:    Cerebrospinal Fluid

 

  1. The pyramids are two bulges of white matter on the ventral surface of the pons.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 423

TOP:    Structure of the Brainstem

 

  1. Both the inferior colliculi and superior colliculi are found in the midbrain.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 423

TOP:    Midbrain

 

  1. The “tree of life” (arbor vitae) is found in the cerebellum.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 424

TOP:    Structure of the Cerebellum

 

  1. The central nervous system directly or indirectly regulates or influences nearly every organ in the body.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 444

TOP:    The Central Nervous System and the Whole Body

 

  1. The part of the dura that extends into the longitudinal fissure is the falx cerebri.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 415

TOP:    Coverings of the Brain and Spinal Cord

 

  1. The tentorium cerebelli separates the cerebellum from the cerebrum.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 415

TOP:    Coverings of the Brain and Spinal Cord

 

  1. The pia mater has three important inward extensions, the falx cerebri, the falx cerebelli, and the tentorium cerebelli.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 415

TOP:    Coverings of the Brain and Spinal Cord

 

  1. The ependymal cells are glia cells that assist in the production of cerebrospinal fluid.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 416

TOP:    Formation and Circulation of Cerebrospinal Fluid

 

  1. The interventricular foramen (the foramen of Monro) leads into the fourth ventricle.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 416

TOP:    Formation and Circulation of Cerebrospinal Fluid

 

  1. The cerebrospinal fluid is absorbed into the venous blood by the median foramen of Magendie.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 416

TOP:    Formation and Circulation of Cerebrospinal Fluid

 

  1. The dorsal nerve root carries motor impulses from the spinal cord to the skeletal muscles.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 418

TOP:    Structure of the Spinal Cord

 

  1. The deeper, wider groove on the spinal cord can be used to identify the ventral side of the spinal cord.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 418

TOP:    Structure of the Spinal Cord

 

  1. The group of nerve roots that extend below the spinal cord are called the filum terminale.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 418

TOP:    Structure of the Spinal Cord

 

  1. The structure in the brain called the “olive” is found in the midbrain of the brainstem.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 423

TOP:    Medulla Oblongata

 

  1. The structure in the brain called the corpora quadrigemina is found in the midbrain.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 423

TOP:    Midbrain

 

  1. The vermis lies between the two hemispheres of the cerebellum.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 424

TOP:    Structure of the Cerebellum

 

  1. The cerebellum coordinates both incoming and outgoing motor information.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 425 | Page 426                           TOP:    Functions of the Cerebellum

 

  1. The geniculate bodies are important nuclei in the hypothalamus.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 426

TOP:    Thalamus

 

  1. The hypothalamus is the only part of the brain able to release a hormone.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 428

TOP:    Hypothalamus and Pineal Gland

 

  1. The hypothalamus is able to influence the functioning of both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 427 | Page 428                           TOP:    Hypothalamus

 

  1. The corpus callosum is an example of a commissural tract of the cerebrum.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 430

TOP:    Cerebral Tracts and Basal Nuclei

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. The layer of the meninges that serves as the inner periosteum of the cranial bone is the:
A. pia mater.
B. arachnoid membrane.
C. dura mater.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 414

TOP:    Coverings of the Brain and Spinal Cord

 

  1. The innermost layer of the meninges is the:
A. pia mater.
B. arachnoid membrane.
C. dura mater.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 414

TOP:    Coverings of the Brain and Spinal Cord

 

  1. The main divisions of the central nervous system are the:
A. brain, spinal cord, and autonomic nerves.
B. brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves.
C. brain and spinal cord.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 413

TOP:    Central Nervous System Introduction

 

  1. Meningitis refers to inflammation of the:
A. brain.
B. meninges.
C. spinal cord.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 415 (Box 13-1)                          TOP:    Meningitis

 

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid is found in all of the following except the:
A. subarachnoid space.
B. central canal.
C. third ventricle.
D. subdural space.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 416         TOP:    Fluid Spaces

 

  1. There are ____ ventricles in the brain.
A. 2
B. 3
C. 4
D. 5

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 416

TOP:    Fluid Spaces

 

