Physiology of Behavior 11th Edition by Carlson – Test Bank

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Physiology of Behavior 11th Edition by Carlson – Test Bank

Chapter 2: Structure and Function of Cells of the Nervous System

 

 

Topic Question Type Factual Conceptual Application
Introduction Multiple Choice

 

 

1-5    
Fill-In 1-4    
Essay      
Cells of the Nervous System Multiple Choice

 

 

8-11,15-24,28,29,33,36-40 6,7,12,13,25-27,30-32, 35,38,41-43 14,34,44
Fill-In 5-8    
Essay      
Communication Within a Neuron Multiple Choice

 

 

45,50,51,54-64,67,70,71,73 46-49, 52,53,65,66,68,69,72,74-80  
Fill-In 9-13    
Essay 1-4,6 5,7  
Communication Between Neurons Multiple Choice

 

 

81,87,88,91,93,96,97,100,103, 105-109 82-86,90,92,94,95,98,99,104 89,101,102
Fill-In 14-20    
Essay 9 8,10,11  

 

 

 


Multiple-Choice Questions

 

2.1-1.  The primary symptom shown by Kathryn D. was

  1. severe nausea.
  2. inability to sleep.
  3. muscle weakness.
  4. distortions of memory.
  5. difficulty in recognizing facial displays of emotion.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID:  2.1-1

Page Ref:  28

Topic:  Opening Vignette

Skill:  Factual

Answer: c. muscle weakness.

Rationale:  Muscle weakness associated with a muscle disorder was the primary symptom shown by Kathryn D.

 

2.1-2.  _______ neurons gather information from the environment related to light, odors, and contact of our skin with objects.

  1. Sensory
  2. Motor
  3. Inter-
  4. Relay inter-
  5. Local inter-

Difficulty:  2

Question ID: 2.1-2

Page Ref: 28

Topic: Introduction

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. Sensory

Rationale:  Sensory neurons gather information from the environment.

 

2.1-3. _______ neurons function to contract muscles.

  1. Sensory
  2. Motor
  3. Inter-
  4. Relay
  5. Local

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-3

Page Ref:  28

Topic:  Introduction

Skill:  Factual

Answer: b. Motor

Rationale:  Motor neurons function to contract body muscles.

 

2.1-4. _______ are located only within the central nervous system.

  1. Sensory
  2. Motor
  3. Relay interneurons
  4. Projection neurons
  5. Schwann cells

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-4

Page Ref: 28

Topic:    Introduction

Skill: Factual

Answer:  c. Relay interneurons

Rationale:  Relay interneurons are located only within the central nervous system.

 

2.1-5.  Which of the following is correct regarding neurons?

  1. All neurons are sensory neurons.
  2. Motor neurons gather sensory information from the environment.
  3. The number of neurons in the human nervous system is estimated at more than 100 billion.
  4. The term “motor” refers to a mechanical engine.
  5. Interneurons are found outside the brain and spinal cord.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-5

Page Ref: 28-29

Topic: Introduction

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. The number of neurons in the human nervous system is estimated at more than 100 billion.

Rationale: The number of neurons in the human nervous system is estimated at more than 100 billion.

 

2.1-6.  The _______ system is defined as comprised of the brain and spinal cord.

  1. peripheral nervous
  2. central nervous
  3. enteric nervous
  4. human nervous
  5. local circuit

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-6

Page Ref: 29

Topic: Introduction

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. central nervous

Rationale:  The brain and spinal cord comprise the central nervous system.

 

2.1-7.  The  _______ system is that portion of the nervous system that lies outside of the brain and spinal cord.

  1. extraspinal
  2. central nervous
  3. enteric nervous
  4. human nervous
  5. peripheral nervous

Difficulty: 2

Question ID:  2.1-7

Page Ref: 29

Topic: Introduction

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: e. peripheral nervous system

Rationale:  The peripheral nervous system lies outside the brain and spinal cord.

 

2.1-8.  The nucleus of the nerve cell is located within the

  1. soma.
  2. axon.
  3. axon terminals.
  4. dendrites.
  5. mitochondria.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-8

Page Ref: 29

Topic: Cells of the Nervous System

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. soma.

Rationale:  The soma of the neuron contains the cell nucleus.

 

2.1-9.  The most common neuron type in the central nervous system is the  _______ neuron.

  1. multipolar
  2. apolar
  3. sensory
  4. bipolar
  5. motor

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-9

Page Ref: 30

Topic: Neurons

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. multipolar

Rationale:  The multipolar neuron is the most common neuron in the central nervous system.

 

2.1-10.  The portion of a neuron that carries information toward the cell body is the

  1. dendrite.
  2. axon terminal.
  3. presynaptic membrane.
  4. soma.
  5. glial membrane.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-10

Page Ref: 29

Topic: Neurons

Skill: Factual Answer: a. dendrite.

Rationale: The dendrite carries information from the synapse toward the cell body.

 

2.1-11.  The physical gap that carries a neural message between two nerve cells is the

  1. glial junction.
  2. axon contact
  3. synapse.
  4. dendritic apposition.
  5. neural gap.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-11

Page Ref: 29

Topic: Neurons

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. synapse.

Rationale:  The synapse is the physical gap that carries a neural message between two nerve cells.

 

2.1-12.  Synapses are most commonly formed between a(n) _______  and a(n) _______.

  1. axon terminal; dendrite
  2. dendrite; soma
  3. soma; glial
  4. glial; dendrite
  5. dendrite; axon terminal

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-12

Page Ref: 29

Topic: Neurons

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. axon terminal;dendrite

Rationale: Synapses are most commonly formed between an axon terminal and a dendrite.

 

2.1-13.  A key function of the _______  nerve cell is to transmit sensory information.

  1. apolar
  2. multipolar
  3. glial fiber
  4. bipolar
  5. heteropolar

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 2.1-13

Page Ref: 30

Topic: Neurons

Skill: Conceptual

Answer:  d:  bipolar

Rationale: An important function of bipolar cells is to transmit sensory information to the brain.

 

2.1-14.  Loss of dendritic branches on  _______ would be expected to impair the ability to sense temperature and touch.

  1. bipolar neurons
  2. multipolar neurons
  3. unipolar neurons
  4. apolar neurons
  5. motor neurons

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 2.1-14

Page Ref: 30

Topic:  Neurons

Skill:   Applied

Answer: c. unipolar neurons

Rationale:  Damage to unipolar neurons would be expected to impair touch and temperature sensing.

 

2.1-15.  The membrane of a nerve cell is comprised of

  1. protein molecules.
  2. vesicle remnants.
  3. a double layer of lipid molecules.
  4. cytoplasm.
  5. a single layer of lipid molecules interfaced with a layer of protein molecules.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-15

Page Ref: 31

Topic:  Neurons

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. a double layer of lipid molecules.

Rationale:  The neuron membrane is a comprised of a double layer of lipid molecules.

 

2.1-16.  Neurotransmitter molecules are most commonly secreted from the

  1. glial cell.
  2. dendrite.
  3. axon terminal.
  4. dendritic apposition.
  5. soma.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-16

Page Ref: 31

Topic: Neurons

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. axon terminal.

Rationale: The axon terminal secretes neurotransmitter molecules into the synapse.

 

22.1-17. A key function of specialized lipid molecules located in the nerve cell is to

  1. detect the presence of hormones outside the cell.
  2. form the membrane.
  3. form channels to carry ions in and out of the cell.
  4. transport molecules into the cell.
  5. transport vesicles within the neuron.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-17

Page Ref: 31

Topic:  Neurons

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. form the membrane.

Rationale: The neuron membrane is formed by specialized lipid molecules.

 

2.1-18.  Match up the internal cell structure with the function most closely associated with that structure:

  1. nucleolus; production of cytoplasm
  2. ribosomes; production of DNA
  3. lipid bilayer; production of ribosomes
  4. nucleolus; production of ribosomes
  5. mRNA; production of cytoplasm

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-18

Page Ref: 32

Topic: Neurons

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. nucleolus; production of ribosomes

Rationale: The nucleolus is involved in the production of ribosomes.

 

2.1-19.  Which of the following structures is the site of production of proteins?

  1. vesicles
  2. ribosomes
  3. genes
  4. myeline.
  5. the nucleolus

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-19

Page Ref: 32

Topic:  Neurons

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. ribosomes

Rationale:  Ribosomes located outside of the nucleus cause protein production.

 

2.1-20.  Which of the following represents a correct match between a neuronal organelle and its function?

  1. mitochondria; extraction of energy
  2. Golgi apparatus; extraction of energy
  3. endoplasmic reticulum; breakdown of proteins
  4. microtubules; transport of chemicals through the cell membrane
  5. mitochondria; formation of vesicles

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-20

Page Ref: 34

Topic:  Neurons

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. mitochondria; extraction of energy

Rationale:  Mitochondria within the neuron soma are involved in the extraction of energy for the cell.

 

2.1-21.   Match the correct function with the neuronal organelle:

  1. mitochondria; production of fat-like molecules
  2. mitochondria; formation of vesicles
  3. endoplasmic reticulum; breakdown of proteins
  4. microtubules; transport of molecules between the soma and the axon terminals
  5. Golgi apparatus; extraction of energy for cell use

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-21

Page Ref: 35

Topic:  Neurons

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. microtubules; transport of molecules between the soma and the axon terminals

Rationale:  The transport of molecules between the soma and the axon terminals is handled by the microtubules.

 

2.1-22.  Proteins are produced within the neuron cytoplasm by

  1. mitochondria.
  2. ribosomes.
  3. lysosomes.
  4. the cytoskeleton.
  5. nucleoli.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-22

Page Ref: 34

Topic:  Neurons

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. ribosomes.

Rationale:  Proteins are produced within the neuron cytoplasm by ribosomes.

 

2.1-23.  Which of the following is true of the human genome?

  1. Humans have about 95,000,000 genes.
  2. Much of the genome contains “junk” DNA.
  3. Non-coding “junk” RNA sequences that do not produce protein has no known function.
  4. The human genome has not been fully sequenced.
  5. Nearly 10% of the genes of the human genome code for proteins.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 2.1-23

Page Ref: 33

Topic:  Neurons

Skill: Factual

Answer:   b:  Much of the human genome contains “junk” DNA.

Rationale:  Much of the genome contains “junk” DNA that does not code for specific proteins.

 

2.1.24.  Surplus substances within the cytoplasm are degraded by

  1. mitochondria.
  2. ribosomes.
  3. lysosomes.
  4. the cytoskeleton.
  5. cytoskeletal proteins.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-24

Page Ref: 35

Topic:  Neurons

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. lysosomes.

Rationale:  Lysosomes degrade surplus structures within the cell cytoplasm.

 

2.1-25.  A key function of lysosomes is to

  1. move vesicles from the soma to the axon terminal.
  2. produce proteins.
  3. degrade surplus cellular materials.
  4. provide energy to the neuron.
  5. transport vesicles within the neuron.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-25

Page Ref: 35

Topic:  Neurons

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. degrade surplus cellular materials.

Rationale: Lysosomes  degrade surplus cellular material  within the neuron cytoplasm.

 

2.1-26. Which of the following is correct regarding axoplasmic transport?

  1. The dynein molecule is involved in anterograde axoplasmic transport.
  2. Retrograde axoplasmic transport involves moving substances from the soma to the axon terminals.
  3. The kinesin molecule is involved in retrograde axoplasmic transport.
  4. Retrograde transport is half as fast as anterograde axoplasmic transport.
  5. Transport of materials occurs only in one direction.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 2.1-26

Page Ref: 35

Topic:  Neurons

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. Retrograde transport is half as fast as anterograde axoplasmic transport.

Rationale:  Retrograde transport is half as fast as anterograde axoplasmic transport for the movement of materials within the neuron.

 

2.1-27.  Which of the following is correct regarding axoplasmic transport?

  1. Dendrograde transport involves moving substances from the dendrites to the soma.
  2. Retrograde transport involves moving substances from the soma to the axon terminals.
  3. The kinesin molecule is involved in anterograde transport.
  4. Retrograde transport is twice as fast as anterograde transport.
  5. The dynein molecule is involved in anterograde transport.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 2.1-27

Page Ref: 35

Topic:  Neurons

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. The kinesin molecule is involved in anterograde transport.

Rationale:  The kinesin molecule is involved in anterograde transport for the movement of materials within the neuron.

 

2.1-28.  Movement of cargo from one end of the axon to the other involves _______ along the _______ .

  1. axoplasmic transport; myelin sheath
  2. facilitated diffusion; exterior of the cell membrane
  3. facilitated diffusion; neurofilaments
  4. protein synthesis; microtubules
  5. axoplasmic transport; microtubules

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-28

Page Ref: 35

Topic:  Neurons

Skill: Factual

Answer: e. axoplasmic transport; microtubules

Rationale:  The axoplasmic  transport of molecules between the soma and the axon terminals  is handled by the microtubules.

 

2.1-29.  Neurons of the central nervous system are provided nutrients, oxygen, and physical support by _______ cells.

  1. Schwann
  2. glial or neuroglial
  3. Golgi
  4. stem
  5. microtubule

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-29

Page Ref: 35

Topic:  Supporting Cells

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. glial or neuroglial

Rationale:  Neuroglial cells provide nutrients, oxygen, and physical support to neurons.

 

2.1-30.  Which of the following is a key a function of the glial cells?

  1. Protection of the outer surface of the brain.
  2. Removal of physical debris from the brain.
  3. Secretion of CSF in the brain.
  4. Movement of vesicles along the axon.
  5. The conduction of action potentials.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-30

Page Ref: 35

Topic:  Supporting Cells

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b:  Removal of physical debris from the brain.

Rationale:  The glial cells aid in the removal of physical debris from the brain.

 

2.1-31.     Which of the following is true of neurons?

  1. Neurons have a high metabolic rate.
  2. The dendrites store nutrients and oxygen for the neuron.
  3. Dead neurons are consumed by other neurons.
  4. Neurons make up 29% of the volume of the brain.
  5. Neurons can survive for hours without oxygen.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-31

Page Ref: 35

Topic:  Supporting Cells

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. Neurons have a high metabolic rate.

Rationale:  Neurons have a high metabolic rate, which requires a dedicated source of oxygen and nutrients.

 

2.1-32.  Nerve cells are able to rapidly metabolize fuel because

  1. of their capacity to store glucose in the cytoplasm.
  2. neurons receive lactate from astrocytes.
  3. glial cells can transfer ATP into neurons.
  4. brain blood vessels can convert glucose into lactate for neuron use.
  5. glial cell mitochondria process fuel for the neuron.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-32

Page Ref: 36

Topic:  Supporting Cells

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. neurons receive lactate from astrocytes.

Rationale:  Glial cells convert glucose to lactate, which is then supplied to the neuron.

 

2.1-33.  The  _______ are the key supply source of energy for neurons.

  1. phagocytes
  2. Schwann cells
  3. dendrocytes
  4. astrocytes
  5. microtubules

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-33

Page Ref: 36

Topic:  Supporting Cells

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. astrocytes

Rationale:  Astrocyes are the key supply source of rapid energy for neurons.

 

2.1-34.  A drug that specifically killed the _______ cells would be expected to alter the physical and nutritional support of brain cells.

