# The Power of Logic 5th Edition by Howard-Snyder – Test Bank

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###### The Power of Logic 5th Edition by Howard-Snyder – Test Bank

5
Student: ___________________________________________________________________________
1. To be in standard form, the elements of a categorical statement must appear in the following order:
A. subject term, copula, predicate term, quantifier.
B. predicate term, copula, quantifier, subject term.
C. quantifier, subject term, copula, predicate term.
D. copula, subject term, quantifier, predicate term.
2. The subject term of “All students who skip classes and party on weekends are students who receive low
A. students who skip classes and party on weekends.
B. students.
C. students who skip classes.
D. students who party on weekends.
3. In “All dogs are things that go to heaven,” “All” is called the
A. copula.
B. subject term.
C. quality.
D. quantifier.
4. “Some cows are Jerseys” is a standard-form
A. A statement.
B. E statement.
C. I statement.
D. O statement.
5. “No people who were murdered by Jack the Ripper are men” is a standard-form
A. A statement.
B. E statement.
C. I statement.
D. O statement.
6. “All Olympic gold winners are outstanding athletes” is a standard-form
A. A statement.
B. E statement.
C. I statement.
D. O statement.
7. “Some soft drinks are not high-calorie beverages” is a standard-form
A. A statement.
B. E statement.
C. I statement.
D. O statement.
8. The quality of an A statement is
A. universal.
B. affirmative.
C. particular.
D. negative.
9. The quantity of an O statement is
A. universal.
B. affirmative.
C. particular.
D. negative.
10. “Only students with a 3.0 or higher are members of the Tri-Lambda honor society” is a stylistic variant of
the standard-form categorical statement
A. “All students with a 3.0 or higher are members of the Tri-Lambda honor society.”
B. “No members of the Tri-Lambda honor society are students with a 3.0 or higher.”
C. “All members of the Tri-Lambda honor society are students with a 3.0 or higher.”
D. “Some students with a 3.0 or higher are members of the Tri-Lambda honor society.”
11. “All that glitters is not gold” is best translated into which of the following standard-form categorical
statements?
A. “All gold things are things that glitter.”
B. “No things that glitter are gold things.”
C. “Some gold things are things that glitter.”
D. “Some things that glitter are not gold things.”
12. When two standard-form categorical statements are corresponding, they
A. have the same subject term and same predicate term.
B. are logically equivalent.
C. are necessarily true.
D. have the same quantifier.
13. An immediate inference is when a conclusion can be drawn on the basis of
A. experience alone.
B. a single premise.
C. the opinion of a reliable authority.
D. informed intuition.
14. According to the Traditional Square of Opposition, corresponding A and E statements are
A. alternatives.
C. subcontraries.
D. contraries.
15. Two statements are contradictories if
A. they cannot both be false.
B. they cannot both be true.
C. they cannot correspond.
D. they cannot have the same truth value.
16. On the Traditional Square of Opposition, if “All dogs are mammals” is false, which of the following can
be validly inferred?
A. “Some dogs are mammals” is false.
B. “Some dogs are not mammals” is true.
C. “No dogs are mammals” is false.
D. “Some dogs are mammals” is true.
17. Which of the following statements is necessarily false?
A. “Some humans are winged creatures.”
B. “No even numbers are numbers divisible by two.”
C. “All cars are vehicles with combustion engines.”
D. “All squirrels are grey animals.”
18. The converse of a standard-form categorical statement is formed by
A. interchanging its subject and predicate terms.
B. replacing the predicate term with its complement.
C. changing its quality and replacing its predicate with the predicate-complement.
D. changing the quantity.
19. Two statements are logically equivalent if
A. each validly implies the other.
B. they have the same subject term and the same predicate term.
C. they are both universal statements.
D. they have the same standard form.
20. The obverse of “All pigs are intelligent creatures” is
A. “Some intelligent creatures are pigs.”
B. “All non-intelligent creatures are non-pigs.”
C. “No pigs are non-intelligent creatures.”
D. “Some pigs are not intelligent creatures.”
21. A categorical statement is a statement that relates two classes or categories.
True False
22. “Sometimes people are very kind” is a standard-form categorical statement.