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid is formed by filtration of blood in the:
A. central canal.
B. choroid plexuses.
C. subarachnoid space.
D. arachnoid villi.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 416

TOP:    Formation and Circulation of Cerebrospinal Fluid

 

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid circulates through the ventricles, into the central canal and ____, and is absorbed back into the blood.
A. subarachnoid space
B. choroid plexuses
C. spinal cord
D. intraventricular foramen

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 416

TOP:    Formation and Circulation of Cerebrospinal Fluid

 

  1. If the ventral nerve root of a spinal nerve were destroyed, a person would lose:
A. sensory perception related to that pathway.
B. willed movement related to that pathway.
C. only reflex activity related to that pathway.
D. both reflex activity and sensation related to that pathway.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 418 | Page 419

TOP:    Structure of the Spinal Cord

 

  1. If the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal nerve were destroyed, a person would lose:
A. sensory perception related to that pathway.
B. willed movement related to the pathway.
C. only reflex activity related to that pathway.
D. both reflex activity and sensation related to that pathway.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 418 | Page 419

TOP:    Structure of the Spinal Cord

 

  1. Which of the following is not true of the lateral corticospinal tract fibers?
A. Most decussate.
B. Most inhibit the lower motor neuron.
C. They are referred to as pyramidal pathways.
D. They originate in the cerebral cortex.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 442

TOP:    Somatic Motor Pathways in the Central Nervous System

 

  1. Impulses sent over which of the following tracts could result in voluntary movement, especially of the hands, fingers, feet, and toes of the opposite side?
A. Medial reticulospinal
B. Lateral reticulospinal
C. Ventral corticospinal
D. Lateral corticospinal

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 420

TOP:    Functions of the Spinal Cord

 

  1. The spinal tract that is located in the side of the cord, originates in the brain, and terminates in the spinal cord is the:
A. lateral corticospinal.
B. ventral spinothalamic.
C. dorsal corticospinal.
D. lateral spinothalamic.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 419

TOP:    Structure of the Spinal Cord

 

  1. Nerve fibers of the spinothalamic tract are:
A. sensory.
B. motor.
C. descending.
D. none of the above.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 420 (Table 13-1) TOP:               Functions of the Spinal Cord

 

  1. Which of the following is not true?
A. The spinal cord does not completely fill the spinal cavity.
B. The spinal cord extends from the foramen magnum to the first lumbar vertebra.
C. One bundle of nerve fibers (nerve roots) projects from each side of the spinal cord.
D. The spinal cord has anterior and posterior grooves that almost divide the cord into symmetrical halves.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 418 | Page 419                           TOP:    Structure of the Spinal Cord

 

  1. The brain has ____ major divisions.
A. 3
B. 5
C. 6
D. 8

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 421

TOP:    Brain

 

  1. The brainstem does not include the:
A. pons.
B. medulla.
C. midbrain.
D. cerebellum.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 421

TOP:    Structure of the Brainstem

 

  1. The pyramids are formed in the:
A. pons.
B. medulla.
C. midbrain.
D. cerebellum.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 423

TOP:    Medulla Oblongata

 

  1. Several “vital centers” are located in the:
A. basal ganglia.
B. cerebrum.
C. cerebellum.
D. medulla.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 423 (Box 13-4)                          TOP:    Vital Centers

 

  1. The vomiting reflex is mediated by the:
A. cerebrum.
B. medulla.
C. thalamus.
D. cerebellum.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 424

TOP:    Functions of the Brainstem

 

  1. The cerebellum acts with the ____ to produce skilled movement.
A. hypothalamus
B. thalamus
C. pons
D. cerebrum

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 425 | Page 426                           TOP:    Functions of the Cerebellum

 

  1. The part of the brain that receives impulses from the labyrinth of the ear, and thus functions in the maintenance of equilibrium, is the:
A. medulla.
B. pons.
C. cerebellum.
D. hypothalamus.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 426

TOP:    Functions of the Cerebellum

 

  1. Impulses from the ____ play a part in arousing or alerting the cerebrum.
A. pons
B. thalamus
C. cerebellum
D. hypothalamus