  1. phagocyte
  2. Schwann
  3. microglia
  4. astrocyte
  5. microtubule

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-34

Page Ref: 36

Topic:  Supporting Cells

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. astrocyte

Rationale:  Damage to astrocytes would be expected to alter the physical and nutritional support of brain cells.

 

2.1-35. The process of phagocytosis involves

  1. the removal of neuronal debris.
  2. the transfer of lactate from a glial cell to a neuron.
  3. the wrapping of fatty material around an axon membrane.
  4. structural support of a nerve cell.
  5. the degradation of transmitter molecules within the synapse.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-35

Page Ref: 36

Topic:  Supporting Cells

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. the removal of neuronal debris.

Rationale: Phagocytosis refers to the removal and destruction of debris from a neuron.

 

2.1-36.  The scar tissue generated in the brain by _______ cells acts to impede the regrowth of nerve cells.

  1. astrocytes
  2. microglia
  3. Schwann cells
  4. axon terminals
  5. phagocytes

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-36

Page Ref: 36-37

Topic:  Supporting Cells

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. astrocytes

Rationale: Astrocytes form scar tissue in brain that acts to impede the regrowth of nerve cells.

 

2.1-37.  Myelination of brain nerve axon membranes is accomplished by

  1. oligodendrocytes.
  2. microglia.
  3. astrocytes.
  4. neurocytes.
  5. Schwann cells.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-37

Page Ref: 37

Topic:  Supporting Cells

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. oligodendrocytes

Rationale: Oligodendrocytes form the myelin sheath around axons in the brain.

 

2.1-38.  A key feature for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis in Dr. C. was

  1. focal damage to a single brain region evident in a CT scan.
  2. diverse neurological symptoms that appeared at different times.
  3. the excess production of myelin in the nervous system.
  4. the occurrence of small strokes that impair brain function.
  5. an autoimmune disease that attacks the myelin found in the peripheral nervous system.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-38

Page Ref: 38

Topic:  Supporting Cells

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. diverse neurological symptoms that appeared at different times.

Rationale: The clue that allowed for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis in Dr. C was

her display of diverse neurological symptoms that appeared at different times.

 

2.1-39.  The  _______ mediates the inflammatory reaction that follows brain damage.

  1. Schwann cell
  2. phagocyte
  3. dendrocyte
  4. astrocyte
  5. microglia

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-39

Page Ref: 38

Topic:  Supporting Cells

Skill: Factual

Answer: e. microglia

Rationale:  The inflammatory reaction that follows brain damage results from the action of microglia.

 

2.1-40.  Which of the following is true of Schwann cells?

  1. Schwann cells provide myelin for peripheral nerve cells.
  2. Schwann cells are found within the brain.
  3. A single Schwann cell wraps multiple segments around a peripheral nerve cell.
  4. A single Schwann cells can myelinate up to 50 segments of axon membrane.
  5. Schwann cells remove the cellular debris left by dead neurons in brain.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 2.1-40

Page Ref: 39

Topic:  Supporting Cells

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. Schwann cells provide myelin for peripheral nerve cells.

Rationale: Schwann cells form myelin sheaths for peripheral axons.

 

2.1-41.  Regrowth of a damaged axon can occur more readily in the peripheral nervous system than in the brain because

  1. Schwann cells form barriers to axon regrowth.
  2. Schwann cells form cylinders through which new axons can grow and reinnervate a target cell nerve cell.
  3. Schwann cells generate a chemical signal that instructs nerve cells to die.
  4. Astrocytes form cylinders through which new axons can grow and reinnervate a target cell nerve cell.
  5. Oligodendroglia form barriers to axon regrowth.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-41

Page Ref: 39

Topic:  Supporting Cells

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. Schwann cells form cylinders through which new axons can grow and reinnervate a target cell nerve cell.

Rationale: Regrowth of a damaged axon can occur more readily in the peripheral nervous system than in the brain because Schwann cells form cylinders through which new axons can grow and reinnervate a target cell nerve cell.

 

2.1-42.  The presence of a barrier between the bloodstream and the brain is suggested by the observation that

  1. all cells of the body are stained by a dye injected into the bloodstream.
  2. injection of dye into the bloodstream stains all cells but those of the brain and spinal cord.
  3. the gut is stained by a dye injected into the brain ventricles.
  4. injection of dye into the spinal cord stains the cells of the gut.
  5. injection of dye into the gut stains the cells of the spinal cord.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 2.1-42

Page Ref: 39

Topic:  The Blood-Brain Barrier

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. injection of dye into the bloodstream stains all cells but those of the brain and spinal cord.

Rationale:  The presence of a blood-brain barrier was inferred from the observation injection of dye into the bloodstream stains all cells except those of the brain and spinal cord.

 

2.1-43.   Which of the following is true of the blood-brain barrier?

  1. The barrier is uniform, protecting all brain structures.
  2. The barrier pumps glucose out of the brain into the bloodstream.
  3. The barrier functions to regulate the chemical composition of the extracellular fluid surrounding the brain cells.
  4. The barrier is formed by cells that line the capillaries of the brain.
  5. The ventricles have a blood-brain barrier.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-43

Page Ref: 39-40

Topic:  The Blood-Brain Barrier

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. The barrier functions to regulate the chemical composition of the extracellular fluid surrounding the brain cells.

Rationale: The blood-brain barrier functions to regulate the chemical composition of the extracellular fluid surrounding the brain cells.

 

2.1-44. Activation of cells within the _______ by a poison in the blood would be predicted to produce _______.

  1. nucleus accumbens; visual hallucinations
  2. hippocampus; locomotion
  3. hypothalamus; vomiting
  4. area postrema; vomiting
  5. hippocampus; vomiting

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-44

Page Ref: 40

Topic:  The Blood-Brain Barrier

Skill:    Applied

Answer: d. area postrema; vomiting

Rationale:  Cells within the area postrema control emesis; blood-borne poisons can thus trigger vomiting which can evacuate the stomach.

 

2.1-45.  The normal order of activation during neuronal transmission is

  1. axon –> dendrite –> cell body –> axon terminals.
  2. axon terminals –> cell body –> axon –> dendrite.
  3. dendrite –> cell body –> axon –> terminal button.
  4. cell body –> axon –> dendrite –> axon terminal.
  5. dendrite –> axon terminal –> cell body –> axon.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-45

Page Ref: 41

Topic:  Neural Communication: An Overview

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. dendrite –> cell body –> axon –> terminal button.

Rationale:  Neuronal transmission starts with the dendrite and in turn involves the cell body, the axon, and then finally the axon  terminal button.

 

2.1-46.  The simplest version of a withdrawal from pain reflex is a

  1. pain receptor that synapses onto an interneuron, which in turn activates a motor neuron in the spinal cord.
  2. pain receptor that projects to the thalamus, which then projects to motor cortex and then back down to the spinal cord.
  3. motor neuron within the spinal cord that is spontaneously active.
  4. sensory neuron in the visual cortex that synapses onto a motor neuron in the spinal cord.
  5. motor neuron that activates sensory fibers.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-46

Page Ref: 41

Topic:  Neural Communication: An Overview

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. pain receptor that synapses onto an interneuron, which in turn activates a motor

neuron in the spinal cord.

Rationale: The simplest reflex involves a pain receptor that synapses onto an interneuron, which in turn activates a motor neuron within the spinal cord.

 

2.1-47.  A key function of the giant squid axon is the

  1. integration of sensory messages regarding the environment.
  2. planning of feeding-related movements.
  3. contraction of the squid mantle, which propels the squid away from danger.
  4. coordination of general sensory-motor function.
  5. contraction of the oral region to produce chewing movements.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-47

Page Ref: 43

Topic:  Measuring Electrical Potentials of Axons

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. contraction of the squid mantle, which propels the squid away from danger.

Rationale:  The giant squid axon controls the contraction of the squid mantle, which moves the squid away from sources of danger.

 

2.1-48. The function of a _______ in a giant squid physiology experiment is to  _______.

  1. microelectrode; inject potassium ions into the axon
  2. voltmeter; stimulate the interior of the axon
  3. microelectrode; compare the electric charge of the interior with that of the exterior
  4. voltmeter; compare the electric charge of the interior with that of the exterior
  5. microelectrode; dampen the electric charge within the axon

Difficulty:       2

Question ID:   2.1-48

Page Ref:        43

Topic:  Measuring Electrical Potentials of Axons

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: d: voltmeter; compare the electric charge of the interior with that of the exterior

Rationale:  The voltmeter compares the electric charge of the interior with that of the exterior.

 

2.1-49.  The interior of a neuron at rest

  1. has the same ionic concentrations as the outside.
  2. is at the same voltage potential as the outside.
  3. has a higher sodium concentration than outside.
  4. is negatively charged relative to the outside.
  5. has a lower potassium concentration than outside.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-49

Page Ref: 43-44

Topic:  Measuring Electrical Potentials of Axons

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. is negatively charged relative to the outside.

Rationale:  The interior of the axon membrane is negatively charged relative to the outside of the membrane.

 

2.1-50.  The difference in electrical charge between the inside and the outside of the axon membrane is defined as the  _______ potential.

  1. membrane
  2. local
  3. glial
  4. action
  5. axon Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-50

Page Ref: 43

Topic:  Measuring Electrical Potentials of Axons

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. membrane

Rationale:  The membrane potential is defined as the difference in electrical charge between the inside and the outside of the axon membrane.

 

2.1-51.  The  _______ potential is defined as the difference in electrical charge between the inside and the outside of an undisturbed axon membrane.

  1. resting membrane
  2. local
  3. resting
  4. action
  5. axon

Difficulty: 2

Question ID:  2.1-51

Page Ref:  43

Topic:  Measuring Electrical Potentials of Axons

Skill:  Factual

Answer: a. resting membrane

Rationale: The resting membrane potential is defined as the difference in electrical charge between the inside and the outside of an undisturbed axon membrane.

 

2.1-52.  A change in the axon membrane potential from -70 mV to -90 mV would be termed a(n)

  1. depolarization.
  2. threshold potential.
  3. action potential.
  4. hyperpolarization.
  5. excitatory local potential.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-52

Page Ref: 44

Topic: Measuring Electrical Potentials of Axons

Skill:  Conceptual

Answer: d. hyperpolarization.

Rationale:  A hyperpolarization refers to a movement of the resting membrane potential in a more negative direction.

 

2.1-53.  A neuron membrane potential moves from -90 mV to -80 mV in response to a brief stimulation. We would term this change in potential as a(n)

  1. depolarization.
  2. resting potential.
  3. action potential.
  4. hyperpolarization.
  5. inhibitory local potential.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-53

Page Ref: 44

Topic: Measuring Electrical Potentials of Axons

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. depolarization.

Rationale:  A depolarization refers to a movement of the resting membrane potential in a more positive direction (towards 0 mV).

 

2.1-54.  A(n) _______  will be recorded from a nerve cell whose membrane potential rises above threshold.

  1. action potential
  2. local potential
  3. downward shift of the threshold of excitation
  4. upward shift of the membrane threshold
  5. long-term change in the membrane potential

Difficulty:  1

Question ID: 2.1-54

Page Ref: 44

Topic: Measuring Electrical Potentials of Axons

Skill:  Factual

Answer: a. action potential

Rationale:  An action potential is initiated when the resting membrane potential reaches threshold.

 

2.1-55.  The   _______ is the voltage level at which an action potential is triggered in a patch of axon membrane.

  1. resting membrane potential
  2. hyperpolarization event
  3. threshold of excitation
  4. rate level
  5. refractory period

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1- 55

Page Ref: 44

Topic:  Measuring Electrical Potentials of Axons

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. threshold of excitation

Rationale:  The threshold of excitation is that value of membrane potential at which an action potential is triggered.

 

2.1-56.  A cup of sugar is dumped into a gallon of hot water. After 30 minutes, we will expect that the process of  _______ will ensure that the sugar molecules are evenly distributed throughout the water.

  1. retrograde transport
  2. diffusion
  3. anterograde transport
  4. electrostatic pressure
  5. salinity

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-56

Page Ref: 45

Topic:  The Membrane Potential: Balance of Two Forces

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. diffusion

Rationale:  Molecules are distributed evenly throughout a medium via the process of diffusion.

 

2.1-57.  A substance that forms oppositely charged particles when dissolved into water would be termed a(n)

  1. ion.
  2. molecule.
  3. electrolyte.
  4. cation.
  5. anion.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-57

Page Ref: 45

Topic:  The Membrane Potential: Balance of Two Forces

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. electrolyte.

Rationale:  An ion is a charged particle.

 

2.1-58. _______ are charged particles formed when an electrolyte dissolves in water.

  1. Ions
  2. Solvents
  3. Transmitters
  4. Electrons
  5. Solutes

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-58

Page Ref: 45

Topic:  The Membrane Potential: Balance of Two Forces

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. Ions

Rationale: A charged particle is known as an ion.

 

2.1-59. _______ are positively charged ionic particles.

  1. Transmitters
  2. Solvents
  3. Electrolytes
  4. Cations
  5. Anions

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-59

Page Ref: 45

Topic:  The Membrane Potential: Balance of Two Forces

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. Cations

Rationale: A positively charged particle is defined as a cation.

 

2.1-60. _______ are negatively charged particles.

  1. Transmitters
  2. Solvents
  3. Electrolytes
  4. Cations
  5. Anions

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-60

Page Ref: 45

Topic:  The Membrane Potential: Balance of Two Forces

Skill: Factual

Answer: e. Anions

Rationale: A negatively charged particle is defined as a cation.

 

2.1-61.  The process by which similarly charged particles repel each other and are thus moved within a medium is termed

  1. diffusion.
  2. carrier-mediated transport.
  3. refraction.
  4. electrostatic pressure.
  5. diffraction.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-61

Page Ref: 45

Topic:  The Membrane Potential: Balance of Two Forces

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. electrostatic pressure.

Rationale:  The process by which similarly charged particles repel each other and are thus moved within a medium is known as electrostatic pressure.

 

2.1-62.  Which of the following is true of ion distribution across the axon membrane?

  1. Chloride ions are more concentrated inside the axon membrane.
  2. Potassium ions are more concentrated outside the cell membrane.
  3. The action potential is the balance point between diffusion and electrostatic pressure.
  4. Sodium ions are more concentrated outside the axon membrane.
  5. Sodium ions are more concentrated inside the axon membrane.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-62

Page Ref: 45

Topic:  The Membrane Potential: Balance of Two Forces

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. Sodium ions are more concentrated outside the axon membrane.

Rationale: Sodium ions are more concentrated outside the axon membrane

 

2.1-63.  Movement of  _______ ions   _______ the axon would be induced by the force of diffusion.

  1. chloride; out of
  2. sodium; into
  3. potassium; into
  4. organic; into
  5. sodium; out of

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-63

Page Ref: 45

Topic:  The Membrane Potential: Balance of Two Forces

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. sodium; into

Rationale: The force of diffusion would tend to force sodium ions into the axon.

 

2.1-64.  Sodium ions move out of the axon because of

  1. the opening of sodium channels.
  2. the opening of voltage-gated channels.
  3. kinesin.
  4. electrostatic pressure.
  5. the sodium-potassium transporter.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-64

Page Ref: 46

Topic:  The Membrane Potential: Balance of Two Forces

Skill: Factual

Answer: e. the sodium-potassium transporter.

Rationale:  The sodium-potassium transporter acts to move sodium ions out of the axon.

 

2.1-65.  As a consequence of the activity of the sodium-potassium transporters,

  1. extracellular sodium concentrations are kept low.
  2. intracellular sodium concentrations are kept very high.
  3. extracellular potassium concentrations are kept very high.
  4. intracellular sodium concentrations are kept low.
  5. very little energy is required to maintain ionic differences across the membrane.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-65

Page Ref: 46

Topic:  The Membrane Potential: Balance of Two Forces

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. intracellular sodium concentrations are kept low.

Rationale:  The sodium-potassium transporter acts to move sodium ions out of the axon thus keeping intracellular sodium concentrations at a low level.

 

2.1-66.  Which of the following is true regarding the action potential (AP)?

  1. The AP is conducted along the dendrite.
  2. The AP is conducted faster in unmyelinated nerve cells
  3. The AP is an all-or-none electrical event
  4. The AP amplitude is higher for an intense signal.
  5. The AP amplitude depends on its location along the axon.

Difficulty:       2

Question ID: 2.1-66

Page Ref: 49, 51

Topic:  Conduction of the Action Potential

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. The AP is an all-or-none electrical event.

Rationale:  The action potential is an all-or-none event.

 

2.1-67.  The specialized protein molecules located in the axon membrane that can open or close are termed

  1. receptors.
  2. voltage transporters.
  3. autoreceptors.
  4. ion channels.
  5. sodium-potassium transporters.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-67

Page Ref: 47

Topic: The Action Potential

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. ion channels.

Rationale:  Ion channels are proteins located in the axon membrane that open or close thus allowing ions to enter or leave the neuron.

 

2.1-68.  Which of the following is true of the action potential?

  1. More sodium channels are opened at a lower voltage level than are the potassium channels.
  2. The action potential requires 10 msec for completion.
  3. The action potential requires the activity of the sodium-potassium transporters during the rising phase.
  4. More potassium channels are opened at a lower voltage than are sodium channels.
  5. The overshoot is due to a prolonged change in sodium conductance.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-68

Page Ref: 47

Topic:  The Action Potential

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. More sodium channels are opened at a lower voltage level than are the potassium channels.

Rationale:  The upswing of the action potential occurs because more sodium channels are opened at a lower voltage level than are the potassium channels.

 

2.1-69.  Sodium ions will be pushed into a resting neuron by the forces of

  1. inactivation of potassium channels; diffusion.
  2. electrostatic pressure; sodium-potassium pump activation.
  3. sodium-potassium pump activation; diffusion.
  4. ion channel inactivation; diffusion.
  5. diffusion; electrostatic pressure.

Difficulty:  2

Question ID: 2.1-69

Page Ref:  45

Topic: The Membrane Potential: The Balance of Two Forces

Skill:  Conceptual

Answer: e. diffusion; electrostatic pressure.

Rationale:  The forces of diffusion and electrostatic pressure push sodium ions into the axon interior.

 

2.1-70. Match the ion channel action with its resulting change in membrane potential:

 

  1. entry of a negative ion; hyperpolarization
  2. entry of a positive ion; hyperpolarization
  3. exit of a positive ion; depolarization
  4. exit of a negative ion; hyperpolarization
  5. inactivation of sodium-potassium transporters; depolarization

Difficulty: 3

Question ID:  2.1-70

Page Ref: 44-47

Topic: Measuring Electrical Potentials of Axons; The Membrane Potential: Balance of Two Forces; The Action Potential

Skill:   Factual

Answer: a. entry of a negative ion; hyperpolarization

Rationale: Hyperpolarization is produced by the entry of a negative ion into the axon.

 

2.1-71.  Which of the following events restores the membrane potential from the peak of the action potential back down to the resting level?

  1. Sodium ions move into the cell.
  2. Potassium ions move out of the cell.
  3. Potassium ions move into the cell.
  4. Chloride ions move into the cell.
  5. Protein anions move out of the cell.

Difficulty:  2

Question ID: 2.1-71

Page Ref: 48

Topic:  Action Potential

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. Potassium ions move out of the cell.

Rationale: The movement of potassium ions out of the axon moves the membrane potential back to resting levels.

 

2.1-72.  Which of the following sets of terms do NOT belong together?

  1. saltatory conduction; faster conduction speeds in smaller neurons
  2. open sodium channels; membrane depolarization
  3. saltatory conduction; slower conduction speeds in smaller neurons
  4. open potassium channels; membrane repolarization
  5. sodium-potassium pump; restoration of the normal concentrations of these ions

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 2.1-72

Page Ref: 49-50

Topic:  Conduction of the Action Potential

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. saltatory conduction; slower conduction speeds in smaller neurons

Rationale:  Saltatory conduction results in more rapid conduction speeds in smaller neurons

 

2.1-73.  Which of the following is consistent with the “all-or-none” law?

  1. The action potential will diminish to near 0 mV when transmitted down a long axon.
  2. The action potential fires at the same rate regardless of the inputs to the neuron.
  3. The action potential is conducted more rapidly down the axon as it reaches the axon terminal.
  4. The action potential is produced whenever the membrane potential reaches threshold.
  5. The action potential travels only in one direction.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-73

Page Ref: 48

Topic:  The Action Potential

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. The action potential is produced whenever the membrane potential reaches

threshold.

Rationale:  The fact that an AP occurs when threshold is reached but not below the threshold is consistent with the notion of all-or-none.

 

2.1-74.  The nervous system codes for variation in the intensity of incoming sensory stimuli by variations in the  _______ of a neuron.

  1. repolarization rate
  2. resting membrane potential
  3. speed of conduction of action potentials
  4. total amplitude of the action potential
  5. firing rate

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-74

Page Ref: 49

Topic: Conduction of the Action Potential

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: e. firing rate

Rationale: More intense stimuli produce a faster rate of firing in a given sensory neuron.

 

2.1-75.  Depolarizations of the axon membrane that are below the threshold of activation

  1. involve activation of the sodium-potassium pump.
  2. remain the same size at each point along the membrane.
  3. are just smaller versions of the action potential.
  4. decrease in size as they sweep along the membrane.
  5. are not conducted along the membrane.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-75

Page Ref: 51

Topic:  Communication Between Neurons

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. decrease in size as they sweep along the membrane.

Rationale: Local potentials decrease in size as they sweep along the membrane.

 

2.1-76.  Among the cable properties of axons are the fact that

  1. subthreshold signals degrade with distance from the point of stimulation.
  2. a high rate of firing produces a stronger response in muscle.
  3. subthreshold signals grow in size with distance.
  4. subthreshold signals remain constant in size along the axon membrane.
  5. subthreshold signals grow in size as time passes.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-76

Page Ref: 50

Topic:  Conduction of the Action Potential

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. subthreshold signals degrade with distance from the point of stimulation.

Rationale:  Subthreshold local potentials degrade with distance from the point of stimulation.

 

2.1-77.  In a myelinated axon, ions can enter and leave the axonal membrane only at

  1. the terminal buttons.
  2. the soma.
  3. the nodes of Ranvier.
  4. the segment of membrane under the Schwann cell wrapping.
  5. every point along the axonal membrane.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-77

Page Ref: 50

Topic:  Conduction of the Action Potential

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. the nodes of Ranvier.

Rationale: Ions enter/leave the myelinated axon only at the nodes of Ranvier.

 

2.1-78.  Which of the following is an important advantage associated with saltatory conduction?

  1. More sodium ions have to be pumped out of the cell after an action potential.
  2. Myelin allows the nerve cell to recycle neurotransmitter molecules.
  3. Less transmitter is required to send a message across the next synapse.
  4. Myelin speeds up the velocity at which an axon can conduct an action potential.
  5. Myelin requires that nerve cell axons be larger in order to conduct a signal rapidly.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 2.1-78

Page Ref: 50

Topic:  Conduction of the Action Potential

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. Myelin speeds up the velocity at which an axon can conduct an action potential.

Rationale:  Myelin and saltatory conduction speed up the velocity at which an axon can conduct an action potential.

 

2.1-79.  Which of the following was suggested as an advantage associated with myelination?

  1. Myelin changes the height of the action potential.
  2. Myelin increases the energy requirements of the nerve cell.
  3. Myelin slows down conduction speed.
  4. Myelin reduces the threshold for induction of an action potential.
  5. Myelin speeds up axon conduction speed.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-79

Page Ref: 50

Topic:  Conduction of the Action Potential

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: e. Myelin speeds up axon conduction speed.

Rationale:  Myelin makes for more rapid communication of nerve signals.

 

2.1-80.  Saltatory conduction is rapid because

  1. cable properties carry the signal under the myelin sheath.
  2. myelinated cells have more leakage through the membrane.
  3. myelinated axons are larger in diameter.
  4. myelinated cells have more ion channels per unit area than do non-myelinated cells.
  5. myelinated fibers have a lower threshold of activation.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-80

Page Ref: 50

Topic:  Conduction of the Action Potential

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. cable properties carry the signal under the myelin sheath.

Rationale:  Saltatory conduction is rapid because the membrane potential does not have to depolarize each successive patch of membrane.

 

2.1-81.  The term _______ is derived from the word meaning “little bladder.”

  1. vesicle
  2. neurite
  3. cisternae
  4. mitochondria
  5. storage pool

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-81

Page Ref: 52

Topic:  Structure of Synapses

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. vesicle

Rationale:  The term vesicle means “little bladder.”

 

2.1-82.  Which of the following is true of receptors?

  1. The effects of hormones do not involve receptor activation.
  2. Neurotransmitters act on binding sites on receptors to exert their effects.
  3. Receptors are insensitive to drugs.
  4. Neuromodulators are ligands that come from outside the body.
  5. Hormone receptors are found in all tissues except brain.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 2.1-82

Page Ref: 56

Topic:  Activation of Receptors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. Neurotransmitters act on binding sites on receptors to exert their effects.

Rationale:  Neurotransmitter molecules act on binding sites on receptors to exert their effects on the postsynaptic membrane.

 

2.1-83.  Signals are carried across the synapse by

  1. direct electrical connections between the two cells.
  2. the secretion of transmitter molecules into the synapse.
  3. the transfer of ions from one cell to another.
  4. carrier molecules.
  5. the sodium-potassium pump.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-83

Page Ref: 54

Topic:  Release of Neurotransmitter

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. the secretion of transmitter molecules into the synapse.

Rationale:  The signal from the presynaptic axon terminal is carried across the synapse by secretion of a transmitter into the synapse.

 

2.1-84.   Communication of neural signals across the synapse involves

  1. the opening of transmitter -gated channels in the axon terminal.
  2. voltage changes that open chloride channels in the presynaptic membrane.
  3. vesicles that take up transmitter molecules into the axon terminal .
  4. the binding of transmitter at postsynaptic receptors triggering membrane potentials.
  5. direct electrical contact of the pre- and post-synaptic membranes.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-84

Page Ref: 54

Topic:  Release of Neurotransmitter

Skill: Conceptual

Answer:  d. the binding of transmitter at postsynaptic receptors triggering membrane potentials.

Rationale:  Communication of neural signals across the synapse involves the release of a transmitter from the axon terminal, which binds to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane.

 

2.1-85.  The largest number of small vesicles would be expected to be located within the _______ of a neuron.

  1. dendritic spines
  2. soma
  3. postsynaptic membrane
  4. release zone
  5. axon hillock

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-85

Page Ref: 53

Topic:  Structure of Synapses

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. release zone

Rationale: The largest number of small vesicles would be expected to be located within the release zone of a neuron.

 

2.1-86.  A large, dense-core vesicle found in the axon terminal is likely to contain

  1. peptide neurotransmitters
  2. neurotransmitter receptors.
  3. enzymes that degrade transmitter molecules
  4. synthesis peptides.
  5. nonpeptide transmitter molecules.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-86

Page Ref: 53

Topic:  Structure of Synapses

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. peptides.

Rationale:  Peptide transmitters are located within large dense-core vesicles of the axon terminal.

 

2.1-87.  Synaptic vesicles are produced in the _______.

  1. neuron soma
  2. dendrites
  3. glial cells
  4. neuron lysosomes
  5. astrocytes

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-87

Page Ref: 53

Topic:  Structure of Synapses

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. neuron soma

Rationale:  Synaptic vesicles are manufactured in the soma of the nerve cell.

 

2.1-88.  Neurotransmitter release from the presynaptic membrane is triggered by the

  1. activation of the sodium-potassium pumps.
  2. arrival of an EPSP at the axon terminal.
  3. influx of calcium ions into the axon terminal.
  4. hyperpolarization of the axon membrane.
  5. opening of channels within the microtubules.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-88

Page Ref: 55

Topic:  Release of Neurotransmitter

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. influx of calcium ions into the axon terminal.

Rationale:  Influx of calcium ions into the axon terminal triggers neurotransmitter release from the presynaptic membrane.

 

2.1-89.  Placing neurons and their synaptic contacts into a medium containing no calcium ions would be expected to

  1. decrease the time required to move sodium ions out of the axon terminal.
  2. enhance the voltage changes associated with the action potential.
  3. increase the number of transmitter molecules released from the axon terminal.
  4. prolong the refractory period of the action potential.
  5. prevent the release of neurotransmitter into the synapse.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 2.1-89

Page Ref: 55

Topic:  Release of Neurotransmitter

Skill: Applied

Answer: e. prevent the release of neurotransmitter into the synapse.

Rationale: Maintaining a neuron is a low calcium medium would be expected to prevent the release of neurotransmitter into the synapse.

 

2.1-90.  In order to produce a depolarization or hyperpolarization of the postsynaptic membrane, neurotransmitters

  1. diffuse widely in the brain to exert changes in metabolism.
  2. act through ionotropic receptors to activate a second-messenger. c. are released into the synapse from the cisternae.
  3. open ion channels in the postsynaptic membrane. e. alter ion channel activity for minutes.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-90

Page Ref: 56

Topic:  Activation of Receptors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. open ion channels in the postsynaptic membrane.

Rationale:  Neurotransmitters act to produce postsynaptic membrane potentials by opening or closing ion channels.

 

2.1-91.  After a vesicle fuses with the presynaptic membrane and releases its contents into the synaptic cleft, the membrane is

  1. destroyed by astrocytes.
  2. incorporated into the postsynaptic membrane.
  3. recycled to form new vesicles.
  4. degraded and the debris removed from the axon terminal.
  5. incorporated into the mitochondria.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-91

Page Ref: 55

Topic:  Release of Neurotransmitter

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. recycled to form new vesicles.

Rationale: The membrane of vesicles are recycled.

 

2.1-92.  Match up the correct receptor type and effect.

  1. metabotropic; direct opening of an ion channel
  2. ionotropic; more time required to open an ion channel
  3. metabotropic; G protein activation leads to activation of a second-messenger
  4. metabotropic; rapid opening of a single ion channel
  5. metabotropic; rapid short-lived effects on ion channels

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 2.1-92

Page Ref: 56-57

Topic:  Activation of Receptors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. metabotropic; G protein activation leads to activation of a second-messenger

Rationale: Metabotropic receptors act via G proteins which in turn act via activation/inactivation of a second-messenger molecule.

 

2.1-93.  With regard to release of neurotransmitter in the brain, “kiss and run” refers to the situation in which the vesicle

  1. releases most of its contents into the cleft and the vesicle remains attached to the

presynaptic membrane.

