Psychopharmacology 1st Edition By Ettinger – Test Bank

$25.00

Category:

Description

INSTANT DOWNLOAD WITH ANSWERS

Psychopharmacology 1st Edition By Ettinger – Test Bank

Chapter 6   Attention and Developmental Disorders

 

6.1 Multiple Choice

 

  1. ADHD is characterized by ________ and ________.
  2. excessive talking; an inability to follow instructions
  3. an inability to attend to tasks; an excessive display of motor activity and impulsivity
  4. inattention to cognitive tasks; excessive talking
  5. excessive fidgeting; disruptive classroom behaviors

Answer: B

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 150

 

  1. Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding ADHD?
  2. A diagnosis of ADHD usually occurs in late childhood.
  3. In many cases, ADHD symptoms dissipate by early adulthood.
  4. Approximately 8 percent of children under age 10 is diagnosed with ADHD at any given time.
  5. Childhood ADHD frequently occurs with other behavioral disorders.

Answer: B

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 151

 

  1. All of the following behaviors would be consistent with an ADHD diagnosis EXCEPT
  2. trouble organizing activities.
  3. careless mistakes and inattention to detail.
  4. excessive speech.
  5. excessive concentration on a single task.

Answer: D

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 152

 

  1. The underlying pathology of ADHD involves
  2. cortical hypoarousal.
  3. reticular activating system abnormalities.
  4. depressed dopamine activity in the frontal cortices.
  5. All of the above are correct

Answer: D

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 152–155

 

  1. Quantitative EEG studies of children affected by ADHD reveals
  2. hyperarousal of the cortex.
  3. hyperarousal of the motor systems.
  4. hypoarousal of most cortical areas.
  5. Both b and c are correct

Answer: C

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 152–153

 

 

  1. In normal individuals, the predominant EEG pattern during wakefulness is ________, whereas in individuals with ADHD it is ________.
  2. theta; beta
  3. beta; theta
  4. alpha; beta
  5. beta; delta

Answer: B

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 153

 

  1. Cortical hypoarousal accounts for
  2. forgetfulness.
  3. excessive fidgeting.
  4. poor attentiveness and concentration.
  5. Both a and c are correct

Answer: C

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 153

 

  1. Attentional regulation involves
  2. neural activation of appropriate sensory cortices.
  3. attending appropriately to specific sensory information.
  4. receiving sufficient sensory information from sensory receptors to activate sensory cortices.
  5. sufficient activation of the sensory thalamus.

Answer: B

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 153–154

 

  1. In individuals with ADHD, the thalamic reticular nucleus
  2. inhibits sensory information from activating the sensory cortex.
  3. is disinhibited.
  4. routes sensory information to the wrong sensory cortex.
  5. is not regulated by dopamine.

Answer: A

Diff: 3              Page Ref: 154

 

  1. The excessive activity observed in ADHD appears to be
  2. caused by hyperarousal of the motor systems.
  3. attempts by patients to self-stimulate an underaroused cortex.
  4. seizure-like excitability of motor areas of the cortex.
  5. unaffected by reinforcing or punishing contingencies.

Answer: B

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 155

 

  1. The dopamine-deficit theory of ADHD proposes that
  2. dopamine deficits in the mesolimbic system underlie ADHD.
  3. dopamine deficits in the cortex cause hypoarousal.
  4. dopamine deficits in the caudate nucleus and frontal cortex may contribute to cortical hypoarousal.
  5. ADHD is caused by dopamine deficiencies throughout the brain.

Answer: C

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 155

 

 

  1. Evidence supporting the dopamine-deficit theory of ADHD includes finding
  2. an increased expression of dopamine transporters in the caudate nucleus.
  3. fewer dopamine transporters in the frontal cortex.
  4. decreased dopamine inhibitory control over arousal systems.
  5. depressed dopamine activity in the thalamic reticular nucleus.

Answer: A

Diff: 3              Page Ref: 155

 

  1. The most widely used assessment scale for measuring treatment outcomes for ADHD is the
  2. ADHD Rating Scale.
  3. Brown ADHD Scales.
  4. Ritvo-Freeman Real Life Rating Scale.
  5. Connor’s Global Index.