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 426         TOP:    Thalamus

 

  1. The part of the brain that can directly influence or inhibit the release of hormones from the pituitary is the:
A. hypothalamus.
B. thalamus.
C. medulla.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 427 | Page 428                           TOP:    Hypothalamus

 

  1. Which of the following is not a function of the hypothalamus?
A. Production of hormones
B. “Go between” of the psyche and the soma
C. Appetite center
D. Regulation of motor activity

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 427 | Page 428                           TOP:    Hypothalamus

 

  1. Audition is a function of the:
A. occipital lobe.
B. temporal lobe.
C. parietal lobe.
D. frontal lobe.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 433 (Figure 13-19)

TOP:    Functional Areas of the Cortex

 

  1. The cerebellum performs all of the following functions except:
A. coordinates control of muscle action.
B. helps control posture.
C. controls cardiac function.
D. controls skeletal muscles to maintain balance.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 425 | Page 426                           TOP:    Functions of the Cerebellum

 

  1. Which part of the brain releases the hormone melatonin?
A. Hypothalamus
B. Thalamus
C. Pineal gland
D. Cerebellum

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 428

TOP:    Pineal Gland

 

  1. Impulses from which system play a part in arousing or alerting the cerebrum?
A. Reticular activating system
B. Limbic system
C. Cerebral cortex
D. Cerebellar cortex

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 435

TOP:    Integrative Functions of the Cortex

 

  1. The areas specializing in language functions are found in the left cerebral hemisphere in:
A. about 10% of the population.
B. about 50% of the population.
C. about 90% of the population.
D. all people.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 436

TOP:    Integrative Functions of the Cortex

 

  1. The part of the cerebrum associated with anger, fear, and sorrow is/are the:
A. limbic system.
B. corpus callosum.
C. temporal lobes.
D. caudate nucleus.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 436

TOP:    Integrative Functions of the Cortex

 

  1. The type of brain waves associated with deep sleep is:
A. beta.
B. theta.
C. zeta.
D. delta.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 434 (Box 13-7)                          TOP:    The Electroencephalogram (EEG)

 

  1. A person who is awake, alert, and attentive would have a predominance of ____ brain waves.
A. beta
B. theta
C. zeta
D. delta

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 343 (Box 13-7)                          TOP:    The Electroencephalogram (EEG)

 

  1. Which of the following is not a brain wave measurement?
A. Theta
B. Zeta
C. Delta
D. Beta

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 434 (Box 13-7)                          TOP:    The Electroencephalogram (EEG)

 

  1. A lesion in the cerebral cortex might result in:
A. motor deficits.
B. sensory deficits.
C. intellectual impairment.
D. any of the above.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 437 | Page 439 (Table 13-3)

TOP:    Functional Areas of the Cortex

 

  1. The falx cerebelli separates the:
A. two hemispheres of the cerebellum.
B. cerebellum from the cerebrum.
C. two hemispheres of the cerebrum.
D. dura mater from the arachnoid.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 415

TOP:    Coverings of the Brain and Spinal Cord

 

  1. The cerebrospinal fluid resides in the:
A. ventricles of the brain.
B. subarachnoid space.
C. central canal of the spinal cord.
D. all of the above.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 416

TOP:    Fluid Spaces

 

  1. The layer of the meninges that adheres to the outer surface of the brain is the:
A. pia mater.
B. arachnoid membrane.
C. dura mater.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 414

TOP:    Coverings of the Brain and Spinal Cord

 

  1. Which of the following is a part of the brainstem?
A. Medulla oblongata
B. Hypothalamus
C. Arbor vitae
D. Diencephalon

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 421

TOP:    Structure of the Brainstem

 

  1. The white matter of the cerebellum is called the:
A. arbor vitae.
B. vermis.
C. peduncle.
D. none of the above.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 424

TOP:    Structure of the Cerebellum

 

  1. The body’s biological clock is controlled by the:
A. pons.
B. thalamus.
C. cerebellum.
D. pineal body.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 428

TOP:    Pineal Body

 

