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Population An Introduction To Concepts And Issues 12th Edition By John R. – Test Bank
GLOBAL POPULATION TRENDS
- Become familiar with the basic historical facts of world population growth.
- Understand how and why the world’s population is distributed as it is around the globe.
- Understand the current regional patterns of population size and growth in all parts of the world.
- Comprehend the major regional demographic contrasts that exist today.
- During the first 90 percent of human existence, the population of the world had grown only to the size of today’s New York City.
- Between 1750 and 1950, the world’s population mushroomed from 800 million to 2.5 billion, and since 1950 it has expanded to more than 7 billion.
- Despite the fact that humans have been around for tens of thousands of years, more than 1 in 10 people ever born is currently alive.
- Early population growth was slow not because birth rates were low but because death rates were high; on the other hand, continuing population increases are due to dramatic declines in mortality without a matching decline in fertility.
- World population growth has been accompanied by migration from rapidly growing areas into less rapidly growing regions. Initially, that meant an outward expansion of the European population, but more recently it has meant migration from less developed to more developed nations.
- Migration has also involved the shift of people from rural to urban areas, and urban regions on average are currently growing more rapidly than ever before in history.
- Although migration is crucial to the demographic history of the United States and Canada, both countries have grown largely as a result of natural increase—the excess of births over deaths—after the migrants arrived.
- At the time of the American Revolution, fertility levels in North America were among the highest in the world. Now they are low, although not as low as in Europe.
- The world’s 10 most populous countries are the People’s Republic of China, India, the United States, Indonesia, Brazil, Pakistan, Nigeria, Bangladesh, Russia, and Japan. Together they account for 59 percent of the world’s population.
- Almost all of the population growth in the world today is occurring in the less developed nations, leading to an increase in the global demographic contrasts among countries.
Multiple-Choice (Choose the single best answer—the page where the answer is found is indicated in parentheses)
- The world’s population at the time of the Agricultural (Neolithic) Revolution was approximately
- 4 million. (26)
- 40 million.
- 400 million.
- 4 billion.
- Carrying capacity is lower for hunter-gatherers than for agriculturists because
- their death rates are higher.
- they use the land extensively rather than intensively. (26)
- they have fewer technological skills.
- birth rates regularly exceeded death rates.
- Between the third and fifth centuries A.D. the world’s population declined somewhat, probably due to
- the impact of Indonesian volcanic eruptions.
- higher mortality brought on by the early days of the Little Ice Age.
- the collapse of the Roman Empire and famine and floods in China. (27)
- the Irish Potato Famine.
- Europe’s population began to grow between 1650 and 1850 because of all of the following except
- the disappearance of the plague.
- an increase in the birth rate. (27)
- the introduction of the potato from the Americas.
- changes in agricultural practices.
- Two hundred years ago, the world’s population was approximately
- 100 million.
- 200 million.
- 1 billion. (28)
- 2 billion.
- Current projections from the United Nations suggest that we could reach a population of 10 billion by approximately
- 2060. (28)
- The total population of the world is currently increasing by about _____ million people per year.
- 80 (29)
- The Persian chess board story illustrates the concept of
- the Queen as embodiment of female empowerment.
- the power of doubling. (31)
- logarithm growth.
- carrying capacity.
- Population growth was slow for most of human history because
- death rates were very high. (32)
- abortion rates were very high.
- people preferred small families.
- low levels of technology always lead to low rates of growth.
- The most important reason for the massive increase in the human population over the past 200 years is
- the Green Revolution that increased agricultural productivity.
- the increase in the birth rate.
- technology that has made it possible for humans to live in more places.
- the decline in the death rate. (33)
- If a country is thought to be on the verge of depopulation, it is probably located in
- North America.
- Sub-Saharan Africa.
- South Asia.
- Europe. (34)
- The total number of people who have ever lived throughout human history is probably about
- 10 billion.
- 30 billion.
- 60 billion. (34)
- 90 billion.
- At the peak of European migratory expansion in approximately 1930, people of European origin accounted for almost ___ of the world’s population, but it has since dropped to about ____ percent.
- 35; 16 (35)
- 35; 26
- 20; 10
- 20; 5
- The five most populous countries in the world account for about ____ percent of the world’s total population.