True False
23. In “All romance novelists are reformed tabloid journalists,” “novelist” is the subject term.
True False
24. The quality of a standard-form categorical statement is either affirmative or negative.
True False
25. An E statement (“No S are P”) is a universal negative statement.
True False
26. A particular statement is a statement about a specific individual or thing such as Tom or Tom’s car.
True False
27. A universal statement is one that is universally accepted as true.
True False
28. “Some people are never satisfied” is a standard-form O statement.
True False
29. “Something’s a mammal only if it’s a warm-blooded animal” is a stylistic variant of “All mammals are
warm-blooded animals.”
True False
30. “Nothing worth doing is an easy thing to do” is a stylistic variant of “No things worth doing are easy
things to do.”
True False
31. “Not all lawyers are crooks” is a stylistic variant of “Some lawyers are crooks.”
True False
32. “Some philosophers are wealthy people” and “No philosophers are wealthy people” are corresponding
statements.
True False
33. On the Traditional Square of Opposition, I and E statements are contraries.
True False
34. Two standard-form categorical statements are contradictories if they cannot have the same truth
value.
True False
35. A necessary truth is one that cannot be false under any possible circumstances.
True False
36. On the Traditional Square of Opposition, if “All unicorns are white horses” is true, then “Some unicorns
are white horses” must also be true.
True False
37. The complement of a class X is the class containing all things that are not members of X.
True False
38. The rule of obversion is valid only for E and I statements.
True False
39. The contrapositive of “All parakeets are budgies” is “All budgies are parakeets.”
True False
40. The inference from “Some capitalists are not wealthy people” to “Some wealthy people are not
capitalists” is a valid inference.
True False
41. Name the form of the following categorical statement (A, E, I, or O); identify the subject term and
predicate term; and state the quantity and quality: All rubies are red gems.
42. Name the form of the following categorical statement (A, E, I, or O); identify the subject term and
predicate term; and state the quantity and quality: All lab-created rubies are clear red gems.
43. Name the form of the following categorical statement (A, E, I, or O); identify the subject term and
predicate term; and state the quantity and quality: Some parakeets are birds attracted to shiny objects.
44. Name the form of the following categorical statement (A, E, I, or O); identify the subject term and
predicate term; and state the quantity and quality: Some molecular biologists are Swedish water
volleyball team members.
45. Name the form of the following categorical statement (A, E, I, or O); identify the subject term and
predicate term; and state the quantity and quality: No coconut crabs are hippopotami.
46. Name the form of the following categorical statement (A, E, I, or O); identify the subject term and
predicate term; and state the quantity and quality: Some philosophers are not dualists.
47. Name the form of the following categorical statement (A, E, I, or O); identify the subject term and
predicate term; and state the quantity and quality: Some miniature horses are animals trained to assist
people with disabilities.
48. Name the form of the following categorical statement (A, E, I, or O); identify the subject term and
predicate term; and state the quantity and quality: All beverages containing aspartame are known
carcinogens.
49. Name the form of the following categorical statement (A, E, I, or O); identify the subject term and
predicate term; and state the quantity and quality: No subsidiaries of the Philip Morris company are
morally praiseworthy companies.
50. Name the form of the following categorical statement (A, E, I, or O); identify the subject term and
predicate term; and state the quantity and quality: Some scientific geniuses are not college graduates.
51. Name the logical relation that holds between the two categorical statements that follow. In the case of
subalternation, indicate which statement is the superaltern and which is the subaltern. If the pair does not
exemplify any of the logical relations we have discussed, simply write “None.”
All people who smoke are people who will get lung cancer. / No people who smoke are people who will
get lung cancer.
52. Name the logical relation that holds between the two categorical statements that follow. In the case of
subalternation, indicate which statement is the superaltern and which is the subaltern. If the pair does not
exemplify any of the logical relations we have discussed, simply write “None.”
No yellow submarines are nuclear submarines. / Some yellow submarines are not nuclear submarines.
53. Name the logical relation that holds between the two categorical statements that follow. In the case of
subalternation, indicate which statement is the superaltern and which is the subaltern. If the pair does not
exemplify any of the logical relations we have discussed, simply write “None.”
No students who study regularly are slackers. Some students who study regularly are slackers.
54. Name the logical relation that holds between the two categorical statements that follow. In the case of
subalternation, indicate which statement is the superaltern and which is the subaltern. If the pair does not
exemplify any of the logical relations we have discussed, simply write “None.”
Some feral felines are friendly cats. / Some friendly cats are feral felines.
55. Name the logical relation that holds between the two categorical statements that follow. In the case of
subalternation, indicate which statement is the superaltern and which is the subaltern. If the pair does not
exemplify any of the logical relations we have discussed, simply write “None.”
Some philosophers are not materialists. / Some nonmaterialists are not nonphilosophers.
56. Name the logical relation that holds between the two categorical statements that follow. In the case of
subalternation, indicate which statement is the superaltern and which is the subaltern. If the pair does not
exemplify any of the logical relations we have discussed, simply write “None.”
Some police dogs are not dogs trained to track criminals. / Some police dogs are dogs trained to track
criminals.
57. Name the logical relation that holds between the two categorical statements that follow. In the case of
subalternation, indicate which statement is the superaltern and which is the subaltern. If the pair does not
exemplify any of the logical relations we have discussed, simply write “None.”
All people who seek truth are philosophers. / No people who seek truth are nonphilosophers.
58. Name the logical relation that holds between the two categorical statements that follow. In the case of
subalternation, indicate which statement is the superaltern and which is the subaltern. If the pair does not
exemplify any of the logical relations we have discussed, simply write “None.”
All world-renowned chefs are skilled chemists. / No world-renowned chefs are skilled chemists.
59. Name the logical relation that holds between the two categorical statements that follow. In the case of
subalternation, indicate which statement is the superaltern and which is the subaltern. If the pair does not
exemplify any of the logical relations we have discussed, simply write “None.”
No sailors are navigators. / Some nonnavigators are not nonsailors.
60. Name the logical relation that holds between the two categorical statements that follow. In the case of
subalternation, indicate which statement is the superaltern and which is the subaltern. If the pair does not
exemplify any of the logical relations we have discussed, simply write “None.”
All lawyers are crooks. / Some crooks are lawyers.
61. Put this statement into standard form: There are no philosopher kings.
62. Put this statement into standard form: Most horses at the Wilderness Park Stables are easy to ride.
63. Put this statement into standard form: Only philosophers know the meaning of life.
64. Put this statement into standard form: Anyone who gets too much sun will get skin cancer.
65. Put this statement into standard form: Corporate lawyers are not ethical people.
66. Put this statement into standard form: Only members can use the front door.
67. Put this statement into standard form: If you want to pass this class, then you have to study hard.
68. Put this statement into standard form: Steve buys nothing but the best for his kids.
69. Put this statement into standard form: At least one person appreciates my talent!
70. Put this statement into standard form: Not all high-paying jobs are rewarding.
71. If “All Ferengi are entrepreneurs” is true, what may be inferred about “Some entrepreneurs are not non-
Ferengi”? Explain.
72. If “Some alien races are pacifists” is true, what may be inferred about “No alien races are nonpacifists”?
Explain.
73. If “All sesquipedalians are polyglots” is true, what may be validly inferred about “Some nonpolyglots are
not sesquipedalians”? Explain.
74. If “Some salacious sages are not prosaic prophets” is true, what can be inferred about “No prosaic
prophets are nonsalacious sages”? Explain.
75. If “No prestidigitators are masters of illusion” is true, what can be inferred about “All nonprestidigitators
are masters of illusion”? Explain.
76. If “All Burmese are Asians” is true, what can be inferred about “Some non-Asians are non-Burmese”?
77. If “Some Swedes are Danes” is false, what can be inferred about “All Swedes are Danes”?
78. If “No elephants are non-pachyderms” is true, then what can we infer about “Some non-pachyderms are
non-elephants”?
79. If “All non-reptiles are non-turtles” is true, what can be inferred about “Some reptiles are not nonturtles”?
80. If “No Martians are Venusians” is true, what can be inferred about “All Venusians are Martians”?
5 Key
1. To be in standard form, the elements of a categorical statement must appear in the following
order:
A. subject term, copula, predicate term, quantifier.
B. predicate term, copula, quantifier, subject term.
C. quantifier, subject term, copula, predicate term.
D. copula, subject term, quantifier, predicate term.
Howard – Chapter 05 #1
Subject area: 5.1 Standard Forms of Categorical Statements
2. The subject term of “All students who skip classes and party on weekends are students who receive
A. students who skip classes and party on weekends.
B. students.
C. students who skip classes.
D. students who party on weekends.
Howard – Chapter 05 #2
Subject area: 5.1 Standard Forms of Categorical Statements
3. In “All dogs are things that go to heaven,” “All” is called the
A. copula.
B. subject term.
C. quality.
D. quantifier.
Howard – Chapter 05 #3
Subject area: 5.1 Standard Forms of Categorical Statements
4. “Some cows are Jerseys” is a standard-form
A. A statement.
B. E statement.
C. I statement.
D. O statement.
Howard – Chapter 05 #4
Subject area: 5.1 Standard Forms of Categorical Statements
5. “No people who were murdered by Jack the Ripper are men” is a standard-form
A. A statement.
B. E statement.
C. I statement.
D. O statement.
Howard – Chapter 05 #5
Subject area: 5.1 Standard Forms of Categorical Statements
6. “All Olympic gold winners are outstanding athletes” is a standard-form
A. A statement.
B. E statement.
C. I statement.
D. O statement.
Howard – Chapter 05 #6
Subject area: 5.1 Standard Forms of Categorical Statements
7. “Some soft drinks are not high-calorie beverages” is a standard-form
A. A statement.
B. E statement.
C. I statement.
D. O statement.
Howard – Chapter 05 #7
Subject area: 5.1 Standard Forms of Categorical Statements
8. The quality of an A statement is
A. universal.
B. affirmative.
C. particular.
D. negative.
Howard – Chapter 05 #8
Subject area: 5.1 Standard Forms of Categorical Statements
9. The quantity of an O statement is
A. universal.
B. affirmative.
C. particular.
D. negative.
Howard – Chapter 05 #9
Subject area: 5.1 Standard Forms of Categorical Statements
10. “Only students with a 3.0 or higher are members of the Tri-Lambda honor society” is a stylistic
variant of the standard-form categorical statement
A. “All students with a 3.0 or higher are members of the Tri-Lambda honor society.”
B. “No members of the Tri-Lambda honor society are students with a 3.0 or higher.”
C. “All members of the Tri-Lambda honor society are students with a 3.0 or higher.”
D. “Some students with a 3.0 or higher are members of the Tri-Lambda honor society.”
Howard – Chapter 05 #10
Subject area: 5.1 Standard Forms of Categorical Statements
11. “All that glitters is not gold” is best translated into which of the following standard-form categorical
statements?
A. “All gold things are things that glitter.”
B. “No things that glitter are gold things.”
C. “Some gold things are things that glitter.”
D. “Some things that glitter are not gold things.”
Howard – Chapter 05 #11
Subject area: 5.1 Standard Forms of Categorical Statements
12. When two standard-form categorical statements are corresponding, they
A. have the same subject term and same predicate term.
B. are logically equivalent.
C. are necessarily true.
D. have the same quantifier.
Howard – Chapter 05 #12
Subject area: 5.2 The Traditional Square of Opposition
13. An immediate inference is when a conclusion can be drawn on the basis of
A. experience alone.
B. a single premise.
C. the opinion of a reliable authority.
D. informed intuition.
Howard – Chapter 05 #13
Subject area: 5.2 The Traditional Square of Opposition
14. According to the Traditional Square of Opposition, corresponding A and E statements are
A. alternatives.
C. subcontraries.
D. contraries.
Howard – Chapter 05 #14
Subject area: 5.2 The Traditional Square of Opposition
15. Two statements are contradictories if
A. they cannot both be false.
B. they cannot both be true.
C. they cannot correspond.
D. they cannot have the same truth value.
Howard – Chapter 05 #15
Subject area: 5.2 The Traditional Square of Opposition
16. On the Traditional Square of Opposition, if “All dogs are mammals” is false, which of the following
can be validly inferred?
A. “Some dogs are mammals” is false.
B. “Some dogs are not mammals” is true.
C. “No dogs are mammals” is false.
D. “Some dogs are mammals” is true.
Howard – Chapter 05 #16
Subject area: 5.2 The Traditional Square of Opposition
17. Which of the following statements is necessarily false?
A. “Some humans are winged creatures.”
B. “No even numbers are numbers divisible by two.”
C. “All cars are vehicles with combustion engines.”
D. “All squirrels are grey animals.”
Howard – Chapter 05 #17
Subject area: 5.2 The Traditional Square of Opposition
18. The converse of a standard-form categorical statement is formed by
A. interchanging its subject and predicate terms.
B. replacing the predicate term with its complement.
C. changing its quality and replacing its predicate with the predicate-complement.
D. changing the quantity.
Howard – Chapter 05 #18
Subject area: 5.3 Further Immediate Inferences
19. Two statements are logically equivalent if
A. each validly implies the other.
B. they have the same subject term and the same predicate term.
C. they are both universal statements.
D. they have the same standard form.
Howard – Chapter 05 #19
Subject area: 5.3 Further Immediate Inferences
20. The obverse of “All pigs are intelligent creatures” is
A. “Some intelligent creatures are pigs.”
B. “All non-intelligent creatures are non-pigs.”
C. “No pigs are non-intelligent creatures.”
D. “Some pigs are not intelligent creatures.”
Howard – Chapter 05 #20
Subject area: 5.3 Further Immediate Inferences
21. A categorical statement is a statement that relates two classes or categories.
TRUE
Howard – Chapter 05 #21
Subject area: 5.1 Standard Forms of Categorical Statements
22. “Sometimes people are very kind” is a standard-form categorical statement.
FALSE
Howard – Chapter 05 #22
Subject area: 5.1 Standard Forms of Categorical Statements
23. In “All romance novelists are reformed tabloid journalists,” “novelist” is the subject term.
FALSE
Howard – Chapter 05 #23
Subject area: 5.1 Standard Forms of Categorical Statements
24. The quality of a standard-form categorical statement is either affirmative or negative.
TRUE
Howard – Chapter 05 #24
Subject area: 5.1 Standard Forms of Categorical Statements
25. An E statement (“No S are P”) is a universal negative statement.
TRUE
Howard – Chapter 05 #25
Subject area: 5.1 Standard Forms of Categorical Statements
26. A particular statement is a statement about a specific individual or thing such as Tom or Tom’s
car.
FALSE
Howard – Chapter 05 #26
Subject area: 5.1 Standard Forms of Categorical Statements
27. A universal statement is one that is universally accepted as true.
FALSE
Howard – Chapter 05 #27
Subject area: 5.1 Standard Forms of Categorical Statements
28. “Some people are never satisfied” is a standard-form O statement.
FALSE
Howard – Chapter 05 #28
Subject area: 5.1 Standard Forms of Categorical Statements
29. “Something’s a mammal only if it’s a warm-blooded animal” is a stylistic variant of “All mammals are
warm-blooded animals.”
TRUE
Howard – Chapter 05 #29
Subject area: 5.1 Standard Forms of Categorical Statements
30. “Nothing worth doing is an easy thing to do” is a stylistic variant of “No things worth doing are easy
things to do.”
TRUE
Howard – Chapter 05 #30
Subject area: 5.1 Standard Forms of Categorical Statements
31. “Not all lawyers are crooks” is a stylistic variant of “Some lawyers are crooks.”
FALSE
Howard – Chapter 05 #31
Subject area: 5.1 Standard Forms of Categorical Statements
32. “Some philosophers are wealthy people” and “No philosophers are wealthy people” are corresponding
statements.
TRUE
Howard – Chapter 05 #32
Subject area: 5.2 The Traditional Square of Opposition
33. On the Traditional Square of Opposition, I and E statements are contraries.
FALSE
Howard – Chapter 05 #33
Subject area: 5.2 The Traditional Square of Opposition
34. Two standard-form categorical statements are contradictories if they cannot have the same truth
value.
TRUE
Howard – Chapter 05 #34
Subject area: 5.2 The Traditional Square of Opposition
35. A necessary truth is one that cannot be false under any possible circumstances.
TRUE
Howard – Chapter 05 #35
Subject area: 5.2 The Traditional Square of Opposition
36. On the Traditional Square of Opposition, if “All unicorns are white horses” is true, then “Some
unicorns are white horses” must also be true.
TRUE
Howard – Chapter 05 #36
Subject area: 5.2 The Traditional Square of Opposition
37. The complement of a class X is the class containing all things that are not members of X.
TRUE
Howard – Chapter 05 #37
Subject area: 5.3 Further Immediate Inferences
38. The rule of obversion is valid only for E and I statements.
FALSE
Howard – Chapter 05 #38
Subject area: 5.3 Further Immediate Inferences
39. The contrapositive of “All parakeets are budgies” is “All budgies are parakeets.”
FALSE
Howard – Chapter 05 #39
Subject area: 5.3 Further Immediate Inferences
40. The inference from “Some capitalists are not wealthy people” to “Some wealthy people are not
capitalists” is a valid inference.
FALSE
Howard – Chapter 05 #40
Subject area: 5.3 Further Immediate Inferences
41. Name the form of the following categorical statement (A, E, I, or O); identify the subject term and
predicate term; and state the quantity and quality: All rubies are red gems.
A, rubies, red gems, universal, affirmative
Howard – Chapter 05 #41
Subject area: Standard forms of categorical statements
42. Name the form of the following categorical statement (A, E, I, or O); identify the subject term and
predicate term; and state the quantity and quality: All lab-created rubies are clear red gems.
A, lab-created rubies, clear red gems, universal, affirmative
Howard – Chapter 05 #42
Subject area: Standard forms of categorical statements
43. Name the form of the following categorical statement (A, E, I, or O); identify the subject term
and predicate term; and state the quantity and quality: Some parakeets are birds attracted to shiny
objects.
I, parakeets, birds attracted to shiny objects, particular, affirmative
Howard – Chapter 05 #43
Subject area: Standard forms of categorical statements
44. Name the form of the following categorical statement (A, E, I, or O); identify the subject term and
predicate term; and state the quantity and quality: Some molecular biologists are Swedish water
volleyball team members.
Howard – Chapter 05 #44
Subject area: Standard forms of categorical statements
45. Name the form of the following categorical statement (A, E, I, or O); identify the subject term and
predicate term; and state the quantity and quality: No coconut crabs are hippopotami.
E, coconut crabs, hippopotami, universal, negative
Howard – Chapter 05 #45
Subject area: Standard forms of categorical statements
46. Name the form of the following categorical statement (A, E, I, or O); identify the subject term and
predicate term; and state the quantity and quality: Some philosophers are not dualists.
O, philosophers, dualists, particular, negative
Howard – Chapter 05 #46
Subject area: Standard forms of categorical statements
47. Name the form of the following categorical statement (A, E, I, or O); identify the subject term and
predicate term; and state the quantity and quality: Some miniature horses are animals trained to assist
people with disabilities.
I, miniature horses, animals trained to assist people with disabilities, particular, affirmative
Howard – Chapter 05 #47
Subject area: Standard forms of categorical statements
48. Name the form of the following categorical statement (A, E, I, or O); identify the subject term and
predicate term; and state the quantity and quality: All beverages containing aspartame are known
carcinogens.
A, beverages containing aspartame, known carcinogens, universal, affirmative
Howard – Chapter 05 #48
Subject area: Standard forms of categorical statements
49. Name the form of the following categorical statement (A, E, I, or O); identify the subject term and
predicate term; and state the quantity and quality: No subsidiaries of the Philip Morris company are
morally praiseworthy companies.
E, subsidiaries of the Philip Morris company, morally praiseworthy companies, universal, negative
Howard – Chapter 05 #49
Subject area: Standard forms of categorical statements
50. Name the form of the following categorical statement (A, E, I, or O); identify the subject term
and predicate term; and state the quantity and quality: Some scientific geniuses are not college
O, scientific geniuses, college graduates, particular, negative
Howard – Chapter 05 #50
Subject area: Standard forms of categorical statements
51. Name the logical relation that holds between the two categorical statements that follow. In the case of
subalternation, indicate which statement is the superaltern and which is the subaltern. If the pair does
not exemplify any of the logical relations we have discussed, simply write “None.”
All people who smoke are people who will get lung cancer. / No people who smoke are people who
will get lung cancer.
Contraries
Howard – Chapter 05 #51
Subject area: Logical relationships
52. Name the logical relation that holds between the two categorical statements that follow. In the case of
subalternation, indicate which statement is the superaltern and which is the subaltern. If the pair does
not exemplify any of the logical relations we have discussed, simply write “None.”
No yellow submarines are nuclear submarines. / Some yellow submarines are not nuclear
submarines.
Subalterns
Howard – Chapter 05 #52
Subject area: Logical relationships
53. Name the logical relation that holds between the two categorical statements that follow. In the case of
subalternation, indicate which statement is the superaltern and which is the subaltern. If the pair does
not exemplify any of the logical relations we have discussed, simply write “None.”
No students who study regularly are slackers. Some students who study regularly are slackers.
Howard – Chapter 05 #53
Subject area: Logical relationships
54. Name the logical relation that holds between the two categorical statements that follow. In the case of
subalternation, indicate which statement is the superaltern and which is the subaltern. If the pair does
not exemplify any of the logical relations we have discussed, simply write “None.”
Some feral felines are friendly cats. / Some friendly cats are feral felines.
Converse
Howard – Chapter 05 #54
Subject area: Logical relationships
55. Name the logical relation that holds between the two categorical statements that follow. In the case of
subalternation, indicate which statement is the superaltern and which is the subaltern. If the pair does
not exemplify any of the logical relations we have discussed, simply write “None.”
Some philosophers are not materialists. / Some nonmaterialists are not nonphilosophers.
Contrapositive
Howard – Chapter 05 #55
Subject area: Logical relationships
56. Name the logical relation that holds between the two categorical statements that follow. In the case of
subalternation, indicate which statement is the superaltern and which is the subaltern. If the pair does
not exemplify any of the logical relations we have discussed, simply write “None.”
Some police dogs are not dogs trained to track criminals. / Some police dogs are dogs trained to track
criminals.
Subcontraries
Howard – Chapter 05 #56
Subject area: Logical relationships
57. Name the logical relation that holds between the two categorical statements that follow. In the case of
subalternation, indicate which statement is the superaltern and which is the subaltern. If the pair does
not exemplify any of the logical relations we have discussed, simply write “None.”
All people who seek truth are philosophers. / No people who seek truth are nonphilosophers.
Obverse
Howard – Chapter 05 #57
Subject area: Logical relationships
58. Name the logical relation that holds between the two categorical statements that follow. In the case of
subalternation, indicate which statement is the superaltern and which is the subaltern. If the pair does
not exemplify any of the logical relations we have discussed, simply write “None.”
All world-renowned chefs are skilled chemists. / No world-renowned chefs are skilled chemists.
Contraries
Howard – Chapter 05 #58
Subject area: Logical relationships
59. Name the logical relation that holds between the two categorical statements that follow. In the case of
subalternation, indicate which statement is the superaltern and which is the subaltern. If the pair does
not exemplify any of the logical relations we have discussed, simply write “None.”
No sailors are navigators. / Some nonnavigators are not nonsailors.
Contrapositive by limitation
Howard – Chapter 05 #59
Subject area: Logical relationships
60. Name the logical relation that holds between the two categorical statements that follow. In the case of
subalternation, indicate which statement is the superaltern and which is the subaltern. If the pair does
not exemplify any of the logical relations we have discussed, simply write “None.”
All lawyers are crooks. / Some crooks are lawyers.
Converse by limitation
Howard – Chapter 05 #60
Subject area: Logical relationships
61. Put this statement into standard form: There are no philosopher kings.
No kings are philosophers.
Howard – Chapter 05 #61
Subject area: Stylistic variants and standard forms
62. Put this statement into standard form: Most horses at the Wilderness Park Stables are easy to ride.
Some horses at the Wilderness Park Stables are horses that are easy to ride.
Howard – Chapter 05 #62
Subject area: Stylistic variants and standard forms
63. Put this statement into standard form: Only philosophers know the meaning of life.
All people who know the meaning of life are philosophers.
Howard – Chapter 05 #63
Subject area: Stylistic variants and standard forms
64. Put this statement into standard form: Anyone who gets too much sun will get skin cancer.
All people who get too much sun are people who will get skin cancer.
Howard – Chapter 05 #64
Subject area: Stylistic variants and standard forms
65. Put this statement into standard form: Corporate lawyers are not ethical people.
Howard – Chapter 05 #65
Subject area: Stylistic variants and standard forms
66. Put this statement into standard form: Only members can use the front door.
All people who can use the front door are members.
Howard – Chapter 05 #66
Subject area: Stylistic variants and standard forms
67. Put this statement into standard form: If you want to pass this class, then you have to study hard.
All people who want to pass this class are people who have to study hard.
Howard – Chapter 05 #67
Subject area: Stylistic variants and standard forms
68. Put this statement into standard form: Steve buys nothing but the best for his kids.
All things that Steve buys for his kids are the best things.
Howard – Chapter 05 #68
Subject area: Stylistic variants and standard forms
69. Put this statement into standard form: At least one person appreciates my talent!
Some people are people who appreciate my talent.
Howard – Chapter 05 #69
Subject area: Stylistic variants and standard forms
70. Put this statement into standard form: Not all high-paying jobs are rewarding.
Some high-paying jobs are not rewarding jobs.
Howard – Chapter 05 #70
Subject area: Stylistic variants and standard forms
71. If “All Ferengi are entrepreneurs” is true, what may be inferred about “Some entrepreneurs are not
non-Ferengi”? Explain.
All Ferengi are entrepreneurs. (T)
Some entrepreneurs are Ferengi. (T) conversion by limitation
Some entrepreneurs are not non-Ferengi. (T) obversion
Howard – Chapter 05 #71
Subject area: Traditional Square of Opposition and immediate inferences
72. If “Some alien races are pacifists” is true, what may be inferred about “No alien races are
nonpacifists”? Explain.
Some alien races are pacifists. (T)
Some alien races are not nonpacifists. (T) obversion
No alien races are nonpacifists. (NG) superalterns
Howard – Chapter 05 #72
Subject area: Traditional Square of Opposition and immediate inferences
73. If “All sesquipedalians are polyglots” is true, what may be validly inferred about “Some nonpolyglots
are not sesquipedalians”? Explain.
All sesquipedalians are polyglots. (T)
No sesquipedalians are nonpolyglots. (T) obversion
No nonpolyglots are sesquipedalians. (T) conversion
Some nonpolyglots are not sesquipedalians. (T) subalterns
Howard – Chapter 05 #73
Subject area: Traditional Square of Opposition and immediate inferences
74. If “Some salacious sages are not prosaic prophets” is true, what can be inferred about “No prosaic
prophets are nonsalacious sages”? Explain.
Some salacious sages are not prosaic prophets. (T)
No prosaic prophets are nonsalacious sages. (NG) Conversion on an O is not valid, and so we can’t get
the statements to correspond.
Howard – Chapter 05 #74
Subject area: Traditional Square of Opposition and immediate inferences
75. If “No prestidigitators are masters of illusion” is true, what can be inferred about “All
nonprestidigitators are masters of illusion”? Explain.
Howard – Chapter 05 #75
Subject area: Traditional Square of Opposition and immediate inferences
76. If “All Burmese are Asians” is true, what can be inferred about “Some non-Asians are non-Burmese”?
Howard – Chapter 05 #76
77. If “Some Swedes are Danes” is false, what can be inferred about “All Swedes are Danes”?
Howard – Chapter 05 #77
78. If “No elephants are non-pachyderms” is true, then what can we infer about “Some non-pachyderms
are non-elephants”?
Howard – Chapter 05 #78
79. If “All non-reptiles are non-turtles” is true, what can be inferred about “Some reptiles are not nonturtles”?
Howard – Chapter 05 #79
80. If “No Martians are Venusians” is true, what can be inferred about “All Venusians are Martians”?
Howard – Chapter 05 #80
5 Summary
Category # of Questions
Howard – Chapter 05 80
Subject area: 5.1 Standard Forms of Categorical Statements 22
Subject area: 5.2 The Traditional Square of Opposition 11
Subject area: 5.3 Further Immediate Inferences 7
Subject area: Logical relationships 10
Subject area: Standard forms of categorical statements 10
Subject area: Stylistic variants and standard forms 10
Subject area: Traditional Square of Opposition and immediate inferences 5

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