  1. The part of the cerebrum integral to articulating words is:
A. Broca’s area.
B. the reticular activating system.
C. the limbic system.
D. the insula.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 436

TOP:    Integrative Functions of the Cortex

 

  1. The corpus callosum connects the:
A. cerebral hemispheres.
B. hippocampus.
C. mammillary body.
D. central sulcus.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 437

TOP:    Specialization of Central Hemispheres

 

  1. Axons from the gray horns of the spinal cord terminate in:
A. the cerebral cortex.
B. sensory receptors.
C. skeletal muscle.
D. none of the above.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 418 | Page 420                           TOP:    Spinal Cord

 

  1. Which of the following is not an inward extension of the dura mater?
A. Falx callosum
B. Falx cerebri
C. Falx cerebelli
D. Tentorium cerebelli

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 415

TOP:    Coverings of the Brain and Spinal Cord

 

  1. Besides protection, the cerebrospinal fluid helps regulate:
A. oxygen content of the body.
B. carbon dioxide content of the body.
C. pH of the body.
D. both B and C.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 416

TOP:    Cerebrospinal Fluid

 

  1. A way to distinguish between the anterior and posterior part of the spinal cord is:
A. the dura mater is thickest on the posterior side.
B. the posterior fissure is deeper and wider than the anterior fissure.
C. the anterior fissure is deeper and wider than the posterior fissure.
D. both A and B are correct.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 418

TOP:    Structure of the Spinal Cord

 

  1. The foramen magnum is the structure that divides the:
A. medulla oblongata from the pons.
B. pons from the midbrain.
C. medulla oblongata from the spinal cord.
D. brainstem from the cerebellum.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 423

TOP:    Medulla Oblongata

 

  1. The central section of the cerebellum is called the:
A. arbor vitae.
B. vermis.
C. central sulcus.
D. longitudinal fissure.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 424

TOP:    Structure of the Cerebellum

 

  1. The corpus callosum is composed of:
A. commissural tracts.
B. projection tracts.
C. association tracts.
D. spinothalamic tracts.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 430

TOP:    Cerebral Tracts and Cerebral Nuclei

 

  1. Which of the following is not a somatic sense?
A. Touch
B. Pressure
C. Proprioception
D. All of the above are somatic senses.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 434 (Box 13-7)                          TOP:    Sensory Functions of the Cortex

 

  1. Which lobe of the cerebral cortex is not involved in the language function?
A. Frontal
B. Occipital
C. Temporal
D. All of the above are involved in language function.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 436

TOP:    Integrative Functions of the Cortex

 

  1. Which lobe of the cerebral cortex is not important in memory function?
A. Frontal
B. Occipital
C. Temporal
D. Parietal

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 437

TOP:    Integrative Functions of the Cortex

 

  1. The layer of meninges least likely to be involved in meningitis is the:
A. dura mater.
B. arachnoid layer.
C. pia mater.
D. All layers are equally likely to be involved.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 415 (Box 13-1)                          TOP:    Meningitis

 

  1. The nervous system is divided into two major divisions, the:
A. brain and spinal cord.
B. central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.
C. cerebrum and cerebellum.
D. afferent and efferent.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 413

TOP:    Introduction

 

  1. As you move from the spinal cord up the central nervous system:
A. the structural complexity increases.
B. the functional complexity increases.
C. the structural complexity decreases but the functional complexity increases.
D. Both A and B occur.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 413

TOP:    Introduction

 

  1. The epidural space is:
A. just below the dura mater.
B. just below the arachnoid mater.
C. found only in the area of the spinal cord.
D. between the arachnoid mater and pia mater.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 415

TOP:    Coverings of the Brain and Spinal Cord

 

  1. The filum terminale is part of the:
A. cerebellum.
B. cerebrum.
C. spinal cord.
D. meninges.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 415

TOP:    Coverings of the Brain and Spinal Cord

 

  1. If a person received a lumbar puncture that removed 15 ml of cerebrospinal fluid from the spinal cord, that amount would be what percent of the cerebrospinal fluid?
A. 20%
B. 10%
C. 5%
D. 25%

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 416

TOP:    Formation and Circulation of Cerebrospinal Fluid

 