- 50 (37)
- The United States is currently the third most populous nation, but UN projections suggest that by 2050 it will be overtaken by
- Nigeria. (38)
- At about the time of the American Revolution, the United States had a birth rate that was
- very similar to the birth rate in England at the time.
- already lower than that of any currently developing nation.
- higher than birth rates even in Sub-Saharan Africa at that time.
- comparable to the highest national birth rates in the world today. (41)
- Population growth in Mexico was very rapid until recently because of a substantial delay in
- its fertility decline. (43)
- its mortality decline.
- migration out of the country to the United States.
- improving agricultural productivity.
- An important demographic consequence of below-replacement-level fertility in Europe is that
- European countries have all been actively recruiting immigrants to fill in the younger ages.
- European countries are aging. (44, 46–48)
- the status of women has risen dramatically.
- taxes have risen sharply in order to pay benefits to the elderly.
- The most populous predominantly Muslim country in the world is
- Saudi Arabia.
- Indonesia. (51)
- Although Europe is most often pointed to when the discussion turns to low fertility, the other major region of the world with very low fertility is
- Latin America.
- East Asia. (53)
- North America.
- South Asia.
- The Agricultural Revolution beginning 10,000 years ago led to a growth in population. T (26)
- The United Nations projects that the population of the world will double again over the next 40 years. F (29)
- Declining mortality, not rising fertility, is the cause of the “population explosion.” T (33)
- The least developed countries in the world are growing faster than the less developed or more developed nations. T (33)
- The majority of people ever born are alive at this moment. F (34)
- Nearly 4 in 10 humans live either in China or on the Indian subcontinent. T (37)
- India’s demography is so diverse that some of its southern states actually have fertility levels that are below replacement. T (50)
- The drop in fertility in China is largely a result of its one-child policy. F (53)
- China may be the first country in demographic history to grow old before it grows rich. T (54)
- Fertility is so low in Japan that it seems to have its own “one-child policy.” T (62)
ESSAY/CLASS DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
- Describe what you think might be the typical day in the life of a person living in a world where death rates and birth rates are both very high. How might those demographic imperatives influence everyday life? How would “culture” be different from today as a result?
- The media in the United States and Europe regularly have stories about the impact of low fertility slowing down population growth in these countries. If you were asked to be on a TV talk show commenting on such a story, how would you respond?
- Migration of people into other countries is a major part of the demography of the modern world. How do you think the world of 2050 will look demographically as a consequence of the trends currently in place?
- Even without migration, the world will look very different in 2050 than it did in 1950. Analyze Table 2.2 in terms of the idea that “the past is a foreign country.”
- How would you explain the regional patterns that are very observable with respect to global demography? Are European countries more like each other than they are like Asian countries? Is Africa unique demographically? Are national boundaries therefore meaningless when it comes to population trends?
WEBSITES SUGGESTED FOR THIS CHAPTER
http://www.gapminder.org/videos/dont-panic-the-facts-about-population/ Hans Rosling is a Swedish academic—Professor of International Health at Karolinska Institute in Sweden and co-founder and chairman of the Gapminder Foundation (gapminder.org). In this program prepared for BBC in 2013 he talks about the current world population situation. Check out his other population-related talks because he does a nice job of explaining things visually.
http://chinadatacenter.org Although not an official government website, there is a great deal of useful demographic information about China available at the University of Michigan’s China Data Center.
http://censusindia.gov.in You don’t have to take anybody else’s word for what’s happening demographically in India. This Indian census website is in English and has lots of data for the country and its regions.
http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/data/collection/gpw-v3 The Gridded Population of the World is a database created from censuses, surveys, satellite imagery, and other sources, producing a very realistic picture of population density and other characteristics at the global level. Regional maps and data are also available at this website.
http://www.ornl.gov/sci/landscan/ LandScan is another globally gridded set of population data, designed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the U.S. government as a way of evaluating the population anywhere in the world at risk of potential disasters.
http://www.worldpop.org.uk The WorldPop project was initiated in October 2013 to combine the AfriPop, AsiaPop, and AmeriPop population mapping projects. It aims to provide an open-access archive of spatial demographic datasets for Central and South America, Africa, and Asia to support development and health applications. The methods used are designed with full open access and operational application in mind, using transparent, fully documented and shareable methods to produce easily updatable maps with accompanying metadata.
And, of course, look for the latest items related to this chapter posted on my blog:
For the past few years, I have routinely shown the video “World in the Balance—The Population Paradox” during the first or second week of class. It was produced in 2004 as part of the NOVA series on Public Television. Global demographics change slowly enough that the basic ideas are still very current, and students appreciate the visuals. It is available at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/worldbalance/.
- Become familiar with the basic sources of demographic data.
- Understand the nature of census-taking as a fundamental source of information.
- Become knowledgeable about the demographic uses of vital statistics, administrative data, and sample surveys as sources of information.
- Know what kinds of historical data are useful in demographic analysis.
- Understand the spatial nature of demographic information and analysis.
- In order to study population processes and change, you need to know how many people are alive, how many are being born, how many are dying, how many are moving in and out, and why these things are happening.
- A basic source of demographic information is the population census, in which information is obtained about all people in a given area at a specific time.
- Not all countries regularly conduct censuses, but most of the population of the world has been enumerated since 2000.
- Errors in the census typically come about as a result of nonsampling errors (the most important source of error, including coverage error and content error) or sampling errors.
- It has been said that censuses are important because if you aren’t counted, you don’t count.
- Information about births and deaths usually comes from vital registration records—data recorded and compiled by government agencies. The most complete vital registration systems are found in the most highly developed nations, while they are often nonexistent in less developed areas.
- Most of the estimates of the magnitude of population growth and change are derived by combining census data with vital registration data (as well as administrative data), using the demographic balancing equation.
- Sample surveys are sources of information for places in which census or vital registration data do not exist or where reliable information can be obtained less expensively by sampling than by conducting a census.
- Parish records and old census data are important sources of historical information about population changes in the past.
- Spatial demography involves using geographic information systems to analyze demographic data from a spatial perspective, thus contributing substantially to our understanding of how the world works.
Multiple-Choice (Choose the single best answer—the page where the answer is found is indicated in parentheses)
- The word census comes from the Latin for
- “per 100 people.”
- “taxing.” (102)
- Historically, censuses have often been taken in conjunction with
- the conquest of a new area. (104)
- the aftermath of natural disasters.
- preparation for battle.
- the transition to democracy.
- The word statistic is derived from the German word meaning
- “applied mathematics.”
- “facts about a state.” (103)
- “census or survey.”
- “political economy.”
- Censuses designed specifically to inquire about population characteristics became increasingly popular in the _____ century.
- nineteenth (104)
- Nigeria’s modern censuses have been contentious mainly because of
- corruption associated with oil revenue.
- a history of civil wars.
- ethnic tensions and rivalries. (105)
- north–south differences in educational attainment.
- Lebanon has not had a census since 1932 mainly because of tension between
- Arab and French speakers.
- Christians and Muslims. (105)
- higher- and lower-status persons.
- Lebanese and Israelis.
- The single most important purpose of the census in the United States is to
- apportion seats in the House of Representatives. (106)
- provide marketers with accurate data about potential customers.
- apportion seats in the U.S. Senate.
- provide policy planners with accurate demographic information.
- Beginning with the 2010 Census of the United States, the “long-form” data have been replaced by information from the
- Demographic and Health Survey.
- Current Population Survey.
- Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation Survey.
- American Community Survey. (108)
- The United States, Mexico, and Canada all include people in the census on the basis of
- de facto residence.
- usual residence. (111)
- de jure residence.
- common law residence.
- The existence of a differential undercount by race in the United States was first discovered after the census in
- 1940. (115)
- Of the following, which is not a method employed to measure coverage error in the census?
- The demographic balancing equation
- Demographic analysis
- Dual-system estimation
- Differential undercount (116)
- Unlike data from the short form of the census, the American Community Survey data are subject to issues of _____ error.
- sampling (118)
- continuous measurement
- For most countries, vital registration is aimed at collecting data on _____ and ______.
- births; deaths (125)
- abortions; fetal deaths
- in-migration; out-migration
- marriage; divorce
- The United States, Canada, and Mexico all collect national demographic data on a monthly survey basis, focusing largely on
- labor force participation. (127)
- consumer expenditures.