Answer: D

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 156

 

  1. A more objective assessment of ADHD that measures changes in cortical activity following treatment involves
  2. fMRI.
  3. Connor’s Global Index.
  4. EEG.
  5. Both a and c are correct

Answer: D

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 157

 

  1. Which of the following was NOT a conclusion from the NIMH’s study of treatment options for ADHD?
  2. Drug abuse risk appears to decrease among stimulant-treated ADHD patients compared to their nontreated cohorts.
  3. Children treated with stimulant medication showed greater improvements in academic performance and social skills compared to children in the nonmedicated comparison groups.
  4. Intensive behavioral treatment was far superior to induced stimulant medication.
  5. Both a and b are correct

Answer: C

Diff: 3              Page Ref: 157

 

  1. Amphetamines increase the availability of DA by
  2. increasing the release of NE and DA from synaptic vesicles.
  3. blocking the reuptake transporter of NE.
  4. causing the transporters for DA to act in reverse.
  5. All of the above are correct

Answer: D

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 158

 

  1. Amphetamines cause a(n) ________ in cortical arousal by increasing ________.
  2. increase; cortical dopamine activity
  3. increase; NE activity in the reticular activating system
  4. decrease; dopamine activity
  5. Both a and b are correct

Answer: D

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 159–160

 

 

  1. NE pathways originate in the ________ and project along the ________.
  2. locus coeruleus; reticular activating system
  3. raphe nucleus; reticular activating system
  4. locus coeruleus; cortical pathway
  5. reticular activating system; thalamus

Answer: A

Diff: 3              Page Ref: 160

 

  1. Which of the following is a legitimate concern about using amphetamines to treat ADHD?
  2. Their addictive potential
  3. Patients selling them to others
  4. Tachycardia
  5. Weight gain

Answer: C

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 160

 

  1. An amphetamine overdose
  2. rarely occurs.
  3. can cause chronic insomnia.
  4. can induce amphetamine psychosis.
  5. can cause Parkinson’s disease.

Answer: C

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 160

 

  1. ________ is the most widely prescribed drug for ADHD.
  2. Modafinil
  3. Methylphenidate
  4. Pemoline
  5. Atomoxetine

Answer: B

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 161

 

  1. Which of the following statements best describes the drugs Ritalin and Strattera?
  2. They do not have similar mechanisms of action as amphetamines do.
  3. They block the reuptake of norepinephrine like amphetamines do.
  4. They only increase dopamine activity.
  5. They do not increase cortical arousal significantly.

Answer: B

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 161

 

  1. Modafinil increases ________ in the hypothalamus.
  2. NE activity
  3. histamine release
  4. DA activity
  5. orexin release

Answer: D

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 161

 

 

  1. Modafinal increases alertness in ADHD patients by
  2. increasing norepinephrine activity in the reticular activating system.
  3. inhibiting the thalamic reticular nucleus.
  4. increasing dopamine activity in the caudate nucleus.
  5. increasing histamine release in the tuberomammilary nucleus.

Answer: D

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 161

 

  1. The trade name for methylphenidate is ________.
  2. Strattera
  3. Modafinil
  4. Ritalin
  5. Dexadrine

Answer: C

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 162

 

  1. Rett’s syndrome
  2. is the most common of all of the pervasive developmental disorders.
  3. is a less severe and more functional form of autism.
  4. occurs more frequently in males than females.
  5. occurs only in females.

Answer: D

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 163

 

  1. Asperger’s disorder is also known as
  2. early infantile autism.
  3. autistic psychopath.
  4. infantile schizophrenia.
  5. Rett’s syndrome.

Answer: B

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 163

 

  1. Which of the following symptoms is NOT consistent with a diagnosis of autism?
  2. Marked impairments in eye-to-eye contact, facial expression, and social behaviors
  3. Lack of, or a marked delay in, the development of spoken language
  4. Inflexibility in routines
  5. Motor tics in the face

Answer: D

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 163–164

 

  1. A child inflicted with Asperger’s disorder has essentially the same symptoms as an autistic child EXCEPT
  2. restricted repetitive patterns of behavior.
  3. impairments in speech development.
  4. impairment in social interaction.
  5. Both b and c are correct

Answer: B

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 165

 

 

  1. Which of the following appears to be a major cause of autism?
  2. A decreased brain volume
  3. Underconnectivity of major intra- and interhemispheric regions of the brain
  4. An increase in the thickness of myelin in the corpus callosum
  5. None of the above are correct

Answer: B

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 167

 

  1. Compared to normal control subjects, autistics demonstrate ________ activity in the ________ gyrus during sentence comprehension tasks.
  2. depressed; superior temporal
  3. increased; superior temporal
  4. less; inferior frontal
  5. Both b and c are correct

Answer: D

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 167

 

  1. The ________ genu and ________ splenium are significantly smaller in people with autism.
  2. anterior; anterior
  3. posterior; posterior
  4. anterior; posterior
  5. posterior; anterior

Answer: C

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 169

 

  1. The corpus callosum is
  2. a band of connecting neurons whose axons terminate in the cingulate gyrus.
  3. made up of cortical circuits that integrate intrahemispheric connections.
  4. a band of interconnecting mylelinated axons that unite cortical areas as well as intrahemispheric regions.
  5. essential for normal intelligence.

Answer: C

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 169

 

  1. There is a strong correlation between the size of the ________ and ________.
  2. genu; functional interconnectivity in the brain.
  3. splenium; the severity of ADHD.
  4. genu; the number of axons it contains.
  5. splenium; how well autistics respond to drug treatment.

Answer: A

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 169

 

  1. Autistic spectrum disorders commonly co-occur with symptoms of all of the following EXCEPT
  2. hallucinations.
  3. seizures.
  4. anxiety.
  5. hyperactivity.

Answer: A

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 171

 

 

6.2 Discussion/Essay

 

  1. Discuss the diagnostic criteria that may help to distinguish between “normal” inattentiveness from an attention disorder.

 

  1. Describe the underlying pathology of ADHD. How can this pathology be diagnosed?

 

  1. What is the dopamine-deficit theory of ADHD, and what evidence supports this position?

 

  1. How do amphetamines reverse the pathology of ADHD? Describe the mechanisms of action of amphetamines.

 

  1. How do the mechanisms of action of modafinil differ from the mechanisms of action of amphetamines?

 

  1. What is the theory of cortical underconnectivity of autism?

 

  1. Discuss evidence that suggests that autism results from underconnectivity.

 

 

 

Chapter 7   The Pharmacology of Opiates and Analgesia

 

7.1 Multiple Choice

 

  1. The term morphine comes from the
  2. Hebrew word for bliss.
  3. Greek word for analgesia.
  4. Greek word for Morpheus, the god of dreams.
  5. term morph, which means to change or transform.

Answer: C

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 172

 

  1. In the mid-1800s, morphine quickly emerged as a
  2. cough suppressant.
  3. effective analgesic for surgical pain.
  4. treatment for fevers and diarrhea.
  5. All of the above are correct

Answer: D

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 172

 

  1. The Harrison Narcotics Act was passed as an attempt to regulate
  2. the availability of morphine to convert into heroin.
  3. the manufacture and distribution of heroin.
  4. heroin’s availability to prescription only.
  5. which medical conditions morphine and heroin were to be used for.

Answer: B

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 172

 

  1. The illicit importation and distribution of heroin was largely curtailed by the
  2. Harrison Narcotics Act.
  3. Controlled Substances Act.
  4. Drug Enforcement Administration.
  5. None of the above are correct

Answer: D

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 172

 

  1. Alkaloids are
  2. chemical compounds related to alkali metals.
  3. nitrogen-containing compounds produced by a variety of plants.
  4. compounds that all have the same molecular structure and effects on the brain.
  5. compounds that are synthesized from plant materials.

Answer: B

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 174

 

  1. Heroin is
  2. converted to morphine during its metabolism.
  3. less lipid-soluble than morphine.
  4. more potent than morphine if taken by mouth.
  5. None of the above are correct

Answer: A

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 174

 

 

  1. Codeine is synthesized from ________.
  2. oxycodone
  3. thebaine
  4. morphine
  5. etorphine

Answer: C

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 175

 

  1. Which of the following is the most potent derivative of opium?
  2. Morphine
  3. Heroin
  4. Oxycodone
  5. Etorphine

Answer: C

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 175

 

  1. The structural difference between morphine and heroin is that heroin has
  2. no methyl groups.
  3. no acetyl groups.
  4. two acetyl groups.
  5. two methyl groups.

Answer: C

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 176

 

  1. Nociceptors detect
  2. intense pressure.
  3. extreme temperature.
  4. inflammation.
  5. All of the above are correct

Answer: D

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 176

 

  1. “First” or early pain
  2. is transmitted by unmyelinated C fibers.
  3. provides information about the unpleasantness of the painful sensation.
  4. travels along myelinated Aδ fibers.
  5. is often accompanied by autonomic responses, such as nausea.

Answer: C

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 176

 

  1. The neurotransmitter released in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord by pain-signaling neurons is ________.
  2. acetylcholine
  3. substance P
  4. norepinephrine
  5. glutamate

Answer: B

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 176

 

 

  1. The ascending pain pathway beginning in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord is called the
  2. thalamic reticular system.
  3. nociceptive pathway.
  4. spinothalamic pathway.
  5. somatosensory pathway.

Answer: C

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 176

 

  1. The ascending pain pathway terminates in the
  2. thalamus.
  3. frontal cortex.
  4. limbic system.
  5. somatosensory and anterior cingulate cortices.

Answer: D

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 176–177

 

  1. The descending pain pathway originates in the
  2. periaqueductal gray area.
  3. thalamus.
  4. medulla.
  5. raphe nucleus.

Answer: A

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 177

 

  1. The descending pain pathway terminates in the
  2. raphe nucleus.
  3. cingulated cortex.
  4. medulla.
  5. Both a and c are correct

Answer: D

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 177

 

  1. The most important descending pathways for modulation of spinal cord transmission of pain originate in the
  2. thalamus.
  3. pons.
  4. limbic system.
  5. anterior cingulate cortex.