  1. Which of the following structures is not part of the spinal cord?
A. Gray commissure
B. Conus medullaris
C. Cauda equine
D. All of the above are part of the spinal cord.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 418 | Page 419                           TOP:    Structure of the Spinal Cord

 

  1. The corpora quadrigemina is a landmark of which part of the central nervous system?
A. Midbrain
B. Cerebellum
C. Hypothalamus
D. Cerebrum

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 423

TOP:    Midbrain

 

  1. The dentate nuclei are an important pair of nuclei in which part of the central nervous system?
A. Midbrain
B. Cerebrum
C. Cerebellum
D. Hypothalamus

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 425 | Page 426                           TOP:    Structure of the Cerebellum

 

  1. Which of the following structures is not part of the diencephalon?
A. Thalamus
B. Arbor vitae
C. Pineal gland
D. All of the above structures are part of the diencephalon.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 426

TOP:    Diencephalon

 

  1. What structure is the deepest groove in the cerebrum?
A. Central sulcus
B. Fissure of Rolando
C. Fissure of Sylvius
D. Longitudinal fissure

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 429

TOP:    Structure of the Cerebrum

 

  1. Which groove is between the frontal and parietal lobes?
A. Central sulcus
B. Lateral fissure
C. Fissure of Sylvius
D. Longitudinal fissure

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 429

TOP:    Structure of the Cerebrum

 

  1. What structure drains cerebrospinal fluid into the third ventricle?
A. Cerebral aqueduct (of Sylvius)
B. Interventricular foramen (of Monro)
C. Lateral foramina (of Luschka)
D. Cisterna magna

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 416

TOP:    Formation and Circulation of Cerebrospinal Fluid

 

  1. What structure drains cerebrospinal fluid into the fourth ventricle?
A. Cerebral aqueduct (of Sylvius)
B. Interventricular foramen (of Monro)
C. Lateral foramina (of Luschka)
D. Cisterna magna

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 416

TOP:    Formation and Circulation of Cerebrospinal Fluid

 

  1. The spinal cord ends at vertebra L1 in a narrowed area called the:
A. cauda equine.
B. filum terminale.
C. conus medullaris.
D. funiculi terminale.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 416

TOP:    Structure of the Spinal Cord

 

  1. The olive is found in what part of the brain?
A. Medulla oblongata
B. Pons
C. Midbrain
D. Cerebellum

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 423

TOP:    Medulla Oblongata

 

  1. The corpora quadrigemina is found in what part of the brain?
A. Medulla oblongata
B. Pons
C. Midbrain
D. Cerebellum

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 423

TOP:    Midbrain

 

  1. The dentate nuclei is found in what part of the brain?
A. Medulla oblongata
B. Pons
C. Midbrain
D. Cerebellum

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 425 | Page 426                           TOP:    Structure of the Cerebellum

 

  1. What part of the brain can produce a hormone?
A. Thalamus
B. Pineal gland
C. Hypothalamus
D. Both B and C

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 428

TOP:    Hypothalamus and Pineal Gland

 

  1. What lobe of the cerebrum cannot be seen in an exterior view?
A. Temporal
B. Insula
C. Parietal
D. Occipital

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 429

TOP:    Cerebral Cortex

 

  1. Secondary sensory neurons conduct impulses from the spinal cord or brainstem to the:
A. hypothalamus.
B. thalamus.
C. cerebellum.
D. parietal lobe of the cerebrum.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 440

TOP:    Somatic Sensory Pathways in the Central Nervous System

 

  1. William was recently involved in a serious automobile accident. As a result, he has had difficulty controlling his skeletal muscles and maintaining his balance. What part of the nervous system was most likely damaged?
A. Cerebellum
B. Cerebral cortex
C. Myelin sheath of the peripheral neurons
D. Pineal gland

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 425 | Page 426

TOP:    Functions of the Cerebellum

 

