Psychology In Modules 11th Edition by David G. Myers – Test Bank

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Psychology In Modules 11th Edition by David G. Myers – Test Bank

 

TB1 Module 2- Essay

1. When your best friend hears that you are taking a psychology course, she asserts that psychology is simply common sense. Explain why your awareness of both the limits of everyday reasoning and the methods of psychological research would lead you to disagree with your friend’s assertion.

 

 

 

Answer Key

 

1.  

 

TB1 Module 2- Multiple Choice

1. In contrast to explicit, conscious reasoning, an effortless and immediate automatic judgment is best described as a(n)
  A) hindsight bias.
  B) chance-based explanation.
  C) intuition.
  D) evidence-based conclusion.

 

 

2. Mark meets briefly with applicants for positions in his company and relies on his immediate gut-level first impressions in deciding whether to offer them a job. Mark’s employment decisions are most clearly guided by
  A) critical thinking.
  B) an empirical approach.
  C) hindsight bias.
  D) intuition.

 

 

3. The hindsight bias refers to people’s tendency to
  A) dismiss the value of skepticism.
  B) reject any ideas that can’t be scientifically tested.
  C) exaggerate their ability to have foreseen an outcome.
  D) overestimate the extent to which others share their opinions.

 

 

4. The perception that psychological research findings merely verify our commonsense understanding is most clearly facilitated by
  A) critical thinking.
  B) hindsight bias.
  C) the scientific attitude.
  D) curious skepticism.

 

 

5. Giving half the members of a group some purported psychological finding and the other half an opposite finding is an easy way to demonstrate the impact of
  A) risk prediction.
  B) skeptical scrutiny.
  C) hindsight bias.
  D) an empirical approach.

 

 

6. Professor Smith told one class that drinking alcohol has been found to increase sexual desire. He informed another class that drinking alcohol has been found to reduce sexual appetite. The fact that neither class was surprised by the information they received best illustrates the power of
  A) cause-effect conclusions.
  B) hindsight bias.
  C) critical thinking.
  D) curious skepticism.

 

 

7. Several weeks after a political election, voters often exaggerate their ability to have predicted the election outcome. This best illustrates
  A) critical inquiry.
  B) random sequences.
  C) hidden values.
  D) hindsight bias.

 

 

8. Mike Crampton’s stockbroker has informed him that he has suffered substantial investment losses. When Mike tells his wife, she angrily responds, “I could have told you that your investment plan would fail!” Her comment best illustrates
  A) hindsight bias.
  B) an empirical approach.
  C) critical thinking.
  D) overconfidence.

 

 

9. The scientific attitude of humility is most likely to be undermined by
  A) hindsight bias.
  B) curious skepticism.
  C) ethical standards.
  D) critical thinking.

 

 

10. Formulating testable predictions before conducting research is most directly useful for restraining a thinking error
  A) involving skepticism.
  B) known as hindsight bias.
  C) resulting from chance-related explanations.
  D) in which random sequences don’t look random.

 

 

11. Our tendency to believe we know more than we do best illustrates
  A) curious skepticism.
  B) critical thinking.
  C) overconfidence.
  D) creativity.

 

 

12. Megan was certain that she would never live far away from her family. However, when offered a job in another state, she decided to move. Megan’s experience best illustrates
  A) hindsight bias.
  B) perceiving order in random events.
  C) unconscious thinking.
  D) overconfidence.

 

 

13. Which of the following is most likely to inhibit critical thinking?
  A) an empirical approach
  B) overconfidence
  C) discerning hidden values
  D) creativity

 

 

14. The tendency to perceive order in random events often leads to overestimating the value of
  A) intuition.
  B) critical thinking.
  C) an empirical approach.
  D) humility.

 

 

15. On a series of coin tosses, Oleg has correctly predicted heads or tails seven times in a row. In this instance, we can reasonably conclude that Oleg’s predictive accuracy
  A) defies the laws of statistical probability.
  B) illustrates hindsight bias.
  C) is inconsistent with an empirical approach.
  D) is a random and coincidental occurrence.

 

 

16. Six of the children in Mr. Myer’s class were born on exactly the same day. This strikes him as astonishing and improbable. In this instance, he should be reminded that
  A) random sequences of events often don’t look random.
  B) events often seem more probable in hindsight.
  C) we humans think we know more than we do.
  D) intuition is usually correct.

 

 

17. Three key attitudes of scientific inquiry are
  A) pride, enthusiasm, and ingenuity.
  B) ingenuity, practicality, and certainty.
  C) certainty, creativity, and curiosity.
  D) curiosity, skepticism, and humility.

 

 

18. Rodesia insists that Dr. Phillips’ theory of aggression be checked against observable evidence. She is demonstrating the scientific attitude of
  A) pride.
  B) skepticism.
  C) practicality.
  D) enthusiasm.

 

 

19. The scientific attitude requires an open-minded humility because it involves a willingness to
  A) perceive order in random events.
  B) reject any ideas that can’t be scientifically tested.
  C) recognize the errors in our own ideas.
  D) respect political beliefs that contradict our own.

 

 

20. Reasoning that does not blindly accept available arguments and conclusions illustrates
  A) common sense.
  B) critical thinking.
  C) chance-related explanation.
  D) an empirical approach.

 

 

21. Critical thinking most clearly involves
  A) making intuitive predictions.
  B) assuming that you knew it all along.
  C) evaluating evidence.
  D) perceiving order in random events.

 

 

22. A questioning attitude regarding psychologists’ assumptions and hidden values best illustrates
  A) common sense.
  B) critical thinking.
  C) hindsight bias.
  D) overconfidence.

 

 

23. Melinda expressed concerns as to whether the wording of the questions in a life satisfaction survey may have encouraged respondents to convey unusually positive levels of well-being. Melinda’s concerns best illustrated
  A) hindsight bias.
  B) the perils of intuition.
  C) critical thinking.
  D) the perception of order in random events.

 

 

24. Assessing whether conclusions are warranted by the existing evidence best illustrates
  A) critical thinking.
  B) hindsight bias.
  C) an intuitive hunch.
  D) chance-related explanation.

 

 

25. When you question whether anecdotal evidence can be generalized to all people, you are most clearly demonstrating
  A) overconfidence.
  B) hindsight bias.
  C) an empirical approach.
  D) critical thinking.

 

 

 

Answer Key

 

1. C
2. D
3. C
4. B
5. C
6. B
7. D
8. A
9. A
10. B
11. C
12. D
13. B
14. A
15. D
16. A
17. D
18. B
19. C
20. B
21. C
22. B
23. C
24. A
25. D

 

TB1 Module 2- Web Quiz 1

1. After the horror of 9/11, many people said the CIA and FBI should obviously have foreseen the likelihood of this form of terrorism. This perception most clearly illustrates
  A) overconfidence.
  B) hindsight bias.
  C) an empirical approach.
  D) critical thinking.

 

 

2. Political officials who have no doubt that their own economic and military predictions will come true most clearly demonstrate
  A) hindsight bias.
  B) curious skepticism.
  C) overconfidence.
  D) an empirical approach.

 

 

3. Hindsight bias and overconfidence often lead us to overestimate
  A) the value of an empirical approach.
  B) how often random sequences fail to look random.
  C) the need for critical thinking.
  D) the accuracy of our intuition.

 

 

4. The tendency to perceive meaningful patterns in random sequences of outcomes often leads us to underestimate the extent to which outcomes result from
  A) curious skepticism.
  B) psychic powers.
  C) hidden values.
  D) chance.

 

 

5. When Leanne read a newspaper report that drinking orange juice triggers hyperactivity in children, she questioned whether the children’s behavior had been assessed using scientifically appropriate methods. Leanne’s reaction best illustrates
  A) the perils of intuition.
  B) hindsight bias.
  C) critical thinking.
  D) overconfidence.

 

 

 

Answer Key

 

1. B
2. C
3. D
4. D
5. C

 

TB1 Module 2- Web Quiz 2

1. Hindsight bias leads people to perceive psychological research outcomes as
  A) unpredictable.
  B) inexplicable.
  C) unlikely.
  D) unsurprising.

 

 

2. Jamie and Lynn were sure that they had answered most of the multiple-choice questions correctly because “the questions required only common sense.” However, they each scored less than 60% on the exam. This best illustrates
  A) chance-related explanation.
  B) critical thinking.
  C) hindsight bias.
  D) overconfidence.

 

 

3. If someone were to flip a coin six times, which of the following sequences of heads (H) and tails (T) would be most likely?
  A) H H H T T T
  B) H T T H T H
  C) T T H H T H
  D) All of these sequences would be equally likely.

 

 

4. By testing their predictions with the observational methods of science, psychologists are most clearly relying on
  A) intuitive hunches.
  B) an empirical approach.
  C) chance-related explanations.
  D) inevitable events.

 

 

5. Considering the credibility of one’s sources of information is most indicative of
  A) overconfidence.
  B) critical thinking.
  C) intuition.
  D) hindsight bias.

 

 

 

Answer Key

 

1. D
2. D
3. D
4. B
5. B

 

 

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