Answer: B

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 177

 

  1. Opiate receptors are concentrated in the
  2. dorsal horn of the spinal cord.
  3. thalamus.
  4. raphe nucleus.
  5. Both a and c are correct

Answer: D

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 178

 

 

  1. The ________ receptor is presumed to be the most important of the opiate receptors for pain analgesia.
  2. mu
  3. kappa
  4. delta
  5. theta

Answer: A

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 179

 

  1. Overdose death by opiates is mediated by
  2. cardiac complications.
  3. neural toxicity.
  4. respiratory depression.
  5. All of the above are correct

Answer: C

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 179

 

  1. Dysphoria may be caused by antagonism of ________ receptors.
  2. kappa
  3. mu
  4. delta
  5. theta

Answer: B

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 179

 

  1. Opiate receptors
  2. are metabotropic and control K+ efflux.
  3. are inhibitory.
  4. hyperpolarize postsynaptic membranes.
  5. All of the above are correct

Answer: D

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 180

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of a pure agonist?
  2. Pentazocine
  3. Fentanyl
  4. Naltrexone
  5. Both b and c are correct

Answer: B

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 180

 

  1. Partial agonists
  2. have more affinity for receptors than pure agonists.
  3. have both agonistic and antagonistic effects on receptors.
  4. have less affinity for receptors than pure agonists.
  5. are more useful clinically than pure agonists because they are not addictive.

Answer: C

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 180

 

 

  1. Pure antagonists
  2. include drugs such as naloxone and naltrexone.
  3. can reverse the effects of a heroin overdose within minutes.
  4. have a high affinity for receptors, but do not exert any physiological effect on the receptor.
  5. All of the above are correct

Answer: D

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 180, 182

 

  1. The reinforcing effects of opiates take place in the
  2. mesolimbic system.
  3. frontal cortex.
  4. cingulated cortex.
  5. amygdala.

Answer: A

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 182

 

  1. Increases in dopamine activity in the ________ mediate the reinforcing effects of opiates.
  2. striatum
  3. nucleus accumbens
  4. ventral tegmentum area
  5. cingulate cortex

Answer: B

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 182

 

  1. A model of the neurobiology of opiate reinforcement suggests that opiates produce their effects by inhibiting ________.
  2. dopamine
  3. GABA
  4. dynorphin
  5. b-endorphin

Answer: B

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 182

 

  1. Stimuli associated with ________ can control dopamine activity in the mesolimbic system.
  2. feeding
  3. engaging in sexual behavior
  4. social interaction
  5. Both a and b are correct

Answer: D

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 182

 

  1. Tolerance to opiate drugs
  2. is primarily due to increased rate of metabolism.
  3. develops quickly.
  4. is largely mediated by Pavlovian drug onset cues.
  5. All of the above are correct

Answer: D

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 183–184

 

 

  1. The Centers for Disease Control estimates that there are approximately ________ opiate-dependent people in the United States.
  2. 10 million
  3. 1 million
  4. 500,000
  5. 25,000

Answer: B

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 185

 

  1. The recidivism rate for first-time treatment for opiate abuse is about ________ percent.
  2. 25
  3. 50
  4. 80
  5. 90

Answer: C

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 186

 

  1. Most opiate treatment programs utilize
  2. aversion therapy.
  3. synthetic opioids.
  4. methadone maintenance.
  5. a comprehensive residential treatment facility.

Answer: C

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 186

 

  1. When ________ is administered intravenously to opiate-dependent patients, withdrawals are experienced almost immediately.
  2. naloxone
  3. methadone
  4. antabuse
  5. None of the above are correct

Answer: A

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 186

 

  1. Critics of methadone treatment for opiate abuse claim that it
  2. is not effective in reducing opiate dependency.
  3. is merely substitutes one addiction for another.
  4. it is more costly than a comprehensive residential treatment facility.
  5. Both a and b are correct

Answer: D

Diff: 3              Page Ref: 186

 

7.2 Discussion/Essay

 

  1. What was the Harrison Narcotics Act?

 

  1. Describe the principal opiate compounds that are derived from opium.

 

  1. How does heroin differ from morphine? How does this affect its absorption?

 

  1. What is the principal mechanism of action of opiates?

 

 

  1. Describe the major pain pathways and neural structures involved in pain perception and its analgesia.

 

  1. Where do opiates work within the pain pathways to blunt pain messages?

 

  1. How do opiates contribute to increased dopamine activity in the mesolimbic system?

 

  1. What do self-administration experiments tell us about the abuse potential of drugs? Why might this animal model be useful in describing the addictive potential of drugs?

 

  1. Describe the differences between metabolic, cellular, and associative tolerance. How could these be distinguished by experiment?

 

  1. What does reinstatement imply for addiction recovery?

Reviews

There are no reviews yet.

Be the first to review “Psychopharmacology 1st Edition By Ettinger – Test Bank”

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *