Professional issues In Nursing Challenges and Opportunities 3rd Edition By Huston -Test Bank




Professional issues In Nursing Challenges and Opportunities 3rd Edition By Huston -Test Bank


Chapter 2- Evidence-Based Practice

1. A nursing instructor is describing benchmarking to a group of students. Which of the following would the instructor include in the description?
  A) The process of translating research findings into useful interventions for practice
  B) Identification of the business methods of successful companies to use their approach as the gold standard and replicating and refining those methods
  C) The use of evidence-based statements by practitioners and patients to make high-quality decisions in specific health care situations
  D) A statistical tool used to determine the validity of evidence-based approaches to decision making
  Ans: B



2. Which of the following would be important for a nurse to keep in mind when preparing to implement an evidence-based approach to care?
  A) Need for integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values in making decisions about the health care of patients
  B) Use primarily by health care members who have achieved graduate degrees and advanced training in research techniques
  C) Necessity of significantly more time and expense for implementation than simply following best practices
  D) Lack of appropriate opportunities for patients to have input into decision making about their care
  Ans: A



3. Which of the following strategies best supports the creation of an organizational culture that promotes the identification and implementation of evidence-based practice?
  A) Nurses are given incentives such as time off from their shift to go to the facility’s library to consult with the librarian about accessing possible studies.
  B) The designation of a specialized title for nurses who have been positively singled out by patients in hospital patient-satisfaction surveys
  C) Nurses are instructed not to deviate from established policies and procedures in performing care so as to reduce personal and institutional legal liability.
  D) A free child-care service is created within the hospital so that nurses are able to work additional shifts without the stress of finding high-quality child care.
  Ans: A



4. Which of the following best reflects the accountability of health care providers today related to evidence-based practice?
  A) Showing that the care they provide is the least expensive option that meets minimum required outcomes
  B) Knowing and following the best-practice standards in place at the time they completed their initial licensure examination for entry into their profession
  C) Having knowledge of and implementing the most effective and reliable evidence-based approaches to care
  D) Conducting research to determine what constitutes best practices in the institution in which they work
  Ans: C



5. Which of the following questions would be most appropriate for a nurse to ask in the spirit of looking for opportunities to improve nursing practice and patient outcomes through evidence-based practice?
  A) How many patients can the average nurse care for on a medical-surgical hospital unit before quality of care is compromised?
  B) Should nurses join professional associations to foster unity within the profession?
  C) Which medical supply company offers the greatest price discount on high-volume purchases of IV tubing?
  D) What continuing-education courses am I most interested in for self-renewal?
  Ans: A



6. When reviewing a research article, the nurse notes that a randomized controlled trial (RCT) was used. The nurse needs to keep in mind that this type of research
  A) Is often considered the gold standard of clinical research evidence
  B) Yields very limited evidence regarding the results of several similar studies
  C) Is the most common research methodology used in nursing studies
  D) Is more commonly a tradition-based approach
  Ans: A



7. A nurse uses the National Guideline Clearinghouse as a resource based on the rationale that this source
  A) Conducts best-practices clinical research on diseases with the highest morbidity and mortality in the United States
  B) Offers providers practice guidelines developed through systematic searches and reviews of research literature and scientific evidence
  C) Provides consumers with report-card-type information about a provider’s credentials and malpractice records
  D) Is the most significant “Protocol for Practice” published by the American Association of Critical Care Nurses
  Ans: B



8. Which of the following strategies is most appropriate for the new nurse to use in promoting evidence-based best practices?
  A) Using the institutional policy and procedure manual as the primary resource for clinical problem solving
  B) Seeking out current, established sources of evidence in his or her area of specialty practice
  C) Adhering to long-established nursing traditions, symbols, and interventions
  D) Role-modeling behaviors and actions of experienced nurses who have been practicing for some time
  Ans: B



9. Which of the following would the nurse identify as a potential barrier to implementation of evidence-based practice?
  A) An increasing number of nurses educated at the graduate or doctoral level
  B) Institutional support for research activities and researchers
  C) The high degree of technical information that is often difficult to understand
  D) Confidence that the nursing staff has the skill set needed to conduct research
  Ans: C