- income and program participation.
- If you wanted to obtain recent detailed population data about a sub-Saharan African country, the most likely source of such information would be the
- INDEPTH Network demographic surveillance sites.
- Demographic and Health Survey. (129)
- World Fertility Survey.
- Family and Fertility Survey.
- If you were interested in doing historical demographic research in China, the most likely source of information available to you would be
- family genealogies. (130)
- population registers.
- church parish records.
- school enrollment data.
- Spatial demography refers to the analysis of demographic data that takes _______ into account.
- business uses of demography
- the location of people being studied (131)
- congressional apportionment
- The concept of spatial autocorrelation as it relates to demography is best captured by which of the following phrases?
- Correlation is not necessarily causation.
- It takes one to know one.
- Birds of a feather flock together. (132)
- Go west, young man.
- Demographics are used in business marketing principally to accomplish which of the following?
- Predict changes in the age structure.
- Find the people who will buy a given product. (132)
- Avoid expensive litigation related to discrimination.
- Reposition declining industries.
- Many useful technologies have been developed in direct conjunction with the U.S. census, except for the
- cell phone. (135)
- photo-optical scanning device.
- card punch tabulating machine.
- The Domesday Book in England represents the first modern census. F (103)
- Germany has always had a population register rather than conducting a census. F (104)
- A census has been taken every 10 years in the United States since 1790. T (106)
- The U.S., Canadian, and Mexican censuses all ask questions about either race, ethnicity, or language. T (109)
- Congressional redistricting in the United States is demographic in nature because geo-referenced demographic data are required to create the districts. T (113)
- The most important source of potential error in most censuses is content error. F (116)
- The principal benefit of the American Community Survey is that it contains data that are more timely than those from a census. T (119)
- The first census taken in Mexico after the Mexican Revolution was in 1970. F (120)
- Public Use Microdata are individual-level data from censuses in the United States and other countries. T (121)
- The U.S. Census Bureau has played a significant role in the development of geographic information science. T (134)
- In the United States, data are already collected from nearly everyone for Social Security cards and drivers’ licenses. Why then does the country not have a population register that would eliminate the need for the census?
- Survey data are never available at the same geographic detail as are census data. What are the disadvantages associated with demographic data that are not provided at a fine geographic scale?
- Virtually all of the demographic surveys and surveillance systems administered in developing countries are paid for by governments in richer countries. What is the advantage to richer countries of helping less-rich countries to collect demographic data?
- What is the value to us in the twenty-first century of having an accurate demographic picture of earlier centuries?
- Provide an example of spatial autocorrelation from your own personal experience. How might this concept influence your demographic perspective?
WEBSITES SUGGESTED FOR THIS CHAPTER
http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/sources/census/censusdates.htm The United Nations Statistics Division facilitates census-taking throughout the world, and at this site you can see the current status of censuses undertaken or planned for each country.
http://www.census.gov The home page of the U.S. Census Bureau. From here you can locate an amazing variety of information, including the latest releases of census data, the American Community Survey, and all of the surveys conducted by the Census Bureau. This is one of the most accessed websites in the world.
http://www.statcan.gc.ca The home page of Statistics Canada, the government organization that conducts the censuses and surveys in Canada. From here you can obtain census data and track other demographically related information about Canada, including vital statistics and survey data, and you can do so in either English or French.
http://www.inegi.gob.mx The home page of INEGI (Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía, y Informática), which is the government agency in Mexico that conducts the censuses and related demographic surveys, as well as compiling the vital statistics for Mexico. You can obtain all of the latest census and survey information from this site, although you will need to be able to read Spanish to do so.
http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/ In many countries (including Canada and Mexico), a central statistical agency conducts censuses and also collects vital statistics. Not so in the United States, where these functions were divided up in the 1940s. The vital statistics data are collected from each state, tabulated, analyzed, and disseminated by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), which is part of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
http://www.socialexplorer.com/pub/home/home.aspx Various census-derived maps are available at this site created by Andrew Beveridge at Queens College in New York City, although the full range of possibilities requires a subscription.
And, of course, you can check out the latest items for this chapter on my blog: