Practice of Nursing Research Appraisal Synthesis 7th Edition By Grove Burns – Test Bank

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Practice of Nursing Research Appraisal Synthesis 7th Edition By Grove Burns – Test Bank

Chapter 2: Evolution of Research in Building Evidence-Based Nursing Practice

Test Bank

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. In which way did Florence Nightingale contribute to evidence-based practice?
a. She conducted research on outcomes and the power of nursing for change.
b. She was the first woman elected to the Royal Statistical Society.
c. She gathered data that changed the care of hospitalized soldiers.
d. She calculated mortality rates under varying conditions.

 

 

ANS:  C

Nightingale gathered data on soldier morbidity and mortality rates and the factors influencing them and presented her results in tables and pie charts, a sophisticated type of data presentation for the period. Nightingale’s research enabled her to instigate attitudinal, organizational, and social changes. She changed the attitudes of the military and society toward the care of the sick. The military began to view the sick as having the right to adequate food, suitable quarters, and appropriate medical treatment, which greatly reduced the mortality rate.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   Page 17

 

  1. If a nurse manager wants to study how well last year’s policies governing implementation of a “bundle” of interventions to prevent cross-contamination of MRSA have been working in her units, which of the following strategies would she use?
a. Outcomes research
b. Intervention research
c. Ethnographic research
d. Experimental research

 

 

ANS:  A

Outcomes research emerged as an important methodology for documenting the effectiveness of health care services in the 1980s and 1990s. This type of research evolved from the quality assessment and quality assurance functions that originated with the professional standards review organizations (PSROs) in 1972. During the 1980s, William Roper, the director of the Health Care Finance Administration (HCFA), promoted outcomes research for determining the quality and cost-effectiveness of patient care. Intervention research investigates the effectiveness of a nursing intervention in achieving the desired outcome or outcomes in a natural setting. Through the use of ethnographic research, different cultures are described, compared, and contrasted to add to our understanding of the impact of culture on human behavior and health. Experimental studies have three main characteristics: (1) a controlled manipulation of at least one treatment variable (independent variable), (2) administration of the treatment to some of the subjects in the study (experimental group) and not to others (control group), and (3) random selection of subjects or random assignment of subjects to groups, or both. Experimental studies usually are conducted in highly controlled settings, such as laboratories or research units in clinical agencies.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 22

 

  1. A researcher publishes a paper describing how faith, pain, adherence to therapy, and meditation interact during the rehabilitation process. The description of the process is based on many interviews the researcher conducted with persons during and following rehabilitation experiences. The methodology is
a. Ethnography
b. Phenomenology
c. Historical research
d. Grounded theory

 

 

ANS:  D

Grounded theory methodology emphasizes observation and the development of practice-based intuitive relationships among variables. Throughout the study, the researcher formulates, tests, and redevelops propositions until a theory evolves. The theory developed is “grounded,” or has its roots in, the data from which it was derived.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Synthesis             REF:   Page 27

 

  1. A panel of researchers conducts several studies, all drawn from an existent hospital and clinic database. The studies focus on quality and effectiveness within that system. The specific studies address mortality rates in elders within a year after hip fracture, functional outcomes six months after admission to a neurosurgical ICU after traumatic brain injury, rate of nurse injuries in an emergency department, and number of patient falls on various floors of the hospital. What type of research is this?
a. Experimental research
b. Outcomes research
c. Ethnographic research
d. Grounded theory research

 

 

ANS:  B

The spiraling cost of health care has generated many questions about the quality and effectiveness of health care services and the patient outcomes. Consumers want to know what services they are buying, and whether these services will improve their health. Health care policy makers want to know whether the care is cost-effective and of high quality. These concerns have promoted the development of outcomes research, which examines the results of care and measures the changes in health status of patients. It can also examine costs related to care delivery within a hospital system.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   Page 27

 

  1. A researcher designs a study. It depends on questionnaires for data, it has a clear purpose statement, it provides its results as a narrative without statistical analysis, and it makes general suggestions for practice. What type of research is this?
a. Qualitative research
b. Outcomes research
c. Intervention research
d. Quantitative research

 

 

ANS:  D

Quantitative research is a formal, objective, systematic process in which numerical data are used to obtain information about the world. Qualitative research is also systematic, but it is a holistic, interactive, and subjective approach to describe life experiences and identify their meaning. Both types of research have a purpose statement and can use a survey instrument; however, neither depends on surveys for data. Both can contain suggestions for practice. Qualitative research results are presented as a narrative, without statistical analysis. Outcomes research examines the results of care and measures the changes in health status of patients. Intervention research investigates the effectiveness of a nursing intervention in achieving the desired outcome or outcomes in a natural setting.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   Page 23

 

  1. A newly employed nurse administrator wants to know more about the employees on the units the administrator supervises. The manager accesses the managerial database and gathers data about all of the current employees on the unit, including work shift, number of years employed, age, gender, educational preparation, certifications, work history, and professional accomplishments. What type of research is this?
a. Descriptive research
b. Correlational research
c. Quasi-experimental research
d. Experimental research

 

 

ANS:  A

The quantitative research methods are classified into four categories: (1) descriptive, which defines the magnitude of a concept and its characteristics, (2) correlational, which determines association between or among variables, (3) quasi-experimental, which tests an intervention and lacks control in at least one of three areas, and (4) experimental, which tests an intervention and includes both a control group and random assignment. This is a research study, even though it depends upon existent data, collected by another manager. Its purpose is to describe the employees.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 26

 

  1. A human resources employee performs research focusing on the professional lifespan within the institution of nurses, and trying to discover whether their choice of work area is connected with the number of years they work in the institution. What type of research is this?
a. Descriptive research
b. Correlational research
c. Quasi-experimental research
d. Experimental research

 

 

ANS:  B

The quantitative research methods are classified into four categories: (1) descriptive, which defines the magnitude of a concept and its characteristics, (2) correlational, which determines association between or among variables, (3) quasi-experimental, which tests an intervention and lacks control in at least one of three areas, and (4) experimental, which tests an intervention and includes both a control group and random assignment. This study investigates the connection or association between work area and length of time worked.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 26

 

  1. In an attempt to assess whether selection of a same-gender psychiatrist leads to better mental health outcomes, clients newly referred for mental health services are told they may choose their mental health physicians. Later, measures of mental health are performed. What type of research is this?
a. Descriptive research
b. Correlational research
c. Quasi-experimental research
d. Experimental research

 

 

ANS:  C

The quantitative research methods are classified into four categories: (1) descriptive, which defines the magnitude of a concept and its characteristics, (2) correlational, which determines association between or among variables, (3) quasi-experimental, which tests an intervention and lacks control in at least one of three areas, and (4) experimental, which tests an intervention and includes both a control group and random assignment. This research study is designed to test an intervention but does not include random assignment.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 26

 

  1. In a rehabilitation unit, patients are randomly assigned to high fiber diets versus ordinary fiber diets, in order to measure the effect on constipation. What type of research is this?
a. Descriptive research
b. Correlational research
c. Quasi-experimental research
d. Experimental research

 

 

ANS:  D

The quantitative research methods are classified into four categories: (1) descriptive, which defines the magnitude of a concept and its characteristics, (2) correlational, which determines association between or among variables, (3) quasi-experimental, which tests an intervention and lacks either a control group or random assignment, and (4) experimental, which tests an intervention and includes both a control group and random assignment. This research study tests an intervention and includes both a control group and random assignment.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 26

 

  1. A researcher uses interviews with two or three open-ended questions to study women in the staging phase of breast cancer treatment, in order to understand their experiences and the meanings they attribute to those experiences. What type of research is this?
a. Phenomenologic research
b. Grounded theory research
c. Ethnographic research
d. Historicism

 

 

ANS:  A

Phenomenologic research examines the lived experiences of participants and the meanings those experiences hold for them, drawing its results only from the participants’ views. Grounded theory research defines under-researched concepts and explains them within a social framework, building on both observation and the perceptions of the persons who are familiar with the concepts, and sometimes generating theory; it emphasizes interaction, observation, and development of relationships among concepts. Ethnography defines shared characteristics of members of a culture or participants who share in a common characteristic, and explains commonalities, often within a cultural framework, using observation, interview, and other data collection strategies; through the use of ethnographic research, different cultures are described, compared, and contrasted to add to our understanding of the impact of culture on the human experience. Historicism tells the story of past events, reconstructing these from other historical references, interviews, artifacts, art, and other sources that reflect the time of interest.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 27

 

  1. A researcher uses interviews with eight open-ended questions to study women in a new staging phase of breast cancer treatment, which includes serial biopsies and necessitates weekly closed biopsy, in order to understand more about social factors that impinge upon their experience. What type of research is this?
a. Phenomenologic research
b. Grounded theory research
c. Ethnographic research
d. Historicism

 

 

ANS:  B

Grounded theory research defines under-researched concepts and explains them within a social framework, building on both observation and the perceptions of the persons who are familiar with the concepts, and sometimes generating theory; it emphasizes interaction, observation, and development of relationships among concepts. Phenomenologic research examines the lived experiences of participants and the meanings those experiences hold for them, drawing its results only from the participants’ views. Ethnography defines shared characteristics of members of a culture or participants who share in a common characteristic, and explains commonalities, often within a cultural framework, using observation, interview, and other data collection strategies; through the use of ethnographic research, different cultures are described, compared, and contrasted to add to our understanding of the impact of culture on the human experience. Historicism tells the story of past events, reconstructing these from other historical references, interviews, artifacts, art, and other sources that reflect the time of interest.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 27

 

  1. A researcher conducts many interviews, over a one-year period, with women in the treatment phase of breast cancer, all of whom are attending a breast cancer support group, in order to understand what happens in the support group, how the members are affected by membership, and how the members contribute to the group. The researcher herself is also in treatment for breast cancer and is a member of the group. What type of research is this?
a. Phenomenologic research
b. Grounded theory research
c. Ethnographic research
d. Historicism