  1. closes before releasing any molecules and then moves to the cell interior.
  2. remains open until the next action potential.
  3. releases most of its contents into the cleft after which the vesicle breaks away from the presynaptic membrane and is refilled.
  4. merges completely with the presynaptic membrane.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-93

Page Ref: 55

Topic:  Release of Neurotransmitter

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. releases most of its contents into the cleft after which the vesicle breaks away from the presynaptic membrane and is refilled.

Rationale:  “Kiss and run” refers to the situation in which a released vesicle releases most of its contents into the cleft after which the vesicle breaks away from the presynaptic membrane and is refilled.

 

2.1-94.  Match up the correct receptor type and effect:

  1. ionotropic; direct opening of an ion channel
  2. ionotropic; more time required to open an ion channel
  3. ionotropic; G protein activation leads to activation of a second-messenger
  4. metabotropic; second-messenger effects are specific to neuronal communication
  5. metabotropic; rapid short-lived effects on ion channels

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 2.1-94

Page Ref: 56

Topic:  Activation of Receptors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. ionotropic; direct opening of an ion channel

Rationale:  Activation of an  ionotropic receptor results in the direct opening of a single ion channel.

 

2.1-95.  Which of the following is true of metabotropic receptors?

  1. Metabotropic receptors conserve energy.
  2. Metabotropic receptors are slower than ionotropic receptors.
  3. Metabotropic receptors control a single ion channel.
  4. Metabotropic receptors are closely associated with an ion channel.
  5. Metabotropic receptors are faster than ionotropic receptors.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 2.1-95

Page Ref: 57

Topic:  Activation of Receptors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. Metabotropic receptors are slower than ionotropic receptors.

Rationale: Metabotropic receptors are slower than ionotropic receptors because these involve the action of second messengers.

 

2.1-96.  An EPSP will be produced when a ligand

  1. opens a sodium channel.
  2. closes a sodium channel.
  3. opens a potassium channel.
  4. closes a calcium channel.
  5. closes a chloride channel.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-96

Page Ref: 57

Topic:  Postsynaptic Potentials

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. opens a sodium channel.

Rationale:  Opening a sodium channel will produce an EPSP.

 

2.1-97.    An IPSP will be produced when a ligand

  1. closes a sodium channel.
  2. opens a sodium channel.
  3. opens a potassium channel.
  4. closes a calcium channel.
  5. opens a calcium channel.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-97

Page Ref: 57

Topic:  Postsynaptic Potentials

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. opens a potassium channel.

Rationale: Opening a chloride channel will produce an IPSP.

 

2.1-98.  Which of the following will “neutralize” an EPSP?

  1. further opening a sodium channel
  2. allowing intracellular anions to leave the cell
  3. closing a potassium channel
  4. opening a chloride channel
  5. opening a calcium channel

Difficulty: 4

Question ID: 2.1-98

Page Ref: 58

Topic:  Postsynaptic Potentials

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. opening a chloride channel

Rationale: Opening a chloride channel will neutralize an EPSP.

 

2.1-99. The postsynaptic potentials induced by most neurotransmitters are ended by

  1. disruption of the postsynaptic receptor.
  2. enzymatic degradation of the transmitter molecule.
  3. inhibition of transmitter synthesis.
  4. facilitation of transmitter release.
  5. reuptake of the molecule into the axon terminal.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-99

Page Ref: 58

Topic:  Termination of Postsynaptic Potentials

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: e. reuptake of the molecule into the axon terminal.

Rationale:  The reuptake process is the most common means of terminating a postsynaptic potential.

 

2.1-100. The postsynaptic potentials induced by acetylcholine are ended via

  1. disruption of the nicotinic postsynaptic receptor.
  2. enzymatic degradation via acetylcholinesterase.
  3. inhibition of acetylcholine synthesis.
  4. facilitation of acetylcholine release.
  5. reuptake of acetylcholine.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-100

Page Ref: 59

Topic: Termination of Postsynaptic Potentials

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. enzymatic degradation via acetylcholinesterase.

Rationale: The postsynaptic action of ACh is ended by enzymatic degradation via acetylcholinesterase.

 

2.1-101.   A drug that inactivates the enzyme acetylcholinesterase would be expected to

  1. prolong the effects of acetylcholine in the synapse.
  2. terminate the effects of acetylcholine in the synapse.
  3. speed up the synthesis of acetylcholine.
  4. impair the synthesis of acetylcholine.
  5. activate the presynaptic autoreceptor for acetylcholine.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 2.1-101

Page Ref: 59

Topic:  Termination of Postsynaptic Potentials

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. prolong the effects of acetylcholine in the synapse.

Rationale: The effects of acetylcholine in the synapse would be prolonged by a drug that inactivates the enzyme acetylcholinesterase.

 

2.1-102. Dr. Mary Walker used _______ to treat the muscle weakness associated with the disease _______.

  1. atropine; myasthenia gravis
  2. physostigmine; multiple sclerosis
  3. acetylcholinesterase; diabetes
  4. acetylcholinesterase; multiple sclerosis
  5. physostigmine; myasthenia gravis

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 2.1-102

Page Ref: 59

Topic:  Termination of Postsynaptic Potentials

Skill: Applied

Answer: e. physostigmine; myasthenia gravis

Rationale: Physostigmine is used to treat the muscle weakness associated with the disease myasthenia gravis.

 

2.1-103.  Autoreceptors are located on the _______  and detect  _______.

  1. presynaptic membrane; the transmitter released by that neuron
  2. presynaptic membrane; a different transmitter released by another neuron
  3. presynaptic membrane; the presence of calcium ions in the synapse
  4. postsynaptic membrane; the presence of calcium ions located in the synapse
  5. presynaptic membrane; the amount of second messenger activity in the postsynaptic cell

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-103

Page Ref: 60

Topic:  Autoreceptors

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. presynaptic membrane; the transmitter released by that neuron

Rationale:  Autoreceptors located on the presynaptic membrane detect the transmitter released by that neuron and in turn dampen the release of that transmitter.

 

2.1-104.    Autoreceptors

  1. are sensitive to neuropeptides.
  2. control the release of calcium ions from the axon terminal.
  3. mostly facilitate neuron function.
  4. are metabotropic.
  5. control the formation of new dendritic spines.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-104

Page Ref: 60

Topic:  Autoreceptors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. are metabotropic.

Rationale: Autoreceptors are of the metabotropic type.

 

2.1-105.  Presynaptic facilitation is associated with _______ synapses and involves a(n) _______ in the amount of transmitter released per action potential.

  1. axodendritic; decrease
  2. axosomatic; increase
  3. gap junction; decrease
  4. axoaxonic; increase
  5. gap junction; increase

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-105

Page Ref: 61

Topic:  Other Types of Synapses

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. axoaxonic; increase

Rationale: Presynaptic facilitation is associated with axoaxonic synapses and involves an increase in the amount of transmitter released per action potential

 

2.1-106.  Action potentials are generated at the _______ and are conducted along the  _______.

  1. axon hillock; axon
  2. axon; dendrite
  3. terminal buttons; dendrite
  4. dendrite; glial membrane
  5. axon button; glial membrane

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1- 106

Page Ref: 60

Topic:  Effects of Postsynaptic Potentials: Neural Integration

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. axon hillock; axon

Rationale: Actions potentials are conducted along the axon after initiation at the axon hillock.

 

2.1-107.  Neuromodulators

  1. are usually amino acids.
  2. directly elicit postsynaptic potentials.
  3. are usually found in small vesicles in the axon terminal buttons.
  4. diffuse widely to affect many neurons.
  5. mostly involve presynaptic receptors

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-107

Page Ref: 62

Topic:  Nonsynaptic Chemical Communication

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. diffuse widely to affect many neurons

Rationale: Neuromodulators diffuse widely to affect many neurons in brain.

 

2.1-108.  Neuromodulators are

  1. rarely of a peptide form.
  2. secreted from neurons, but dispersed widely in the brain.
  3. inevitably inhibitory.
  4. secreted from a neuron and only affect an adjacent neuron.
  5. typically secreted in very small amounts compared to neurotransmitters.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-108

Page Ref: 62

Topic:  Nonsynaptic Chemical Communication

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. are secreted from neurons, but dispersed widely in the brain.

Rationale: Neuromodulators are secreted from neurons, but dispersed widely in the brain.

 

2.1-109.  Most  _______ are secreted into the extracellular fluid from endocrine glands or tissues.

  1. neurotransmitters
  2. neuropeptides
  3. modulators
  4. hormones
  5. pheromones

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-109

Page Ref: 62-63

Topic:  Nonsynaptic Chemical Communication

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. hormones

Rationale: Most hormones are secreted into the extracellular fluid from endocrine glands or tissues.

 

 

Fill-in-the-Blank Questions

 

2.2-1. ________ was the primary symptom shown by Kathryn D.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.2-1

Page Ref: 28

Topic:  Introduction

Skill: Factual

Answer: Muscle weakness

 

2.2-2.  Motor neurons control the activity of the ________.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.2-2

Page Ref: 28

Topic:  Introduction

Skill:    Factual

Answer: muscles

 

2.2-3.  The central nervous system consists of the ________ and the ________.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.2-3

Page Ref: 29

Topic: Introduction

Skill: Factual

Answer:  brain; spinal cord

 

2.2-4. ________ neurons are the most common type in the central nervous system.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.2-4

Page Ref: 30

Topic:  Neurons

Skill:    Factual

Answer: multipolar

 

2.2-5. The cell membrane is formed by a dual layer of ________ molecules.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.2-5

Page Ref: 31

Topic:  Neurons

Skill: Factual

Answer: lipid

 

2.2-6. ________ are bead-like structures that extract energy from nutrients.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.2-6

Page Ref: 34

Topic:  Neurons

Skill: Factual

Answer:  Mitochondria

 

2.2-7.  The myelin sheath surrounding axons in brain is formed by ________.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 2.2-7

Page Ref: 37

Topic:  Supporting Cells

Skill: Factual

Answer: oligodendrocytes or oligodendroglia

 

2.2-8.  Some chemicals are excluded from the brain due to selective permeability of the ________ barrier.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.2-8

Page Ref: 39

Topic:  The Blood-Brain Barrier

Skill: Factual

Answer: blood-brain

 

2.2-9.  In a neuron at rest, the interior of the cell is more ________ charged than is the exterior of the cell.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.2-9

Page Ref: 44

Topic:  Measuring Electrical Potentials of Axons

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: negatively

 

2.2-10.  The process of ________ ensures that ions will distribute themselves evenly through a solvent.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.2-10

Page Ref: 45

Topic:  The Membrane Potential: Balance of Two Forces

Skill: Factual

Answer:  diffusion

 

2.2-11.  As it conducts along the axon membrane toward the terminal buttons, a subthreshold depolarization ________ in size.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.2-11

Page Ref: 50

Topic:  Conduction of the Action Potential

Skill: Factual

Answer: decreases

 

2.2-12.  In a myelinated axon, ions enter or leave the axon membrane only at the ________.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.2-12

Page Ref: 49-50

Topic:  Conduction of the Action Potential

Skill: Factual

Answer: node of Ranvier

 

2.2-13. ________ speeds up the velocity at which an axon can conduct an action potential.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.2-13

Page Ref: 50

Topic:  Conduction of the Action Potential

Skill: Factual

Answer: Myelin

 

2.2-14.  The term ________ is derived from the word meaning “little bladder.”

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.2-14

Page Ref: 52

Topic:  Structure of Synapses

Skill: Factual

Answer: vesicle

 

2.2-15.  A large, dense-core vesicle is most likely to contain a  ________.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.2-15

Page Ref: 53

Topic:  Structure of Synapses

Skill: Factual

Answer: neuropeptide

 

2-2-16. The ion ________ is required for the release of neurotransmitter from the presynaptic terminal.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.2-16

Page Ref: 55

Topic:  Release of Neurotransmitter

Skill: Factual

Answer: calcium

 

2.2-17. ________ receptors involve the direct opening of an ion channel, whereas metabotropic

receptors involve the action of second messenger molecules inside the postsynaptic cell.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.2-17

Page Ref: 56-57

Topic:  Activation of Receptors

Skill: Factual

Answer: Ionotropic

 

2.2-18.  A  ________  myelinated fiber will conduct action potentials more rapidly than will a thin myelinated fiber.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.2-18

Page Ref: 50

Topic:  Conduction of the Action Potential

Skill: Factual

Answer: large

 

2.2-19.  The effects of acetylcholine are prolonged by drugs that inactivate the enzyme ________.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 2.2-19

Page Ref: 59

Topic:  Termination of Postsynaptic Potentials

Skill: Factual

Answer: ACHe or acetylcholinesterase

 

2.2-20. ________ are metabotropic receptors located in the presynaptic membrane that provide negative feedback onto transmitter release.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.2-20

Page Ref: 60

Topic:  Autoreceptors

Skill:    Factual

Answer: Autoreceptors

 

 

Essay Questions

 

2.3-1.  Describe the organelles that comprise the neuron soma.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.3-1

Page Ref: 34-35

Topic:  Neurons

Skill: Factual

Answer:  The organelles lie within the cytoplasm of the neuron.  The soma organelles include

  • Ribosomes produce proteins.
  • Endoplasmic reticulum: Rough ER contains the ribosomes (produces proteins). Smooth ER synthesizes lipids.
  • Microtubules: Responsible for transport around the interior of the neuron.
  • Mitochondria: Provide energy to the neuron.
  • Lysosomes: Degrade surplus cellular materials.
  • Golgi apparatus: Package the products of a secretory cell.

 

2.3-2.  Compare and contrast the general functions of the three glial cell types in the brain.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.3-2

Page Ref: 35-39

Topic:  Supporting Cells

Skill: Factual

Answer: Oligodendrocytes form CNS myelin, which speeds up neural conduction speed. Astroglia provide support and nutrition for neurons. Microglia are involved in brain immune

function.

 

2.3-3.  Explain how changes in ion movements can result in an action potential.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.3-4

Page Ref: 44

Topic: The Action Potential

Skill: Factual

Answer: At rest, the interior of the axon membrane has more negative charges relative to the exterior. Movement of positive charges (sodium) into the axon results in the action potential (a

rapid reversal of the membrane potential).

 

2.3-4.  What property of the neuron membrane produces the “all-or-none” law?

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 2.3-5

Page Ref: 47-49

Topic:  Conduction of the Action Potential

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: Voltage-gated ion channels of the axon membrane remain closed until the membrane potential reaches threshold (a fixed voltage). If the membrane potential reaches threshold, an

action potential occurs; if not, no action potential occurs.

 

2.3-5.  Explain what is meant by decremental conduction.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.3-6

Page Ref: 50

Topic:  Conduction of the Action Potential

Skill: Factual

Answer: A subthreshold local potential degrades in size as it sweeps along the axon membrane

(non-myelinated).

 

2.3-6.  Explain how the presence of myelin on an axon speeds up conduction velocity.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 2.3-7

Page Ref: 49-50

Topic:  Conduction of the Action Potential

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: In saltatory conduction, the axon is wrapped in a fatty membrane called myelin, which

insulates the membrane from the extracellular fluid. In this case, the action potential does not have to depolarize every segment of membrane, only those at the widely separated nodes of Ranvier (gaps between the myelin segments).

 

2.3-7.  Contrast ionotropic and metabotropic receptors.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.3-8

Page Ref: 56-57

Topic:  Activation of Receptors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: Ionotropic receptors directly control ion channels, whereas metabotropic receptors use a series of intermediate steps, involving G-proteins, to modulate distant ion channels.

 

2.3-8.  What would you expect to happen if the enzyme AChE were to be disabled in your body?

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.3-9

Page Ref: 59

Topic:  Termination of Postsynaptic Potentials

Skill: Factual

Answer: The ACh activity in your body would greatly increase, because AChE normally serves to degrade ACh. Later, this would lead to overstimulation of cholinergic receptors.

 

2.3-9.  Explain why the termination step of the neural communication process is a key target for therapeutic drugs.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 2.3-10

Page Ref: 58-59

Topic:  Termination of Postsynaptic Potentials

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: The postsynaptic action of many neurotransmitters is terminated via reuptake of the

molecule through the membrane transporter or through enzymatic inactivation. A drug that blocks such a transporter would be expected to raise the synaptic levels of that neurotransmitter, as would a drug that blocks the enzymatic degradation step. For a disease or disorder that is thought to result from a low synaptic activity of that transmitter, blockade of the reuptake or enzymatic process would generate a beneficial effect.

 

2.3.10.  Explain how autoreceptors dampen neuronal activity.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.3-11

Page Ref: 60-61

Topic:  Autoreceptors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: Autoreceptors are sensitive to the transmitter released by a particular neuron. Activation of the autoreceptor produces negative feedback — either reduced cell firing or reduced

synthesis/release of the transmitter. The net effect is to modulate the amount of transmitter in the

synapse (and at the postsynaptic receptors).

 

 

Chapter 18: Drug Abuse

 

 

Topic Question Type Factual Conceptual Application
Introduction Multiple Choice

 

 

1,2    
Fill-In

 

1,2,3    
Essay

 

     
Common Features of Addiction Multiple Choice

 

 

3-17,22,24,28,30, 31,33,34,36,38,40,43 18-21,25,29,35,37,39,42 23,26,27,32,41
Fill-In

 

4,7-12   5,6
Essay

 

1,2,4 3  
Commonly Abused Drugs Multiple Choice 44-47,49,53,54,

58,62,63,

65,69,73,75,78,79,85, 90,91

48,51,52,57,60,61,64,66-68,71,74,76,77,80-82 50,55,56,59,70,72,83, 84,86-89
Fill-In

 

13-20    
Essay

 

5,6,7    
Heredity and Drug Abuse Multiple Choice

 

93,94 92  
Fill-In

 

     
Essay

 

9    
Therapy for Drug Abuse Multiple Choice

 

97,98 96

 

95
Fill-In

 

     
Essay

 

  8  

 

 

Multiple-Choice Questions

 

18.1-1. The major issue John faced in the opening vignette of the drug abuse chapter was ________ addiction.

  1. alcohol
  2. nicotine
  3. heroin
  4. cocaine
  5. food

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 18.1-1

Page Ref: 615

Topic:  Opening Vignette

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. heroin

Rationale: John suffered from heroin addiction.

 

18.1-2. Which of the following is a known negative consequence of alcohol addiction?

  1. fetal alcohol syndrome
  2. lung cancer
  3. stroke
  4. cirrhosis of the kidney
  5. psychotic behavior

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.1-2

Page Ref: 615

Topic:  Introduction

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. fetal alcohol syndrome

Rationale:  Alcohol has numerous negative consequences including inducing fetal alcohol syndrome.

 

18.1-3. The meaning of the Latin word addicere is

  1. to alleviate.
  2. to relieve.
  3. to sentence.
  4. to require.
  5. to suffer.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 18.1-3

Page Ref: 615

Topic:  Common Features of Addiction

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. to sentence.

Rationale: The term addiction derives from the word meaning “to sentence.”  An addict is sentenced to serve their compulsion to take the drug.

 

18.1-4.  Which of the following is an adverse consequence of the use of “designer drugs”?

  1. stroke
  2. toxic consequences of drug adulteration
  3. diabetes
  4. heart disease
  5. lung cancer

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 18.1-4

Page Ref: 615

Topic:  Introduction

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. toxic consequences of drug adulteration.

Rationale: Designer drugs can have direct toxic effects but can also induce toxicity because of the products that used to adulterate the drug (e.g., talcum powder).

 

18.1-5. Your text suggests that ________ is the most universally used recreational drug.

  1. ethyl alcohol
  2. cannabis
  3. morphine
  4. cocaine
  5. nicotine

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 18.1-5

Page Ref: 616

Topic:  A Little Background

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. ethyl alcohol

Rationale:  Alcohol is one of the oldest drugs and is widely available.

 

18.1-6. The use of  ________ by pregnant women leads to reduced birth weight.

  1. ethyl alcohol
  2. marijuana
  3. morphine in pill form
  4. cocaine in powder form
  5. nicotine in tobacco

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 18.1-6

Page Ref: 615

Topic:  Introduction

Skill: Factual

Answer: e. nicotine in tobacco

Rationale:  Nicotine use by pregnant women results in lighter babies.

 

18.1-7. People are most likely to have tried the drug ________ during their lifetime.

  1. morphine
  2. crack cocaine
  3. alcohol
  4. heroin
  5. LSD

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 18.1-7

Page Ref: 616

Topic:  A Little Background

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. alcohol

Rationale:  Alcohol is widely available and is legal for use at a certain age.  It is therefore widely used.

 

18.1-8. Drugs are reinforcing when

  1. they cause good feelings.
  2. there is a long interval between a response and the drug onset.
  3. the drug onset is slow and steady.
  4. they rapidly activate the reinforcement mechanism.
  5. the drug has an extremely delayed onset of action.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 18.1-8

Page Ref: 617

Topic:  Positive Reinforcement

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. they rapidly activate the reinforcement mechanism.

Rationale Drug reinforcement is greatest when the drug onset is rapid.

 

18.1-9. The drug _______ is an agonist at CB1 receptors.

  1. alcohol
  2. marijuana
  3. LSD
  4. cocaine
  5. nicotine

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 18.1-9

Page Ref: 616

Topic:  Positive Reinforcement

Skill: Factual

Answer: b: marijuana

Rationale:  Marijuana is an agonist at endogenous CB1 receptors in brain.

 

18.1-10. The drug _______ blocks reuptake of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin.

  1. alcohol
  2. marijuana
  3. LSD
  4. cocaine
  5. nicotine

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 18.1-10

Page Ref: 616

Topic:  Positive Reinforcement

Skill: Factual

Answer: d: cocaine

Rationale:  Cocaine’s behavioral effects result from blockade of transporters for dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin, which increases the amount of these transmitters in the synapse.

 

18.1-11.  A person who is compelled to continue drug taking, despite adverse consequences, is said to suffer from

  1. addiction.
  2. psychic dependence.
  3. tolerance.
  4. physical dependence.
  5. euphoria.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 18.1-11

Page Ref: 615

Topic:  Common Features of Addiction

Skill: Factual

Answer:  a. addiction

Rationale: Drug addiction persists even when the person experiences severe consequences (loss of job, family, and freedom).

 

18.1-12.  Match up the correct pairing of a drug with its site of action:

  1. cocaine; nicotinic ACh receptor agonist
  2. ethanol; release of norepinephrine
  3. amphetamine; release of dopamine
  4. ketamine; blocks reuptake of dopamine
  5. cannabis; nicotinic ACh receptor agonist

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.1-12

Page Ref: 616

Topic:  Positive Reinforcement

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. amphetamine; release of dopamine

Rationale:  Amphetamine evokes the release of dopamine from the axon terminals.

 

18.1-13.  Match up the correct pairing of a drug with its site of action:

  1. cocaine; blocks reuptake of dopamine
  2. ethanol;release of norepinephrine
  3. amphetamine; release of acetylcholine
  4. ketamine; blocks reuptake of dopamine
  5. cannabis; nicotinic ACh receptor agonist

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.1-13

Page Ref: 616

Topic:  Positive Reinforcement

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. cocaine; blocks reuptake of dopamine

Rationale: Cocaine blocks the reuptake of dopamine into axon terminals.

 

18.1-14.  The key property of addictive drugs relates to

  1. their capacity to produce tolerance.
  2. the withdrawal that follows termination of the drug.
  3. their rapid reinforcing effects.
  4. their ability to inhibit dopamine in brain.
  5. their ability to produce rapidly physical dependence.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.1-14

Page Ref: 616

Topic:  Positive Reinforcement

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. their rapid reinforcing effects.

Rationale:  Drugs are addictive because they activate brain reinforcement circuits.

 

18.1-15.  Which of the following is an explanation of why drug addicts prefer heroin over morphine?

  1. Heroin is cheaper than morphine.
  2. Morphine enters brain faster than does morphine.
  3. Heroin is less lipid-soluble than is morphine.
  4. Heroin exerts effects on the brain faster than does morphine.
  5. Morphine is cheaper than heroin.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.1-15

Page Ref: 617

Topic:  Positive Reinforcement

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. Heroin exerts effects on brain faster than does morphine.

Rationale:  Heroin has a faster onset of action and is therefore more reinforcing.

 

18.1-16.  The common aspect of all natural reinforcers relates to

  1. the release of dopamine within the nucleus accumbens.
  2. the release of norepinephrine within the locus coeruleus.
  3. the release of dopamine within the lateral hypothalamus.
  4. inactivation of the frontal cortex.
  5. activation of the medulla.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.1-16

Page Ref: 617

Topic:  Topic:  Positive Reinforcement

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. the release of dopamine within the nucleus accumbens.

Rationale:  All natural reinforcers evoke the release of dopamine within the nucleus accumbens.

 

18.1-17.  Microdialysis studies indicate that administration of ________ will enhance extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens.

  1. alcohol, PCP, or amphetamine
  2. glycine
  3. caffeine
  4. LSD
  5. GABA antagonists

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.1-17

Page Ref: 617

Topic:  Topic:  Positive Reinforcement

Skill: Factual

Answer:  a.  alcohol, PCP, or amphetamine

Rationale:  Alcohol, PCP, and amphetamine each evoke the release of dopamine within the nucleus accumbens and are therefore reinforcing.

 

18.1-18.  Which of the following is true of the neural substrates of reinforcement?

  1. Aversive stimuli do not increase dopamine levels within the accumbens.
  2. Release of dopamine within the accumbens is a necessary condition for reinforcement.
  3. Damage to brain dopamine systems enhances the reinforcing properties of addictive drugs.
  4. Release of dopamine within the accumbens is a sufficient condition for reinforcement.
  5. Drugs that increase dopamine by blocking reuptake are not addictive.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 18.1-18

Page Ref: 617

Topic:  Topic:  Positive Reinforcement

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. Release of dopamine within the accumbens is a necessary condition for reinforcement.

Rationale:  Release of dopamine within the accumbens is a necessary condition for reinforcement.

 

18.1-19.  Early changes in the brain during exposure to addictive drugs involves the insertion of ________ receptors into neuron membranes located within the ________.

  1. GABA; hippocampus
  2. D2; nucleus accumbens
  3. AMPA; VTA
  4. glycine; VTA
  5. AMPA; amygdala

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.1-19

Page Ref: 618

Topic:  Topic:  Positive Reinforcement

Skill: Conceptual

Answer:  c.  AMPA; VTA

Rationale:  Early exposure to addictive drugs induces physical changes in synapses – including insertion of excitatory AMPA receptors into membranes.

 

18.1- 20.  Activation of neurons within the ________ during repeated drug injection appears to play a key role in the compulsive nature of drug abuse.

  1. hippocampus
  2. nucleus accumbens
  3. amygdala
  4. dorsal striatum
  5. hypothalamus

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 18.1-20

Page Ref: 618

Topic:  Topic:  Positive Reinforcement

Skill: Conceptual

Answer:  d. dorsal striatum

Rationale: Neurons of the dorsal striatum play a key role in the compulsive aspect of drug taking.

 

18.1-21.  Activation of neurons within the ________ appears to play a key role in the early reinforcing actions of drugs.

  1. thalamus
  2. nucleus accumbens
  3. amygdala
  4. dorsal striatum
  5. hippocampus

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 18.1-21

Page Ref: 618

Topic:  Topic:  Positive Reinforcement

Skill: Conceptual

Answer:  b: nucleus accumbens

Rationale: Addictive drugs activate cells of the nucleus accumbens during the early phase of addiction.

 

18.1-22. Volkow and colleagues, using an imaging technique, reported that release of dopamine in the ________ was increased by human exposure to drug-associated cues.

  1. dorsal striatum
  2. ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)
  3. hypothalamus
  4. hippocampus
  5. amygdala

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.1-22

Page Ref: 619

Topic:  Topic:  Positive Reinforcement

Skill: Factual

Answer: a: dorsal striatum

Rationale:  Brain imaging studies reveal that drug-associated cues, which can evoke craving, activate the dorsal striatum.

 

18.1-23.  Persons in the ________ age group are MOST likely to develop drug addiction.

  1. 10-14
  2. 20-30
  3. 55-75
  4. 15-18
  5. 31-54

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.1-23

Page Ref: 619

Topic:  Topic:  Positive Reinforcement

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. 15-18

Rationale: Young people, aged 15-18, are most vulnerable to developing drug addiction.

 

18.1-24.  Infusions of the neuropeptide ________ into the ________ reinstates drug taking that was previously extinguished.

  1. leptin; orbitofrontal cortex
  2. insulin; nucleus accumbens
  3. glycine; VTA
  4. glutamate; nucleus accumbens
  5. orexin; VTA

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.1-24

Page Ref: 619-620

Topic:  Topic:  Positive Reinforcement

Skill: Factual

Answer: E: orexin, VTA

Rationale: Infusions of the neuropeptide orexin into the VTA reinstates drug taking that was previously extinguished.

 

18.1-25.  Which statement below is true of drug addiction?

  1. Withdrawal symptoms and tolerance are the result of compensatory mechanisms.
  2. The withdrawal symptoms that occur in heroin addicts are less dangerous than those that occur in alcoholics.
  3. Withdrawal symptoms are usually less intense versions of the drug effect.
  4. Drug addiction is caused by physical dependence.
  5. Cocaine addiction is the result of physical dependence.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.1-25

Page Ref: 620

Topic:  Negative Reinforcement

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. Withdrawal symptoms and tolerance are the result of compensatory mechanisms.

Rationale: Withdrawal symptoms and tolerance experienced during drug addiction are the result of homeostatic compensatory mechanisms.

 

18.1-26.  Which of the following illustrates the concept of negative reinforcement?

  1. A woman injects heroin into her veins to obtain a “rush.”
  2. A hungry rat presses a lever to obtain a food pellet.
  3. A rat presses a lever that results in delivery of a shock through the floor of the chamber.
  4. A man ingests an aspirin to rid himself of a strong headache.
  5. A child is sent to his room after screaming at the dinner table.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 18.1-26

Page Ref: 620

Topic:  Negative Reinforcement

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. A man ingests an aspirin to rid himself of a strong headache.

Rationale:  A man who ingests an aspirin to rid himself of a nasty headache is experiencing negative reinforcement.

 

18.1-27.  Which of the following illustrates the concept of punishment?