10. After teaching a group of students about evidence-based practice and approaches, the instructor determines that additional teaching is needed when the students identify which of the following as an example of evidence-based practice?
  A) Integrative reviews
  B) Meta-analyses
  C) Institutional standards
  D) Randomized control trials
  Ans: C



11. As part of the preparation for implementing an evidence-based practice intervention on a nursing unit, an in-service program is being done. Which of the following would the presenter cite as the overall goal of this intervention?
  A) Cost-effectiveness
  B) Enhanced professional credibility
  C) Increased work efficiency
  D) Improved patient outcomes
  Ans: D



12. A nurse involved in research for evidence-based practice is evaluating the effects of an intervention with that of another intervention using a limited population. The nurse is engaged in which of the following?
  A) Randomized control trial
  B) Integrative review
  C) Practice-based evidence for continuous process improvement
  D) Meta-analysis
  Ans: C



13. A nursing staff wants to implement an evidence-based intervention on the unit. Which of the following would the staff need to do first?
  A) Collaborate with a research mentor.
  B) Get support from the administration.
  C) Seek out the medical librarian.
  D) Contact the professional nursing organization.
  Ans: B



14. During an orientation group, a new nurse asks the advanced practice nurse about ways to promote evidence-based practice. Which of the following suggestions would be least helpful?
  A) “Stay true to the nursing traditions because these are essential to practice.”
  B) “Subscribe to several professional journals and read them for information.”
  C) “Check for sources of evidence already out there so you don’t reinvent the wheel.”
  D) “Don’t stick to just one source of evidence, use multiple sources.”
  Ans: A



15. A nurse is looking for critiques of existing nursing research studies. Which of the following sources would be most helpful?
  A) Cochrane Collaboration
  B) National Guideline Clearinghouse
  C) Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
  D) Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing
  Ans: D



16. After teaching a class about benchmarking and institutions considered to be national leaders in evidence-based nursing practice, the instructor determines that additional teaching is needed when the class identifies which institution as a leader?
  A) University of Iowa
  B) University of Chicago
  C) Arizona State University
  D) McMaster University of Ontario
  Ans: B



17. When incorporating new evidence into clinical practice, which of the following is considered essential to achieve successful implementation?
  A) Health care institutional review
  B) Buy-in from the interdisciplinary team
  C) Patient and family support
  D) Participation of other nurses
  Ans: B



18. When describing the term best practice to a group of students, a nursing instructor would associate this term with which of the following?
  A) Shared decision making
  B) Clinical expertise
  C) Benchmarking
  D) Evidenced-based nursing practice
  Ans: C



19. A nursing student asks the instructor, “Where does evidence-based practice begin?” Which response by the instructor would be the most appropriate?
  A) “It starts with questions that arise in practice settings.”
  B) “There really is no actual beginning; it is ongoing.”
  C) “Changes in technology are usually the stimulus.”
  D) “A physician identifies a problem, which prompts nurses to respond.”
  Ans: A



20. After teaching a group of nursing students about evidenced-based practice, the instructor determines the need for additional teaching when the students identify which of the following as a source of evidence?
  A) Meta-analyses
  B) Quasi-experimental studies
  C) Consultation with an experienced nurse
  D) Integrative reviews
  Ans: C


Chapter 12- Mandatory Overtime in Nursing

1. Which of the following would a nurse manager use to describe mandatory overtime to a group of new nurses?
  A) Any hours worked over 40 hours per week
  B) A problem unique to nursing as a result of its repetitive shortages
  C) Forced requirement to work more hours than are standard
  D) Prohibited by the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) of 1938
  Ans: C



2. A group of students is reviewing information about the Fair Labor Standards Act. Which of the following would they identify as a component?
  A) The time standard for the health care industry is the same as for other industries.
  B) Each state can determine the amount of overtime and appropriate compensation.
  C) Amount of overtime is limited to four hours per day
  D) Overtime pay should be at least one and one-half times the regular rate of pay
  Ans: D



