Principles of Environmental Science 6th Edition by Cunningham – Test Bank

$30.00

Description

INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS
Principles of Environmental Science 6th Edition by Cunningham – Test Bank

 

Chapter 02

Environmental Systems: Connections, Cycles, Flows and Feedback Loops

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. The relationship among atoms, elements, and compounds is most like the relationship among
    A. bricks, brick houses, and large brick buildings.
    B.  grains of sand, rocks, and continents.
    C.  bricks, sidewalks, and paved roads.
    D.  ponds, lakes, and oceans.
    E.  grains of sugar, sugar, and sweetened iced tea.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section: 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Which of the following is not a molecule?
    A. O3
    B.  O2
    C.  C
    D.  DNA
    E.  H2O

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Which of the following statements would change this into a true statement: “Most, but not all, living organisms are made up of organic compounds”?
    A. All living organisms are made up of organic compounds.
    B.  All living organisms are made up of inorganic compounds.
    C.  Most, but not all, living organisms are made up of inorganic compounds.
    D.  Most, but not all, living organisms are made up of organic elements.
    E.  Most, but not all, living organisms are made up of inorganic elements.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. Energy is the ability to
    A. move objects.
    B.  become heated.
    C.  transfer heat from one object to another.
    D.  All of these are true.
    E.  Both move objects and transfer heat from one object to another are true.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 2.03
Topic: Energy
 

  1. Potential energy is _______ energy.
    A. electrical
    B.  motion
    C.  stored
    D.  heat
    E.  latent

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 2.03
Topic: Energy
 

  1. The motion of a rock rolling downhill is known as __________ energy.
    A. kinetic
    B.  latent
    C.  potential
    D.  electrical
    E.  mechanical

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 2.03
Topic: Energy
 

 

  1. Metabolism can be seen as the process of converting
    A. energy into matter.
    B.  potential energy into kinetic energy.
    C.  kinetic energy into potential energy.
    D.  atoms into compounds.
    E.  matter into potential energy.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section: 2.03
Topic: Energy
 

  1. The law of conservation of matter tells us that matter
    A. can never be reused.
    B.  needs to be conserved or it will not be available for future generations.
    C.  can be destroyed.
    D.  can be conserved by some adaptive strategies.
    E.  is used repeatedly.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. What implication(s) does the law of conservation of matter have for humans?
    A. We cannot create energy because it is neither created nor destroyed.
    B.  As matter is recycled it loses some of its integrity so we need to be careful when we dispose of goods.
    C.  Natural resources are unlimited because they are used and reused by living organisms.
    D.  Disposable goods are not going “away” when we throw them out.
    E.  All of these are implications of the law of conservation of matter.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

  1. The first law of thermodynamics and the law of conservation of matter are similar in that
    A. under normal circumstances neither energy nor matter is created nor destroyed.
    B.  both energy and matter are recycled through biological systems.
    C.  both energy and matter flow in a one-way path through biological systems.
    D.  under normal circumstances energy and matter are destroyed as they pass through biological systems.
    E.  The first law of thermodynamics and the law of conservation of matter are not similar.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 2.03
Topic: Energy
 

  1. What implication(s) does the second law of thermodynamics have for biological systems?
    A. Systems cannot create energy because energy is neither created nor destroyed.
    B.  With each transformation, less available energy is available to do work so older systems have less energy.
    C.  A constant supply of energy is necessary for maintenance of biological systems.
    D.  Energy is unlimited because it is used and reused by living organisms.
    E.  None of these is an implication of the second law of thermodynamics.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 2.03
Topic: Energy
 

  1. Photosynthesis is the process of converting __________ into __________ energy.
    A. chemical bond energy; kinetic
    B.  sunlight; chemical bond
    C.  solar energy; kinetic
    D.  solar electrical energy; heat
    E.  chemical bond energy; potential

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 2.04
Topic: Photosynthesis
 

 

  1. Photosynthesis produces sugars from
    A. water, carbon dioxide, and energy.
    B.  water, other sugars, and oxygen.
    C.  oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water.
    D.  carbon dioxide, enzymes, and energy.
    E.  oxygen, water, and energy.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 2.04
Topic: Photosynthesis
 

  1. The process of photosynthesis and cellular respiration are similar in that they both
    A. capture energy in the form of sugar.
    B.  occur in all living organisms.
    C.  temporarily store energy in chemical bonds.
    D.  capture energy from the sun.
    E.  none of these are correct.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 2.04
Topic: Photosynthesis
 