  1. A man ingests an aspirin to rid himself of a strong headache.
  2. A hungry rat presses a lever to obtain a food pellet.
  3. A rat presses a lever that results in delivery of a shock through the floor of the chamber.
  4. A woman injects heroin into her veins to obtain a “rush.”
  5. A child is given a cookie after screaming at the dinner table.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 18.1-27

Page Ref: 620

Topic:  Negative Reinforcement

Skill: Applied

Answer:  c. A rat presses a lever that results in delivery of a shock through the floor of the chamber.

Rationale:  A rat presses a lever that results in delivery of a shock through the floor of the chamber is experiencing punishment.

 

18.1-28. ________ refers to a compulsion to take a drug.

  1. Drug tolerance
  2. Allostasis
  3. Craving
  4. Homeostasis
  5. Withdrawal

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 18.1-28

Page Ref: 621

Topic:  Craving and Relapse

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. Craving

Rationale:  Craving refers to a compulsion to ingest a drug.

 

18.1-29. Which of the following illustrates the concept of craving?

  1. A man ingests an aspirin to rid himself of a strong headache.
  2. A hungry rat presses a lever to obtain a food pellet.
  3. A rat presses a lever that results in delivery of a shock through the floor of the chamber.
  4. A woman injects heroin into her veins to obtain a “rush.”
  5. An injection of cocaine reinstates responding for intravenous cocaine in a rat that underwent extinction of cocaine responding.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.1-29

Page Ref: 621

Topic:  Craving and Relapse

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: e. An injection of cocaine reinstates responding for intravenous cocaine in a rat that underwent extinction of cocaine responding.

Rationale:  An example of craving is when an injection of cocaine reinstates responding for intravenous cocaine in a rat that underwent prior extinction of cocaine responding.

 

18.1-30.  The ________ plays a key role in the extinction of drug responding.

  1. orbitofrontal cortex
  2. ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)
  3. hypothalamus
  4. hippocampus
  5. amygdala

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.1-30

Page Ref: 621

Topic:  Craving and Relapse

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)

Rationale:  A key region involved in the extinction of drug responding is the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). The vmPFC facilitates extinction.

 

18.1-31.  The ________ plays a key role in the extinction of drug responding.

  1. orbitofrontal cortex
  2. ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)
  3. hypothalamus
  4. hippocampus
  5. dorsal anterior cingulate cortex.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.1-31

Page Ref: 621-622

Topic:  Craving and Relapse

Skill:    Factual

Answer: e. dorsal anterior cingulate cortex

Rationale:  The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex inhibits the development of extinction of drug responding.

 

18.1-32.  Which of the following situations would be likely to induce the greatest craving in an alcoholic?

  1. talking to a friend who has just been released from drug rehabilitation
  2. sitting in his or her favorite bar during happy hour
  3. viewing a television commercial for Budweiser
  4. riding a bus through his or her childhood town
  5. hearing glass break glass

Difficulty:       2

Question ID:   18.1-32

Page Ref:        621

Topic:  Craving and Relapse

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. sitting in his or her favorite bar during happy hour

Rationale:  Craving is elicited by drug-paired cues – for an alcoholic this would be experiencing the sounds and smells of his favorite bar.

 

18.1-33.  Which of the following is a model for the study of drug craving?

  1. intravenous self-administration
  2. the homeostasis model
  3. incentive salience conditioning
  4. the reinstatement model
  5. the rapid acquisition model

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 18.1-33

Page Ref: 621

Topic:  Craving and Relapse

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. the reinstatement model

Rationale:  The reinstatement model determines whether drug-paired cues can cause previously extinguished responses to return.

 

18.1-34.  Studies by Volkow indicate that cocaine addicts exhibit ________ during withdrawal from cocaine.

  1. increased activation of the orbitofrontal cortex
  2. increased blood flow in the prefrontal cortex
  3. increased blood flow in the anterior cingulate cortex
  4. decreased activation of the medial prefrontal cortex
  5. decreased dopamine production in the nucleus accumbens

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 18.1-34

Page Ref: 622

Topic:  Craving and Relapse

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. decreased activation of the medial prefrontal cortex

Rationale:  Cocaine addicts exhibit decreased activation of the medial prefrontal cortex during withdrawal from cocaine.

 

18.1-35.  Imaging studies suggest that the activity of the _______ is inversely proportional to the amount of cocaine that users take each week.

  1. medial prefrontal cortex
  2. hypothalamus
  3. dorsal anterior cingulated cortex
  4. nucleus accumbens
  5. ventral tegmental area

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.1-35

Page Ref: 622

Topic:  Craving and Relapse

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. medial prefrontal cortex

Rationale:  Cocaine users show a degree of activation of the medial prefrontal cortex that is less when their weekly cocaine intake is high (and vice versa).

 

18.1-36.    Neurons within the ________ facilitate drug craving.

  1. medial prefrontal cortex
  2. hippocampus
  3. dorsal anterior cingulate cortex
  4. hypothalamus
  5. cerebellum

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 18.1-36

Page Ref: 621-622

Topic:  Craving and Relapse

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. dorsal anterior cingulate cortex

Rationale: Neurons within the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex facilitate drug craving.

 

18.1-37.  A rat is trained to self-administer cocaine.  Saline is substituted for the cocaine solution, which results in extinction of responding. In this situation, the capacity for a “free” shot of cocaine to reinstate responding for cocaine can be blocked by

  1. injection of AMPA into the ventromedial prefrontal cortex.
  2. injection of a dopamine agonist into the nucleus accumbens.
  3. glutamate induced activation of the ventral tegmental area.
  4. injection of a dopamine agonist into the prefrontal cortex.
  5. injection of glycine into the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. .

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 18.1-37

Page Ref: 621

Topic:  Craving and Relapse

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. injection of AMPA into the ventromedial prefrontal cortex.

Rationale:  Cocaine reinstatement in rats is blocked by injection of AMPA into the ventromedial prefrontal cortex.

 

18.1-38.  Imaging studies indicate that greater consumption of cocaine produces

  1. increased activation of the orbitofrontal cortex.
  2. increased blood flow in the prefrontal cortex.
  3. increased blood flow in the anterior cingulate cortex.
  4. decreased activation of the medial prefrontal cortex.
  5. decreased dopamine production in the nucleus accumbens.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 18.1-38

Page Ref: 622

Topic:  Craving and Relapse

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. decreased activation of the medial prefrontal cortex.

Rationale:  Increased cocaine consumption results in decreased activation of the medial prefrontal cortex in human imaging studies.

 

18.1-39.  Long-term drug use can result in

  1. elevated dopamine production in the VTA.
  2. greater activation of the prefrontal cortex.
  3. structural abnormalities of the prefrontal cortex.
  4. superior gambling performance.
  5. longer life span and better mental adjustment.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 18.1-39

Page Ref: 622

Topic:  Craving and Relapse

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. structural abnormalities of the prefrontal cortex.

Rationale:  Structural abnormalities of the prefrontal cortex are induced by long-term drug abuse.

 

18.1-40.  An important comorbidity of schizophrenia is

  1. depression.
  2. mania.
  3. gambling disorder.
  4. substance abuse disorder.
  5. borderline personality disorder.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.1-40

Page Ref: 622

Topic:  Craving and Relapse

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. substance abuse disorder.

Rationale:  Substance abuse disorder is often accompanied by schizophrenia.

 

18.1-41.   Which of the following factors is a predictor of your risk for hospitalization for schizophrenia?

  1. your religious preference
  2. smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day
  3. whether you had served in the military
  4. consuming at least 10 diet drinks per day
  5. having a friend who developed schizophrenia

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.1-41

Page Ref: 622

Topic:  Craving and Relapse

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day

Rationale:  Smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day can predict whether you will be hospitalized for schizophrenia.

 

18.1-42.  A common factor that promotes relapse in recovered drug addicts is

  1. the experience of stress.
  2. taking up smoking.
  3. going on a diet for weight loss.
  4. inactivation of the central nucleus of the amygdala.
  5. taking on a new career.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 18.1-42

Page Ref: 623

Topic:  Craving and Relapse

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. the experience of stress

Rationale:  Stress can promote relapse in former drug addicts.

 

18.1-43.  The experience of stress has been found to

  1. increase the amount of cocaine self-administered by rats.
  2. reduce the high produced by cocaine.
  3. render rats resistant to the reinforcing effects of cocaine.
  4. block the craving for cocaine in abstinent addicts.
  5. inactivate orexin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 18.1-43

Page Ref: 623

Topic:  Craving and Relapse

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. increase the amount of cocaine self-administered by rats.

Rationale:  Stress increases the rate of cocaine self-administration in rats.

 

18.1-44.  The drug ________ is unique in that it will NOT support addiction.

  1. nicotine
  2. heroin
  3. LSD
  4. alcohol
  5. cocaine

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.1-44

Page Ref: 625

Topic:  Commonly Abused Drugs

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. LSD

Rationale:  LSD is not self-administered by rats although some humans enjoy this drug.

 

18.1-45.  Which of the following drugs is addictive in humans but does not harm health or induce intoxication?

  1. L-DOPA
  2. corticotropin-releasing hormone
  3. cocaine
  4. caffeine
  5. nicotine

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.1-45

Page Ref: 625

Topic:  Commonly Abused Drugs

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. caffeine

Rationale:  Caffeine is addictive in humans but does not harm health or induce intoxication.

 

18.1-46.  Which of the following is true of opiate addiction?

  1. Heroin use is legal to use under medical supervision.
  2. The opiate habit is inexpensive.
  3. Opiates are not addictive.
  4. Needle-using opiate addicts are at risk for contracting AIDS.
  5. Rats will self-administer morphine but not heroin.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.1-46

Page Ref: 625

Topic:  Opiates

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. Needle-using opiate addicts are at risk for contracting AIDS.

Rationale:  Needle-using opiate addicts are at risk for contracting AIDS.

 

18.1-47.  Which of the following statements about opiates is true?

  1. The most commonly abused opiate is heroin.
  2. Measles is a significant risk factor for many heroin users.
  3. Opiates and LSD induce similar psychoactive effects.
  4. Opiates are not addictive.
  5. Opiate use in a pregnant woman does not produce a drug dependency in the child she is carrying.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 18.1-47

Page Ref: 625

Topic:  Opiates

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. The most commonly abused opiate is heroin.

Rationale: Heroin is the most commonly abused opiate.

 

18.1-48. The analgesic effect of opiates is due to activation of neurons within the

  1. cerebellum
  2. medulla.
  3. periaqueductal gray matter.
  4. preoptic area.
  5. spinal cord.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.1-48

Page Ref: 625

Topic:  Opiates

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. periaqueductal gray matter.

Rationale:  Opiates act on cells of the periaqueductal gray matter to induce analgesia.

 

18.1-49.  Administration of an opiate

  1. decreases locomotor activity.
  2. raises body temperature.
  3. induces pain.
  4. causes arousal.
  5. results in reinforcement.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.1-49

Page Ref: 625

Topic:  Opiates

Skill: Factual

Answer: e. results in reinforcement.

Rationale:  Opiate ingestion elicits reinforcement.

 

18.1-50.  Administration of a drug that is an agonist at only mu receptors would be expected to produce

  1. hyperthermia.
  2. arousal.
  3. sedation.
  4. reinforcement.
  5. dysphoria.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID:   18.1-50

Page Ref: 625

Topic:  Opiates

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. reinforcement.

Rationale:  Mu receptors are important for opiate reinforcement.

 

18.1-51.  Match up the correct pairing of opiate receptor and opiate effect:

  1. mu; sedating
  2. delta; aversive
  3. kappa; aversive
  4. mu; aversive
  5. kappa; reinforcing

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 18.1-51

Page Ref: 625

Topic:  Opiates

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. kappa; aversive

Rationale: Activation by an opiate of kappa receptors produces an aversive action.

 

18.1-52.  Match up the correct pairing of opiate receptor and opiate effect:

  1. mu; sedating
  2. delta; aversive
  3. kappa; aversive
  4. mu; aversive
  5. mu; reinforcing

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 18.1-52

Page Ref: 625

Topic:  Opiates

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: e. mu; reinforcing

Rationale:  Activation of mu receptors by an opiate induces reinforcement.

 

18.1-53.  Opiate receptors in the ________ are responsible for the analgesia caused by opiate drugs.

  1. nucleus accumbens
  2. preoptic area
  3. periaqueductal gray matter
  4. mesencephalic reticular formation
  5. ventral segmental area

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 18.1-53

Page Ref: 625

Topic:  Opiates

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. periaqueductal gray matter

Rationale:  Opiate receptors within the periaqueductal gray matter mediate the analgesic action of opiate drugs.

 

18.1-54.  Opiate receptors in the ________ are responsible for the sedation caused by opiate drugs.

  1. nucleus accumbens
  2. preoptic area
  3. periaqueductal gray matter
  4. mesencephalic reticular formation
  5. ventral segmental area

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 18.1-54

Page Ref: 625

Topic:  Opiates

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. mesencephalic reticular formation

Rationale: Opiate drugs induce sleepiness via activation of cells within the mesencephalic reticular formation.

 

18.1-55.  Administration of an opiate drug that is an agonist at only kappa receptors would be expected to produce

  1. hypothermia.
  2. analgesia.
  3. sedation.
  4. reinforcement.
  5. an aversive state.

Difficulty:  1

Question ID: 18.1-55

Page Ref: 625

Topic:  Opiates

Skill: Applied

Answer: e. an aversive state.

Rationale:  Activation by an opiate of kappa receptors produces an aversive state.

 

18.1-56.  You would expect that an injection of an opiate drug into the ________ would activate dopamine neurons in the nucleus accumbens.

  1. ventral tegmental area
  2. medial septal region
  3. periaqueductal gray matter
  4. preoptic area
  5. cingulate cortex

Difficulty 2

Question ID: 18.1-56

Page Ref: 625

Topic:  Opiates

Skill:  Applied

Answer: a. ventral tegmental area

Rationale:  Dopamine neurons of the accumbens are activated by opiate injection into the ventral tegmental area.

 

18.1-57.  Which of the following is true of opiate reinforcement?

  1. Opiates cause release of dopamine within the hippocampus.
  2. Injections of opiates into the spinal cord are reinforcing.
  3. Injections of opiates into the VTA are reinforcing.
  4. Natural rewards involve cholinergic and opiate systems.
  5. Naloxone blocks cocaine reinforcement.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 18.1-57

Page Ref: 625

Topic:  Opiates

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c.  Injections of opiates into the VTA are reinforcing.

Rationale: Injections of opiates into the VTA are reinforcing.

 

18.1-58.  Research using antagonist-precipitated withdrawal indicates that the ________ plays a key role in producing opiate withdrawal symptoms.

  1. amygdala
  2. orbitofrontal cortex
  3. hypothalamus
  4. locus coeruleus
  5. reticular formation

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 18.1-58

Page Ref: 625-626

Topic:  Opiates

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. locus coeruleus

Rationale:  Cells of the locus coeruleus are key to the production of opiate withdrawal symptoms.

 

18.1-59.  Rats are made dependent on morphine and then given an injection of naloxone while housed in a novel cage. You would expect these rats to express

  1. an aversion to the cage in which naloxone caused withdrawal.
  2. fewer kappa receptors in the forebrain.
  3. more mu receptors in the forebrain.
  4. an attraction to the cage in which naloxone caused withdrawal.
  5. more consumption of water in the home cage.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.1-59

Page Ref: 625-626

Topic:  Opiates

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. an aversion to the cage in which naloxone caused withdrawal.

Rationale:  Naloxone elicits an aversive withdrawal state in an opiate dependent rat.  The aversive state is paired with the environment in which the rat received naloxone and is avoided.

 

18.1-60.  Cocaine and amphetamine

  1. each increase the reuptake of dopamine.
  2. are less toxic than heroin and morphine, based on animal studies.
  3. may cause psychotic behavior that resembles schizophrenia.
  4. typically cause stereotyped movements after long-term exposure of several months.
  5. are unlikely to be abused by adult humans.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 18.1-60

Page Ref: 627

Topic:  Stimulant Drugs: Cocaine and Amphetamine

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. may cause psychotic behavior that resembles schizophrenia.

Rationale: Administration of high doses of cocaine or amphetamine may cause psychotic behavior that resembles schizophrenia.

 

18.1-61. The behavioral effects of amphetamine are due to

  1. the blockade of reuptake of dopamine.
  2. a change in transporter levels in the postsynaptic membrane.
  3. its ability to directly release dopamine from the terminal buttons.
  4. the blockade of reuptake of serotonin.
  5. its ability to directly release serotonin from the terminal buttons.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.1-61

Page Ref: 626

Topic:  Stimulant Drugs: Cocaine and Amphetamine

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. its ability to directly release dopamine from the terminal buttons.

Rationale:  The behavioral effects of amphetamine are due to its ability to directly release dopamine from the terminal buttons.

 

18.1-62. Which of the following is true of cocaine?

  1. Crack cocaine may be the most effective reinforcer of all available drugs.
  2. Cocaine produces the same physical and behavioral effects as heroin.
  3. Cocaine abuse causes strong physical dependence.
  4. Cocaine is the least addictive of the psychostimulant drugs.
  5. Cocaine is a dopamine antagonist.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.1-62

Page Ref: 626

Topic:  Stimulant Drugs: Cocaine and Amphetamine

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. Crack cocaine may be the most effective reinforcer of all available drugs.

Rationale:  Because of its rapid onset of action, crack cocaine may be the most effective reinforcer of all available drugs.

 

18.1-63.  Which of the following statements is true of cocaine?

  1. Cocaine administration decreases dopamine within the nucleus accumbens.
  2. Damage to the amygdale impairs cocaine reinforcement.
  3. Cocaine abuse can produce obsessive-compulsive disorder.
  4. Drugs that block GABA receptors within the nucleus accumbens impair cocaine reinforcement.
  5. Rats will self-administer cocaine into their vascular system.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.1-63

Page Ref: 627

Topic:  Stimulant Drugs: Cocaine and Amphetamine

Skill: Factual

Answer: e.  Rats will self-administer cocaine into their vascular system.

Rationale:  Rats will self-administer drugs of abuse – including cocaine – into their vascular system.

 

18.1-64.  Which of the following statements about the effects of cocaine in laboratory animals are true?

  1. Cocaine is more reinforcing in humans than in rats.
  2. Rats do not self-inject cocaine.
  3. Rats that self-injected cocaine were three times more likely to die from an overdose than rats who self-injected heroin.
  4. Rats that learn to self-administer cocaine develop psychosis.
  5. Cocaine decreases dopamine with the nucleus accumbens.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.1-64

Page Ref: 627

Topic:  Stimulant Drugs: Cocaine and Amphetamine

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. Rats that self-injected cocaine were three times more likely to die from an overdose than are rats who self-injected heroin.

Rationale:  Rats that self-injected cocaine were three times more likely to die from an overdose than are rats who self-injected heroin.

 

18.1-65.  A person who is admitted to a hospital with symptoms of paranoid psychosis may actually suffer from

  1. opiate addiction.
  2. a chemical imbalance involving the dopamine system.
  3. damage to the orbitofrontal cortex.
  4. excessive use of caffeine.
  5. excessive use of amphetamine or cocaine.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 18.1-65

Page Ref: 627

Topic:  Stimulant Drugs: Cocaine and Amphetamine

Skill: Factual

Answer: e. excessive use of amphetamine or cocaine.

Rationale:  The symptoms of schizophrenia can be mimicked by cocaine or amphetamine overdose.

 

18.1-66.  Chronic abuse of methamphetamine reduces the number of dopamine transporters in the brain, which may explain why these addicts

  1. are rarely overweight.
  2. develop depression while using this drug.
  3. are more prone to develop Parkinson’s disease as they age.
  4. move on to “harder” drugs as they get older.
  5. are less prone to Parkinson’s disease as they age.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.1-66

Page Ref: 627

Topic:  Stimulant Drugs: Cocaine and Amphetamine

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. are more prone to develop Parkinson’s disease as they age.

Rationale:  Amphetamine damages dopamine transporters (a sign of dopamine neuron death), which may explain why such addicts are more prone to develop Parkinson’s disease as they age.

 

18.1-67.  Which of the following is an indication of the problems caused by nicotine?

  1. Nicotine interacts with other factors to promote stroke.
  2. Nearly 10 percent of long-term smokers will die from smoking-related causes.
  3. It is estimated that in a few years, smoking will be the largest single health problem in the world.
  4. Fetuses exposed to nicotine in utero show health problems.
  5. Nicotine is less addictive than is LSD.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.1-67

Page Ref: 628

Topic:  Nicotine

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. Fetuses exposed to nicotine in utero show health problems.

Rationale:  In utero exposure to nicotine can induce health problems for the fetus.

 

18.1-68.  Which of the following statements is true of nicotine addiction?

  1. Nicotine is addictive but is a harmless habit.
  2. “Nicotine use is a habit, not an addiction.”
  3. Most smokers smoke every other day.
  4. Smokers often continue to smoke after lung cancer or heart attacks.
  5. Animals do not self-administer nicotine.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 18.1-68

Page Ref: 628

Topic:  Nicotine

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d.  Smokers often continue to smoke after lung cancer or heart attacks.

Rationale:  Smoking is so addictive that users often continue to smoke even after developing lung cancer or heart attacks.

 

18.1-69.  The reinforcing actions of nicotine are on ________ cells within the ________.

  1. dopamine; ventral tegmental area
  2. norepinephrine; nucleus accumbens
  3. dopamine; nucleus accumbens
  4. glutamate; ventral tegmental area
  5. dopamine; lateral hypothalamus

Difficulty: 3

Question ID:   18.1-69

Page Ref: 628-629

Topic:  Nicotine

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. dopamine; ventral tegmental area

Rationale:  Nicotine induces reinforcement by activation of cells of the VTA.

 

18.1-70. Which of the following may explain why smokers obtain more pleasure from smoking in the morning than late in the afternoon?

  1. Nicotine receptors are in the open state in the morning.
  2. Nicotine receptors are in the closed state in the evening.
  3. Abstinence from nicotine has reset their nicotine receptors to the closed state.
  4. Smoking decreases the number of nicotine receptors in the brain.
  5. Smoking decreases the number of nicotine receptors outside the brain.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 18.1-70

Page Ref: 629

Topic:  Nicotine

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. Abstinence from nicotine has reset their nicotine receptors to the closed state.

Rationale:  Smokers obtain more pleasure from smoking in the morning than late in the afternoon because when they awake in the morning, their nicotine receptors are in the closed (sensitized) state.

 

18.1-71.    The drug rimonabant

  1. stimulates CB2 receptors in the brain.
  2. facilitates nicotine self-administration in rats.
  3. increases the release of dopamine with the nucleus accumbens.
  4. blocks nicotine receptors.
  5. diminishes craving for smoking during smoking cessation.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 18.1-71

Page Ref: 629

Topic:  Nicotine

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: e. diminishes craving for smoking during smoking cessation.

Rationale:  Rimonabant is a CB1 antagonist that reduces craving for smoking during smoking cessation.

 

18.1-72.  Infusion of an inhibitory drug into the _______ would be expected to reduce nicotine self-administration in rats.

  1. dorsomedial PFC
  2. anterior cingulate cortex
  3. insula
  4. hippocampus
  5. amygdala

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 18.1-72

Page Ref: 630

Topic:  Nicotine

Skill: Applied

Answer:  c. insula

Rationale: Infusion of an inhibitory drug into the insula would be expected to reduce nicotine self-administration in rats.

 

18.1-73.  Patients who suffered damage to their ________ were able to effortlessly quit smoking.

  1. vmPFC
  2. ventral tegmental area
  3. accumbens
  4. insula
  5. hippocampus

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 18.1-73

Page Ref: 629-630

Topic:  Nicotine

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. insula

Rationale:  Damage to the insular cortex facilitates the cessation of smoking.

 

18.1-74.  The capacity of smoking to reduce appetite may result from

  1. inhibition of lateral hypothalamic MCH neurons.
  2. potentiation of dopamine cell activity in the ventral tegmental area.
  3. release of glutamate in the lateral hypothalamus.
  4. activation of lateral hypothalamic GABA receptors that excite MCH neurons.
  5. activation of cells of the insula.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 18.1-74

Page Ref: 631

Topic:  Nicotine

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. inhibition of lateral hypothalamic MCH neurons.

Rationale:  MCH neurons that normally stimulate food intake are inhibited by nicotine.

 

18.1-75.  The primary mode of action by which alcohol can produce apoptosis is as a(n)

  1. direct agonist at GABAA receptors.
  2. agonist at α1 adrenoceptors.
  3. direct antagonist at GABAA receptors.
  4. indirect antagonist at glycine receptors.
  5. cholinergic agonist.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.1-75

Page Ref: 631

Topic:  Alcohol

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. direct antagonist at GABAA receptors.

Rationale:  Alcohol can trigger apoptosis, which kills brain cells, via an action either as an indirect agonist at GABAA receptors or as an indirect antagonist of NMDA receptors.

 

18.1-76.  At low doses, alcohol

  1. inhibits cerebellar function.
  2. has an anxiolytic effect.
  3. reduces body temperature.
  4. decreases GABA activity.
  5. inhibits the spinal cord, thereby blocking incoming pain messages.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 18.1-76

Page Ref: 631

Topic:  Alcohol

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. has an anxiolytic effect.

Rationale: Low doses of alcohol can reduce anxiety.

 

18.1-77.  Alcohol use produces negative reinforcement by

  1. stimulating the emesis center in the brainstem.
  2. activation of dopamine receptors within the VTA.
  3. loosening of inhibitions.
  4. activation of a hypothalamic satiety mechanism.
  5. the relief of anxiety.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.1-77

Page Ref: 632

Topic:  Alcohol

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: e. the relief of anxiety.

Rationale: The ability of alcohol to reduce anxiety is negatively reinforcing.

 

18.1-78.  Use of ________ by pregnant women is the leading cause of mental retardation in the United States.

  1. alcohol
  2. marijuana
  3. nicotine
  4. cocaine
  5. ephedrine

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 18.1-78

Page Ref: 631

Topic:  Alcohol

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. alcohol

Rationale: Use of alcohol by a pregnant mother is the leading cause of mental retardation.

 

18.1-79.  The reinforcing effect of alcohol is due to

  1. the release of dopamine within the nucleus accumbens.
  2. loss of inhibition of brain cells.
  3. the suppression of serotonin within the nucleus accumbens.
  4. indirect changes in NMDA receptors.
  5. the capacity to reduce anxiety.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.1-79.

Page Ref: 632

Topic: Alcohol

Skill:  Factual

Answer: a. the release of dopamine within the nucleus accumbens.

Rationale:  Drugs of abuse – including alcohol – evoke the release of dopamine within the nucleus accumbens.

 

18.1-80.  The harmful effects of alcohol on learning and memory may reflect

  1. release of GABA within the cerebellum.
  2. damage to cholinergic cells in the hippocampus.
  3. interference with NMDA receptors and long-term potentiation.
  4. an upregulation of GABA transmission in brain.
  5. loss of glial cells in layers 4-6 of the cortex.

Difficulty:  2

Question ID: 18.1-80

Page Ref: 632

Topic: Alcohol

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. interference with NMDA receptors and long-term potentiation.

Rationale:  The harmful effects of alcohol on learning and memory may reflect alcohol’s effects on NMDA transmission as well as long-term potentiation.

 

18.1-81.  Withdrawal from alcohol use leads to seizures, which may reflect

  1. damage to cholinergic cells in the hippocampus.
  2. an upregulation of GABA transmission in brain.
  3. facilitation of activity at NMDA receptors.
  4. release of GABA within the cerebellum.
  5. more long-term potentiation within the cortex.

Difficulty:  2

Question ID: 18.1-81

Page Ref:  632-633

Topic: Alcohol

Skill:  Conceptual

Answer: c. facilitation of activity at NMDA receptors.

Rationale: Because alcohol facilitates MNDA receptors, withdrawal

can evoke seizures.

 

18.1-82.  The anxiolytic effects of alcohol may be due to

  1. increased sensitivity of GABA receptors.
  2. release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens.
  3. inhibition of the limbic system.
  4. release of glycine from cells within the spinal cord.
  5. increased activity within the ventral tegmental area.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 18.1-82

Page Ref: 632-633

Topic: Alcohol

Skill:  Conceptual

Answer: a. increased sensitivity of GABA receptors.

Rationale:  Alcohol may reduce anxiety by increasing the sensitivity of GABA receptors.

 

 

18.1-83.  Administration of haloperidol to a person before he or she consumed alcohol would be expected to

  1. decrease his or her alcohol consumption.
  2. increase his or her alcohol consumption.
  3. reduce the sedating effect of alcohol.
  4. increase the reinforcing effect of alcohol.
  5. intensify the magnitude of their hangover the following day.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID:   18.1-83

Page Ref: 632

Topic:  Alcohol

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. decrease his or her alcohol consumption.

Rationale:  Blockade of dopamine receptors (as by haloperidol) can reduce the pleasurable actions of alcohol, which in turn leads to less drinking.

 

18.1-84.  Imagine that a friend has ingested a drug (e.g., Ro15-4513) that prevents alcohol from binding to the GABA receptor and then joins up with you at a bar. Which of the following would you expect to happen to this person?

  1. He or she would show no signs of sedation, even after 19 beers.
  2. One beer puts him or her to sleep.
  3. The pill makes alcohol taste bitter, causing him or her to vomit after one sip.
  4. He or she finds alcohol more intoxicating.
  5. This drug allows your friend to quit drinking.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.1-84

Page Ref: 633

Topic:  Alcohol

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. He or she would show no signs of sedation, even after 19 beers.

Rationale: This drug blocks the sedating effects of alcohol.

 

18.1-85.  The ability of THC to produce a “high” seems to be related to

  1. activation of the CB1 receptor.
  2. inhibition of dopamine within the nucleus accumbens.
  3. inactivation of GABA neurons in the cortex.
  4. inactivation of the CB1 receptor.
  5. release of cortisol from the adrenal glands.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 18.1-85

Page Ref: 633

Topic:  Cannabis

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. activation of the CB1 receptor.

Rationale: THC activates CB1 receptors, which results in euphoria.

 

18.1-86. If a new drug is developed that is a potent CB1 agonist, one would expect this drug to

  1. produce a “high” similar to that of marijuana.
  2. repair memory in elderly dementia patients.
  3. erode the moral values of this country.
  4. suppress D2 receptors.
  5. produce conditioned aversion for the areas in which the drug is experienced.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 18.1-86

Page Ref: 633

Topic:  Cannabis

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. produce a “high” similar to that of marijuana.

Rationale:  CB1 agonists would be expected to produce a high similar to that of marijuana (which contains the CB1 agonist THC).

 

18.1-87.  The key active ingredient in ________ is THC.

  1. cigarettes
  2. chewing tobacco
  3. snuff
  4. marijuana
  5. tequila

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 18.1-87

Page Ref: 633

Topic:  Cannabis

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. marijuana

Rationale:  THC is the active ingredient in marijuana.

 

18.1-88.  If a new drug is developed that is a potent CB1 antagonist, one would expect this drug to

  1. produce a “high” similar to that of marijuana.
  2. repair memory in elderly dementia patients.
  3. impair the reinforcing actions of drugs such as nicotine, cocaine and alcohol.
  4. suppress D2 receptors.
  5. produce conditioned aversion for the areas in which the drug is experienced.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 18.1-88

Page Ref: 634

Topic:  Cannabis

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. impair the reinforcing actions of drugs such as nicotine, cocaine and alcohol

Rationale:  Antagonism of CB1 receptors would be expected to diminish the reinforcement generated by nicotine, alcohol, and cocaine.

 

18.1- 89.  The chemical cannabidiol is a component of marijuana that

  1. induces euphoria.
  2. has potent psychotropic effects
  3. is a potent agonist at CB2 receptors.
  4. produces anxiety.
  5. has antipsychotic effects.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.1-89

Page Ref: 634

Topic:  Cannabis

Skill: Applied

Answer: e. has antipsychotic effects.

Rationale: The chemical cannabidiol is a component of marijuana that has antipsychotic effects.

 

18.1-90.  The memory impairment produced by marijuana may be due to

  1. release of norepinephrine within the amygdala.
  2. its effect on the perceptual systems.
  3. loss of glial cells in the cortex.
  4. the ability of THC to overstimulate CB1 function in the hippocampus.
  5. the capacity of CB1 receptors to control apoptosis.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 18.1-90

Page Ref: 635

Topic:  Cannabis

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. the ability of THC to overstimulate CB1 function in the hippocampus.

Rationale:  Overstimulation of CB1 receptors by THC in the hippocampus may explain the memory disorder resulting from marijuana use.
18.1- 91.  The risk of ________ may be increased in cannabis users.

  1. anxiety
  2. psychosis
  3. mania
  4. depression
  5. obesity

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 18.1-91

Page Ref: 635

Topic:  Cannabis

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. psychosis

Rationale:  Cannabis use may increase the risk of developing psychosis.

 

18.1-92.   Research on the genetics of drug dependence indicates that

  1. alcoholism and smoking are independent diseases.
  2. alcoholism and smoking share common genetic factors.
  3. smokers are high in status and achievement, but low in sensation seeking.
  4. alcoholics are high in status and achievement, but low in sensation seeking.
  5. environmental factors are more important than genetic factors in drug abuse.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.1-92

Page Ref: 636-637

Topic:  Heredity and Drug Abuse

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. alcoholism and smoking share common genetic factors.

Rationale:  Heritability studies indicate that alcoholism and smoking share common genetic factors.

 

18.1-93.    According to the research of Goldman and colleagues  (2005), the heritability of ________ is highest while that of ________ is lowest.

  1. cocaine; gambling
  2. alcohol; caffeine
  3. hallucinogens; nicotine
  4. cocaine; hallucinogens
  5. caffeine; gambling

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.1-93

Page Ref: 637

Topic:  Heredity and Drug Abuse

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. cocaine; hallucinogens

Rationale: Cocaine has the highest heritability whereas hallucinogens have the lowest.

 

18.1-94.  Susceptibility to alcoholism is most likely linked to variability in

  1. family patterns of alcohol abuse.
  2. emotional dependence.
  3. reactivity to environmental stressors.
  4. lack of guilt about drinking.
  5. metabolism of alcohol.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.1-94

Page Ref: 637

Topic:  Heredity and Drug Abuse

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. reactivity to environmental stressors.

Rationale:  Susceptibility to alcoholism is most likely linked to variability in reactivity to environmental stressors.

 

18.1-95.  The drug ________ is useful for the treatment of opiate overdose.

  1. heroin
  2. demerol
  3. naloxone
  4. methadone
  5. codeine

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 18.1-95

Page Ref: 639

Topic:  Therapy for Drug Abuse

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. naloxone

Rationale:  Naloxone blocks opiate receptors and thus can reverse an opiate overdose state.

 

18.1-96.  A major difficulty for the treatment of opiate addiction is that antagonists for the opiate receptors

  1. produce craving for the opiate.
  2. block the euphoric effects of the opiates.
  3. are useful for preventing overdose.
  4. cannot easily get into brain.
  5. have very short half-lives, thus requiring more frequent treatments.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.1-96

Page Ref: 639

Topic:  Therapy for Drug Abuse

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. produce craving for the opiate.

Rationale:  Opiate antagonists produce a craving for opiates in spite of blocking opiate reinforcement.

 

18.1-97.  A possible treatment for cocaine addiction involving the immune system would be to administer

  1. antibodies to dopamine transporters.
  2. drugs that stimulate dopamine receptors.
  3. antibodies to cocaine.
  4. gamma-vinyl GABA.
  5. buprenorphine.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 18.1-97

Page Ref: 639

Topic:  Therapy for Drug Abuse

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. antibodies to cocaine.

Rationale:  Injection of antibodies to cocaine might represent a useful treatment for cocaine addiction.

 

18.1- 98.   The drug _______ is able to act as a substitute for heroin but has low abuse potential because it has a slow onset of and duration of action.

  1. heroin
  2. demerol
  3. naloxone
  4. methadone
  5. codeine

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 18.1-98

Page Ref: 638

Topic:  Therapies for Drug Abuse

Skill: Factual

Answer:  d. methadone

Rationale: Methadone may be a useful treatment in that this drug can substitute for heroin but has a long duration of action (and slow onset).

 

 

Fill-in-the-Blank Questions

 

18.2-1. In the opening vignette, John suffered from addiction to ________.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 18.2-1

Page Ref: 615

Topic:  Opening Vignette

Skill:    Factual

Answer: heroin

 

18.2-2. ________ abuse produces auto accidents, heart disease, and liver cirrhosis.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.2-2

Page Ref: 615

Topic:  Introduction

Skill:    Factual

Answer: Alcohol

 

18.2-3. The active site of action of the marijuana is the ________ receptor.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 18.2-3

Page Ref: 616

Topic:  Introduction

Skill: Factual

Answer: CB1

 

18.2-4. The common aspect of all natural reinforcers relates to the release of ________ within the nucleus accumbens.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.2-4

Page Ref: 617

Topic:  Positive Reinforcement

Skill: Factual

Answer: dopamine

 

18.2-5 Addictive drugs have the capacity to increase dopamine levels within the ________.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.2-5

Page Ref: 617

Topic:  Positive Reinforcement

Skill: Factual

Answer: nucleus accumbens

 

18.2-6. A man ingests an aspirin to rid himself of a strong headache.  This would be an example of ________.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 18.2-6

Page Ref: 620

Topic:  Positive Reinforcement

Skill: Applied

Answer: negative reinforcement

 

18.2-7. ________ refers to a compulsion to take a drug.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 18.2-7

Page Ref: 621

Topic: Craving and Relapse

Skill: Factual

Answer: Craving

 

18.2- 8. Neurons within the ________  suppress drug craving.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.2-8

Page Ref: 621

Topic:  Craving and Relapse

Skill: Factual

Answer: ventromedial prefrontal cortex

 

18.2-9. Neurons within the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex facilitate drug ________.

Difficulty:  2

Question ID:  18.2-9

Page Ref: 622

Topic: Craving and Relapse

Skill:  Factual

Answer: craving

 

18.2-10. Long-term drug use can result in structural abnormalities of the ________ cortex.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.2-10

Page Ref: 622

Topic: Craving and Relapse

Skill: Factual

Answer: prefrontal

 

18.2- 11.  There is a strong comorbidity between schizophrenia and substance ________.

Difficulty:  2

Question ID: 18.2-11

Page Ref: 622

Topic: Craving and Relapse

Skill: Factual

Answer:  abuse

 

18.2-12.  Infusion of the stress hormone ________ into the VTA can result in drug relapse.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.2-12

Page Ref:  623

Topic: Craving and Relapse

Skill: Factual

Answer:  CRH (or CRF)

 

18.2-13. Opiate receptors in the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) are responsible for the ________ caused by opiate drugs.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.2-13

Page Ref: 625

Topic: Opiates

Skill: Factual

Answer: analgesia

 

18.2-14. The ________ plays a key role in producing opiate withdrawal symptoms.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 18.2-14

Page Ref: 626

Topic:  Opiates

Skill: Factual

Answer: locus coeruleus

 

18.2-15.  The most effective reinforcer of all available drugs of abuse is ________.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.2-15

Page Ref: 626

Topic:  Stimulant Drugs

Skill: Factual

Answer: crack cocaine

 

18.2-16.  Rats that self-injected ________ were more likely to die from an overdose than rats that self-injected ________.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 18.2-16

Page Ref: 627

Topic:  Stimulant Drugs

Skill: Factual

Answer: cocaine; heroin

 

18.2-17.  Some ________ percent of persons who smoke as adolescents through adulthood will die of a smoking-related disease.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.2-17

Page Ref: 628

Topic:  Nicotine

Skill: Factual

Answer:  50

 

18.2-18.  The anxiolytic effects of alcohol may be due to increased sensitivity of ________ receptors.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.2-18

Page Ref: 631

Topic: Alcohol

Skill: Factual

Answer: GABA

 

18.2-19.  The ability of THC in marijuana to produce a “high” seems to be related to activation of the ________ receptor.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 18.2-19

Page Ref: 633

Topic:  Cannabis

Skill: Factual

Answer: cannabinoid-1 (CB1)

 

18.2-20.  The drug ________ is useful for the treatment of opiate overdose.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.2-20

Page Ref: 639

Topic:  Therapy for Drug Abuse

Skill: Factual

Answer: naloxone

 

 

Essay Questions

 

18.3-1. Explain how drugs of abuse may act via the same substrate engaged by natural rewards.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.3-1

Page Ref: 617-618

Topic:  Positive Reinforcement

Skill:    Factual

Answer: The mesolimbic dopamine system terminates in the nucleus accumbens. Food for a hungry rat and water for a thirsty rat cause the release of dopamine from the nucleus accumbens, as do drugs that are self-administered (i.e., cocaine, amphetamine). In addition, craving for these reinforcers is associated with activation of the medial prefrontal cortex.

 

18.3-2.  Describe the changes in reward mechanisms that modulate the early reinforcing effects of drugs versus the later compulsive aspect of drug taking.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 18.3-2

Page Ref: 618-619

Topic:  Topic:  Positive Reinforcement

Skill: Factual

Answer: Acute drug administration activates the nucleus accumbens via the ventral tegmental area (VTA).  A key aspect of the early drug process involves the insertion of AMPA receptors into the membranes of the VTA (which increases their excitability).  Continued drug use leads to synaptic plasticity in regions that communicate with the VTA (especially the dorsal striatum).  Of note, the dorsal striatum is important for establishing motor habits, which could contribute to the compulsive nature of drug abuse.

 

18.3-3. Compare and contrast negative reinforcement with punishment.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.3-3

Page Ref: 620

Topic:  Negative Reinforcement

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: Negative reinforcement refers to a situation in which a behavior that turns off an aversive stimulus will be reinforced. In the punishment situation, a response that leads to an aversive stimulus is made less likely to occur in the future.

 

18.3-4.  Explain how the “reinstatement” procedure is used to model drug craving.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.3-4

Page Ref: 621

Topic: Craving and Relapse

Skill: Conceptual

Answer:  Extended experience with a drug results in conditioning of environmental drug cues with the drug state.  These environmental cues can elicit craving for the drug during drug abstinence.  In the procedure, rats are trained to self-administer a drug for an extended period of time with each lever press accompanied by a variety of cues (pump sound, lights, and perhaps tones).  The drug response is extinguished by replacing the contents of the drug syringe with saline – over time the pressing ceases.  On a test day, the rat receives a “free-shot” of the drug or experiences the drug cues.  The key question is whether the drug prime or the drug cue will reinstate responding on the former drug lever.

 

18.3-5.  Summarize the association between schizophrenia and drug abuse.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.3-5

Page Ref: 622

Topic:  Craving and Relapse

Skill: Factual

Answer:  There is a comorbidity between schizophrenia and drug abuse.  Half of all schizophrenia patients also suffer from drug or alcohol abuse or engage in smoking.  Smokers with a psychiatric disorder constitute 7% of the general population but consume 34% of all cigarettes.

 

18.3-6.  Describe the role of the locus coeruleus in the development of opiate withdrawal symptoms.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 18.3-6

Page Ref: 625-626

Topic:  Opiates

Skill: Factual

Answer: Withdrawal from opiates results in hyperthermia, pain, nausea, and malaise.  Opiate withdrawal can be induced by stopping opiate treatment with the symptoms coming on gradually.  Animal studies often use injection of naloxone (an opiate receptor antagonist) to rapidly induce withdrawal.  Injection of naloxone into the locus coeruleus (LC) rapidly triggers withdrawal symptoms.  Opiates suppress the firing rate of LC neurons but naloxone greatly increases their firing rate.  Damage to the LC reduces symptoms of opiate withdrawal.

 

18.3-7. Explain why nicotine is now considered to be an addictive drug.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 18.3.7

Page Ref: 628-629

Topic:  Nicotine

Skill: Factual

Answer: Humans either smoke regularly or not at all. Smokers find it very difficult to stop smoking, even after suffering diseases that are directly related to smoking. Animals self- administer nicotine and this drug, like cocaine, activates dopamine processes within the nucleus accumbens.

 

18.3-8.  Explain the concern that cannabis use may predispose the user to develop psychosis.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.3-8

Page Ref: 633-635

Topic:  Cannabis

Skill: Factual

Answer: THC, the euphoriant component of marijuana, has psychotic-induced effects whereas another component – CBD has antipsychotic effects.  One problem is that the relative content of these ingredients has changed over the last 20 years.  The amount of THC has increased whereas the amount of CBD has decreased.  Several recent studies suggest that cannabis use increases the risk of developing psychosis.

 

18.3-9. Describe the types of approaches that are being taken today to treat drug addiction.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 18.3-9

Page Ref: 638-641

Topic:  Therapy for Drug Abuse

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: One approach is to administer a drug that blocks dopamine receptors, so as to prevent the reinforcing action of the drug of abuse. This, however, can lead to drug craving. Administering a long-acting drug that substitutes for the drug of abuse (e.g., methadone) may help during the drug withdrawal process. A recently developed technique is to develop an antibody to the drug of abuse.

 

18.3-10. Explain the basis for the notion that drug abuse is heritable.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 18.3-10

Page Ref: 636-637

Topic:  Heredity and Drug Abuse

Skill: Factual

Answer: Twin studies suggest the importance of both heredity as well as environment.

Specifically, abuse of every drug type (except for psychedelics) was influenced by genetics. Genetics seem to be important for determining whether a person becomes addicted. Heritability estimates range from 0.4 to 0.6.

 

 

 

 

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