  1. Which statement explains how the lack of dopamine physiologically affects those individuals suffering from Parkinson disease?
A. Without dopamine, the excitatory effects of acetylcholine are not restrained, thus postural muscles are overstimulated.
B. Without dopamine, the excitatory effects of acetylcholine are inhibited, thus relaxing postural muscles.
C. Without dopamine, the inhibitory effects of acetylcholine are not restrained, thus postural muscles are overstimulated.
D. Without dopamine, the inhibitory effects of acetylcholine are restrained, thus relaxing postural muscles.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 432 (Box 13-6)

TOP:    Parkinson Disease

 

  1. The distinction between the reticulospinal and rubrospinal tracts of the spinal cord is that the rubrospinal tract coordinates:
A. body movement and posture and the reticulospinal tract maintains posture during movement.
B. head and neck movement and the reticulospinal tract maintains posture.
C. pain and temperature response, and the reticulospinal tract handles crude touch and pressure.
D. unconscious kinesthesia, and the reticulospinal tract maintains posture.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 419 | Page 420

TOP:    The Spinal Cord

 

  1. Since her fall several weeks ago, Juanita has drifted into and out of consciousness. Her arousal and/or alerting mechanisms apparently are not functioning properly. What specific area of the brain is most likely responsible for these factors?
A. Cerebellum
B. Corpora quadrigemina
C. Reticular activating system
D. Thalamus

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 426         TOP:    Thalamus

 

  1. When someone close to you dies, you feel a sense of sorrow among other emotions. Your ability to experience emotions is the result of the
A. caudate nucleus.
B. limbic system.
C. pineal gland.
D. reticular activating system.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 436

TOP:    Integrative Functions of the Cortex

 

  1. During your lifetime, you are capable of remembering such things as telephone numbers, social security numbers, and song lyrics from many years ago. Your ability to perform these long-term memory tasks is possible because:
A. the right and left hemispheres specialize in cerebral functions such as short-term and long-term recognition.
B. repeated impulse conduction over a given neuronal circuit produces synaptic changes, which facilitates impulse transmission at the synapse.
C. the spinothalamic pathway provides discrimination of short-term and long-term memories.
D. extrapyramidal tracts consist of numerous relays of motor neurons that facilitate impulse transmission at the synapse.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 437         TOP:    Memory

 

  1. The set of coordinated commands that controls programmed muscle activity mediated by extrapyramidal pathways is called the:
A. extrapyramidal tract.
B. motor program.
C. motor tract.
D. pyramidal tract.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 442

TOP:    Somatic Motor Pathways in the Central Nervous System

 

  1. Jeffery contracted bulbar poliomyelitis, and it has affected the medulla oblongata. The doctors warned the family that his condition is grave and death may be imminent. What function of the medulla oblongata has warranted such a dire prognosis?
A. The medulla oblongata contains the vital centers that control heart action, blood vessel diameter, and respiration.
B. The medulla oblongata contains the neural connections of the reticular activating system.
C. The medulla oblongata contains the pineal gland, which controls vital centers.
D. The medulla oblongata contains the corpora quadrigemina, which controls neural transmission of impulses along the spinal cord.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 423 (Box 13-4)

TOP:    Vital Centers

 

MATCHING

 

Match each disorder with its corresponding definition.

A. Alzheimer disease
B. cerebrovascular accident
C. epilepsy
D. Huntington disease
E. spastic paralysis
F. hemiplegia
G. paraplegia
H. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

 

 

  1. an inherited form of dementia in which the symptoms first appear at between 30 and 40 years of age

 

  1. disease that is caused by a prion and results in reduced brain function

 

  1. a hemorrhage from or cessation of blood flow to the cerebral vessels, which destroys neurons; also called a stroke

 

  1. type of paralysis that affects one entire side of the body

 

  1. type of paralysis that affects both legs

 

  1. degenerative disease that affects memory; it generally develops during the middle to late adult years, causing characteristic lesions in the cortex

 

  1. recurring or chronic seizure episodes involving sudden bursts of abnormal neuron activity

 

  1. type of paralysis that is experienced by many people with cerebral palsy; characterized by the involuntary contraction of the affected muscles

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 445

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. ANS:   H                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 445

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 444

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 444

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. ANS:   G                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 444

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 445

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 444

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 505

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

Match each landmark of the brain with its description or location.