  1. The process of cellular respiration
    A. helps primary producers store energy accumulated by chloroplasts.
    B.  releases energy from chemical bonds of molecules such as glucose.
    C.  eliminates the need for enzymes in metabolism.
    D.  does not occur in primary producers.
    E.  does not occur in detritivores.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 2.04
Topic: Cellular Respiration
 

 

  1. All members of a species that live in the same area at the same time make up a(an)
    A. species.
    B.  ecosystem.
    C.  community.
    D.  population.
    E.  biome.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 2.05
Topic: Populations
 

  1. A biological community consists of all
    A. populations living and interacting in an area.
    B.  members of a species living in the same area.
    C.  living things on Earth.
    D.  populations of a given species.
    E.  members of a species living in the same biome.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 2.05
Topic: Communities
 

  1. An ecosystem consists of
    A. a physical environment within which a biological community lives.
    B.  the species with which a biological community interacts.
    C.  a biological community and its physical environment.
    D.  the primary producers within a biological community.
    E.  all the species in a biological community.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 2.05
Topic: Ecosystems
 

 

  1. The length and complexity of a food web in the Arctic would be ____________ when compared to one in the tropical rainforest.
    A. short and less complex
    B.  short and more complex
    C.  long and less complex
    D.  long and more complex
    E.  about the same

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section: 2.05
Topic: Trophic Levels
 

  1. Producers rely on ____________ to release chemical energy and consumers rely on ____________ to release chemical energy.
    A. cellular respiration; photosynthesis
    B.  cellular respiration; cellular respiration
    C.  photosynthesis; cellular respiration
    D.  photosynthesis; photosynthesis
    E.  the sun; the sun

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 2.05
Topic: Trophic Levels
 

  1. Primary consumers are also known as
    A. carnivores.
    B.  scavengers.
    C.  decomposers.
    D.  herbivores.
    E.  top carnivores

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 2.05
Topic: Trophic Levels
 

 

  1. Energy enters a system as sunlight and a producer is able to produce 10 kilograms of tissue. If eaten, the producer would produce about ______ kilograms of consumer tissue that would provide about __________ kilograms of tissue for a secondary consumer.
    A. 100; 10
    B.  10; 1
    C.  100; 1
    D.  1; 0.1
    E.  10; 0.1

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section: 2.05
Topic: Trophic Levels
 

  1. Living vegetation and the ocean are known as “carbon sinks” because
    A. they are made of carbon.
    B.  they create carbon.
    C.  they destroy carbon.
    D.  they store carbon.
    E.  due to gravity, carbon is found closer to the ground.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 2.06
Topic: Biogeochemical Cycles
 

  1. _______________________ are characteristics of an entire system that are greater than the sum of its parts.
    A. Open systems
    B.  Closed systems
    C.  Disturbances
    D.  Emergent properties
    E.  Feedback loops

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 2.01
Topic: Ecosystems
 

 

  1. Which is the best example of a closed system?
    A. a space station
    B.  a forest
    C.  a hotel
    D.  a lake
    E.  none of these are correct.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section: 2.01
Topic: Ecosystems
 

  1. Which is not a characteristic of acids?
    A. they readily give up hydrogen ions
    B.  they have a pH of less than 7
    C.  they react easily with living tissue
    D.  they react easily with nonliving minerals
    E.  all of these are characteristic of acids

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. How do the organisms living around Yellowstone’s hot springs get energy?
    A. by eating alga
    B.  from the heat in the hot spring
    C.  from photosynthesis
    D.  from chemosynthesis
    E.  no organisms can live at the depths of black smokers

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 2.04
Topic: Energy
 

 

 

True / False Questions

  1. Nitrogen is an essential component of amino acids and proteins.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 2.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

  1. Photosynthesis is a step in the global nitrogen cycle.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 2.04
Topic: Photosynthesis
 

  1. Water expands when it crystallizes.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: A Water Planet
Topic: Properties of Water
 

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Based on what you know of photosynthesis, what effect would clearcutting of large forests have on the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere?
    A. It would increase the level of carbon dioxide since less photosynthesis would be taking place.
    B.  The amount of carbon dioxide would be decreased since the trees would no longer be living.
    C.  There would be no change in carbon dioxide levels since humans put carbon dioxide into the atmosphere by burning fossil fuels.
    D.  The amount of carbon dioxide would be the same since the reaction rates of photosynthesis and respiration are equal.