3. When reviewing the literature related to legislation to restrict mandatory overtime for nurses, which of the following would be an expected finding?
  A) Every state has defeated it since it has been introduced.
  B) The majority of states have passed restriction legislation.
  C) The state of California, so far, is the only state with legislation in effect.
  D) Fourteen states have enacted legislation with 16 states having restrictions.
  Ans: D



4. After teaching a class on mandatory overtime, the instructor determines that the teaching was successful when the students identify which practice area as most commonly having more mandatory overtime?
  A) Labor and delivery
  B) Operating room
  C) Medical/surgical unit
  D) Pediatrics
  Ans: B



5. Which of the following is a true statement about mandatory overtime in nursing?
  A) When overtime is mandated by an employer, the employee typically has little or no planned notice, often experiencing high levels of fatigue and increased errors.
  B) The risk of making an error as a result of working mandatory overtime does not increase until the nurse has worked at least 16 consecutive hours.
  C) Although nurses often work 12-hour shifts, double shifts (16 hours) are most commonly confined to rare emergencies.
  D) Mandatory overtime has been shown to reduce nurse dissatisfaction and turnover because pay rewards are so great.
  Ans: A



6. Which of the following best describes the risk for the charge of patient abandonment with overtime?
  A) Can be filed in all states of the United States if the nurse refuses to work mandatory overtime
  B) Is an “empty threat” by employers because nurses are protected if they identify a concern for patient safety as their reason for declining mandatory overtime
  C) Are more likely to be valid if the nurse accepts an assignment (mandatory overtime) and then changes his or her mind and decides to leave
  D) Cannot result in termination of a nurse’s employment, as specified by the National Labor Relations Act
  Ans: C



7. When describing a nurse’s professional duty, which of the following would be included?
  A) Placing patient needs above one’s own, even if nurse is now at increased personal risk
  B) Placing employer’s needs above one’s own, even if it places patients at risk
  C) Ensuring the nurse is mentally and physically able to provide minimum safe care
  D) Demonstrating a service orientation that entails altruism
  Ans: C



8. During a class discussion, a student asks, “How do most collective bargaining agents view mandatory overtime?” Which of the following would an instructor need to integrate into the response?
  A) It is allowed, but employees should receive at least double pay when it happens.
  B) Mandatory overtime is something that should be eliminated entirely.
  C) Typically, guidelines are left to the employer’s discretion if reviewed with each collective bargaining contract renewal.
  D) Mandatory overtime is an unavoidable alternative during severe nursing shortages.
  Ans: B



9. While reviewing a journal article about mandatory overtime and nurses, a student reads that many of the nurses report working more than how many hours when mandatory overtime is involved?
  A) 6
  B) 8
  C) 10
  D) 12
  Ans: D



10. A group of nursing students are reviewing information about state legislation and restrictions on the use of mandatory overtime for nurses. The students demonstrate a need for additional review when they identify which state as have enacted legislation?
  A) Alaska
  B) Maryland
  C) West Virginia
  D) California
  Ans: D



11. After teaching a class about the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) of 1938, the instructor determines that the teaching was successful when the students state which of the following?
  A) There is a ceiling limit as to the amount of overtime hours that can be worked by any one individual.
  B) Individuals cannot be dismissed from their job if they decide to decline to work overtime.
  C) For each hour worked over 40 hours, payroll employees must be paid time and a half the regular pay rate.
  D) Persons refusing to work overtime can receive sanctions from the employer.
  Ans: C



12. When reviewing the literature about mandatory overtime in nursing, which of the following most likely would be noted?
  A) It has become the standard operating procedure in many agencies.
  B) Use of mandatory overtime is fairly standardized among institutions.
  C) Overtime work generally involves work greater than 30 hours per week.
  D) The reliance on mandatory overtime is gradually decreasing.
  Ans: A



13. Which of the following employees would least likely be exempted under the most recent changes to federal overtime rules?
  A) Those with the authority to hire or fire employees
  B) Those whose primary duties required advanced knowledge
  C) Those who are considered “learned professionals”
  D) Those who provide care as hourly employees
  Ans: D



14. Which of the following is cited as the most common reason for nurses working mandatory overtime?
  A) Increased income
  B) Higher self-esteem
  C) Possible patient abandonment
  D) Staff allegiance
  Ans: C



15. The majority of research on mandatory overtime and its effects focuses primarily on working shifts of which time duration?
  A) 8 hours
  B) 10 hours
  C) 12 hours
  D) 14 hours
  Ans: C



16. Which of the following is necessary for a charge of patient abandonment?
  A) A provider-patient relationship was established.
  B) The patient was unaware of an expectation for care.
  C) The provider carried out the obligation.
  D) The patient remained free of injury.
  Ans: A



17. Students are preparing for a test about mandatory overtime in nursing. The students demonstrate a need for additional study when they identify which of the following as an effect?
  A) Cost reduction
  B) Increased risk for errors
  C) Lower productivity
  D) Longer patient stays
  Ans: A



18. Which of the following best reflects the current status of the use of mandatory overtime?
  A) It is used fairly consistently from institution to institution.
  B) It is often used as a last resort for staffing shortages.
  C) Magnet hospitals required its use much less often.
  D) It is a relatively new concept for nurses.
  Ans: C



19. A perioperative nurse manager is using the AORN Position Statement for safe work and on-call practices as a guide for staffing. Which of the following would apply?
  A) Direct patient care should be limited to 10 hours or less during a 24-hour period.
  B) The nurse should work no more than 60 hours in a 7-day period.
  C) Time off duty should allow for a maximum of 4 hours of uninterrupted sleep.
  D) On-call duty hours are not included in determining the total number of hours worked.
  Ans: B



20. After teaching a class about mandatory overtime, the instructor determines that the students have understood the concept when they identify which of the following as another term used?
  A) Employment abandonment
  B) Compulsory overtime
  C) Mentoring
  D) Socialization
  Ans: B





Chapter 24- Nursing’s Professional Associations

1. A nurse who is the president of a local chapter of a professional association is preparing a presentation for a group of nursing students about professional associations. Which of the following would the nurse integrate into the presentation?
  A) Professional associations are an integral part of contemporary nursing culture with a wide variety of nursing associations available.
  B) The number of associations has decreased since the 1980s due to nurses having less time to devote to outside interests.
  C) Associations advocate for the practice of nursing within health care but play a limited role in advocating with the public and government.
  D) Although professional associations have a few significant goals, they provide invaluable opportunities for professional networking and coalition building.
  Ans: A



2. Which of the following best reflects early nursing associations?
  A) Sharing of a goal of creating career pathways for advanced practice nurses
  B) Frequently being at odds with each other doing little to advance and support the profession
  C) Primarily representing specialty areas of practice and the needs of their individual members
  D) Working together to build the base for public recognition of nursing as a profession
  Ans: D



3. Which of the following would be a major reason for joining a professional nursing association?
  A) Having a collective voice to influence nursing’s future
  B) Being able to list membership on a resume
  C) Getting discounts for attending professional conferences
  D) Receiving copies of association journals or publications
  Ans: A



4. A nursing instructor is describing membership in professional associations. Which of the following would the instructor include?
  A) Are unable to contribute to the association unless they are engaged as an officer, committee chair, or spokesperson
  B) Most commonly share similar motivations for joining
  C) Seek value from professional associations, playing a role to ensure it can produce that value
  D) Typically have the same rights and privileges regardless of the type of membership
  Ans: C



5. When comparing the work of associations to that of most businesses, which of the following would be considered a similarity?
  A) Both are concerned with seeking a profit as one of the most important goals
  B) Each has a charter, a mission, and legal status in the state in which it resides
  C) Most associations are for-profit organizations and as such are ineligible for tax-exempt status
  D) Associations may not create separate organizations such as foundations
  Ans: B



6. After teaching a group of students about professional nursing associations and membership, the instructor determines that the teaching was successful when the students identify which of the following as an example of a professional association that has an exclusive membership?
  A) The American Nurses Association
  B) The International Council of Nurses
  C) Sigma Theta Tau International
  D) The National League for Nursing
  Ans: C



7. Which of the following would be most important to ensure future viability of professional associations?
  A) Create a more rule-bound society that clearly dictates the roles and responsibilities of association members.
  B) Balance traditional attitudes and practices with contemporary ways of managing and interacting, and prioritize use of resources.
  C) Transition to a fully electronic communication environment to accommodate the needs of working nurses.
  D) Re-create the fundamental mission and goals to more closely align with those of other “competitor” professional associations.
  Ans: B



8. Which of the following would be considered one of the greatest challenges facing contemporary professional nursing associations?
  A) Allocation of increasing revenues to meet membership priorities
  B) Stagnation in membership numbers due to lack of interest
  C) Best method to prepare for a future that is unknown
  D) Determination of traditional rules of order, procedures, and protocols
  Ans: C



9. A nurse is thinking about joining a professional association categorized as a professional development association. The nurse would be able to participate in which of the following?
  A) Legislative advocacy
  B) Research projects
  C) Establishment of practice standards
  D) Networking
  Ans: D



10. After teaching a group of students about the early professional associations in nursing, the instructor determines that the teaching was successful when the students identify which of the following as the forerunner to the American Nurses Association (ANA)?
  A) International Council of Nurses
  B) National League for Nursing
  C) The Nurses Associated Alumnae of the United States and Canada
  D) The Society of Superintendents of Training Schools for Nurses
  Ans: C



11. A group of students is reviewing the historical development of specialty-nursing professional associations. The students demonstrate knowledge of this topic when they identify which of the following as one of the oldest?
  A) Association of Operating Room Nurses
  B) American Association of Industrial Nurses
  C) American Association of Nurse Anesthetists
  D) The American College of Nurse Midwifery
  Ans: B



12. A nurse joins a professional association as a liason member. The nurse’s membership would include which of the following?
  A) Access to all programs
  B) Ability to vote
  C) Access to selected services
  D) Access to information with limited privileges
  Ans: D



13. Which of the following would be most appropriate for a professional association to do to sustain and increase its membership?
  A) Continue with the traditions and rituals of the current association
  B) Design programs and services to address increasing diversity
  C) Limit the use of technology in providing services
  D) Focus on an important cause geared to younger members
  Ans: B



14. Which of the following would be considered as the least effective means for financing a professional association?
  A) Increasing membership dues
  B) Partnering with a common interest group
  C) Collecting advertising fees in journals
  D) Seeking vendor support for programs
  Ans: A



15. Which of the following typically would characterize a professional association of the future?
  A) Resolution of issues with a long life cycle
  B) Flexible organizational patterns
  C) Independency of each association
  D) Concentration on nursing
  Ans: B



16. A nurse is looking for a professional association that is geared to promote excellence in nursing education. Joining which association would be most appropriate?
  A) National League for Nurses
  B) American Nurses Association
  C) Sigma Theta Tau
  D) International Council of Nurses
  Ans: A



17. The Rich Report was significant for professional associations in nursing because it
  A) Ensured that associations would develop codes of ethics.
  B) Led to the reorganization of associations to advance the profession.
  C) Created the need for stewardship.
  D) Addressed the need for mandatory licensure.
  Ans: B



18. After teaching a group of students about the development of professional associations, the instructor determines that the teaching was successful when the students identify that professional associations began to take shape around which of the following?
  A) Passage of the first nurse practice act in 1903
  B) Time of the Industrial Revolution
  C) 1950s
  D) Publication of American Journal of Nursing
  Ans: B



19. A nurse is a member of a professional association which provides professional development. Which of the following activities would be included? Select all that apply
  A) Networking
  B) Standards of practice
  C) Career programs
  D) Government relations
  E) Credentialing
  Ans: A, C, E





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