A. longitudinal fissure
B. lateral fissure
C. sulci
D. parietooccipital sulcus
E. fissure
F. central sulcus
G. gyri

 

 

  1. frontal lobe lies in front of this groove and the parietal lobe lies behind it

 

  1. groove that separates the occipital lobe and parietal lobe

 

  1. general term for a convolution or raised area on the cortex

 

  1. general term for a shallow groove in the cortex

 

  1. divides the cerebrum into right and left hemispheres

 

  1. general term for a deep groove in the cortex

 

  1. the deep groove above the temporal lobe

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 429

TOP:    Cerebral Cortex

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 429

TOP:    Cerebral Cortex

 

  1. ANS:   G                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 429

TOP:    Cerebral Cortex

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 429

TOP:    Cerebral Cortex

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 429

TOP:    Cerebral Cortex

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 429

TOP:    Cerebral Cortex

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 429

TOP:    Cerebral Cortex

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. Describe the three distinct layers that compose the meninges.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 414

TOP:    Coverings of the Brain and Spinal Cord

 

  1. What is a lumbar puncture?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 417 (Box 13-2)

TOP:    Lumbar Puncture

 

  1. List the major ascending and descending tracts of the spinal cord, and identify the major function of each tract.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 419 | Page 421

TOP:    Functions of the Spinal Cord

 

  1. Explain the gate-control theory of pain.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 421         TOP:    Pain Control Areas

 

  1. Describe the structure and major functions of the brainstem.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 421 | Page 424

TOP:    Structure of the Brainstem | Functions of the Brainstem

 

  1. How are the cerebral nuclei involved in Parkinson disease?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 432 (Box 13-6)                          TOP:    Parkinson Disease

 

  1. Briefly discuss one of the “integrative functions” of the cortex.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 435 | Page 437

TOP:    Integrative Functions of the Cortex

 

  1. Describe the four types of brain waves characterized by frequency and amplitude of the waves.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 434 (Box 13-7)

TOP:    The Electroencephalogram (EEG)

 

  1. Discuss the various signs of motor pathway injury.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 443 (Box 13-9)

TOP:    Signs of Motor Pathway Injury

 

  1. Explain the functions, formation, and circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 416

TOP:    Fluid Spaces | Formation and Circulation of Cerebrospinal Fluid

 

  1. Explain the functions of the thalamus.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 426         TOP:    Thalamus

 

  1. Explain the functions of the hypothalamus.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 427 | Page 428

TOP:    Hypothalamus

 

  1. Name and describe the three important inward extensions of the dura mater.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 415

TOP:    Coverings of the Brain and Spinal Cord

 

  1. Name the three spaces between and around the meninges. What does each space contain?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 415

TOP:    Coverings of the Brain and Spinal Cord

 

  1. An injury occurred that damaged the lateral corticospinal tract on the right side of the body. What impact would this have on the voluntary movement of the body?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 420         TOP:    Function of the Spinal Cord

 

  1. Name the three peduncles that enter or leave the cerebellum and explain where they come from or go to.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 425 | Page 426

TOP:    Structure of the Cerebellum

 

  1. Give the location of the pineal gland and its most likely function.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 428 | Page 429

TOP:    Pineal Gland

 

  1. Explain the location and function of primary, secondary, and tertiary sensory neurons. Which of these neurons can decussate?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 440

TOP:    Somatic Sensory Pathways in the Central Nervous System

 

OTHER

 

  1. Challenge: Kathryn suffered a cerebrovascular accident. It was determined that the left side of her cerebrum was damaged. On which side of her body will she most likely notice paralysis?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 444

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. Challenge: Christopher was born with an excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the lateral ventricles of the brain. A catheter was inserted in the ventricles, and the fluid was drained, by means of a shunt, into his gastrointestinal tract. What condition does this describe, and why was the shunt necessary?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 418         TOP:    Hydrocephalus

 

  1. Challenge: Explain how the cerebrum and cerebellum are similar to a negative feedback mechanism in controlling the movement of skeletal muscles.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 425 | Page 426

TOP:    Functions of the Cerebellum

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