 

Bloom’s Level: 5. Evaluate
Section: 2.04
Topic: Photosynthesis
 

  1. If you were to remove the top predator in a food web or food chain
    A. there would be an increase in the number of producers.
    B.  the producer population will be depleted because there are more primary consumers or herbivores.
    C.  another predator would move in and take its place as top predator.
    D.  there would be no change in the exchange of energy since predators get very little (only 10%) of the energy from their food source.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section: 2.05
Topic: Trophic Levels
 

  1. Which biogeochemical cycle lacks an atmospheric component?
    A. The hydrologic cycle.
    B.  The carbon cycle.
    C.  The nitrogen cycle.
    D.  The phosphorous cycle.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 2.06
Topic: Biogeochemical Cycles
 

 

  1. Water supplies contaminated with algae that produce toxins making the water unfit to drink is a result of the human impact to the
    A. hydrologic cycle.
    B.  carbon cycle.
    C.  nitrogen cycle.
    D.  sulfur cycle.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section: 2.06
Topic: Biogeochemical Cycles
 

Chapter 04

Human Populations

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. The world human population reached 1 billion in about
    A.1400.
    B. 1500.
    C. 1600.
    D. 1700.
    E. 1800.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 4.01
Topic: Population Growth
 

  1. Historically, up until the Middle Ages, populations were mostly limited by
    A.low fertility rates.
    B. culturally imposed family planning practices.
    C. disease, famine, and war.
    D. religious restrictions on marriage.
    E. infanticide.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 4.02
Topic: Population Growth
 

  1. The doubling time for a population with an annual growth rate of 0.07 is
    A.1 year.
    B. 5 years.
    C. 10 years.
    D. 50 years.
    E. 100 years.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section: Active Learning
Topic: Population Growth
 

 

Use this example to answer the question. On an island in the South Pacific, there is a population of 1,000 South Pacific Splendor Birds. There is no immigration or emigration but there are 40 births and 20 deaths per year.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section: Active Learning
Topic: Population Growth
 

  1. The annual percentage rate of this population is
    A.0.02%.
    B. 2.0%.
    C. 20%.
    D. -0.02%.
    E. -2%.

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Section: Active Learning
Topic: Population Growth
 

  1. The doubling time for the population of South Pacific Splendor Birds would be
    A.2 years.
    B. 3.5 years.
    C. 7 years.
    D. 20 years.
    E. 35 years.

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Section: Active Learning
Topic: Population Growth
 

 

  1. Technological optimists argue that technological advances have
    A.led to the increase in human population but whether we can continue is of great concern.
    B. proven Marx wrong in his predictions of famine and disaster.
    C. proven Malthus wrong in his predictions of famine and disaster.
    D. been developed because there are more people, supporting the view that more people are the “ultimate resource.”
    E. been a neutral factor in the issue of population growth.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 4.02
Topic: Population Growth
 

  1. Malthus and Marx
    A.worked together to form their theories.
    B. agreed about the root causes of overpopulation, poverty, and social upheaval.
    C. disagreed about the root causes of overpopulation, poverty, and social upheaval.
    D. held the same beliefs but worked on different issues.
    E. disagreed about the severity of overpopulation, poverty, and social upheaval.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 4.02
Topic: Population Growth
 

  1. According to Joel Cohen, the maximum human population that Earth can support is
    A.7-8 billion
    B. 10-12 billion
    C. 15-18 billion
    D. 20-22 billion
    E. more than 26 billion

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 4.02
Topic: Population Growth
 

 

  1. The demographic transition refers to a country’s change from
    A.high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates.
    B. high to low birth rates and low to high death rates.
    C. low to high birth rates and high to low death rates.
    D. a majority of young people to a majority of elderly people.
    E. a majority of elderly people to a majority of young people.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 4.05
Topic: Population Growth
 

  1. A demographic transition is expected to accompany
    A.colonization, as in Africa and Asia.
    B. economic development and stabilization.
    C. the development of capitalism.
    D. the introduction of modern medicine.
    E. All of these.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 4.05
Topic: Population Growth
 

  1. Many demographers believe that birth rates generally decrease as the level of development increases because
    A.raising children becomes much more expensive.
    B. men are better educated and have more economic options.
    C. women tend to have more influence in family planning.
    D. higher levels of contaminants in drinking water tend to decrease fertility.
    E. government programs tend to discourage the discussion of birth control options.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 4.04
Topic: Population Demography
 

 

Use the following demographic data on three hypothetical countries to answer the question.

  Country “A” Country “B” Country “C”
Fertility (per female) 2.0 3.1 6.7
Infant Mortality (per 1000 people) 9 69 62
Life Expectancy (years) 75.5 65 61
Per-capita Income (US$) $21,700 $2,680 $370
Doubling Time (years) 89 37 19

 

Topic: Population Demography
 

  1. The most industrialized country listed is
    A.Country “A.”
    B. Country “B.”
    C. Country “C.”
    D. None of the countries listed are likely to be industrialized.
    E. It is impossible to use the data in the table to identify an industrialized country.