 

 

ANS:  C

Ethnography defines shared characteristics of members of a culture or participants who share in a common characteristic, and explains commonalities, often within a cultural framework, using observation, interview, and other data collection strategies; through the use of ethnographic research, different cultures are described, compared, and contrasted to add to our understanding of the impact of culture on the human experience. Phenomenologic research examines the lived experiences of participants and the meanings those experiences hold for them, drawing its results only from the participants’ views. Grounded theory research defines under-researched concepts and explains them within a social framework, building on both observation and the perceptions of the persons who are familiar with the concepts, and sometimes generating theory; it emphasizes interaction, observation, and development of relationships among concepts. Historicism tells the story of past events, reconstructing these from other historical references, interviews, artifacts, art, and other sources that reflect the time of interest.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 27

 

  1. A researcher reviews the twenty years that a breast cancer clinic has been in operation in a small Midwestern city. The researcher interviews many of the women who have been treated in the clinic during this period and reviews the records of the clinic, along with its survival rates and the emergence of several of its innovative support programs for women and their families. The researcher ultimately writes a story of the clinic over those twenty years. What type of research is this?
a. Phenomenologic research
b. Grounded theory research
c. Ethnographic research
d. Historicism

 

 

ANS:  D

Phenomenologic research examines the lived experiences of participants and the meanings those experiences hold for them, drawing its results only from the participants’ views. Grounded theory research defines under-researched concepts and explains them within a social framework, building on both observation and the perceptions of the persons who are familiar with the concepts, and sometimes generating theory; it emphasizes interaction, observation, and development of relationships among concepts. Ethnography defines shared characteristics of members of a culture or participants who share in a common characteristic, and explains commonalities, often within a cultural framework, using observation, interview, and other data collection strategies; through the use of ethnographic research, different cultures are described, compared, and contrasted to add to our understanding of the impact of culture on the human experience. Historicism tells the story of past events, reconstructing these from other historical references, interviews, artifacts, art, and other sources that reflect the time of interest.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 27

 

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

 

  1. Florence Nightingale researched mortality and morbidity rates in soldiers during the Crimean War and investigated various factors that influenced both, presenting her results as pie charts and graphs. Consequently, it is known that she conducted which types of research? (Select all that apply.)
a. Phenomenologic research
b. Causational research
c. Descriptive research
d. Correlational research
e. Ethnographic research

 

 

ANS:  C, D

Nightingale is noted for her data collection and statistical analyses during the Crimean War. She gathered data on soldier morbidity and mortality rates and the factors influencing them and presented her results in tables and pie charts, a sophisticated type of data presentation for the period. There is no evidence that she designed causational (experimental or quasi-experimental) research or any type of qualitative research.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 17

 

  1. Which of the following statements about quantitative research is accurate? (Select all that apply.)
a. The results of quantitative research should be generalized back to the population from which the sample was drawn.
b. Quantitative research is always easy and straightforward to read and understand.
c. Quantitative research addresses quantities, connections, and causes.
d. Quantitative research predominates in the nursing research literature.
e. Quantitative research is always experimental.
f. Quantitative research provides answers to “What?” and “Who?” questions.

 

 

ANS:  A, C, D, F

The quantitative approach to scientific inquiry emerged from a branch of philosophy called logical positivism, which operates on strict rules of logic, truth, laws, axioms, and predictions. Quantitative research requires the use of structured interviews, questionnaires, or observations, scales, or physiological measures that generate numerical data. Statistical analyses are conducted to reduce and organize data, describe variables, examine relationships, and determine differences among groups. Control, instruments, and statistical analyses are used to ensure that the research findings accurately reflect reality so that the study findings can be generalized. Generalization involves the application of trends or general tendencies (which are identified by studying a sample) to the population from which the research sample was drawn. Researchers must be cautious in making generalizations, because a sound generalization requires the support of many studies with a variety of samples.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 24

 

  1. Which of the following statements about qualitative research is accurate? (Select all that apply.)
a. Qualitative research deals exclusively with humans.
b. Qualitative research’s principal purpose is to inform the reader.
c. Qualitative research yields data that are not numbers-based, such as audiotapes, videotapes, and field notes.
d. Qualitative research is not systematic.
e. Qualitative research does not contain or imply a research question.
f. Qualitative research is ill-defined and vague.
g. Qualitative research has no practical use.

 

 

ANS:  B, C

Qualitative researchers use observations, interviews, and focus groups to gather data. The interactions are guided but not controlled in the way that quantitative data collection is controlled. For example, the researcher may ask subjects to share their experiences of powerlessness in the health care system. Qualitative researchers would begin interpreting the subjective data during data collection, recognizing that their interpretation is influenced by their own perceptions and beliefs. Qualitative data take the form of words and are analyzed according to the qualitative approach that is being used. The intent of the analysis is to organize the data into a meaningful, individualized interpretation, framework, or theory that describes the phenomenon studied. The findings from a qualitative study are unique to that study, and it is not the researcher’s intent to generalize the findings to a larger population. Qualitative researchers are encouraged to question generalizations and to interpret meaning based on individual study participants’ perceptions and realities.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 25

 

  1. Which is true of quantitative research? (Select all that apply.)
a. It addresses human responses by measuring or counting them.
b. It presents information by clustering it or counting it.
c. It yields a data set that can be analyzed by statistics.
d. It operates systematically.
e. It states or implies a research question.
f. It operates in a concrete realm.
g. It can always be generalized.

 

 

ANS:  A, B, C, D, E, F

The quantitative approach to scientific inquiry emerged from a branch of philosophy called logical positivism, which operates on strict rules of logic, truth, laws, axioms, and predictions. Quantitative research requires the use of structured interviews, questionnaires, or observations, scales, or physiological measures that generate numerical data. Statistical analyses are conducted to reduce and organize data, describe variables, examine relationships, and determine differences among groups. Control, instruments, and statistical analyses are used to ensure that the research findings accurately reflect reality so that the study findings can be generalized. Generalization involves the application of trends or general tendencies (which are identified by studying a sample) to the population from which the research sample was drawn. Researchers must be cautious in making generalizations, because a sound generalization requires the support of many studies with a variety of samples.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 24

 

  1. Ethnographic research might focus upon which of the following topics? (Select all that apply.)
a. Bacterial cultures
b. Cultural beliefs of the ancient Romans
c. How children in Alaska play during the winter
d. Twenty-year abstinence members of Alcoholics Anonymous
e. The mentoring process in a labor-delivery unit
f. Conversational Spanish

 

 

ANS:  C, D, E

Ethnographic research was developed by anthropologists to investigate cultures through an in-depth study of the members of the culture. The culture may be an actual culture, a loosely connected group of people who share a common characteristic, or a work or recreational group. The ethnographic research process is the systematic collection, description, and analysis of data to develop a description of cultural behavior. The researcher (ethnographer) actually lives in or becomes a part of the cultural setting to gather the data.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 24

 

  1. A researcher is operating from the point of view of logical positivism. Which of the following research methods would the logical positivist use? (Select all that apply.)
a. Grounded theory research
b. Correlational research
c. Historical research
d. Quasi-experimental research
e. Quantitative descriptive research
f. Exploratory descriptive qualitative research

 

 

ANS:  B, D, E

The quantitative approach to scientific inquiry emerged from a branch of philosophy called logical positivism, which operates on strict rules of logic, truth, laws, axioms, and predictions. The quantitative research methods are classified into four categories: (1) descriptive, (2) correlational, (3) quasi-experimental, and (4) experimental. The qualitative research methods included in this textbook are (1) phenomenological research, (2) grounded theory research, (3) ethnographic research, (4) exploratory-descriptive qualitative research, and (5) historical research.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 27

 

  1. Which of the follow potential studies would fall within the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality’s future research goals? (Select all that apply.)
a. Performing a synthesis of research evidence regarding skin-to-skin contact of mothers and newborns
b. Enacting a quantitative research project measuring bacterial count on nurses’ uniforms at the beginning and the end of 12-hour work shifts
c. Performing a qualitative research project to explain sources of student nurses’ stress
d. Enacting a public education Internet commercial encouraging smokers to read the statistics regarding sequelae of cigarette smoking
e. Trialing clean-and-sober support groups that are based in community shopping centers

 

 

ANS:  A, D, E

The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality partners with public and private sectors to improve the quality and safety of patient care by promoting the use of the best research evidence available in practice. Its three future goals are focused on the following: “Safety and quality: Reduce the risk of harm by promoting delivery of the best possible health care; Effectiveness: Improve healthcare outcomes by encouraging the use of evidence to make informed healthcare decisions; and Efficiency: Transform research into practice to facilitate wider access to effective healthcare services and reduce unnecessary costs.”

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 22

 

  1. Early nursing research by Nightingale focused on improving patient outcomes. What were the principal topics for the next wave of nursing research, in the first half of the 20th century? (Select all that apply.)
a. Evidence-based practice
b. Primary nursing’s advantages in hospitals
c. Nursing education, as opposed to nurse training
d. The nursing process and nursing diagnosis
e. Staffing, patient assignments, and type of care

 

 

ANS:  C, E

From 1900 to 1950, research activities in nursing were limited, but a few studies advanced nursing education. Based on recommendations of the Goldmark Report, more schools of nursing were established in university settings. A research trend that started in the 1940s and continued in the 1950s focused on the organization and delivery of nursing services. Studies were conducted on the numbers and kinds of nursing personnel, staffing patterns, patient classification systems, patient and nurse satisfaction, and unit arrangement. Types of care such as comprehensive care, home care, and progressive patient care were evaluated. In the 1970s, the nursing process became the focus of many studies, with the investigations of assessment techniques, nursing diagnoses classification, goal-setting methods, and specific nursing interventions. Primary nursing care, which involves the delivery of patient care predominantly by registered nurses (RNs), was the trend for the 1970s. The vision for nursing research in the twenty-first century includes conducting quality studies using a variety of methodologies, synthesizing the study findings into the best research evidence, and using this research evidence to guide practice. The focus on EBP has become stronger over the last decade.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Synthesis             REF:   Page 19

 

  1. Which of the following is true of the Cochrane Center and Cochrane Collaboration, begun in the 1970s by Professor Archie Cochrane? (Select all that apply.)
a. It was originally called the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research.
b. It developed the original master’s degrees in nursing practice.
c. It serves as a repository for evidence-based practice guidelines.
d. It was the first association to publish a nursing research journal.
e. It is the online library resource for research literature reviews.

 

 

ANS:  C, E

Cochrane advocated the provision of health care based on research to improve the quality of care and patient outcomes. To facilitate the use of research evidence in practice, the Cochrane Center was established in 1992 and the Cochrane Collaboration in 1993. The Cochrane Collaboration and Library house numerous resources to promote EBP, such as systematic reviews of research and evidence-based guidelines for practice.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Evaluation           REF:   Page 20

 

  1. How does quantitative research contribute to evidence-based practice? (Select all that apply.)
a. It provides facts that nurses can add to their knowledge base. This makes practice more objective and quantifiable.
b. It provides scientific support for policies already in place. More evidence makes an existent policy more defensible.
c. It provides evidence opposing policies already in place. Evidence in opposition to policies may result in new policies.
d. It allows the nurse to understand the personal experience of illness and the meaning the client attaches to it. This engenders compassion.
e. It contributes evidence that will make nursing practice almost completely evidence-based, eliminating different styles of nursing practice.

 

 

ANS:  B, C

Quantitative research is a formal, objective, systematic process in which numerical data are used to obtain information about the world. This research method is used to describe variables, examine relationships among variables, and determine cause-and-effect interactions between variables. The qualitative research method of phenomenology allows understanding of the lived experience and the meaning it engenders. The aim of phenomenology is to explore an experience as it is lived by the study participants and interpreted by the researcher. Evidence-based practice is the conscientious integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values and needs in the delivery of quality, cost-effective health care. It provides the basis for policy decisions and for voluntary change in individual nursing practice. Nursing style is a matter of personal choice.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 23

 

  1. What does appropriate generalization require? (Select all that apply.)
a. Any type of sample, whether or not it is representative
b. Application of findings to the population from which the sample was drawn
c. More than one research study using the same research questions and variables
d. Statistically significant findings
e. Non-significant findings that are supported by several related studies

 

 

ANS:  B, C, D

Generalization involves the application of trends or general tendencies (which are identified by studying a sample) to the population from which the research sample was drawn. Researchers must be cautious in making generalizations, because a sound generalization requires the support of many studies with a variety of samples.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 23

 

  1. What best characterizes the contribution of qualitative nursing research to evidence-based practice? (Select all that apply.)
a. It presents collective common evidence of health care clients’ experiences, which may provide inspirations for individual practice.
b. It provides stories of how health care clients feel. This lets nurses know what people in similar circumstances can be expected to experience.
c. It provides evidence that determines how nurses should interact with various cultures. This mandates action.
d. It generates and tests theory.
e. It reveals participants’ experiences and individual viewpoints, feelings, and interpretations. These can provide guidelines for client-centered care.

 

 

ANS:  A, E

Qualitative research is a systematic, interactive, subjective approach used to describe life experiences from the research participants’ point of view. This type of research is conducted to explore, describe, and promote understanding of human experiences, events, and cultures over time. It is holistic and describes the human in context.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 23

 

Chapter 10: Understanding Quantitative Research Design

Test Bank

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. What is the best research approach for investigating the actual representation of Hispanic managers within health care institutions, and the workplace beliefs and prejudices that perpetuate their disproportionate representation?
a. Triangulated approach
b. Quantitative approach
c. Qualitative approach
d. Outcomes approach

 

 

ANS:  A

Triangulation is the combined use of two or more theories, methods, data sources, investigators, or analysis methods in the study of the same phenomenon. Five types of triangulation are proposed: (1) data triangulation, (2) investigator triangulation, (3) theoretical triangulation, (4) methodological triangulation, and (5) analysis triangulation. Multiple triangulation is the combination of more than one of these types. In the example, methodological triangulation should be used in the study of the research problem. Triangulation is used to ensure that the most comprehensive approach is taken to solve a research problem.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   Page 208

 

  1. What is the principal disadvantage of triangulated research?
a. Its results are difficult to understand.
b. Because of its complexity, researchers from different research traditions may collaborate to produce a triangulated study.
c. The time required to complete a triangulated project is approximately double that of completing one that utilizes only one method.
d. Publication opportunities are limited.

 

 

ANS:  C

Triangulation is the combined use of two or more theories, methods, data sources, investigators, or analysis methods in the study of the same phenomenon. There is concern that triangulation will be used in studies for which it is not appropriate. An additional concern is that the popularization of the method will generate a number of triangulated studies that have been poorly conducted. With methodological triangulation, both data collection and data analysis are more time-consuming, because essentially two closely related studies are conducted simultaneously or in close succession. These strategies require many observations and result in large volumes of data for analysis. The results are no more difficult to understand than are the results of any study. Most doctorally prepared researchers have both quantitative and qualitative preparation; however, because researchers tend to acquire their research training within a particular research tradition, attempts to incorporate another research tradition may be poorly achieved. Publication opportunities are increased with triangulated research, since quantitative and qualitative portions of the study are often published separately.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Synthesis             REF:   Page 208

 

  1. Causality is tested through which of the following?
a. Grounded theory
b. Experimentation
c. All quantitative research
d. Triangulated studies

 

 

ANS:  B

The first assumptions one must make in examining causality are that things have causes and that causes lead to effects. The original criteria for causation required that a variable should cause an identified effect each time the cause occurred. Probability addresses relative, rather than absolute, causality. From a perspective of probability, a cause will not produce a specific effect each time that particular cause occurs. The reasoning behind probability is more in keeping with the complexity of multicausality. The purpose of an experimental design is to examine cause and effect. The independent variable in a study is expected to be the cause, and the dependent variable is expected to reflect the effect of the independent variable.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   Page 195

 

  1. Why is selection of an appropriate design for a research study important?
a. If the design is an incorrect one, the researcher will examine variables and their interactions in a way that does not answer the research question.
b. The design provides a blueprint or diagram that appears in the concept map.
c. If there is no design, critique is impossible.
d. If the design is appropriate, the researcher can eliminate error.

 

 

ANS:  A

A research design is the blueprint for conducting a study. It maximizes control over factors that could interfere with the validity of the study findings. Being able to identify the study design and to evaluate design flaws that might threaten the validity of findings is an important part of critically appraising studies. When conducting a study, the research design guides the researcher in planning and implementing a study in a way to achieve accurate results. The control achieved through the quantitative study design increases the probability that the study findings are an accurate reflection of reality.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 195

 

  1. Thirty patients with psoriasis are treated with ultraviolet light B phototherapy, delivered by a therapist. Their symptoms become worse at first, and then improve. During the summer their symptoms become better without treatment. Then fall arrives, and symptoms worsen. Patients go back to UVL B, and they improve. Why, according to Hume, can the relationship between UVL B phototherapy and symptom severity not be considered a classically causal one?
a. Ultraviolet light B phototherapy wasn’t invented during Hume’s lifetime.
b. There must be a strong relationship between the proposed cause and the effect.
c. The cause (phototherapy) has to be present whenever the effect occurs.
d. The cause must precede the effect in time.

 

 

ANS:  C

Some of the ideas related to causation emerged from the logical positivist philosophical tradition. Hume, a positivist, proposed that the following three conditions must be met to establish causality: (1) there must be a strong relationship between the proposed cause and the effect, (2) the proposed cause must precede the effect in time, and (3) the cause has to be present whenever the effect occurs. Cause, according to Hume, is not directly observable but must be inferred.

 

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  1. John Stuart Mill’s insistence that in order for causation to be demonstrated, there must be no alternative explanation for why a change in one variable leads to a change in the other variable. This concept of alternative explanations is the idea that underlies which type of validity?
a. Statistical conclusion validity
b. Internal validity
c. Construct validity
d. External validity

 

 

ANS:  D

External validity is concerned with the extent to which study findings can be generalized beyond the sample used in the study. Statistical conclusion validity is concerned with whether the conclusions about relationships or differences drawn from statistical analysis are an accurate reflection of the real world: did the researcher use the right statistical tests in the proper way? Internal validity is the extent to which the effects detected in the study are a true reflection of reality rather than the result of extraneous variables: did the change in one variable really account for the change in the other variable? Construct validity examines the fit between the conceptual definitions and operational definitions of variables: are the study ideas measured in a way that makes sense?

 

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  1. John Stuart Mill and the essentialists insisted that a cause be necessary and sufficient for an effect to occur. In a modern study alcohol dependency is found to lead eventually to permanent liver damage, except when the alcoholic consumes a diet plentiful in the B-vitamins. In addition, liver damage can emerge in the absence of alcohol dependency. What would John Stuart Mill and essentialists say about the causative relationship between alcohol dependency and liver damage?
a. The proposed cause is necessary, but not sufficient.
b. The proposed cause is neither necessary nor sufficient.
c. The proposed cause is sufficient, but not necessary.
d. The proposed cause is both necessary and sufficient.

 

 

ANS:  B

A philosophical group known as essentialists proposed that two concepts must be considered in determining causality: necessary and sufficient. The proposed cause must be necessary for the effect to occur. (The effect cannot occur unless the cause first occurs.) The proposed cause must also be sufficient (requiring no other factors) for the effect to occur. This leaves no room for a variable that may sometimes, but not always, serves as the cause of an effect.

 

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  1. Random selection of 300 subjects yields a sample, but demographic analysis of that sample reveals that there are 99 teachers in the sample, despite the fact that there are far fewer than 33% teachers in the total sample. The sample can be said to be
a. Biased
b. Controlled
c. Multicausal
d. Based on probability

 

 

ANS:  A

The term bias means to slant away from the true or expected. A biased sample’s composition differs from that of the population from which the sample was drawn. Bias is of great concern in research because of the potential effect on the meaning of the study findings. Multicausality refers to a scenario in which interrelating variables cause a particular effect Control means having the power to direct or manipulate factors to achieve a desired outcome. Error is often discussed in relation to the researchers ability to make accurate conclusions. Probability addresses relative, rather than absolute, causality. From the perspective of probability, a cause will not produce a specific effect each time that particular cause occurs.

 

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  1. The researcher divides his lab rats into two groups and administers IV methamphetamine to one of the groups, in order to determine its effect on the fear-flight response. This is an example of which of the following?
a. Bias
b. Control
c. Correlation
d. Multicausality

 

 

ANS:  B

Control means having the power to direct or manipulate factors to achieve a desired outcome. The idea of control is very important to research, particularly to experimental and quasi-experimental studies. The greater the amount of control the researcher has of the study situation, the more credible the study findings. The purpose of the research design is to maximize control factors in the study situation. The term bias means to slant away from the true or expected. A biased opinion has failed to include both sides of the question. Correlational research examines linear relationships between two or more variables and determines the type (positive or negative) and degree (strength) of the relationship, not cause.

 

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  1. A researcher is comparing a new and less expensive treatment with an established treatment, in hopes of showing that there is no difference in outcome. The researcher does not perform a power analysis and, consequently, selects a sample size that is smaller than what would be recommended for an analysis of variance. The results show that there is no significant difference in outcome between the two treatments. Which type of validity is affected by this?
a. Statistical conclusion validity
b. Internal validity
c. Construct validity
d. External validity

 

 

ANS:  A

Statistical conclusion validity is concerned with whether the conclusions about relationships or differences drawn from statistical analysis are an accurate reflection of the real world: did the researcher use the right statistical tests in the proper way? Internal validity is the extent to which the effects detected in the study are a true reflection of reality rather than the result of extraneous variables: did the change in one variable really account for the change in the other variable? Construct validity examines the fit between the conceptual definitions and operational definitions of variables: are the study ideas measured in a way that makes sense? External validity is concerned with the extent to which study findings can be generalized beyond the sample used in the study.

 

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  1. A researcher is comparing a new and less expensive treatment with an established treatment, in hopes of showing that there is no difference in outcome. The researcher does not perform a power analysis and, consequently, selects a sample size that is smaller than what would be recommended for an analysis of variance. The results show that there is a significant difference in outcome between the two treatments, and that the new treatment has poorer outcomes. What is the negative result of the researcher’s decision to use a smaller sample?
a. The statistical conclusions reached are incorrect.
b. There is no negative result.
c. The study will have to be replicated, because its sample was small.
d. The researcher is guilty of misconduct.

 

 

ANS:  B

Statistical conclusion validity is concerned with whether the conclusions about relationships or differences drawn from statistical analysis are an accurate reflection of the real world: did the researcher use the right statistical tests in the proper way? The test was used in the proper way, and the results established a difference in outcomes between the established treatment and the new one, meaning that the difference in outcomes must have been quite pronounced for this to be evident with a small sample. The results dramatically underscore this.

 

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  1. A researcher tests a new intervention for nausea associated with chemotherapy, in hospitalized patients. At the same time a new over-the-counter medication containing natural herbs is marketed aggressively, and some of the hospital patients are given this herbal remedy by their families. This is a threat to which type of validity?
a. Statistical conclusion validity
b. Internal validity
c. Construct validity
d. External validity

 

 

ANS:  B

Construct validity examines the fit between the conceptual definitions and operational definitions of variables: are the study ideas measured in a way that makes sense? Statistical conclusion validity is concerned with whether the conclusions about relationships or differences drawn from statistical analysis are an accurate reflection of the real world: did the researcher use the right statistical tests in the proper way? Internal validity is the extent to which the effects detected in the study are a true reflection of reality rather than the result of extraneous variables: did the change in one variable really account for the change in the other variable? External validity is concerned with the extent to which study findings can be generalized beyond the sample used in the study.

 

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  1. A researcher tests a new intervention for nausea associated with chemotherapy, in hospitalized patients. He does not want to suggest nausea to the patients, so as his dependent variable, he uses the answer the patients give to the question, “How are you feeling this morning?” This is a threat to which type of validity?
a. Statistical conclusion validity
b. Internal validity
c. Construct validity
d. External validity

 

 

ANS:  C

Construct validity examines the fit between the conceptual definitions and operational definitions of variables: are the study ideas measured in a way that makes sense? It makes little sense to measure nausea by asking a social question. Statistical conclusion validity is concerned with whether the conclusions about relationships or differences drawn from statistical analysis are an accurate reflection of the real world: did the researcher use the right statistical tests in the proper way? Internal validity is the extent to which the effects detected in the study are a true reflection of reality rather than the result of extraneous variables: did the change in one variable really account for the change in the other variable? External validity is concerned with the extent to which study findings can be generalized beyond the sample used in the study.

 

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  1. A researcher conducts research and uses a small sample that is not randomly selected. When he replicates the study, twice, he again uses the same site and another small sample that is not randomly selected. This is a threat to which type of validity?
a. Statistical conclusion validity
b. Internal validity
c. Construct validity
d. External validity

 

 

ANS:  D

Construct validity examines the fit between the conceptual definitions and operational definitions of variables: are the study ideas measured in a way that makes sense? Statistical conclusion validity is concerned with whether the conclusions about relationships or differences drawn from statistical analysis are an accurate reflection of the real world: did the researcher use the right statistical tests in the proper way? Internal validity is the extent to which the effects detected in the study are a true reflection of reality rather than the result of extraneous variables: did the change in one variable really account for the change in the other variable? External validity is concerned with the extent to which study findings can be generalized beyond the sample used in the study.

 

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  1. If a researcher plans to study graduate-level achievement in all students who were educated under the Vermont public school system, in a small town that used both state-mandated texts and enrichment texts of the school board’s choosing, the researcher would be using a fairly small sample, bound by geography and time. Which type of validity is decreased by a study like this one?
a. Construct validity
b. Statistical conclusion validity
c. External validity
d. Internal validity

 

 

ANS:  C

External validity is concerned with the extent to which study findings can be generalized beyond the sample used in the study. If the sample IS the historical population, the findings can be generalized only to predict accomplishment in subsequent cohorts. Statistical conclusion validity is concerned with whether the conclusions about relationships or differences drawn from statistical analysis are an accurate reflection of the real world: did the researcher use the right statistical tests in the proper way? Internal validity is the extent to which the effects detected in the study are a true reflection of reality rather than the result of extraneous variables: did the change in one variable really account for the change in the other variable? Construct validity examines the fit between the conceptual definitions and operational definitions of variables: are the study ideas measured in a way that makes sense?

 

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  1. What is the essential difference between a control group and a comparison group?
a. A control group’s data is collected at the same time as the experimental group’s data. A comparison group’s data is collected before that of the experimental group.
b. A control group is larger in size than a comparison group.
c. A control group exists only is a basic lab situation. All nursing studies use comparison groups.
d. A control group is randomly assigned. A comparison group is not.

 

 

ANS:  D

If the study involves an experimental treatment, the design usually calls for a comparison. Outcome measures for individuals who receive the experimental treatment are compared with outcome measures for those who do not receive the experimental treatment. This comparison requires a control group—subjects who do not receive the experimental treatment. However, in nursing studies, all patients require care, and those who do not receive the study intervention receive standard care. Nurse researchers often refer to the group receiving standard care, but no treatment, as the comparison group rather than the control group. Essentially, the main difference between these terms is that control groups are nearly identical to their experimental groups, except for assignment. Comparison groups differ, because of the time at which data are collected, the way they are constituted, or other circumstances that make them less likely to be nearly identical, leading to a higher occurrence of threats to internal validity.

 

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  1. A school nurse researcher studying bullying discovers that the type of victimization she is observing is different for different racial groups and genders within her school district. She wants to study the effect of peer support on bullying and chooses to make sure that the experimental and control groups, although randomly assigned, contain equal percentages of children of all races. What does this strategy exemplify?
a. Carryover
b. Blocking
c. Counterbalancing
d. Sequencing

 

 

ANS:  B

In blocking, the researcher includes subjects with various levels of an extraneous variable in the sample but controls the numbers of subjects at each level of the variable and their random assignment to groups within the study. Designs using blocking are referred to as randomized block designs. The extraneous variable is then used as an independent variable in the data analysis. Therefore, the extraneous variable must be included in the framework and the study hypotheses.

 

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  1. A researcher uses matching to constitute his control group, while performing a study on psychotherapy as an adjunct treatment for substance addiction. What type of validity might be enhanced by matching, in this instance?
a. Construct validity
b. Statistical conclusion validity
c. External validity
d. Internal validity

 

 

ANS:  D

Matching is used when a subject in the experimental group is randomly selected and then a subject similar in relation to important extraneous variables is randomly selected for the control group. For example, subjects in the experimental and control groups might be matched for age, gender, severity of illness, or number of chronic illnesses. Statistical conclusion validity is concerned with whether the conclusions about relationships or differences drawn from statistical analysis are an accurate reflection of the real world: it is not affected by use of matching. Internal validity is the extent to which the effects detected in the study are a true reflection of reality rather than the result of extraneous variables: matching can increase internal validity if the researcher can correctly identify the principal extraneous variables. Construct validity examines the fit between the conceptual definitions and operational definitions of variables: matching has no effect on this. External validity is concerned with the extent to which study findings can be generalized beyond the sample used in the study; matching does not affect external validity, to any extent.

 

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  1. Immediately after the intervention in an experimental study of the negative effects of smoking tobacco, the state tax on cigarettes increases the cost from $4 to $8 per pack. Which threat to internal validity does this pose?
a. Mortality
b. History
c. Testing
d. Selection

 

 

ANS:  B

History is an event that is not related to the planned study but that occurs during the time of the study. History could influence a subject’s response to the treatment and alter the outcome of the study. The attrition threat is due to subjects who drop out of a study before completion. The circumstances in which a study is conducted (history) influence the treatment and thus the generalizability of the findings. Sometimes, the effect being measured (testing) can be due to the number of times the subject’s responses have been tested. The subject may remember earlier, inaccurate responses and modify them, thus altering the outcome of teh study.

 

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  1. Subjects in a multiple group experimental study are tested for how much time it takes them to navigate a maze and find the chocolate. The maze is reconstructed after each run, and three different floor plans are used. Each group is tested eight times in eight hours. at a different time of day. The runs later in the day have faster times than the earlier ones. Which threat to internal validity might account for this difference?
a. Instrumentation
b. Selection
c. Maturation
d. Statistical regression toward the mean

 

 

ANS:  C

Effects can be due to changes in measurement instruments (instrumentation) between the pretest and the posttest rather than a result of the treatment. Selection addresses the process by which subjects are chosen to take part in a study and how subjects are grouped within a study. Maturation is defined as growing older, wiser, stronger, hungrier, more tired, or more experienced during the study. The subkects in this study may have been through the three different floor plans enough times to learn them. Such unplanned changes can influence the findings of the study. Experimenter expectancy occurs when a researcher expects a particular intervention to relieve pain.

 

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  1. A researcher believes that therapy is more effective if patients exercise. He tells his patients that he has arranged for them to use the hospital gym, if they so desire—and that if they are interested, they will then be in the experimental group. This represents which threat to internal validity?
a. Maturation
b. Reliability of the implementation
c. History
d. Selection

 

 

ANS:  D

Selection addresses the process by which subjects are chosen to take part in a study and how subjects are grouped within a study. A selection threat is more likely to occur in studies in which random assignment is not possible. In some studies, people selected for the study may differ in some important way from people not selected for the study. In other studies, the threat is due to differences in subjects selected for study groups. In this study, subjects choose to be in the experimental group because they were willing to exercise; in this way, they differ from the rest of the group—possibly they are less depressed—and this could introduce bias into the study.

 

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  1. What is the antidote to the carryover effect?
a. Random assignment
b. Counterbalancing
c. Sequencing
d. Bias control

 

 

ANS:  B

Sometimes the application of one treatment can influence the response to later treatments, a phenomenon referred to as a carryover effect. If a carryover effect is known to occur, it is not advisable for a researcher to use this design strategy for the study. However, even when no carryover effect is known, the researcher may take precautions against the possibility that this effect will influence outcomes. In one such precaution, known as counterbalancing, the various treatments are administered in random order rather than being provided consistently in the same sequence.

 

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  1. What is the best research approach for investigating the actual representation of male labor-delivery nurses within healthcare institutions and the workplace beliefs and prejudices that perpetuate their disproportionate representation?
a. Mixed methods approach
b. Quantitative approach
c. Qualitative approach
d. Outcomes approach

 

 

ANS:  A

Mixed methods research is characterized as research that contains elements of both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The philosophical underpinnings of mixed methods research and what paradigms best fit these research methods are still evolving. Over the last few years, many researchers have departed from the idea that one paradigm or one research strategy is right and have taken the perspective that the search for the truth requires the use of all available strategies. A single approach to measuring a concept may be inadequate to justify a claim that it is a valid measure of a theoretical concept. Testing a single theory may leave the results open to the challenge of rival hypotheses from other theories. To capitalize on the representativeness and generalizability of quantitative research and the in-depth, contextual nature of qualitative research, mixed methods are combined in a single research study.

 

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  1. As Denzin claimed, there is an advantage to performing mixed methods or triangulated research. In a study of pain and fatigue control after hip replacement, what would the primary advantage be of conducting both a quantitative descriptive portion and a grounded theory portion?
a. The results would be more difficult to understand, but more scholarly.
b. It would force a multiple-authorship arrangement, assisting each scholar.
c. Bias would decrease.
d. The time required to complete the study would be approximately double that of completing one that utilized only one method.

 

 

ANS:  C

Denzin (1989) believed that combining multiple theories, methods, observers, and data sources can assist researchers in overcoming the intrinsic bias that comes from single-theory, single-methods, and single-observer studies. Triangulation evolved to include using multiple data collection and analysis methods, multiple data sources, multiple analysts, and multiple theories or perspectives. The concept of triangulation is now commonly replaced with the idea of mixed methods approaches

 

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  1. A researcher tests the effect of a new laparoscopic treatment for chronic shoulder dislocation. The results are statistically significant, and the researcher states in his findings that there is evidence that the treatment has promise for widespread application. A subsequent replication study fails to show statistical significance. A third study produces the same effects as the second. What is the most likely explanation here?
a. Type I error occurred in the first study.
b. Type II error occurred in the second and third studies.
c. Random error produced insufficient power.
d. Bias was introduced by replicating the study.

 

 

ANS:  A

A serious concern in research is incorrectly concluding that a relationship or difference exists when it does not (type I error, rejecting a true null). If only one of three studies supported the new treatment, it is most likely that a type I error occurred in the first study. Low statistical power increases the probability of concluding that there is no significant difference between samples when actually there is a difference (Type II error, failing to reject a false null). A type II error is most likely to occur when the sample size is small ro when the power of the statistical test to determine differences is low. Random error has no effect on power. Replication of research identifies areas of bias; it does not introduce bias.

 

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MULTIPLE RESPONSE

 

  1. Threats to statistical conclusion validity include which of the following? (Select all that apply.)
a. Fishing
b. Low statistical power
c. Maturation
d. Violated assumptions of statistical tests
e. History threat

 

 

ANS:  A, B, D

Statistical conclusion validity is concerned with whether the conclusions about relationships or differences drawn from statistical analysis are an accurate reflection of the real world. Low statistical power increases the probability of concluding that there is no significant difference between samples when actually there is a difference (type II error, failing to reject a false null) (see Chapter 8 for discussion of the null hypothesis). Most statistical tests have assumptions about the data collected, which include the following: (1) the data are at least at the interval level, (2) the sample was randomly obtained, and (3) the distribution of scores was normal. If these assumptions are violated, the statistical analysis may provide inaccurate results. The risk of type I error increases when the researcher conducts multiple statistical analyses of relationships or differences; this procedure is referred to as fishing.

 

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  1. Causality is tested through which of the following? (Select all that apply.)
a. Grounded theory research
b. Experimental research
c. All quantitative research
d. Mixed methods research
e. Quasi-experimental research

 

 

ANS:  B, E

The first assumption you must make in examining causality is that causes lead to effects. The only two of the primary quantitative methods that routinely examine classic causality are experimental and quasi-experimental research.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension|Cognitive Level: Application

REF:   Page 195

 

  1. Quantitative experimental researchers often “brainstorm” after each study, discussing the findings with colleagues, in order to interpret them and create new theories and strategies for testing them. Then they proceed to the next study. This is similar to a sine wave—first quantitative, then qualitative, and then quantitative, and so on. This represents an informal and ongoing combination of what research strategies? (Select all that apply.)
a. Mixed methods
b. Sequential explanatory
c. Blocking
d. Multicausality
e. Content analysis
f. Sequential exploratory
g. Sequential transformative

 

 

ANS:  B, F, G

With the sequential explanatory strategy the researcher collects and analyzes quantitative data followed by the collection and analysis of qualitative data. Integration of the data occurs during the interpretation phase. The purpose of this approach is to assist in explaining and interpreting quantitative data. It is useful when unexpected quantitative results are revealed. Qualitative examination of the phenomenon facilitates a fuller understanding and is well suited to explaining and interpreting relationships. There may or may not be a theoretical perspective to the study. This approach is easy to implement, because the steps fall in sequential stages, but the two-stage approach extends the length of time involved in data collection and is seen as a weakness of the design.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension|Cognitive Level: Application

REF:   Page 209

 

  1. Which of the following statements would lend support to the hypothesis that increasing scientific knowledge allows humans to grasp multicausality, when single causation was previously assumed to be the case in the time of the essentialists? (Select all that apply.)
a. Adolescents and young adults with entitlement issues may have been raised with deprivation, not indulgence.
b. Scientific knowledge is increasing, as the gene is mapped.
c. The weather cannot be controlled, but it can be affected by geologic events such as volcanic eruption.
d. Gender of the fetus, although determined by the father, may be more likely to be either male or female, depending on the timing of sexual relations.
e. Genetic migrations can be tracked fairly effectively, by calculating the relative frequency of various Landsteiner blood types in different countries.

 

 

ANS:  A, C, E

A philosophical group known as essentialists proposed that two concepts must be considered in determining causality: necessary and sufficient. The proposed cause must be necessary for the effect to occur. (The effect cannot occur unless the cause first occurs.) The proposed cause must also be sufficient (requiring no other factors) for the effect to occur. This leaves no room for a variable that may sometimes, but not always, serves as the cause of an effect. “Spare the rod and spoil the child.” “Everybody talks about the weather, but nobody does anything about it.” “The father effectively “decides” the gender of the child by passing on either an X or a Y to the offspring.”

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   Page 209

 

  1. In which instances could bias in measuring embarrassment be decreased? (Select all that apply.)
a. Use more than only one way of collecting the data (such as a verbal response + an external rater).
b. Use more than only one question to elicit the response (such as Yes–No + how much).
c. Use more than only one modality of measurement (such as Yes–No + a physiologic instrument).
d. Hypnotize subjects, so that they give absolutely honest answers.
e. Replicate the study.

 

 

ANS:  A, B, C

Mono-operation bias occurs when only one method of measurement is used to assess a construct. When only one method of measurement is used, fewer dimensions of the construct are measured. Construct validity greatly improves if the researcher uses more than one instrument. It is often possible to apply more than one measurement of the dependent variable with little increase in time, effort, or cost. In monomethod bias, the researcher uses more than one measure of a variable, but all the measures use the same method of recording.

 

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  1. A researcher wants to make sure that his experimental group and his control group are equivalent, so he uses random sampling followed by random assignment to group. What else must the researcher do to assure the consumers of his research that the groups were equivalent? (Select all that apply.)
a. Report the sameness or difference of potentially extraneous variables, using post hoc statistical testing.
b. Eliminate all other extraneous variables from the analysis.
c. Rebalance the samples, controlling for all potentially extraneous variables, by moving subjects back and forth until both groups have the same distribution of all variables.
d. Randomly assign the sample again, hoping for a better outcome the second time.
e. Report the sameness or difference of subgroups possessing unequal proportions of any potentially extraneous variable, with respect to the dependent variable.

 

 

ANS:  A, E

The most effective strategy for achieving equivalence is random sampling followed by random assignment to groups. However, this strategy does not guarantee equivalence. Even when randomization has been used, the researcher must examine the extent of equivalence by measuring and comparing characteristics for which the groups must be equivalent. This comparison is usually reported in the description of the sample.

 

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  1. A researcher plans to study graduate-level achievement in all students who were educated under the Vermont public school system, in a small town that used both state-mandated texts and enrichment texts of the school board’s choosing. Considering the limitations to generalizability, how can the researcher justify conducting the study to the institutional review board? (Select all that apply.)
a. The researcher does not have to justify conducting the study. It has not been performed before, and so there is a gap in the literature.
b. The researcher could argue that if graduate-level achievement is markedly lower in this group, the results could cautiously suggest revision of the town’s educational practices.
c. The researcher could write a proposal to study all towns in Vermont, so as to have been generalizability, and then study only this one.
d. The researcher could justify conducting the study on the basis that it might enlighten the public school system in its decisions to mandate chosen texts.
e. The researcher could reason that if graduate-level achievement is markedly higher in this group, the results could cautiously suggest a similar educational approach for other similar communities.

 

 

ANS:  B, D, E

External validity is concerned with the extent to which study findings can be generalized beyond the sample used in the study. With the most serious threat, the findings would be meaningful only for the group being studied. To some extent, the significance of the study depends on the number of types of people and situations to which the findings can be applied. Sometimes, the factors influencing external validity are subtle and may not be reported in research reports; however, the researcher must be responsible for these factors. Generalization is usually narrower for a single study than for multiple replications of a study using different samples, perhaps from different populations in different settings.

 

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  1. Why does subject attrition affect internal validity?
a. A study in which the majority of the subjects die calls into question whether the treatment itself is safe.
b. Subjects who drop out may differ from those who stay in the study, in terms of an important extraneous variable.
c. If subjects drop out of the control group, and not the experimental group, it strongly implies that there is some benefit to participation of which the researchers may not be aware.
d. Subject mortality may result in a sample that is so much smaller than anticipated that type II error may result.
e. Type I error is almost guaranteed with very unequal sample sizes.

 

 

ANS:  B, C

The subject attrition threat is due to subjects who drop out of a study before completion. Participants’ attrition becomes a threat when (1) those who drop out of a study are a different type of person from those who remain in the study or (2) there is a difference between the kinds of people who drop out of the experimental group and the people who drop out of the control or comparison group

 

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  1. Aside from random assignment using a large sample, what are ways to structure a design that control for known extraneous variables? (Select all that apply.)
a. Matching
b. Selection of a heterogeneous sample
c. Selecting a homogeneous sample
d. Blocking
e. Stratification

 

 

ANS:  A, C, D, E

Homogeneity is a more extreme form of equivalence in which the researcher limits the subjects to only one level of an extraneous variable to reduce its impact on the study findings. To use this strategy, you must have previously identified the extraneous variables. Matching is used when a subject in the experimental group is randomly selected and then a subject similar in relation to important extraneous variables is randomly selected for the control group. Heterogeneity is designed to increase generalizability of the study findings, not to control for extraneous variables. In blocking, the researcher includes subjects with various levels of an extraneous variable in the sample but controls the numbers of subjects at each level of the variable and their random assignment to groups within the study. Stratification involves the distribution of subjects throughout the sample, using sampling techniques similar to those used in blocking, but the purpose of the procedure is even distribution throughout the sample. The extraneous variable is not included in the data analysis. Distribution of the extraneous variable is included in the description of the sample.

 

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  1. What is the most effective way to minimize the effect of all extraneous variables between the experimental group and the control group? (Select all that apply.)
a. Match the groups by hand.
b. Randomly assign subjects to group.
c. Use a large sample.
d. Place subjects into groups according to the extraneous variables they possess.
e. Allow subjects to choose the groups to which they want to belong.

 

 

ANS:  B, C

Design strategies used to control extraneous variables include random sampling, random assignment to groups, selecting subjects that are homogeneous in terms of a particular extraneous variable, selecting a heterogeneous sample, blocking, stratification, matching subjects between groups in relation to a particular variable, and statistical control. Random sampling increases the probability that subjects with various levels of an extraneous variable are included and are randomly dispersed throughout the groups within the study (Thompson, 2002). This strategy is particularly important for controlling unidentified extraneous variables.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   Page 204

 

Chapter 20: Collecting and Managing Data

Test Bank

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Planning as a step in the quantitative research process ends when the data collection has begun. Which is the true statement about planning in the qualitative research process?
a. Since sample size is not usually decided upon ahead of time, there is no practical reward to planning the qualitative research study ahead of time.
b. There is no planning in the qualitative research process; it all emanates from the data collected.
c. Everything about a qualitative study is planned ahead of time, except for analysis of the data.
d. The researcher may adapt strategies for data collection or analysis well into the study.

 

 

ANS:  D

A data collection plan details how the researcher will implement the study. The plan for collecting data is specific to the study being conducted and requires that the researcher consider some of the more common elements of research, mapping out procedures ahead of time. This extensive planning increases the accuracy of the data collected and the validity of the study findings. In qualitative methods, however, the researcher may adapt the data collection or analysis strategies during the study.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 517

 

  1. What is the general rule about collecting demographic data during an interview?
a. The mood of the qualitative interview, so crucial to quality data capture, may be intruded upon by demographic data collection.
b. In quantitative interviews, everything excerpted from medical records must again be verified in face interviews.
c. In qualitative interviews, routinely asking twenty or thirty demographic questions sets the stage for actual data collection.
d. If data can be obtained in other ways, leave the valuable interview time for actual interviewing.

 

 

ANS:  D

The researcher should consider the importance of each piece of datum and the subject’s time required to collect it. If the data can be obtained from patient records or any other written sources, the researcher does not need to ask the subject to provide this information. To collect data from a patient’s records, the researcher must make sure to include the intent to do so in the consent form and ensure that the institutional review board has authorized the team to do this. The qualitative researcher has the power to shape the interview agenda. Participants have the power to choose the level of responses they will provide. The researcher might begin the interview by asking a broad question such as “Describe for me your experience with…” or “Tell me about….” Ideally, the participant will respond as though she or he is telling a story. The researcher responds nonverbally with a nod or eye contact to convey interest in what is being said, and tries to avoid agreeing or disagreeing with what the participant is saying. The less the researcher says, the better.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   Page 517

 

  1. A researcher is collecting data in a hospital during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The researcher has devised a data collection form that contains five columns for data entry. During the first three data collection periods, the form works reasonably well, although the researcher has to turn the page over and write on the back. During the fourth, however, the CPR incident occurs in the emergency department and includes many procedures and interventions, and the researcher ends up taking a blank piece of paper and recording data on that. Later, it takes him 40 minutes to unscramble and collate the data and record it properly. What must be done now?
a. The researcher will go back to the institutional review board and request permission to use a different form.
b. The researcher will design a new form, with the assumption that the next CPR incident will be just as complex as the last was.
c. The researcher will continue to use the old form, writing on the back when necessary, and pulling out blank pieces of paper, from time to time, for additional data recording.
d. The researcher will decrease the amount of data necessary to record by revising the old study protocol, so that fewer research questions are asked.

 

 

ANS:  B

Before data collection begins, the researcher develops or adapts forms on which to record data. These forms can be used to record demographic data, information from the patient record, observations, or values from physiological measures. The researcher also might need to collect other data that may be extraneous or confounding variables such as the subject’s physician, stage of illness, length of illness or hospitalization, complications, date of data collection, time of day and day of week of data collection, and any untoward events that occur during the data collection period. Data collection forms must be designed so that the data are easily recorded. If a form isn’t working, design a better form. Data collection forms themselves do not need institutional review board (IRB) approval—the information to be collected is what the IRB approves.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   Page 517

 

  1. The quantitative researcher collects many pieces of quantitative data as words, not numbers. Prior to statistical analysis, all of the data pieces must be coded. What does this mean?
a. The data are transformed into numerals corresponding to words, such as 0—no college degree, 1—bachelor’s degree, 2—master’s degree, 3—PhD or EdD.
b. The essence of each word is noted; later, these essences emerge as themes.
c. The data are typed into a computer, and the computer is instructed to transform the words into binary values, using only 0 and 1, by adding up the numbers of each letter in the alphabet.
d. The data regarding protected data are transformed to code names; a list is made and kept in a secure location.

 

 

ANS:  A

Coding is the process of transforming language data into numerical symbols that can be entered easily into the computer. For example, variables such as race, gender, ethnicity, and diagnoses can be categorized and given numerical labels. For gender, the male category could be identified by a “1” and the female category by a “2.” The coding categories developed for the research must be both mutually exclusive and mutually exhaustive so, with respect to the latter, inclusion of “3”—decline to state and “4”—none of the above might be useful.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   Page 517

 

  1. A nurse is conducting her master’s thesis research in the unit in which she works as a staff nurse. The focus of her thesis is burned children’s pain, with versus without a child life specialist assisting the child. She is providing child life specialist presence every other day at the mid-morning dressing change. For obvious reasons, she wants to keep everything else consistent for the four contiguous days of data collection. On the second day of four, with the child life specialist present, one child demonstrates poor pain control. The nurse researcher would ordinarily advocate for more pain medication for this child, but if she does, she will not be able to compare the data with that of the previous day. This is an example of which of the following?
a. Serendipity
b. Subject as object
c. Role conflict
d. Passive resistance

 

 

ANS:  C

As a researcher, one is observing and recording events. Nurses who conduct clinical research often experience a conflict between their researcher role and their clinician role during data collection. In some cases, the researcher’s involvement in the event, such as providing physical or emotional care to a patient during data collection, could alter the event and thus bias the results. It would be difficult to generalize the findings to other situations in which the researcher was not present to intervene. However, the needs of patients must take precedence over the needs of the study.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   Page 528

 

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

 

  1. A researcher intends to collect data, including patients’ ratings of pain and anxiety, during a procedure. No electrical equipment or photography may be used in the procedure room. In order to record the various pain and anxiety ratings, the researcher may plan to use which of the following? (Select all that apply.)
a. A plug-in word processor
b. A form with large margins, or a column for comments, or both
c. A pencil with an eraser
d. A form with pre-labeled columns and rows
e. A cell phone with camera

 

 

ANS:  B, C, D

Before data collection begins, the researcher develops or adapts forms on which to record data. These forms can be used to record demographic data, information from the patient record, observations, or values from physiological measures. The researcher also might need to collect other data that may be extraneous or confounding variables such as the subject’s physician, stage of illness, length of illness or hospitalization, complications, date of data collection, time of day and day of week of data collection, and any untoward events that occur during the data collection period. Data collection forms must be designed so that the data are easily recorded. Pencil and paper are ideal, since they allow for erasure, in case the subject clarifies data.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   Page 517

 

  1. Part of a research study entails that research subjects complete a printed form with checkboxes. The researcher decides ahead of time that any item that has more than one response checked will be treated as unanswered. What are logical ways the researcher can maximize properly answered items, without skewing the data? (Select all that apply.)
a. Make a rule that if there are two checked replies, only the first one will be counted.
b. When the researcher hands the form to the subjects, the researcher should specify “One answer and one answer only for each these items, please, or I won’t be able to include the double-answered ones in my report.”
c. Glance at the forms as they are about to be handed in, and if two boxes for an item are checked, ask the subject to address this.
d. In the printed instructions at the top of the form, be sure to state that if a question has more than one response checked, that item will be treated as unanswered.
e. Eliminate from the entire study any subject who double-selects an item.

 

 

ANS:  B, C, D

Decision rules for data entry should be finalized during the planning process. The researcher must realize that any decision rule may skew the data. For example, if a subject selects two responses for a single item, will the variable be coded as missing, or does the researcher want to specify that the lowest or highest value should be entered?

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   Page 523

 

  1. A researcher is studying the way that ICU nurses prioritize the charting responsibilities for their 12-hour shift. The researcher happens to discover that nurses are administering medications as close to the ordered times as possible but consistently charting the times at which medications are ordered, not the time they are actually administered, even though that may be two or three hours later. What could the researcher do with this information? (Select all that apply.)
a. The researcher makes the nurse manager aware of the finding, after the study data have all been collected, because this is essentially a medication charting error.
b. Nothing. This is not a focus of the study, and the information must be suppressed.
c. The researcher takes time to educate individual nurses, so that they understand that what they are doing is not honest.
d. The researcher includes the findings in the article, stating that this is a time-saving strategy, since the computer allows charting of meds when ordered (instead of when administered) as a block, saving time.
e. The researcher reports this information under Serendipitous Discoveries in the article that results from the study.

 

 

ANS:  A, B, E

Serendipity is the accidental discovery of something useful or valuable. During the data collection phase of studies, researchers often become aware of elements or relationships that they had not previously identified. These aspects may be closely related to the study being conducted or have little connection with it. They come from increased awareness and close observation of the study situation. Because the researcher is focused on close observation, other elements in the situation can come into clearer focus and take on new meaning. Serendipitous findings are important to the development of new insights in nursing theory. They can be important for understanding the totality of the phenomenon being examined.

Educating individual nurses is sure to alienate staff. The manager is the logical choice for a person in whom to confide this information. Obviously, this should be communicated as, “Some nurses…” rather than naming names, since the nurses’ privacy would be violated by telling their names.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   Page 530

 

  1. How may research data, code-named and stripped of all identifiers, be stored? (Select all that apply.)
a. Separate from the master list of identifiers and codes
b. Only in a locked box in a safe
c. Anywhere the researcher decides to store it that has reasonable security
d. Only in the original database from which it was derived
e. Only in a password-protected computer, located in a private office or residence

 

 

ANS:  A, D

In this time of flash drives and thumb drives, it is relatively easy to store data. The original data forms and database must be stored for time frames dictated by the funding source or by the journal publisher. There are several reasons to store data. The data can be used for secondary analyses. For example, researchers participating in a project related to a particular research focus may pool data from various studies for access by all members of the group. Data should be available to document the validity of your analyses and the published results of your study. Because of nationally publicized incidents of scientific misconduct in which researchers fabricated data and published multiple manuscripts, you would be wise to preserve documentation that your data were obtained as you claim. Issues that have been raised include how long data should be stored, the need for institutional policy regarding data storage, and whether graduate students who conduct a study should leave a copy of their data at the university. Some researchers store their data for only five years after publication, while others store their data until they retire from a research career. Researchers should check with their funding sponsors and publishers for guidelines on how long to keep the data. Most researchers store data in their office or laboratory; others archive their data in a central location with storage fees or retrieval fees. HIPAA mandates protection of anonymity by removing all 18 identifiers for data; a master list of the code-labeled data and the person to whom it belonged must be kept separate from the main data. The master list must be kept in a locked area.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 532

 

  1. How may raw research data, with identifiers, obtained from a hospital be stored? (Select all that apply.)
a. It must be kept only in the hospital’s computer system; at the end of the work day, all excerpted data must be deleted.
b. In a locked box in a safe
c. In any e-mail account
d. On a private website
e. In a password-protected computer, located in a private office or residence

 

 

ANS:  B, E

In this time of flash drives and thumb drives, it is relatively easy to store data. The original data forms and database must be stored for time frames dictated by the funding source or by the journal publisher. There are several reasons to store data. The data can be used for secondary analyses. For example, researchers participating in a project related to a particular research focus may pool data from various studies for access by all members of the group. Data should be available to document the validity of your analyses and the published results of your study. Because of nationally publicized incidents of scientific misconduct in which researchers fabricated data and published multiple manuscripts, you would be wise to preserve documentation that your data were obtained as you claim. Issues that have been raised include how long data should be stored, the need for institutional policy regarding data storage, and whether graduate students who conduct a study should leave a copy of their data at the university. Some researchers store their data for only five years after publication, while others store their data until they retire from a research career. Researchers should check with their funding sponsors and publishers for guidelines on how long to keep the data. Most researchers store data in their office or laboratory; others archive their data in a central location with storage fees or retrieval fees. HIPAA mandates protection of anonymity by removing all 18 identifiers for data; a master list of the code-labeled data and the person to whom it belonged must be kept separate from the main data. The master list must be kept in a locked area.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 532

 

  1. What are the purposes of completing a pilot study? (Select all that apply.)
a. It provides nominal and ordinal data with which the researcher can construct better instruments.
b. It helps identify problems the researcher might encounter while collecting data.
c. It justifies the existence of a research gap.
d. It gives the researcher preliminary data to present to the institutional review board in order to obtain permission to conduct research.
e. It provides an idea of the timelines of the proposed study, including instrument completion and subject recruitment.

 

 

ANS:  B, E

Completing a pilot study may save the researcher difficulty later when the final steps of the research process are implemented. Pilot testing helps to identify problems that might be encountered while collecting data, and helps develop strategies for addressing potential problems. Following approval of the study by your institutional review board (IRB), the study’s approved research plan is used to recruit 3 to 5 pilot subjects who meet the eligibility criteria. The same study data collection methods are utilized, paying special attention to how long it takes to recruit a subject, obtain informed consent, and collect the data. Often, the participant is asked to identify questions or aspects of the process that were unclear or confusing. Based on the pilot study and feedback of the first subjects, data collection forms and methods of data collection may be modified to improve feasibility, validity, and reliability.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 532

 

  1. What are the four principal tasks of data collection? (Select the four that apply.)
a. Performing constant comparison for qualitative data
b. Maintaining research controls as indicated in the study design
c. Solving problems that threaten to disrupt the study
d. Cross-checking with the literature review
e. Collecting data in a consistent way
f. Staying with institutional review board permission
g. Selecting subjects

 

 

ANS:  B, C, E, G

In both quantitative and qualitative research, the investigator performs four tasks during the process of data collection. These tasks are interrelated and occur concurrently rather than in sequence. The tasks are: (1) selecting subjects, (2) collecting data in a consistent way, (3) maintaining research controls as indicated in the study design, and (4) solving problems that threaten to disrupt the study.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   Page 523

 

Chapter 28: Writing Research Proposals

Test Bank

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. When a researcher writes a proposal for studying the amount of fear preoperative patients experience, which element of the proposal justifies conducting the study in the first place?
a. Identification of a research gap
b. Choice of a framework
c. Selection of an appropriate methodology
d. Conduct of a systematic review

 

 

ANS:  A

After the review of the literature, the gap in the knowledge base is identified, with a description of how the proposed study is expected to contribute to fill that particular gap. Your proposal should identify the target population to which your study findings will be generalized and the accessible population from which the sample will be selected. Outline the inclusion and exclusion criteria you will use to select a study participant or subject, and present the rationale for these sample criteria. For example, a participant might be selected according to the following sample criteria: female age 18 to 60 years, hospitalized, and 1 day post–abdominal surgery. The rationale for these criteria might be that the researcher wants to examine the effects of a selected pain management intervention on adult females who have recently experienced hospitalization and abdominal surgery. The sampling method and the approximate sample size are discussed in terms of their adequacy and limitations in investigating the research purpose (Thompson, 2002). Usually, a power analysis is conducted to determine an adequate sample size to identify significant relationships and differences in studies.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   Page 639

 

  1. Why do student research proposals usually require greater detail than those developed for review by funding organizations?
a. Student research proposals have a minimum page limit, because faculty want their students to experience the worst-case scenario while in school, where support is readily available.
b. Institutional review boards are very apprehensive about students performing research, and for this reason they require more detailed justification than do other proposals.
c. Students do not write well, so their proposals tend to be more involved.
d. The student’s proposal often contains the first three or four chapters of the student’s thesis or dissertation; funding proposals usually contain a much less detailed literature review.

 

 

ANS:  D

The content of a student proposal usually requires greater detail than does a proposal developed for an agency or funding organization. The proposal is often the first three or four chapters of the student’s thesis or dissertation, and the proposed study is discussed in the future tense—that is, what the student will do in conducting the research. A student research proposal usually includes a title page with the title of the proposal, the name and credentials of the investigator, the university name, and the date.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 636

 

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

 

  1. A formal, detailed research proposal is written. Which of the following would be reasons that a researcher would write a detailed research proposal? (Select all that apply.)
a. It is submitted before a nurse manager performs a quality improvement review of compliance with a new IV start protocol.
b. It is required by a thesis or dissertation committee.
c. It is submitted to gain institutional review board approval.
d. It is to be submitted for a funding grant.
e. It is written to obtain support from one’s peers for a study conducted in a hospital medical-surgical unit.

 

 

ANS:  B, C, D

Researchers need to develop a quality study proposal to facilitate university and clinical agency institutional review board approval, obtain funding, and successfully conduct the study. In addition, student researchers develop proposals to communicate their research projects to the faculty and members of university and agency institutional review boards. Student proposals are written to satisfy requirements for a degree and are usually developed according to guidelines outlined by the faculty. The content of a student proposal usually requires greater detail than does a proposal developed for an agency or funding organization.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   Page 635

 

  1. What is the difference between a quantitative research proposal and a quantitative research report? (Select all that apply.)
a. The proposal precedes the study and is written to obtain permission or clearance for the research to be funded, take place, be approved at the research site, and so forth.
b. They are identical.
c. The research proposal does not contain results or a discussion section.
d. The research report follows the study and includes both results of the study and a full discussion.
e. The research report contains a framework, but the proposal does not.

 

 

ANS:  A, C, D

A research proposal is a written plan that identifies the major elements of a study, such as the research problem, purpose, and framework, and outlines the methods and procedures to conduct the proposed study. A proposal is a formal way to communicate ideas about a study to seek approval to conduct the study and obtain funding. Researchers, seeking approval to conduct a study, submit the proposal to a select group for review and, in many situations, verbally defend the proposal. Receiving approval to conduct research has become more complicated because of the increasing complexity of nursing studies, the difficulty involved in recruiting study participants, and rising concerns over legal and ethical issues. The research report includes four major sections or content areas: (1) introduction, (2) methods, (3) results, and (4) discussion of the findings. The introduction customarily contains both the literature review and the study framework.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Synthesis             REF:   Page 635

 

  1. Which of the following elements do a research proposal and a research report have in common? (Select all that apply.)
a. Discussion
b. Review of the literature
c. Results
d. Framework
e. Methods
f. Research problem
g. Research purpose
h. Introduction

 

 

ANS:  B, D, E, F, G, H

A research proposal is a written plan that identifies the major elements of a study, such as the research problem, purpose, and framework, and outlines the methods and procedures to conduct the proposed study. A proposal is a formal way to communicate ideas about a study to seek approval to conduct the study and obtain funding. Researchers, seeking approval to conduct a study, submit the proposal to a select group for review and, in many situations, verbally defend the proposal. Receiving approval to conduct research has become more complicated because of the increasing complexity of nursing studies, the difficulty involved in recruiting study participants, and rising concerns over legal and ethical issues. The research report includes four major sections or content areas: (1) introduction, (2) methods, (3) results, and (4) discussion of the findings. The introduction customarily contains both the literature review and the study framework.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 635

 

  1. A researcher writes a preproposal. What exactly is a preproposal? (Select all that apply.)
a. A justification for a research study
b. A request for institutional review board approval
c. A brief overview of a proposed project
d. A first draft of a proposal
e. A short document exploring funding opportunities for a research study

 

 

ANS:  C, E

Sometimes a researcher will send a preproposal or query letter rather than a proposal to a funding institution. A preproposal is a short document of four to five pages plus appendices that explores the funding possibilities for a research project. The parts of the preproposal are logically ordered as follows: (1) letter of transmittal, (2) proposal for research, (3) personnel, (4) facilities, and (5) budget. The proposal provides a brief overview of the proposed project, including the research problem, purpose, methodology (brief description), and, most important, a statement of the significance of the work to knowledge in general and the funding institution in particular. By developing a preproposal, researchers are able to determine the agencies interested in funding their study and limit submission of their proposals to only institutions that indicate an interest.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   Page 636

 

  1. When conducting a review of a proposal, which of the following questions would be concerns of an institutional review board (IRB)? (Select all that apply.)
a. Is this study congruent with our hospital’s research agenda?
b. What will be the impact of this study on our hospital and its clients?
c. Is this proposal literate and well written?
d. Does this study have any scientific merit?
e. What prior research experience does this author have?
f. Will the human subjects studied be protected from harm?
g. What is the quality of this study?

 

 

ANS:  A, B, D, F, G

Clinical agencies and health care corporations review studies for the following reasons: (1) to evaluate the quality of the study, (2) to ensure that adequate measures are being taken to protect human subjects, and (3) to evaluate the impact of the study on the reviewing institution. Most agency IRBs screen proposals for (1) scientific merit, (2) protection of human rights, (3) congruence of the study with the agency’s research agenda, and (4) impact of the study on patient care.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   Page 645

 

  1. Why does a qualitative research proposal contain both the research philosophy and general method and the applied method of inquiry? What is the distinction between these? (Select all that apply.)
a. The research philosophy and general method are the name of the method— phenomenology, grounded theory, and so forth.
b. The general method is the way the researcher plans to collect the data.
c. The applied method of enquiry is the way the researcher plans to collect the data.
d. The applied method refers to whether the study is phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, and so forth.
e. They are both the same.

 

 

ANS:  A, B

Qualitative research proposal guidelines are unique for the development of knowledge and theories using a variety of qualitative research methods. A qualitative proposal usually includes the following content areas: (1) introduction, (2) research philosophy and general method, (3) applied method of inquiry, and (4) current knowledge, limitations, and plans for communication of the study findings. The research philosophy and general method section introduces the reader to the philosophical and conceptual foundation for the qualitative research method (phenomenological research, ethnographic research, grounded theory research, exploratory-descriptive qualitative research, or historical research) selected for the proposed study. Identifying the methods for conducting a qualitative study is a difficult task because sometimes the specifics of the study design emerge during the study. Unlike quantitative research, in which the design is a fixed blueprint for a study, the design in qualitative research emerges or evolves as the study is conducted. Thus, you must document the logic and appropriateness of the qualitative method and develop a tentative plan for conducting your study. Because this plan is tentative, reserve the right to modify or change the plan as needed during the conduct of the study. However, the design or plan must (1) be consistent with the philosophical approach, study purpose, and specific research aims or questions, (2) be well conceived, and (3) address prior criticism, as appropriate.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 640

 

  1. Why should a qualitative research proposal intended for institutional board review address methods, since methods can be flexible in qualitative research? (Select all that apply.)
a. The committee must be aware of anything that will be done to the participants, including interviewing.
b. The committee must adjudge potential harm that emanates from discussion of disturbing topics.
c. The committee must be apprised of planned methods at the beginning of the study; researchers must ask for permission if they decide to add anything to the methods while the study is in progress.
d. The forms for institutional review include this section, but it isn’t really addressed in qualitative research, since there is no intervention, per se.
e. The committee must determine the relative risk of accidental disclosure of potentially embarrassing information.

 

 

ANS:  A, B, C, E

The sensitive nature of some qualitative studies increases the risk for participants, which makes ethical concerns and decisions a major focus of the study. The institutional review board must know how the researcher will minimize harm to research subjects.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Synthesis             REF:   Page 640

 

  1. Why might proposal revisions be required? (Select all that apply.)
a. The review process may reveal unreasonable impact on one area of the institution, since other research is in progress; a change of venue could be indicated.
b. Funding becomes unavailable and the proposal must be revised, in accordance with cuts.
c. Several potential subjects refuse to participate in the research study.
d. The study methodology is weak, and the reviewers’ suggestions will improve the strength of the methodology.
e. The researcher has inadvertently submitted materials that contain errors.

 

 

ANS:  A, B, D, E

Reviewers sometimes suggest changes in a proposal that improve the study methodology; however, some of the changes requested may benefit the institution but not the study. Remain receptive to the suggestions, explore with the committee the impact of the changes on the proposed study, and try to resolve any conflicts. Usually reviewers make valuable suggestions that might improve the quality of a study or facilitate the data collection process. Revision of the proposal is often based on these suggestions before the study is implemented. Sometimes a study requires revision while it is being conducted because of problems with data collection tools or subjects’ participation. However, if clinical agency personnel or representatives of funding institutions have approved a proposal, the researcher needs to examine the situation seriously before making major changes in the study. Before revising a proposal, address three questions: (1) What needs to be changed? (2) Why is the change necessary? (3) How will the change affect implementation of the study and the study findings?

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application

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