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Section: 4.03
Topic: Population Demography
 

  1. Country “C” probably has __________ rate of female literacy when compared to the other two countries.
    A.the highest
    B. an intermediate
    C. the lowest
    D. an equal
    E. It is impossible to use the data in the table to identify the rate of female literacy.

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Section: 4.03
Topic: Population Demography
 

 

  1. Which of the following demographic categories best identifies Country “A”?
    A.developed
    B. moderately developed
    C. less developed
    D. developing
    E. third world

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Section: 4.03
Topic: Population Demography
 

  1. Proponents of social justice believe that environmental and social problems will decrease if
    A.we can educate poor people about family planning.
    B. resources are distributed fairly.
    C. better ethics are taught to poor, uneducated populations.
    D. we just reduce the number of people on Earth.
    E. we concentrate on population control.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 4.05
Topic: Population Demography
 

 

Refer to the following graph for the question.

  1. The graph indicates that more children die
    A.in the last stage of the demographic transition.
    B. in the first stage of the demographic transition.
    C. when their mothers are illiterate.
    D. when their mothers are literate.
    E. when their mothers are poor.

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Section: 4.04
Topic: Population Demography
 

  1. The graph indicates that there is
    A.a strong relationship between infant mortality and education for women.
    B. little relationship between infant mortality and education for women.
    C. a relationship between infant mortality and education in general.
    D. more importance for female rather than male education.
    E. a relationship between birth rate and education for women.

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Section: 4.04
Topic: Population Demography
 

 

  1. Family planning means enabling people to
    A.have fewer children so that the population growth rate can reach ZPG.
    B. have no children.
    C. have many children.
    D. decide in advance how many children they should have.
    E. have more children if they live in a country with a birth dearth.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 4.06
Topic: Population Demography
 

  1. Which of the following is a mechanical barrier to conception?
    A.abortion
    B. condoms
    C. birth control pills
    D. vasectomies
    E. IUD

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 4.06
Topic: Population Demography
 

  1. One of the _________ effective ways to stabilize populations is to _________.
    A. most; provide free contraceptives
    B.  least; provide free contraceptives
    C.  least; decrease child mortality
    D.  most; decrease child mortality
    E.  most; expect mandatory sterilization

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 4.07
Topic: Population Demography
 

 

  1. The number of children born to an average woman in a population during her entire reproductive life is called _____________________.
    A.birth rate
    B. growth rate
    C. crude birth rate
    D. total fertility rate
    E. replacement rate

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 4.03
Topic: Population Demography
 

  1. What is the dependency ratio?
    A.the number of children men support
    B. the percentage of women who work outside the home
    C. the amount of people that can be supported by an acre of land
    D. the number of literate adults relative to the total number of adults in a population
    E. the number of nonworking compared to with working individuals in a population

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 4.03
Topic: Population Demography
 

  1. Which of the following is a pronatalist pressure?
    A. male pride
    B.  social status of large families
    C.  need for additional family income
    D.  social taboos regarding birth control
    E.  all of these are sources of pronatalist pressure

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 4.04
Topic: Population Demography
 

 

  1. Which of the following has not played an important role in the slowed population growth rate of Iran?
    A.mandatory family planning classes before marriage
    B. a strictly enforced government limit on the number of children per family
    C. a wide variety of free contraceptives
    D. improved gender equity
    E. availability of better jobs

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 4.05
Topic: Population Demography
 

 

True / False Questions

  1. So far, the most successful and popular solution(s) to global overpopulation has/have been mandatory sterilization.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: 4.05
Topic: Population Demography
 

  1. Human population growth most closely resembles the S-shaped growth curve.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 4.01
Topic: Population Demography
 

  1. Generally speaking wealthy, developed nations have a smaller human ecological footprint than poorer, less developed nations.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: 4.02
Topic: Ecological Footprint
 

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. A population growing at 1% per year should double in about ___ years.
    A.30
    B. 70
    C. 10
    D. 2
    E. 0.7

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: Active Learning
Topic: Population Growth
 

  1. In the formula I=PAT, which of the following would be representative of the ‘A’?
    A. Driving an SUV.
    B.  Earning money to support the family.
    C.  Having clean drinking water.
    D.  The number of people living in a country.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section: 4.02
Topic: Population Growth
 

  1. Which country listed below would you expect to have the highest ecological footprint?
    A. USA
    B.  Mexico
    C.  Sweden
    D.  Kenya

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section: 4.02
Topic: Ecological Footprint
 

Reviews

There are no reviews yet.

Be the first to review “Principles of Environmental Science 6th Edition by Cunningham – Test Bank”

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *