Phychological Science 5th Edition by Michael Gazzaniga -Test Bank

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Phychological Science 5th Edition by Michael Gazzaniga -Test Bank

CHAPTER 02: Research Methodology

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Based on your text’s discussion of scientific inquiry, the goals of psychological science include each of the following EXCEPT ________ behavior and mental processes.
A. explaining C. synthesizing
B. controlling the causes of D. predicting

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   2.1 Science Has Four Primary Goals

OBJ:   2.1A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. A researcher studying attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is gathering information on how many children receive an attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis each year. Which of the four primary goals of science is she addressing?
A. description C. prediction
B. control D. explanation

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   2.1 Science Has Four Primary Goals

OBJ:   2.1A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. Dr. Meyers is investigating the relationship between stress and obesity. In his latest study, he found that stress often leads to obesity because it causes overeating and has slowing effects on metabolism. Which of the four primary goals of science is he addressing with his most recent work?
A. description C. prediction
B. control D. explanation

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   2.1 Science Has Four Primary Goals

OBJ:   2.1A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. A group of policymakers are working to address issues of public safety in a residential neighborhood by increasing police presence. Which of the four primary goals of science are they addressing?
A. description C. prediction
B. control D. explanation

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   2.1 Science Has Four Primary Goals

OBJ:   2.1A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. Dr. Sherman is studying marital relationships and wants to be able to determine which types of couples are at the highest risk for divorce. Which of the four primary goals of science is he addressing?
A. description C. prediction
B. control D. explanation

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   2.1 Science Has Four Primary Goals

OBJ:   2.1A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. One of the four main goals of science is prediction. The main goal of scientists addressing this goal is to predict:
A. what might control a behavior.
B. how many scientific studies are needed to study a phenomenon.
C. when a phenomenon will occur.
D. which type of researchers will investigate a phenomenon.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   2.1 Science Has Four Primary Goals

OBJ:   2.1A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. One of the four main goals of science is description. The main goal of scientists addressing this goal is to describe:
A. what laws are needed to reduce dangerous behaviors.
B. what measures to use to assess a phenomenon.
C. which types of research studies would best address the phenomenon.
D. what a phenomenon is.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   2.1 Science Has Four Primary Goals

OBJ:   2.1A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. One of the four main goals of science is control. The main goal of scientists addressing this goal is to control:
A. the causes of a phenomenon.
B. access to publications about a phenomenon.
C. the institutions that research a phenomenon.
D. the literature on a certain phenomenon.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   2.1 Science Has Four Primary Goals

OBJ:   2.1A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. One of the four main goals of science is explanation. The main goal of scientists addressing this goal is to explain:
A. why a behavior occurs.
B. the steps of the scientific method.
C. how data collection works.
D. why a researcher wants to study a behavior.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   2.1 Science Has Four Primary Goals

OBJ:   2.1A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. How are the scientific goals of description and explanation different?
A. Description aims to identify the state of a research field; explanation aims to discuss the future of a research field.
B. Description aims to characterize what a phenomenon is; explanation aims to illustrate why a phenomenon occurs.
C. Explanation aims to identify the state of a research field; description aims to discuss the future of a research field.
D. Explanation aims to characterize what a phenomenon is; description aims to illustrate why a phenomenon occurs.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   2.1 Science Has Four Primary Goals

OBJ:   2.1A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Analyzing

 

  1. Clara is working on a study to examine shy children’s behavior with peers they have not met before. She is developing theories, forming hypotheses, and conducting research to determine if her theory is supported by the data. In what process is she engaged?
A. random selection C. directionality
B. correlational studies D. the scientific method

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   2.1 The Scientific Method Aids Critical Thinking

OBJ:   2.1B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Applying

 

  1. According to your textbook, which of the following lists the steps of the scientific method in the correct order?
A. conduct literature review, design study, conduct study, analyze data, form hypothesis, report results
B. form hypothesis, conduct literature review, design study, conduct study, analyze data, report results
C. design study, conduct study, conduct literature review, form hypothesis, report results, analyze data
D. conduct study, analyze data, form hypothesis, report results, design study, conduct literature review

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   2.1 The Scientific Method Aids Critical Thinking

OBJ:   2.1B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Understanding

 

  1. According to the text, how do hypotheses relate to theories?
A. Hypotheses are specific predictions used to test a theory’s prediction.
B. Hypotheses are formulated after a research study and later made into theories.
C. Theories are specific predictions used to test a theory’s prediction.
D. Hypotheses always become theories after a study is complete.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   2.1 The Scientific Method Aids Critical Thinking

OBJ:   2.1B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Analyzing

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true of theories in science?
A. Good theories lead to a number of testable hypotheses.
B. A good hypothesis will support a number of different theories.
C. Good theories are likely to be supported by research findings.
D. Both A and C are true.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   2.1 The Scientific Method Aids Critical Thinking

OBJ:   2.1B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. How do theories reflect the law of parsimony?
A. Good theories should be based on the smallest amount of data possible.
B. Theories should be supported by several researchers.
C. Theories usually do not need to be tested if they are concise.
D. Good theories tend to be the simplest explanations that fit the data.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   2.1 The Scientific Method Aids Critical Thinking

OBJ:   2.1B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Analyzing

 

  1. Another word for a theory is a/an:
A. explanation or model. C. prediction or guess.
B. experiment or study. D. data point or finding.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   2.1 The Scientific Method Aids Critical Thinking

OBJ:   2.1C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Analyzing

 

  1. How are a theory and a hypothesis different?
A. A hypothesis is more specific than a theory.
B. A hypothesis and a theory are the same thing.
C. A theory can only be used for one study while a hypothesis can be used for several.
D. A theory is unchanging while a hypothesis can be altered.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   2.1 The Scientific Method Aids Critical Thinking

OBJ:   2.1C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Analyzing

 

  1. Which of the following formal elements of the scientific method consists of a set of interconnected ideas or concepts?
A. a theory C. an experiment
B. a hypothesis D. none of the above

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   2.1 The Scientific Method Aids Critical Thinking

OBJ:   2.1C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. Psychologist Jean Piaget observed children to see how they solved problems. Over the course of many studies, he was able to spot general patterns of behavior. This led him to connect different concepts and behaviors within a single:
A. theory. C. experiment.
B. hypothesis. D. sample.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   2.1 The Scientific Method Aids Critical Thinking

OBJ:   2.1C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. Another word for a hypothesis is a/an:
A. theory. C. outcome.
B. prediction. D. naturalistic observation.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   2.1 The Scientific Method Aids Critical Thinking

OBJ:   2.1C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Analyzing

 

  1. A researcher believes that presenting possible suspects in a lineup one at a time instead of in a group would lead to more accurate identification of the true suspect. This belief represents a(n):
A. hypothesis. C. response performance.
B. independent variable. D. theory.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   2.1 The Scientific Method Aids Critical Thinking

OBJ:   2.1C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. What does it mean for a theory to be falsifiable?
A. It should not be necessary to collect data to address the theory.
B. It should be based on an extensive literature review.
C. It should be the simplest of competing theories.
D. It should be possible to prove the theory incorrect.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   2.1 The Scientific Method Aids Critical Thinking

OBJ:   2.1C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. According to some psychologists, Sigmund Freud’s theory of the meaning of dreams was not a successful theory because:
A. it was too socially controversial.
B. he developed the theory from previous ideas.
C. it did not lead to many testable hypotheses.
D. it was based on research later shown to be invalid.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   2.1 The Scientific Method Aids Critical Thinking

OBJ:   2.1C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. A(n) ________ is a specific, testable prediction about the result that, if the theory is correct, will support the theory.
A. replication C. experiment
B. hypothesis D. all of the above

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   2.1 The Scientific Method Aids Critical Thinking

OBJ:   2.1C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. George is looking for a research project. He could make use of theory because:
A. theories are shown to be true, so subsequent research is successful.
B. one of the benefits of theories is that they lead to testable hypotheses.
C. a theory can be successfully replicated by researchers.
D. theories are likely to result in serendipity, which leads to successful research.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   2.1 The Scientific Method Aids Critical Thinking

OBJ:   2.1C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. Dr. Henderson wants to conduct research to test her theory that there is an association between sleep patterns and depressive thoughts. What must she do to test this theory?
A. conduct naturalistic observation
B. use self-report methods
C. collect data systematically
D. rely on positive correlations rather than negative correlations

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   2.1 The Scientific Method Aids Critical Thinking

OBJ:   2.1C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Applying

 

  1. Scientists conduct ________, which involves the careful and systematic collection of data.
A. hypotheses C. research
B. replication D. reliability

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   2.1 The Scientific Method Aids Critical Thinking

OBJ:   2.1C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Remembering

 

  1. Another word for replication is:
A. reviewing. C. repeating.
B. generalizing. D. analyzing.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   2.1 The Scientific Method Aids Critical Thinking

OBJ:   2.1B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Analyzing

 

  1. Dr. Smith reads about a research study investigating whether a reading intervention has a positive effect on children’s performances in school. She decides to repeat the same study to see if she obtains similar results. She is engaging in:
A. meta-analysis. C. replication.
B. experience sampling. D. correlational research.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   2.1 The Scientific Method Aids Critical Thinking

OBJ:   2.1B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Applying

 

  1. Psychologists have greater confidence in research results when:
A. the data involve stimulus judgments.
B. the research has used participant observation.
C. the results are replicated.
D. there is an experimenter expectancy effect.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   2.1 The Scientific Method Aids Critical Thinking

OBJ:   2.1B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Remembering

 

  1. According to your text, physiologists David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel’s Nobel Prize–winning research on the function of visual cells in cats’ brains illustrates the value of ________ in scientific research.
A. serendipity C. objectivity
B. replication D. abstraction

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   2.1 Unexpected Findings Can Be Valuable

OBJ:   2.1C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true of serendipity in science?
A. Serendipity plays no important role in science because unexpected findings have always been unimportant.
B. Serendipity has led to groundbreaking discoveries that immediately resulted in the Nobel Prize for researchers.
C. Serendipitous findings in science illustrate that research does not always proceed in an orderly fashion.
D. None of the above are true.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   2.1 Unexpected Findings Can Be Valuable

OBJ:   2.1C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following alternatives is the closest meaning to the term serendipitous?
A. erratic C. significant
B. unexpected D. systematic

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   2.1 Unexpected Findings Can Be Valuable

OBJ:   2.1C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. According to your text, variables, by definition, can:
A. have no operational definition. C. involve random assignment.
B. be changed or evaluated. D. be constants.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   2.2 What Types of Studies Are Used in Psychological Research?

OBJ:   2.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. Something that can be measured or manipulated by an experimenter is considered:
A. a descriptive statistic. C. a confound.
B. data. D. a variable.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 What Types of Studies Are Used in Psychological Research?

OBJ:   2.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. The precise way a researcher measures and defines a variable is known as the:
A. operational definition. C. stimulus judgment.
B. response accuracy. D. central tendency.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 What Types of Studies Are Used in Psychological Research?

OBJ:   2.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true of variables in studies?
A. A variable is something that can change but is not measured in a study.
B. A variable is something that can be measured but rarely changes.
C. A variable is that aspect of a study that is unchanging.
D. A variable is something that can change and be measured.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 What Types of Studies Are Used in Psychological Research?

OBJ:   2.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. Operational definitions make it possible for researchers to:
A. think about abstract qualities of their measures.
B. randomly assign participants to different conditions.
C. identify variables and record their quantities.
D. none of the above.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 What Types of Studies Are Used in Psychological Research?

OBJ:   2.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. If a researcher defined happiness based on the number of times a person smiled in a 15-minute period, the number of smiles would be:
A. an open-ended measurement.
B. the operational definition of happiness.
C. a meta-analysis of the variable.
D. a measure of reaction time.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   2.2 What Types of Studies Are Used in Psychological Research?

OBJ:   2.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. It would NOT be possible for a researcher to study creativity in an experiment if the researcher:
A. had to rely on inferential statistics.
B. did not account for the directionality problem.
C. did not create an operational definition to measure creativity.
D. did not measure event-related potential.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   2.2 What Types of Studies Are Used in Psychological Research?

OBJ:   2.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following activities would NOT be considered a descriptive study?
A. taking notes on the behavior of members in a cult
B. measuring the selection of food items in a cafeteria
C. examining the effects of a new medication in alleviating depression
D. counting the number of mating behaviors in baboons in the natural habitat

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   2.2 Descriptive Research Consists of Case Studies, Observation, and Self-Report Methods

OBJ:   2.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Understanding

 

  1. If a psychologist’s goal is to describe behavior or mental processes, he or she might conduct a(n) ________ study.
A. experimental C. inferential
B. descriptive D. correlational

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   2.2 Descriptive Research Consists of Case Studies, Observation, and Self-Report Methods

OBJ:   2.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Applying

 

  1. In which of the following types of descriptive studies does a researcher remain separated from the situation and make no attempt to change it?
A. naturalistic observation C. longitudinal study
B. participant observation D. cross-sectional study

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 Descriptive Research Consists of Case Studies, Observation, and Self-Report Methods

OBJ:   2.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Remembering

 

  1. If a researcher wanted to study the behavior of protesters who were in a closed group and did not easily admit new people, the researcher would probably use which of the following approaches to study them?
A. naturalistic observation C. meta-analysis
B. participant observation D. closed-ended questions

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 Descriptive Research Consists of Case Studies, Observation, and Self-Report Methods

OBJ:   2.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Understanding

 

  1. When a researcher joins a social group and talks to the members in order to study that group, the approach is referred to as:
A. a self-report method. C. experience sampling.
B. participant observation. D. response performance.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 Descriptive Research Consists of Case Studies, Observation, and Self-Report Methods

OBJ:   2.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Remembering

 

  1. In which of the following types of descriptive studies do researchers involve themselves in the situation of interest?
A. naturalistic observation C. longitudinal study
B. participant observation D. cross-sectional study

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 Descriptive Research Consists of Case Studies, Observation, and Self-Report Methods

OBJ:   2.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Remembering

 

  1. Data collection is particularly problematic when a researcher uses participant observation because:
A. the researcher is able to make use of only closed-ended questions.
B. the researcher fails to recognize the third variable problem.
C. random error occurs in the initial stages of observation.
D. the researcher loses objectivity in participating with a group.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   2.2 Descriptive Research Consists of Case Studies, Observation, and Self-Report Methods

OBJ:   2.2B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Applying

 

  1. When researchers collect data in a study, if they unconsciously code a person’s behavior to match their expectations, we say there is:
A. a directionality problem. C. a sampling error.
B. an observer bias. D. reactivity.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 Descriptive Research Consists of Case Studies, Observation, and Self-Report Methods

OBJ:   2.2B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Remembering

 

  1. If a researcher does not have a clear operational definition of the behavior he or she is studying, he or she might experience:
A. observer bias. C. confounds.
B. reactivity. D. a directionality problem.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 Descriptive Research Consists of Case Studies, Observation, and Self-Report Methods

OBJ:   2.2B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Remembering

 

  1. When a researcher’s bias affects the coding of data, there is a problem with:
A. the Hawthorne effect. C. a third variable.
B. experimenter expectancy. D. confounds.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 Descriptive Research Consists of Case Studies, Observation, and Self-Report Methods

OBJ:   2.2B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Remembering

 

  1. When a researcher collecting data does NOT know a study’s hypothesis, the study is a ________ study.
A. blind C. meta-analytic
B. confounded D. reactivity

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 Descriptive Research Consists of Case Studies, Observation, and Self-Report Methods

OBJ:   2.2B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Remembering

 

  1. In scientific research, a researcher’s expectations about a study can lead to systematic errors in observation. This phenomenon is called:
A. observer bias. C. the third variable problem.
B. critical thinking skills. D. the directionality problem.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 Descriptive Research Consists of Case Studies, Observation, and Self-Report Methods

OBJ:   2.2B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Remembering

 

  1. The psychologist Robert Rosenthal told student researchers that some rats in a study would learn a task quickly and others would learn the task slowly. In reality, there was no difference in the rats’ abilities to learn the task. When the students tested the rats, the animals’ learning matched what the students were told. These results reflect the:
A. Hawthorne effect. C. directionality problem.
B. experimenter expectancy effect. D. third variable problem.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   2.2 Descriptive Research Consists of Case Studies, Observation, and Self-Report Methods

OBJ:   2.2B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following is likely to be associated with observer bias?
A. reactivity C. experimenter expectancy
B. experience sampling D. the Hawthorne effect

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   2.2 Descriptive Research Consists of Case Studies, Observation, and Self-Report Methods

OBJ:   2.2B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. Gwen is studying the effects of comedic film on depressed participants. She is concerned that the data collectors will produce biased observations if they know the purpose of the study. She addresses this problem by using a(n) ________ study.
A. blind C. experimental
B. correlational D. descriptive

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   2.2 Descriptive Research Consists of Case Studies, Observation, and Self-Report Methods

OBJ:   2.2B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Applying

 

  1. In which of the following types of study do researchers examine the extent to which variables are naturally related in the real world (that is, there is NO attempt by the researcher to influence the relation among the variables)?
A. descriptive C. experimental
B. case D. correlational

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 Correlational Studies Describe and Predict How Variables Are Related

OBJ:   2.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Remembering

 

  1. Researchers are likely to choose a correlational design when:
A. they are concerned that there will be a third variable problem.
B. the directionality problem is likely.
C. it is impossible to control the variables being studied.
D. they are using psychophysiological assessments.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   2.2 Correlational Studies Describe and Predict How Variables Are Related

OBJ:   2.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Applying

 

  1. When two variables are correlated, it is not clear which one is a causal variable and which is an effect. This ambiguity reflects:
A. the third variable problem. C. selection bias.
B. random error. D. the directionality problem.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 Correlational Studies Describe and Predict How Variables Are Related

OBJ:   2.2B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. In correlational studies, we cannot interpret which variable may be the cause and which variable may be the effect. This phenomenon is known as:
A. observer bias. C. the directionality problem.
B. experimenter expectancy effects. D. the third variable problem.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 Correlational Studies Describe and Predict How Variables Are Related

OBJ:   2.2B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. Using correlational studies, psychologists have studied whether exposure to violence in the media leads to violent behavior. They have found that participants who have been exposed to more violence in the media are, in general, more violent. It is not clear from such research which one causes the other. The problem in interpreting these results involves:
A. directionality. C. sampling error.
B. selection bias. D. confounds.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   2.2 Correlational Studies Describe and Predict How Variables Are Related

OBJ:   2.2B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Understanding

 

  1. In correlational studies, it is always possible that an unmeasured variable is responsible for the relation of interest. This complication is known as:
A. observer bias. C. the directionality problem.
B. experimenter expectancy effects. D. the third variable problem.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 Correlational Studies Describe and Predict How Variables Are Related

OBJ:   2.2B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. Samir is conducting a correlational study, and he cannot determine whether one variable causes another. One reason for this indetermination is that the additional variables that he did not study could influence the variables he did study. This result reflects the problem with:
A. selection bias. C. the third variable problem.
B. response accuracy. D. the occurrence of random error.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   2.2 Correlational Studies Describe and Predict How Variables Are Related

OBJ:   2.2B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Understanding

 

  1. There is a correlation between depression and memory: When people suffer from depression frequently, they often display worse memory than people who suffer from depression less frequently. Genetics, however, may have an effect on a study participant’s depression and memory. This combination of factors is known as:
A. selection bias. C. the directionality problem.
B. the experimenter expectancy effect. D. the third variable problem.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   2.2 Correlational Studies Describe and Predict How Variables Are Related

OBJ:   2.2B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. When a researcher manipulates a variable to see what effect the manipulation has on a study participant’s behavior, the research design involves:
A. a correlational study. C. naturalistic observation.
B. an experiment. D. participant observation.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 The Experimental Method Controls and Explains     OBJ:   2.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. The variable that a researcher manipulates in an experiment is called the:
A. independent variable. C. confounding variable.
B. dependent variable. D. stimulus.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 The Experimental Method Controls and Explains     OBJ:   2.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. The variable that a researcher measures in an experiment to see if it has changed after a treatment is called the:
A. independent variable. C. confounding variable.
B. dependent variable. D. stimulus.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 The Experimental Method Controls and Explains     OBJ:   2.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following types of studies allows the researcher to establish causality between an independent variable and a dependent variable?
A. descriptive studies C. experiments
B. correlational studies D. none of the above

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 The Experimental Method Controls and Explains     OBJ:   2.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Remembering

 

  1. Researchers assess people’s performances with respect to a given behavior at the beginning of a study before manipulating a variable so they can identify what happens to behavior when they manipulate a variable. The use of control groups and groups that experience a manipulation of a variable is characteristic of:
A. correlational studies. C. naturalistic observation.
B. longitudinal research. D. experimental research.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 The Experimental Method Controls and Explains     OBJ:   2.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Applying

 

  1. A research team told one group of people it would hear a set of jokes that were funny and a second group that it would hear jokes that were not funny. A third group was not told anything about the jokes. The jokes in all conditions were the same. Research with this design is:
A. observational. C. experimental.
B. correlational. D. psychophysiological.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   2.2 The Experimental Method Controls and Explains     OBJ:   2.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Applying

 

  1. Wilhelm randomly assigns participants to two groups and compares the group that receives a treatment with the group that receives no treatment. The group that gets the treatment is the ________ group.
A. variable C. experimental
B. confounded D. control

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 The Experimental Method Controls and Explains     OBJ:   2.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Applying

 

  1. Researchers investigated whether mood affects participants’ ratings of jokes. Participants in the first mood group read sad statements. In the second group, participants read neutral statements. In this study, the participants who read the sad statements constituted the:
A. control group. C. experimental condition.
B. population. D. observational group.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   2.2 The Experimental Method Controls and Explains     OBJ:   2.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Applying

 

  1. Paloma randomly assigns participants to two groups. She wants to compare a group that receives a treatment with a group that receives no treatment. The group that gets no treatment is the ________ group.
A. variable C. experimental
B. confounded D. control

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 The Experimental Method Controls and Explains     OBJ:   2.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Understanding

 

  1. When confounds are present in an experiment, they result in:
A. an increase in the possibility of selection bias.
B. a decrease in the reactivity of the experimental participants.
C. possible alternative explanations for the results of the experiment.
D. the same treatment for experimental and control groups in the experiment.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 The Experimental Method Controls and Explains     OBJ:   2.2B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. When an experiment lacks the proper control, which of the following unintended variables can influence the outcome of a study?
A. confound C. dependent variable
B. independent variable D. all of the above

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 The Experimental Method Controls and Explains     OBJ:   2.2B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. Bai is conducting a study on learning. When she manipulates an independent variable, it is possible that some other factor, such as noise in the hall, can affect learning in one of the groups but not in the other. This possibility reflects the presence of:
A. a confound. C. selection bias.
B. a dependent variable. D. random assignment.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 The Experimental Method Controls and Explains     OBJ:   2.2B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Applying

 

  1. When identifying the pool of participants who will be in a research project, psychologists most often use ________ even though it is not preferred.
A. random assignment. C. convenience sampling.
B. random sampling. D. control participants.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 Participants Need to Be Carefully Selected and Randomly Assigned to Conditions

OBJ:   2.2C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Remembering

 

  1. If a researcher wants to be able to generalize about a population using data pulled from a sample, it is best to use:
A. a convenience sample. C. a descriptive study.
B. experience sampling. D. a random sample.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 Participants Need to Be Carefully Selected and Randomly Assigned to Conditions

OBJ:   2.2C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following sampling techniques gives each member of the population an equal and independent chance of being selected to participate?
A. random sampling C. random assignment
B. convenience sampling D. selection bias

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   2.2 Participants Need to Be Carefully Selected and Randomly Assigned to Conditions

OBJ:   2.2C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Remembering

 

  1. Because psychologists regularly use college students as research participants, the research does NOT involve:
A. random sampling. C. selection bias.
B. convenience sampling. D. populations.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   2.2 Participants Need to Be Carefully Selected and Randomly Assigned to Conditions

OBJ:   2.2C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Applying

 

  1. One criticism that is made of many experimental studies in psychology is that:
A. human behavior is almost impossible to study scientifically.
B. human behavior is seldom related to animal behavior.
C. experimental studies are conducted in artificial laboratory settings.
D. it is very difficult to separate the effects of independent and dependent variables.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 Participants Need to Be Carefully Selected and Randomly Assigned to Conditions

OBJ:   2.2B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Remembering

 

  1. Jafar conducted an experiment with student participants enrolled in his PSY 101 class. He investigated their reactions to advertisements that used humor. When analyzing his results, he should take into account that:
A. there are likely to be many confounds in his methodology, so his results may not be reliable.
B. by using random assignment of participants to groups, it is likely that he avoided selection bias.
C. he has a convenience sample and may not be able to generalize his findings to the larger population of adults.
D. self-report methods are not an accurate way to get authentic reactions to the advertisements.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   2.2 Participants Need to Be Carefully Selected and Randomly Assigned to Conditions

OBJ:   2.2C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Applying

 

  1. A college is planning on turning a grassy area into a parking lot. A researcher wants to investigate the response of students about this change. She plans to give a questionnaire to a random sample of students. It is likely that:
A. her results will generalize to the population of interest to her.
B. she will not be able to generalize her results because she is using a convenience sample.
C. if she repeated the study with another random sample, she would get very different results.
D. her findings are not representative of the attitudes of students on the campus.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   2.2 Participants Need to Be Carefully Selected and Randomly Assigned to Conditions

OBJ:   2.2C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Applying

 

  1. Unintended differences between the groups in an experiment may introduce confounds; these differences reflect a condition known as ________ bias.
A. selection C. directionality
B. assignment D. sampling

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 Participants Need to Be Carefully Selected and Randomly Assigned to Conditions

OBJ:   2.2C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. Unintended differences between the groups in an experiment reflect ________ bias; these differences stem from a failure to follow the principle of random ________.
A. sampling; selection C. selection; sampling
B. sampling; assignment D. selection; assignment

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   2.2 Participants Need to Be Carefully Selected and Randomly Assigned to Conditions

OBJ:   2.2C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. In order to maximize the likelihood that experimental and control groups are similar before any treatment is begun, researchers typically use:
A. naturalistic observation. C. sampling.
B. random assignment. D. participant observation.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 Participants Need to Be Carefully Selected and Randomly Assigned to Conditions

OBJ:   2.2C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Remembering

 

  1. A psychologist wants to create two groups that are as similar as possible at the beginning of an experiment. To do this, he or she should use:
A. random sampling. C. self-report methods.
B. random assignment. D. participant observation.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 Participants Need to Be Carefully Selected and Randomly Assigned to Conditions

OBJ:   2.2C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Applying

 

  1. If a researcher created two groups by assigning the first 30 people to the experimental group and the last 30 to the control group, the process would violate the principle of:
A. variability. C. random assignment.
B. generalization. D. correlational research.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 Participants Need to Be Carefully Selected and Randomly Assigned to Conditions

OBJ:   2.2C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Understanding

 

  1. The systematic recording of overt behavior of human and nonhuman animals in their natural environment involves what research strategy?
A. observational techniques
B. case studies
C. psychophysiological assessments
D. response performance strategies

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 Descriptive Research Consists of Case Studies, Observation, and Self-Report Methods

OBJ:   2.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Remembering

 

  1. Pablo is conducting research and trying to determine whether he should monitor the presence versus the absence of a behavior or how long a behavior occurs. What approach to research is he most likely using?
A. psychophysiological assessment C. self-report method
B. observational research D. experience sampling

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   2.2 Descriptive Research Consists of Case Studies, Observation, and Self-Report Methods

OBJ:   2.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Applying

 

  1. Philippe wants to study the number of times that close friends touch each other in their interactions. His interpretations of this behavior would need to take into consideration:
A. cultural differences in the meaning of touches.
B. whether participants were randomly assigned to groups.
C. whether the directionality problem is an issue in the study.
D. that participant observation generally results in reactivity.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   2.2 Participants Need to Be Carefully Selected and Randomly Assigned to Conditions

OBJ:   2.2C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 3, Ethical and Social Responsibility in a Diverse World | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                 MSC:           Applying

 

  1. When people are aware of being observed, they might change their behaviors. This phenomenon illustrates:
A. variability. C. random assignment.
B. experimenter expectancy. D. reactivity.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 Descriptive Research Consists of Case Studies, Observation, and Self-Report Methods

OBJ:   2.2B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. The Hawthorne effect refers to changes in behavior associated with:
A. reactivity. C. experimenter expectancy.
B. observer bias. D. informed consent.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 Descriptive Research Consists of Case Studies, Observation, and Self-Report Methods

OBJ:   2.2B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. In which of the following studies would the concept of reactivity be most relevant?
A. a blind study C. an observational study
B. a case study D. an electrophysiological study

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 Descriptive Research Consists of Case Studies, Observation, and Self-Report Methods

OBJ:   2.2B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. According to your textbook, if you wanted to conduct observational research but were concerned that the people you observed would change their behaviors due to reactivity, you could:
A. avoid debriefing them.
B. use a blinded study.
C. conduct culturally sensitive research.
D. rule out alternative explanations.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 Descriptive Research Consists of Case Studies, Observation, and Self-Report Methods

OBJ:   2.2B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Understanding

 

  1. What is the main characteristic that sets case studies apart from other types of studies?
A. the types of measures used
B. the number of people studied
C. the types of psychological phenomenon studied
D. the observational techniques used

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   2.2 Case Studies Examine Individual Lives and Organizations

OBJ:   2.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. A study of the experiences of a synesthete—for example, a person who experiences a visual sensation when hearing a sound—is likely to make use of:
A. random selection. C. cross-sectional research.
B. a case study. D. participant observation.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   2.2 Case Studies Examine Individual Lives and Organizations

OBJ:   2.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Applying

 

  1. Investigators who are interested in gaining a lot of information about group attitudes quickly are likely to use what kind of research approach?
A. case study C. participant observation
B. psychophysical assessment D. self-report

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   2.2 Descriptive Research Consists of Case Studies, Observation, and Self-Report Methods

OBJ:   2.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Understanding

 

  1. Jamal wants to find out whether the customers of his coffee shop prefer that he add booths or keep his tables and chairs. A researcher would be likely to use what kind of study to help him?
A. participant observation C. correlational
B. self-report D. experimental

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   2.2 Descriptive Research Consists of Case Studies, Observation, and Self-Report Methods

OBJ:   2.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Understanding

 

  1. Socially desirable responding is a potential problem in research because it may:
A. clue participants in to researchers’ hypotheses.
B. interfere with the integrity of data.
C. cause researchers to fabricate data.
D. indicate a zero correlation.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   2.2 Descriptive Research Consists of Case Studies, Observation, and Self-Report Methods

OBJ:   2.2B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Analyzing

 

  1. In observational studies, participants sometimes show reactivity. A related phenomenon in self-report studies is called:
A. participant observation. C. socially desirable responding.
B. experimenter expectancy. D. the third variable problem.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   2.2 Descriptive Research Consists of Case Studies, Observation, and Self-Report Methods

OBJ:   2.2B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. Your text suggests that during psychology’s history, animal models have been especially important in the area of:
A. learning. C. memory.
B. development. D. personality.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.3 There Are Ethical Issues to Consider in Research with Animals

OBJ:   2.3B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. In which of the following ways are conducting research with humans versus animals different?
A. There are limits to the procedures researchers can use with humans, but no limits with animals.
B. Certain research procedures are acceptable in animals, but not in humans.
C. There is a committee reviewing human research, but no oversight for animal research.
D. Observation is a common research procedure for animals, but is not permitted on humans.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   2.3 There Are Ethical Issues to Consider in Research with Animals

OBJ:   2.3B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 3, Ethical and Social Responsibility in a Diverse World | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                 MSC:           Analyzing

 

  1. In which of the following ways are conducting research with humans versus animals similar?
A. Consent is necessary for both.
B. Animals are used as research models for humans, and humans are used as research models for animals.
C. Both require approval by an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC).
D. Ethics are an important consideration for both.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   2.3 There Are Ethical Issues to Consider in Research with Animals

OBJ:   2.3B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 3, Ethical and Social Responsibility in a Diverse World | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                 MSC:           Analyzing

 

  1. Why would researchers choose to use animal models for research?
A. Animals’ brains and humans’ brains are practically indistinguishable in research.
B. They want to study a condition that exists in animals but not in humans.
C. They want to study important brain or genetic changes that would be unethical to induce in humans.
D. Animals often have the same disorders and diseases that humans have.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   2.3 There Are Ethical Issues to Consider in Research with Animals

OBJ:   2.3B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 3, Ethical and Social Responsibility in a Diverse World | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                 MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. The ethical treatment of animals is important to consider for:
A. any study using vertebrates.
B. only studies using mice.
C. any study conducted by an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC).
D. only studies using more than 100 animals.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   2.3 There Are Ethical Issues to Consider in Research with Animals

OBJ:   2.3B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 3, Ethical and Social Responsibility in a Diverse World | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                 MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. According to the text, animal models may be considered ethical for psychological research if:
A. genetic research is involved in at least part of the research.
B. no injury is inflicted on the animals.
C. an equal number of human subjects are included in the research.
D. concern for animals’ lives is balanced with concern for humanity’s future.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   2.3 There Are Ethical Issues to Consider in Research with Animals

OBJ:   2.3B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 3, Ethical and Social Responsibility in a Diverse World | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                 MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) is similar to an institutional review board because both organizations:
A. enforce ethical mandates about different types of research.
B. oversee research using animals to ensure safety.
C. have the same types of members.
D. conduct research on animals and humans.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   2.3 There Are Ethical Issues to Consider in Research with Animals

OBJ:   2.3B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 3, Ethical and Social Responsibility in a Diverse World

MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Before psychologists can begin a research project with human participants, they must receive approval from the:
A. American Psychological Association.
B. Association of Psychological Science.
C. National Science Foundation.
D. institutional review board.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.3 There Are Ethical Issues to Consider in Research with Human Participants

OBJ:   2.3A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 3, Ethical and Social Responsibility in a Diverse World

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Dr. Rodriguez is talking with a colleague about the students and staff that are granted access to data collected in his experiment. With which ethical issue is he concerned?
A. deception C. anonymity
B. informed consent D. confidentiality

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   2.3 There Are Ethical Issues to Consider in Research with Human Participants

OBJ:   2.3A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 3, Ethical and Social Responsibility in a Diverse World | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                 MSC:           Applying

 

  1. The process by which any deception used in a study is explained to a participant is called:
A. debriefing. C. relief of confidentiality.
B. informed consent. D. relief from relative risk.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.3 There Are Ethical Issues to Consider in Research with Human Participants

OBJ:   2.3A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 3, Ethical and Social Responsibility in a Diverse World

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. If a researcher was denied permission to conduct a study because participants might suffer harm, that decision would have been made by the:
A. American Psychological Association.
B. institutional review board.
C. National Science Foundation.
D. Association of Psychological Science.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.3 There Are Ethical Issues to Consider in Research with Human Participants

OBJ:   2.3A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 3, Ethical and Social Responsibility in a Diverse World

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. If a researcher publicly discussed a participant’s responses and named the participant, that researcher would be guilty of violating what specific ethical principle?
A. confidentiality C. privacy
B. anonymity D. deception

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.3 There Are Ethical Issues to Consider in Research with Human Participants

OBJ:   2.3A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 3, Ethical and Social Responsibility in a Diverse World | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                 MSC:           Applying

 

  1. One issue that an institutional review board is likely to concern itself with is:
A. systematic error. C. relative risk.
B. directionality problems. D. experimenter expectancy.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.3 There Are Ethical Issues to Consider in Research with Human Participants

OBJ:   2.3A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 3, Ethical and Social Responsibility in a Diverse World | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                 MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following sequences best reflects the order of events in a typical experimental session?
A. experiment à informed consent à debriefing
B. debriefing à informed consent à experiment
C. informed consent à debriefing à experiment
D. informed consent à experiment à debriefing

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.3 There Are Ethical Issues to Consider in Research with Human Participants

OBJ:   2.3A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 3, Ethical and Social Responsibility in a Diverse World | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                 MSC:           Applying

 

  1. If a seriously brain-damaged patient cannot give informed consent to participate in medical research, then researchers can:
A. include the person in research only if they provide a complete debriefing at the conclusion of the study.
B. relax the requirements regarding the relative risk of participation in the study.
C. apply to the American Medical Association to waive the requirement for informed consent.
D. obtain consent for the patient to take part in the research by getting permission from a legal guardian.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   2.3 There Are Ethical Issues to Consider in Research with Human Participants

OBJ:   2.3A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 3, Ethical and Social Responsibility in a Diverse World | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                 MSC:           Applying

 

  1. When a researcher debriefs his or her participants, he or she:
A. removes their undergarments.
B. provides a detailed explanation of the study’s goals.
C. describes the factors that might affect their willingness to participate.
D. outlines the general procedure of the study.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   2.3 There Are Ethical Issues to Consider in Research with Human Participants

OBJ:   2.3A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 3, Ethical and Social Responsibility in a Diverse World | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                 MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true regarding the use of deception in psychological research?
A. It is integral to the conduct of scientifically valid research.
B. It generally decreases the scientific validity of psychological research.
C. It is occasionally necessary to safeguard the validity of the research.
D. It is no longer permissible in psychological research.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   2.3 There Are Ethical Issues to Consider in Research with Human Participants

OBJ:   2.3A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 3, Ethical and Social Responsibility in a Diverse World | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                 MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. An institutional review board is likely to conclude that there are no troublesome ethical issues associated with which of the following studies?
A. research in a controlled study in a laboratory
B. surveys on topics such as experiences of sexual abuse
C. naturalistic observation of the conditions in which people are likely to litter in public
D. experiments on learning simple lists of words when the experimenter has deceived participants about the purpose of the study

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   2.3 There Are Ethical Issues to Consider in Research with Human Participants

OBJ:   2.3A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 3, Ethical and Social Responsibility in a Diverse World | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                 MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. As Dr. O’Malley begins an experiment, he reviews the factors that might affect participants’ willingness to take part. Dr. Quick is providing a detailed explanation to participants who have just completed a study. Which of the following statements is true?
A. Dr. O’Malley is obtaining informed consent from his participants; Dr. Quick is debriefing her participants.
B. Dr. O’Malley is debriefing his participants; Dr. Quick is obtaining informed consent from her participants.
C. Both Dr. O’Malley and Dr. Quick are obtaining informed consent from their participants.
D. Both Dr. O’Malley and Dr. Quick are debriefing their participants.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   2.3 There Are Ethical Issues to Consider in Research with Human Participants

OBJ:   2.3A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 3, Ethical and Social Responsibility in a Diverse World | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                 MSC:           Applying

 

  1. When data collected in research are not useful in addressing the issue that the investigator is studying, we say that the data are NOT:
A. reliable. C. systematic.
B. valid. D. statistically significant.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.4 Good Research Requires Valid, Reliable, and Accurate Data

OBJ:   2.4A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. Suppose a researcher intended to study people’s levels of happiness by monitoring how often they smile or laugh when watching a movie. If this measurement does not really indicate level of happiness, psychologists would say that the data are NOT:
A. systematic. C. valid.
B. reliable. D. event related.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.4 Good Research Requires Valid, Reliable, and Accurate Data

OBJ:   2.4A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Applying

 

  1. If a researcher’s data are reliable:
A. they still might involve a high level of systematic error.
B. they are definitely also valid.
C. there will be little chance of participant reactivity.
D. measurements were definitely culturally sensitive.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.4 Good Research Requires Valid, Reliable, and Accurate Data

OBJ:   2.4A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Applying

 

  1. Suppose a researcher studying social anxiety in children uses a measure of “fidgeting” that indexes hyperactivity instead of social anxiety. What type of validity is this measure lacking?
A. construct C. internal
B. external D. operational

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   2.4 Good Research Requires Valid, Reliable, and Accurate Data

OBJ:   2.4A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Applying

 

  1. Suppose a researcher studying the effect of having a pet on elderly people’s subjective well-being does NOT use a control group in his study. What type of validity is this measure lacking?
A. construct C. internal
B. external D. operational

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   2.4 Good Research Requires Valid, Reliable, and Accurate Data

OBJ:   2.4A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Applying

 

  1. In what way are internal validity and external validity different?
A. External validity relates to experimental control; internal validity relates to generalization.
B. External validity relates to accuracy; internal validity relates to systematic error.
C. External validity relates to generalization; internal validity relates to experimental control.
D. External validity relates to systematic error; internal validity relates to accuracy.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   2.4 Good Research Requires Valid, Reliable, and Accurate Data

OBJ:   2.4A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Analyzing

 

  1. Suppose a research study does a good job at making sure the results generalize to the real world, but does not do a good job preventing confounds. This research study:
A. has external validity but not internal validity.
B. has internal validity but not external validity.
C. has construct validity but not external validity.
D. has external validity but not inferential validity.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   2.4 Good Research Requires Valid, Reliable, and Accurate Data

OBJ:   2.4A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Analyzing

 

  1. Ashley is an undergraduate research assistant in a lab investigating preschool children’s science knowledge. She is examining the items on the science knowledge assessments to ensure that they actually measure science, and not some other concept. What type of validity is she addressing?
A. external C. construct
B. internal D. reliable

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   2.4 Good Research Requires Valid, Reliable, and Accurate Data

OBJ:   2.4A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Applying

 

  1. If a participant always shows fast reaction times on a visual task not because she is good at the task but because she can hear the experimenter start the presentation and can get ready for the stimulus, her data will show a high level of:
A. validity. C. selection bias.
B. reactivity. D. systematic error.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.4 Good Research Requires Valid, Reliable, and Accurate Data

OBJ:   2.4A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Applying

 

  1. If a researcher finds that a participant produces different scores on a task each time the participant engages in that task, a researcher can conclude that:
A. the measurements are valid and reliable.
B. the measurements are not reliable.
C. the data will show no central tendency.
D. there will be a need to use inferential statistics.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   2.4 Good Research Requires Valid, Reliable, and Accurate Data

OBJ:   2.4A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Applying

 

  1. When researchers study multiple groups and report the means for each group, they are reporting:
A. descriptive statistics. C. variability.
B. median values. D. standard deviations.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.4 Descriptive Statistics Provide a Summary of the Data          OBJ:    2.4B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. The statistic that involves the basic arithmetic average of a set of scores is known as the:
A. mode. C. mean.
B. range. D. median.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.4 Descriptive Statistics Provide a Summary of the Data          OBJ:    2.4B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. The mean, median, and mode are all examples of:
A. inferential statistics. C. types of variability.
B. measures of central tendency. D. correlational measures.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   2.4 Descriptive Statistics Provide a Summary of the Data          OBJ:    2.4B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. Carlos reads an article looking for a measure of central tendency. Which of the following might he find?
A. the standard deviation C. inferential statistics
B. the median D. the correlation coefficient

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.4 Descriptive Statistics Provide a Summary of the Data          OBJ:    2.4B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. If you list a set of scores from the lowest value to the highest, then take the middle value to indicate what a typical score is, you are using the:
A. mean. C. median.
B. mode. D. range.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.4 Descriptive Statistics Provide a Summary of the Data          OBJ:    2.4B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. The most frequently occurring score in a data set is known as the:
A. mean. C. range.
B. mode. D. standard deviation.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.4 Descriptive Statistics Provide a Summary of the Data          OBJ:    2.4B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. A store owner wants to make sure she has enough shirts in the right sizes in her inventory, so she buys a lot of shirts in the most popular size. In order to make this purchase, what type of statistic would she want to know?
A. mode C. standard deviation
B. mean D. range

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   2.4 Descriptive Statistics Provide a Summary of the Data          OBJ:    2.4B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. The range and standard deviation are examples of:
A. inferential statistics. C. types of variability.
B. measures of central tendency. D. correlational measures.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.4 Descriptive Statistics Provide a Summary of the Data          OBJ:    2.4B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. The values in a data set span from 60 to 90. If a researcher knows this, then the researcher is aware of the:
A. standard deviation. C. mode.
B. median. D. range.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.4 Descriptive Statistics Provide a Summary of the Data          OBJ:    2.4B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. Why is the range often the LEAST useful measure of central tendency?
A. It only provides information on two scores.
B. It is not always able to be calculated.
C. It is dependent on the mean.
D. It is a type of inferential statistic.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   2.4 Descriptive Statistics Provide a Summary of the Data          OBJ:    2.4B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Analyzing

 

  1. If you want to know how far apart scores in a data set tend to be, you could use the:
A. mean. C. mode.
B. median. D. standard deviation.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.4 Descriptive Statistics Provide a Summary of the Data          OBJ:    2.4B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. If a researcher believes that participants in a single group will score differently from one another on a task, the researcher can find out if that is true by looking at the:
A. mean. C. correlation coefficient.
B. median. D. standard deviation.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   2.4 Descriptive Statistics Provide a Summary of the Data          OBJ:    2.4B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Understanding

 

  1. Researchers have found that taller people tend to have higher levels of self-esteem than shorter people. This pattern of data reflects:
A. an inferential statistic. C. measures of central tendency.
B. a positive correlation. D. measures of variability.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.4 Correlations Describe the Relationships between Variables

OBJ:   2.4C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. If you created a scatterplot of your data, what type of statistic would you have computed?
A. correlation C. median
B. range D. inferential

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.4 Correlations Describe the Relationships between Variables

OBJ:   2.4C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. When you pair two variables, and as one increases so does the other, your data will show:
A. a standardized range. C. inferential statistics.
B. a positive correlation. D. validity.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   2.4 Correlations Describe the Relationships between Variables

OBJ:   2.4C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. When a researcher cannot manipulate variables in a project, he or she is forced to collect naturally occurring data. The data analysis would probably involve:
A. a correlational analysis.
B. descriptive, but not inferential, statistics.
C. naturalistic observation.
D. selection bias.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   2.4 Correlations Describe the Relationships between Variables

OBJ:   2.4C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Applying

 

  1. When you pair two variables, and as one increases the other decreases, your data will show:
A. a standardized range. C. inferential statistics.
B. a negative correlation. D. validity.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.4 Correlations Describe the Relationships between Variables

OBJ:   2.4C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. Research has shown that some types of behavioral or psychiatric disorders are more prevalent among people with low levels of education. This pattern of data is best represented by:
A. validity. C. negative correlations.
B. descriptive statistics. D. standard deviations.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   2.4 Correlations Describe the Relationships between Variables

OBJ:   2.4C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. Students who study little for tests tend to make more errors on tests; students who study a lot tend to make fewer errors. If a researcher collected data on both amount of studying and test scores, he or she would likely spot a(n):
A. inferential statistic. C. positive correlation.
B. variable standard deviation. D. negative correlation.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   2.4 Correlations Describe the Relationships between Variables

OBJ:   2.4C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. Jana conducts a study and finds a positive relationship between sensitive parenting and children’s academic achievement. If she wants to make a judgment as to whether the same pattern would be found in the population, she would use:
A. correlation coefficients. C. inferential statistics.
B. measures of central tendency. D. meta-analysis.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   2.4 Inferential Statistics Permit Generalizations

OBJ:   2.4D

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Analyzing

 

  1. Which of the following best represents a medium negative correlation?
A. 0.49 C. -0.97
B. -0.53 D. 0.22

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   2.4 Inferential Statistics Permit Generalizations

OBJ:   2.4C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following is closest to a perfect positive correlation?
A. 0.49 C. -0.049
B. 0.98 D. -0.98

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   2.4 Inferential Statistics Permit Generalizations

OBJ:   2.4C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. In what way are a scatterplot and a correlation coefficient similar?
A. Both provide numerical descriptions for an association between two variables.
B. Both represent the association between two variables.
C. Both provide pictures of an association between two variables.
D. Both describe all associations between two variables as positive.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   2.4 Inferential Statistics Permit Generalizations

OBJ:   2.4C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Analyzing

 

  1. Casey is using statistical techniques to examine whether children with autism differ in the amount of self-esteem they report as compared to children without autism. She finds a significant difference, which suggests that the results of her analysis:
A. would occur by chance less than 5 percent of the time.
B. provide stronger evidence than a meta-analysis.
C. would be replicable 5 percent of the time in a new study.
D. are probably not valid.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   2.4 Inferential Statistics Permit Generalizations

OBJ:   2.4D

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Applying

 

  1. Why do scientists and researchers use statistical methods to determine whether their results are statistically significant?
A. They want to find out whether their findings would be likely to occur by chance.
B. They want to report the mean, median, and mode of their data.
C. They want to collect information on the reliability of the measures they used.
D. They want to interrogate the external validity of their research.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   2.4 Inferential Statistics Permit Generalizations

OBJ:   2.4D

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Understanding

 

  1. What do we mean when we say that inferential statistics allow researchers to make generalizations?
A. Measures of central tendency like the mean, median, and mode are generalizations about data.
B. Inferential statistics remove error/bias, so generalizations are easier to make.
C. Knowing how likely findings are to occur indicates whether results reflect true differences in a population.
D. Meta-analyses allow researchers to generalize findings from one study to many.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   2.4 Inferential Statistics Permit Generalizations

OBJ:   2.4D

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Analyzing

 

  1. If the difference between two groups is statistically significant, it suggests that:
A. there is a positive correlation among the data.
B. the data show low levels of systematic error.
C. the researcher has to use descriptive statistics to test for the validity of the results.
D. if the experiment were repeated, the same results would likely occur.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   2.4 Inferential Statistics Permit Generalizations

OBJ:   2.4D

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. What type of study can be described as a “study of studies”?
A. correlational C. experiment
B. case D. meta-analysis

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   2.4 Inferential Statistics Permit Generalizations

OBJ:   2.4D

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. How is a meta-analysis different from other types of studies?
A. Replication is important for meta-analyses, but not for separate studies.
B. Meta-analyses cannot detect significant differences, but separate studies can.
C. A meta-analysis combines many studies into one analysis.
D. A meta-analysis does not use effect sizes, but separate studies do.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   2.4 Inferential Statistics Permit Generalizations

OBJ:   2.4D

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Analyzing

 

  1. Miranda is statistically combining the results of all the published studies on the effects of the presence of a weapon on eyewitness accuracy. Miranda is performing a(n):
A. meta-analysis. C. inferential analysis.
B. replication. D. significance test.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   2.4 Inferential Statistics Permit Generalizations

OBJ:   2.4D

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. Jamal is performing statistical analyses to determine whether the effects of the treatment in his experiment might actually have reflected chance; Kendra is performing an analysis to combine the results of a number of experiments to yield an overall conclusion. Jamal is performing a ________; Kendra is performing a ________.
A. replication; meta-analysis C. significance test; meta-analysis
B. significance test; replication D. meta-analysis; significance test

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   2.4 Inferential Statistics Permit Generalizations

OBJ:   2.4D

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

 

CHAPTER 04: Consciousness

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Owen and colleagues found that when a comatose woman imagined playing tennis, her brain activity was similar to that of normal individuals imagining the same activity. What does this finding say about the relationship between consciousness and awareness?
A. Consciousness is unrelated to awareness.
B. Consciousness is necessary for awareness.
C. Consciousness is not the same thing as awareness.
D. Consciousness is equivalent to awareness.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   4.0 Consciousness

OBJ:   4.1A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. Which of the following situations best describes locked-in syndrome?
A. During a stressful episode, an individual is unable to react to danger using voluntary movement, but otherwise he is locked into autonomic behaviors.
B. After a stroke or other brain trauma, voluntary movement of all or almost all muscles is lost, but autonomic functions remain.
C. After a brain injury, an individual is locked into voluntary movements she made before, but she is unable to learn new movements.
D. An individual is locked into patterns of autonomic movements, but he can still make voluntary movements.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.0 Consciousness

OBJ:   4.1A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following is usually NOT an example of consciousness?
A. moment-by-moment subjective experience
B. paying attention to your surroundings
C. reflecting on your thoughts
D. day-dreaming

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.1 Consciousness Is a Subjective Experience

OBJ:   4.1A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following statements is NOT true?
A. Consciousness is associated with brain activity.
B. Consciousness is synonymous with awareness.
C. Consciousness reflects subjective experience.
D. Consciousness is not always necessary for information processing.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.1 Consciousness Is a Subjective Experience

OBJ:   4.1A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. John believes that the mind is governed by a different set of structures and rules than the physical body. Based on this belief, one could conclude that John is a:
A. monist. C. dualist.
B. qualist. D. clinical psychologist.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.1 Consciousness Is a Subjective Experience

OBJ:   4.1A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. What do contemporary psychologists generally believe with respect to the relationship between the mind and the brain? How does the modern view relate to Descartes’ position?
A. Contemporary psychologists believe that consciousness exists in the brain. This view contrasts with Descartes’ dualism.
B. Contemporary psychologists believe that consciousness exists in the brain. This view accords with Descartes’ dualism.
C. Contemporary psychologists believe that consciousness is separate from the brain. This view contrasts with Descartes’ dualism.
D. Contemporary psychologists do not believe that consciousness exists. This view contrasts with Descartes’ dualism.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.1 Consciousness Is a Subjective Experience

OBJ:   4.1A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. A space-time irregularity catapults four early psychologists to this year’s APA conference. While Freud seeks a conduit back to 1900, James, Titchener, and Watson discuss the conference’s proceedings thus far. Recall the discussion of historical perspectives in psychology from Chapter 1 in your text. Which of the three psychologists would be comfortable with the current focus on consciousness in psychology?
A. James C. Watson
B. Titchener D. both A and B

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   4.1 Consciousness Is a Subjective Experience

OBJ:   4.1A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT associated with receiving lower test scores?
A. taking notes on a laptop during class
B. surfing the Internet on a laptop during class
C. sitting next to someone who is taking notes on a laptop during class
D. sitting next to someone who is surfing the Internet on a laptop during class

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   4.1 Conscious Awareness Involves Attention

OBJ:   4.1B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Analyzing

 

  1. One example of an automatic process is:
A. walking. C. driving in stormy weather.
B. taking a test. D. threading a needle.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.1 Conscious Awareness Involves Attention

OBJ:   4.1B               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. While driving to a store, your mind wanders, and you are surprised to find that you have arrived. This experience supports the idea that:
A. automatic processes need awareness.
B. automatic processes do not need awareness.
C. awareness needs automatic processes.
D. awareness does not need automatic processes.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   4.1 Conscious Awareness Involves Attention

OBJ:   4.1B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. Which of the following actions is LEAST likely to occur unconsciously?
A. swinging your arms C. walking to the store
B. chewing gum D. following GPS directions

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.1 Conscious Awareness Involves Attention

OBJ:   4.1B               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. While at a party, a friend tells you that he thinks his brain only processes one thing at a time. To demonstrate that he is wrong, you later stand nearby and, while he is engaged in another conversation, say out-loud:
A. the text from your psychology textbook.
B. something quietly.
C. his name.
D. a fact you learned that day.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   4.1 Conscious Awareness Involves Attention

OBJ:   4.1B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. In the technique known as shadowing, a research participant repeats back:
A. text they are reading. C. their internal monologue.
B. words heard in one ear. D. their current conversation.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.1 Conscious Awareness Involves Attention

OBJ:   4.1B               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. While a man is asking you for directions, a large framed picture is moved between the two of you. You are LEAST likely to notice that he has now been swapped with a different man if he is:
A. in a different group as you. C. holding a bag.
B. in the same group as you. D. empty-handed.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.1 Conscious Awareness Involves Attention

OBJ:   4.1B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. After a brain injury, a patient is considered to be in a persistent vegetative state if she does not regain consciousness after one:
A. day. C. month.
B. week. D. year.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.1 Brain Activity Gives Rise to Consciousness

OBJ:   4.1D               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The ethical issue surrounding the Terri Schiavo case was whether or not Terri was:
A. in a persistent vegetative state or a minimally conscious state.
B. able to make current medical decisions for herself.
C. more dependent on her parents or on her husband.
D. able to vocalize her choices.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.1 Brain Activity Gives Rise to Consciousness

OBJ:   4.1D               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. DeMarco has been diagnosed as being in a minimally conscious state. Which of the following behaviors is DeMarco most likely to exhibit?
A. higher levels of consciousness, including the ability to identify his family members
B. deliberate movements, such as following a pencil with his eyes
C. opening and closing his eyes, but with no awareness of his surroundings
D. no EEG brain activity

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.1 Brain Activity Gives Rise to Consciousness

OBJ:   4.1D               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. “Brain death” is said to occur when activity stops:
A. in the cortex. C. anywhere in the brain.
B. in the brain stem. D. everywhere in the brain.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.1 Brain Activity Gives Rise to Consciousness

OBJ:   4.1D               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Consciousness is necessary for each of the following EXCEPT:
A. complex actions. C. automatic processing.
B. higher-level thinking. D. communicating with others.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.1 Conscious Awareness Involves Attention

OBJ:   4.1B               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Frank Tong and colleagues superimposed a house onto a face and asked participants to make judgments about what they saw. What were the participants’ brain responses?
A. The brain activity changed depending on whether participants reported seeing a house or a face.
B. The brain noticed both equally, meaning that eventually everything becomes conscious.
C. The unconscious brain became confused and thus the participants were unable to see either the house or the face.
D. The brain emitted large, slow-wave activity equally for both images.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.1 Brain Activity Gives Rise to Consciousness

OBJ:   4.1D               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. According to the ________ model, consciousness should be a function of ________.
A. sensory neglect; the degree of damage to particular areas
B. blindsight; visual processing
C. global workspace; which brain circuits are active
D. consciousness; the level of arousal

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.1 Brain Activity Gives Rise to Consciousness

OBJ:   4.1D               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following statements would be consistent with the global workspace model?
A. A person is blinded and seems acutely aware of his blindness.
B. A person with hemineglect searches for the affected body part.
C. If a person cannot see something, she does not believe it exists.
D. If a person cannot see something, he does not feel compelled to search for it.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.1 Brain Activity Gives Rise to Consciousness

OBJ:   4.1D

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. The unawareness of deficits shown by hemineglect patients suggests what about consciousness?
A. It arises from the brain processes that are currently active.
B. It can be easily neglected.
C. It operates independently of the brain.
D. Everyone is conscious all the time.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.1 Brain Activity Gives Rise to Consciousness

OBJ:   4.1D

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. After split-brain surgery, a picture of a chair is shown to the right hemisphere of a patient. When asked what she saw, the patient states she saw ________, and when given a pencil she draws ________.
A. a chair; nothing C. a chair; a chair
B. nothing; a chair D. nothing; nothing

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.1 Brain Activity Gives Rise to Consciousness

OBJ:   4.1D

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. After surgery, split-brain patients typically seem very normal. Why?
A. It takes time for the brain to realize what has happened; the patients soon become disorganized.
B. Neurogenesis occurs rapidly and repairs the brain after the surgery.
C. While the two hemispheres cannot talk to each other without external cues, the incoming perceptions provide sufficient cues for normal functioning.
D. The two hemispheres usually fight for control; once the surgery occurs, the brain relaxes as each hemisphere can control itself.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.1 Brain Activity Gives Rise to Consciousness

OBJ:   4.1D

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. Split-brain patients can walk, talk, think, and interact as though nothing major has happened. Why might this be?
A. Brain function remains normal for only a short time before the person lapses into a comatose state.
B. All brain functions are left intact. Since each hemisphere controls only half of the body, it does not matter much that the two hemispheres are not connected.
C. The brain hemispheres do not feel the separation for up to a week after the surgery.
D. Each part of the brain must realize what has happened; in the meantime, all functions behave normally until each hemisphere can regenerate the neurons.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.1 Brain Activity Gives Rise to Consciousness

OBJ:   4.1D

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. A split-brain patient is shown a frog in her right visual field. She is asked to identify what she sees. She would most likely be able to:
A. point to the frog with her left hand.
B. point to the frog with her right hand.
C. say what she saw.
D. say what she saw and then point with her right hand.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.1 Brain Activity Gives Rise to Consciousness

OBJ:   4.1D

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. What part of the brain is known as the interpreter?
A. the right hemisphere, in that it likes to construct a world that makes sense
B. the parietal lobe, because it regulates all information and helps translate speech
C. the left hemisphere, because it is vital in constructing a world that makes sense
D. the frontal lobe, because it deals with higher-order thinking

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.1 Brain Activity Gives Rise to Consciousness

OBJ:   4.1D               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. A Freudian slip is presumed to be a(n):
A. conscious thought that was verbally misleading.
B. conscious thought that was expressed at an inappropriate time.
C. unconscious thought that was expressed at an inappropriate time.
D. unconscious thought that was meant to be expressed moments later.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.1 Unconscious Processing Influences Behavior

OBJ:   4.1C               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The processing of information by sensory systems without conscious awareness is referred to as:
A. the smart unconscious. C. split brain.
B. subliminal perception. D. drifting off.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.1 Unconscious Processing Influences Behavior

OBJ:   4.1C               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The shapes in an advertisement subtly spell-out a positive word. Most people do not notice the word. The advertisers are using:
A. change blindness. C. Freudian slips.
B. the Stroop effect. D. subliminal perception.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.1 Unconscious Processing Influences Behavior

OBJ:   4.1C               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. In order to most effectively alter behavior, subliminal messages should target a person’s:
A. motivational state. C. buying habits.
B. emotional state. D. complex actions.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.1 Unconscious Processing Influences Behavior

OBJ:   4.1C               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following statements is most accurate regarding consciousness?
A. Stimuli can influence our thoughts even if they are experienced unconsciously.
B. Unconscious dreams are the only form of the subconscious that is capable of influencing our thoughts and actions.
C. Unconscious stimuli are rarely able to influence thoughts and actions.
D. The study of the effects of unconscious stimuli on consciousness remains very mysterious to scientists and so far has been unable to be studied.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.1 Unconscious Processing Influences Behavior

OBJ:   4.1C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding the brain during sleep is NOT correct?
A. Sleep is an altered state of consciousness.
B. The brain shuts down during sleep.
C. Complex thinking can occur during sleep.
D. Conscious experience of the outside world is largely turned off during sleep.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.2 What Is Sleep?

OBJ:   4.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following brain areas is responsible for secreting melatonin?
A. pineal gland C. reticular formation
B. suprachiasmic nuclei D. substantia nigra

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.2 What Is Sleep?

OBJ:   4.2A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following interferes with normal circadian rhythms?
A. melatonin C. naturally changing light levels
B. jet lag D. sleep

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.2 What Is Sleep?

OBJ:   4.2A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. The SLEEPLESS gene regulates a protein that reduces ________ in the brain.
A. dendritic spines C. myelination
B. cell membrane thickness D. action potentials

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.2 What Is Sleep?

OBJ:   4.2A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following actions does NOT happen during sleep?
A. analyzing potential dangers C. experiencing conscious awareness
B. controlling body movements D. finding comfortable positions

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.2 Sleep Is an Altered State of Consciousness

OBJ:   4.2A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT involved in regulating sleep/wake cycles?
A. pineal gland C. melatonin
B. hypothalamus D. frontal cortex

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.2 What Is Sleep?

OBJ:   4.2A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Why are humans typically able to remain in the bed during sleep?
A. Your brain signals the body to become paralyzed during the night so you do not move off the bed.
B. The brain is still processing information about its surroundings, thus you are aware of the boundaries of the bed.
C. You are consciously aware of the bed’s boundaries at all times during sleep.
D. Most people typically fall out of bed, but because they are unaware of it they do not report it.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.2 Sleep Is an Altered State of Consciousness

OBJ:   4.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. At what sleep stage does your breathing become more regular and your awareness of external stimulation decrease?
A. REM C. stage 3
B. stage 4 D. stage 2

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.2 Sleep Is an Altered State of Consciousness

OBJ:   4.2A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. As you get older, you have fewer (less) ________ during sleep, suggesting that your brain actively has to work to keep you sleeping.
A. sleep spindles C. K-complexes
B. delta waves D. synchronization

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.2 Sleep Is an Altered State of Consciousness

OBJ:   4.2A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. A person whose EEG shows predominantly theta waves is most likely:
A. awake. C. in stage 4 sleep.
B. in stage 1 sleep. D. in stage 2 sleep.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.2 Sleep Is an Altered State of Consciousness

OBJ:   4.2A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. A person can be easily awakened in this stage of sleep.
A. stage 2 C. stage 1
B. stage 3 D. REM

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.2 Sleep Is an Altered State of Consciousness

OBJ:   4.2A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. You find your friend sleeping and wake her up. She denies she was sleeping. Your friend was likely in which stage of sleep?
A. stage 1 C. stage 3
B. stage 2 D. REM

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.2 Sleep Is an Altered State of Consciousness

OBJ:   4.2A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Sleep spindles are indicative of which stage of sleep?
A. stage 2 C. REM
B. stage 1 D. stage 4

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.2 Sleep Is an Altered State of Consciousness

OBJ:   4.2A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. If you were relaxed with your eyes closed and were given an EEG, what type of brain waves would show up on your EEG?
A. beta waves C. theta waves
B. alpha waves D. sleep spindles

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.2 Sleep Is an Altered State of Consciousness

OBJ:   4.2A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. If you were awake and alert, and were given an EEG, what type of brain waves would show up on your EEG?
A. beta waves C. theta waves
B. alpha waves D. sleep spindles

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.2 Sleep Is an Altered State of Consciousness

OBJ:   4.2A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT characteristic of REM sleep?
A. increased brain activity C. dreaming
B. body paralysis D. delta waves

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.2 Sleep Is an Altered State of Consciousness

OBJ:   4.2A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Why is REM sleep called paradoxical sleep?
A. The person is not really asleep.
B. The person’s body is asleep, but the person’s brain is active.
C. The person has no awareness of being asleep.
D. The person is both awake and asleep at the same time.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.2 Sleep Is an Altered State of Consciousness

OBJ:   4.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. You have been asleep for approximately 90 minutes. What sleep stage are you likely to begin to enter?
A. slow-wave sleep C. K-complex sleep
B. theta wave sleep D. paradoxical sleep

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.2 Sleep Is an Altered State of Consciousness

OBJ:   4.2A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. How do successive REM periods change as the night progresses?
A. Successive REM periods become shorter.
B. Successive REM periods become longer.
C. Successive REM periods are less likely to involve dreaming.
D. Successive REM periods are more likely to involve dreaming.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.2 Sleep Is an Altered State of Consciousness

OBJ:   4.2A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. After reading about sleep in your textbook, you ask a friend to wake you up and ask if you are dreaming. You hope they will wake you during REM sleep. To maximize the chance of this happening, your friend should wake you up:
A. at the beginning of a night’s sleep. C. at the end of a night’s sleep.
B. in the middle of a night’s sleep. D. only during a day nap.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.2 Sleep Is an Altered State of Consciousness

OBJ:   4.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. You want to test if some of your dreams are mundane. To check this, you should ask a friend to wake you during:
A. REM sleep. C. stage 1 sleep.
B. non-REM sleep. D. paradoxical sleep.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.2 Sleep Is an Altered State of Consciousness

OBJ:   4.2A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. REM sleep is paradoxical because:
A. the brain is active, but the major skeletal muscles are paralyzed.
B. the skeletal muscles remain active, but the brain is inactive.
C. the brain is less active than it is during other sleep stages.
D. dreams occur more often during REM sleep than during other sleep stages.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.2 Sleep Is an Altered State of Consciousness

OBJ:   4.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Analyzing

 

  1. According to modern research, which of the following influence(s) the content of dreams?
A. hidden conflicts C. motor cortex
B. prefrontal cortex D. daily experiences

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.2 People Dream while Sleeping

OBJ:   4.2A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The deactivation of ________ during sleep likely contributes to the delusional and illogical aspects of dreams.
A. REM C. the prefrontal cortex
B. the amygdala D. neural activity

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.2 People Dream while Sleeping

OBJ:   4.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. Which of the following is true about REM and dreams?
A. Dreams only occur during REM sleep.
B. Dreams do not occur during REM sleep.
C. Dreams during REM sleep are likely to be mundane.
D. Dreams during REM sleep are likely to be bizarre.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.2 People Dream while Sleeping

OBJ:   4.2A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following is true about non-REM sleep and dreams?
A. Dreams only occur during non-REM sleep.
B. Dreams do not occur during non-REM sleep.
C. Dreams during non-REM sleep are likely to be mundane.
D. Dreams during non-REM sleep are likely to be bizarre.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.2 People Dream while Sleeping

OBJ:   4.2A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. What brain region(s) have been linked to narcolepsy?
A. motor cortex C. temporal lobe and frontal lobe
B. parietal lobe and spinal cord D. hypothalamus

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.2 Sleep Is an Altered State of Consciousness

OBJ:   4.2B               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which sleep disorder is characterized by the inability to sleep?
A. insomnia C. narcolepsy
B. sleep apnea D. night terrors

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.2 Sleep Is an Altered State of Consciousness

OBJ:   4.2B               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following people is most likely to experience insomnia?
A. a younger woman C. a younger man
B. an older woman D. an older man

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.2 Sleep Is an Altered State of Consciousness

OBJ:   4.2B               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Occasionally, Jon will fall asleep while working with a customer. Jon is experiencing which sleep disorder?
A. sleep apnea C. narcolepsy
B. insomnia D. paradoxical sleep

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.2 Sleep Is an Altered State of Consciousness

OBJ:   4.2B               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Your friend has been complaining about her inability to concentrate and her irritability. She mentions that she has not been able to fall asleep. What condition might your friend have?
A. dementia C. melatonin
B. insomnia D. paradoxical sleep

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.2 Sleep Is an Altered State of Consciousness

OBJ:   4.2B               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following is a major cause of insomnia?
A. disrupted sleep cycles C. narcolepsy
B. altered theta waves D. worrying about sleep

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.2 Sleep Is an Altered State of Consciousness

OBJ:   4.2B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following is the most effective treatment for insomnia?
A. drug therapy with CBT C. CBT alone
B. drug therapy alone D. there is no treatment for insomnia

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.2 Sleep Is an Altered State of Consciousness

OBJ:   4.2B               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Evan was born prematurely. Because he may stop breathing for temporary periods while asleep, he is given oxygen at night to compensate for his lowered oxygen levels and sleep disruption during these episodes. It is likely that Evan has:
A. sleep apnea. C. narcolepsy.
B. sleep apraxia. D. insomnia.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.2 Sleep Is an Altered State of Consciousness

OBJ:   4.2B               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Your friend has a child who wakes up during the first hour of sleep and walks around with a glassy-eyed look. The little girl can be walked back to bed and does not remember the episode in the morning. Your friend is very worried that his child may have a severe sleep disorder. Based on your knowledge of sleep, you reply that the child:
A. has narcolepsy and should be seen immediately by a physician.
B. has an REM behavior disorder, and this could be very dangerous.
C. has insomnia, and the parent should implement a better sleep routine.
D. likely is sleepwalking, and this condition is typical for her age group.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.2 Sleep Is an Altered State of Consciousness

OBJ:   4.2B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. Which of the following is closest to being the opposite of narcolepsy?
A. insomnia C. sleep apnea
B. REM behavior disorder D. somnambulism

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.2 Sleep Is an Altered State of Consciousness

OBJ:   4.2B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Analyzing

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT an adaptive function of sleep?
A. restoration C. synchronizing eye movements
B. facilitation of learning D. following of circadian rhythms

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   4.2 Sleep Is an Adaptive Behavior

OBJ:   4.2C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. If your brain was a building, sleep would play the role of the:
A. manager. C. security guard.
B. janitor. D. decorator.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   4.2 Sleep Is an Adaptive Behavior

OBJ:   4.2C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. Your friend has been sleep deprived for two straight days. You expect them to be impaired on:
A. lifting heavy weights. C. complex tasks.
B. mundane tasks. D. athletic ability.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.2 Sleep Is an Adaptive Behavior

OBJ:   4.2C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. Which animal has unihemispherical sleep patterns?
A. monkey C. human
B. shark D. dolphin

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.2 Sleep Is an Adaptive Behavior

OBJ:   4.2C               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The restorative theory is used to explain which of the following phenomena?
A. plasticity C. hormone balance
B. sleep D. exercise

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.2 Sleep Is an Adaptive Behavior

OBJ:   4.2C               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which theory of sleep would explain why Jon slept an extra four hours after running a marathon?
A. circadian rhythms theory C. restorative theory
B. facilitation of learning theory D. paradoxical theory

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.2 Sleep Is an Adaptive Behavior

OBJ:   4.2C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following disorders may be helped by sleep deprivation?
A. chronic insomnia C. hypertension
B. depression D. ADHD

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.2 Sleep Is an Adaptive Behavior

OBJ:   4.2C               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. After a period of sleep deprivation, you would expect a person to exhibit:
A. microsleeps C. microwakes
B. macrosleeps D. macrowakes

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.2 Sleep Is an Adaptive Behavior

OBJ:   4.2C               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Sleep deprivation can increase the activation of ________ receptors in the brain, which in turn can alleviate symptoms of ________.
A. serotonin; depression C. norepinepherine; Alzheimer’s
B. dopamine; insomnia D. marijuana; stress

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.2 Sleep Is an Adaptive Behavior

OBJ:   4.2C               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Circadian rhythms can best be described as:
A. special heartbeats that trigger the heart to increase or decrease the circular flow of blood.
B. the rise and fall of the sun each day.
C. biological clocks controlling hormone levels, temperature, and the sleep cycle.
D. the ancient art of star tracking, which is used today to figure out sleep patterns.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.2 Sleep Is an Adaptive Behavior

OBJ:   4.2C               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT likely a purpose of sleep?
A. strengthening of neuronal connections that serve as the basis for learning
B. consolidation of information
C. maintenance and strengthening of the immune system
D. reducing the likelihood of schizophrenia

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.2 Sleep Is an Adaptive Behavior

OBJ:   4.2C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following statements concerning the adaptive nature of sleep is NOT true?
A. Sleep enables the brain to restore itself.
B. Activity is limited during sleep, thereby reducing threats of harm.
C. Sleep strengthens neural connections.
D. Sleep evolved relatively recently in human history.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.2 Sleep Is an Adaptive Behavior

OBJ:   4.2C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. Sleep deprivation does NOT lead to:
A. immune system suppression. C. problems in cognitive performance.
B. problems in mood. D. impoverished vision.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.2 Sleep Is an Adaptive Behavior

OBJ:   4.2C               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following statements is NOT true?
A. Chronic sleep deprivation can affect attention and short-term memory.
B. Animal studies show that extended sleep deprivation may compromise the immune system and lead to death.
C. Microsleeps may occur with severe sleep deprivation.
D. The cognitive effects of sleep deprivation are most likely permanent.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.2 Sleep Is an Adaptive Behavior

OBJ:   4.2C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. Sean, who is 18 years old, complains that he never dreams. He asks if this could be possible. Based on what you know about dream behavior, you are likely to:
A. agree with him because you do not dream either.
B. disagree with him because he is 18 and everyone can dream after the age of 12.
C. disagree with him because we all have dreams unless we have a specific brain injury or are on a certain kind of medication.
D. agree with him because not everyone has dreams in REM sleep.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.2 People Dream while Sleeping

OBJ:   4.2C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Analyzing

 

  1. Linnea said that she had dreams about what she was going to wear and what pencil to bring to class. What type of sleep was she probably in?
A. non-REM C. luna
B. REM D. SCN

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.2 People Dream while Sleeping

OBJ:   4.2C               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Dreams occurring during REM sleep are ________; dreams occurring during non-REM sleep are ________.
A. dull and mundane; bizarre and highly emotional
B. bizarre and highly emotional; dull and mundane
C. likely to include visual hallucinations and illogical content; likely to include auditory hallucinations
D. likely to include auditory hallucinations and loss of time and space; likely to include visual hallucinations and illogical content

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.2 People Dream while Sleeping

OBJ:   4.2C               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. In Freud’s book, The Interpretation of Dreams, the symbolic meaning of a dream is referred to as:
A. latent content. C. Freudian content.
B. manifest content. D. ideological content.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.2 People Dream while Sleeping

OBJ:   4.2C               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. In Freud’s book, The Interpretation of Dreams, the part of a dream that is remembered is referred to as:
A. latent content. C. Freudian content.
B. manifest content. D. ideological content.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.2 People Dream while Sleeping

OBJ:   4.2C               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. According to Freud, the manifest content of a dream:
A. demonstrates hidden conflicts.
B. is the dream you remember having.
C. directly reveals the dreamer’s unconscious wishes.
D. represents memory consolidation.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.2 People Dream while Sleeping

OBJ:   4.2C               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Latent content is to ________ as manifest content is to ________.
A. remembering a tower in a dream; the psychological meaning of the tower
B. the psychological meaning of a tower; remembering a tower in a dream
C. the ability to identify a ladder in a dream; the ability to physically climb the ladder
D. the ability to physically climb a ladder; the ability to identify a ladder in a dream

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.2 People Dream while Sleeping

OBJ:   4.2C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. The delusional, illogical nature of dreams likely results in large part from:
A. unresolved conflicts that the conscious mind cannot access while awake.
B. daily life experiences.
C. deactivation of the prefrontal cortex during sleep.
D. activation of the visual association areas during sleep.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   4.2 People Dream while Sleeping

OBJ:   4.2C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. Precious was woken up in the middle of a dream about dragons shopping for umbrellas while dancing a polka. Precious was most likely experiencing ________ when she was woken up.
A. psychedelic hallucinations C. REM sleep
B. non-REM sleep D. unresolved conflicts

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.2 People Dream while Sleeping

OBJ:   4.2C               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Hypnosis, meditation, and drug use allow an individual to:
A. transcend reality. C. alter consciousness.
B. achieve flow. D. manifest unconscious drives.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   4.3 What Is Altered Consciousness?

OBJ:   4.3A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Which of the following is LEAST likely to alter consciousness?
A. hypnosis C. drug use
B. sleeping D. eating

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.3 What Is Altered Consciousness?

OBJ:   4.3A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following statements concerning hypnosis is true?
A. Hypnosis is the same as sleeping.
B. Someone else is controlling the hypnotized person.
C. Hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness.
D. Everyone can be hypnotized.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.3 Hypnosis Is Induced Through Suggestion

OBJ:   4.3A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. A social interaction during which a person responds to suggestions to experience changes in memory, perception, and voluntary action is also called:
A. a hallucination. C. unconsciousness.
B. an illusion. D. hypnosis.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.3 Hypnosis Is Induced Through Suggestion

OBJ:   4.3A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The neodissociation theory of hypnosis differs from the sociocognitive theory of hypnosis in that it asserts:
A. social context plays a role. C. hypnotized people are “faking it.”
B. hypnosis is an altered state. D. hypnotism is a form of “flow.”

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   4.3 Hypnosis Is Induced Through Suggestion

OBJ:   4.3A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Analyzing

 

  1. Which of the following would cause the most interference during a typical Stroop test?
A. the word “red” printed in red ink
B. the word “chair” printed in red ink
C. the word “green” printed in red ink
D. meaningless symbols printed in red ink

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   4.3 Hypnosis Is Induced Through Suggestion

OBJ:   4.3A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Eiling is about to undergo dental surgery. Her dentist gives her a questionnaire and finds that she is low in hypnotic suggestibility. Which of the following is most likely to be effective for reducing Eiling’s pain after surgery?
A. hypnotic analgesia C. opiates
B. benzodiazepines D. psilocybin

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.3 Hypnosis Is Induced Through Suggestion

OBJ:   4.3A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. In one study, a large number of patients were assigned to practice transcendental meditation or to complete an educational program. The transcendental meditation group experienced improvement on a number of health measures relative to the education group. Which of the following criticisms best applies to this study?
A. The sample size was too small.
B. The study did not show what aspect of transcendental meditation produced the health benefits.
C. Confirmation bias accounts for the results.
D. Meditation is not scientific.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.3 Meditation Produces Relaxation

OBJ:   4.3B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Analyzing

 

  1. According to research on hypnosis, what is the most important factor for hypnosis to work?
A. the ability of the hypnotist
B. the suggestibility of the individual who is to be hypnotized
C. the expectations of the audience
D. the intelligence of the individual who is to be hypnotized

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.3 Hypnosis Is Induced Through Suggestion

OBJ:   4.3A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following individuals is most likely to be hypnotized easily?
A. Suzanne, who scores high on the suggestibility screening test
B. Mark, who scores low on the suggestibility screening test
C. Ann, who is easily distracted
D. Chen, who shows low imaginative skills

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.3 Hypnosis Is Induced Through Suggestion

OBJ:   4.3A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. The study by Wheatley and Haidt (2005), in which individuals were given posthypnotic suggestions to feel disgust over a certain word, provided evidence that posthypnotic suggestions:
A. are not real.
B. may actually have an influence on behavior.
C. work only if the individual knows about the posthypnotic suggestion.
D. are effective only in women.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   4.3 Hypnosis Is Induced Through Suggestion

OBJ:   4.3A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a potential clinical use for hypnosis?
A. analgesia
B. relief from chronic pain
C. speeding surgical recovery
D. altering personality over a long time frame

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   4.3 Hypnosis Is Induced Through Suggestion

OBJ:   4.3A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 5, Professional Development

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. According to the sociocognitive theory, hypnosis is:
A. a trancelike state. C. a social act.
B. a dissociative state. D. fake.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.3 Hypnosis Is Induced Through Suggestion

OBJ:   4.3A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. According to the sociocognitive theory of hypnosis, people who are hypnotized are:
A. merely acting out what they believe is expected of them.
B. simply following directions of the hypnotist to gain attention.
C. in a different sociocognitive state of consciousness in which they become more compliant.
D. in an altered state of consciousness, which reduces their social and cognitive abilities.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.3 Hypnosis Is Induced Through Suggestion

OBJ:   4.3A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. According to the dissociation theory of hypnosis, people under hypnosis:
A. merely act out what they believe is expected of them.
B. take on a role of following directions of the hypnotist simply to gain attention.
C. experience a trancelike state in which there is separation or dissociation from conscious awareness.
D. enter a dreamlike or REM-like state of consciousness.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.3 Hypnosis Is Induced Through Suggestion

OBJ:   4.3A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following phenomena does NOT provide evidence supporting the dissociation theory of hypnosis?
A. brain imaging studies that show evidence of different brain activation patterns during hypnosis
B. data showing faster color naming during a Stroop test in subjects who were given a posthypnotic suggestion that they would be seeing meaningless symbols rather than actual words
C. data showing that individuals typically act as they think a hypnotized person should act, even if their belief regarding hypnosis is incorrect
D. data from a study in which individuals were given a posthypnotic suggestion to feel disgust over a certain word and then reported feeling disgust at that word

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   4.3 Hypnosis Is Induced Through Suggestion

OBJ:   4.3A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. A mental procedure that focuses attention on an external object or sense of awareness is called:
A. hypnosis. C. meditation.
B. automated behavior. D. concentrative consciousness.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.3 Meditation Produces Relaxation

OBJ:   4.3B               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. In concentrative meditation a person:
A. focuses attention on one thing, such as a mantra.
B. allows thoughts to flow freely.
C. keeps her eyes open throughout the experience.
D. pays attention and reacts to all thoughts.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.3 Meditation Produces Relaxation

OBJ:   4.3B               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT considered a form of meditation?
A. Zen C. mindfulness meditation
B. yoga D. hypnosis

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.3 Meditation Produces Relaxation

OBJ:   4.3B               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT generally part of meditation?
A. focusing attention on one particular thing, such as one’s breathing pattern
B. consciously trying to stop your inner thoughts
C. repeating a mantra
D. listening to your inner voice without responding

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.3 Meditation Produces Relaxation

OBJ:   4.3B               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The difference between concentrative meditation and mindfulness meditation is:
A. mindfulness meditation requires you to focus on mental images, whereas concentrative meditation requires you to concentrate on external objects.
B. mindfulness meditation involves listening to free-flowing thoughts without responding; concentrative meditation focuses attention on mental images or one particular thing.
C. concentrative meditation focuses the mind toward one thing; mindfulness meditation eliminates all thoughts during meditation.
D. concentrative meditation focuses the mind toward one thing; mindfulness meditation focuses on answering ongoing thoughts.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   4.3 Meditation Produces Relaxation

OBJ:   4.3B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. According to research on the cognitive effects of meditation, which of the following statements is NOT correct?
A. Meditation may improve attention and reduce stress.
B. Long-term practicing of meditation may result in structural brain changes.
C. Meditation may delay age-related cognitive declines.
D. Meditation is identical to hypnosis.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   4.3 Meditation Produces Relaxation

OBJ:   4.3B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. In one study, a large number of patients were assigned to practice transcendental meditation or to complete an educational program. The transcendental meditation group experienced improvement on a number of health measures relative to the education group. Which of the following criticisms best applies to this study?
A. The sample size was too small.
B. The study did not show what aspect of transcendental meditation produced the health benefits.
C. Confirmation bias accounts for the results.
D. Meditation is not scientific.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.3 Meditation Produces Relaxation

OBJ:   4.3B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Analyzing

 

  1. Which of the following best describes the state of “flow”?
A. liking C. distraction
B. wanting D. immersion

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.3 People Can Lose Themselves in Activities

OBJ:   4.3C               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a likely consequence of escapist activities?
A. reduced long-term planning C. reduced self-awareness
B. uninhibited actions D. reduced capacity for pleasure

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   4.3 People Can Lose Themselves in Activities

OBJ:   4.3C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Analyzing

 

  1. The particular kind of experience that is so engrossing and enjoyable that you do it for its own sake, rather than because of its consequence, is called:
A. self-reinforcing behavior. C. flow.
B. escapism. D. runner’s high.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.3 People Can Lose Themselves in Activities

OBJ:   4.3C               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT an example of an altered state of consciousness similar to meditation?
A. runner’s high C. religious ecstasy
B. flow D. distraction

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   4.3 People Can Lose Themselves in Activities

OBJ:   4.3C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. Regarding escapist pursuits, which of the following statements is true?
A. Escapist activities are associated with flow.
B. Escapist activities are almost always harmful.
C. Escapist activities are generally beneficial.
D. Escapist activities can be helpful, harmless, or detrimental.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   4.3 People Can Lose Themselves in Activities

OBJ:   4.3C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. A mind-altering substance that changes the brain’s neurochemistry by activating neurotransmitter receptors is called a:
A. neuromodulator. C. psychoactive drug.
B. neurotoxin. D. psychoendorphin.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   4.4 People Use—and Abuse—Many Psychoactive Drugs          OBJ:    4.4A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following would NOT be considered a psychoactive drug?
A. a stimulant such as Ritalin C. alcohol
B. cocaine D. antibiotics

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   4.4 People Use—and Abuse—Many Psychoactive Drugs          OBJ:    4.4A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Your friend is taking an over-the-counter medication. He claims that it is not a psychoactive drug, but you claim it is. What characteristic of the drug would most likely support your argument?
A. The drug is available over the counter.
B. The drug is legal.
C. The drug activates the brain’s neurotransmitter receptors.
D. The drug is nonprescription.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   4.4 People Use—and Abuse—Many Psychoactive Drugs          OBJ:    4.4A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following drugs is NOT a stimulant?
A. cocaine C. methamphetamine
B. crack cocaine D. THC

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   4.4 People Use—and Abuse—Many Psychoactive Drugs          OBJ:    4.4A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. A drug works by blocking normal reuptake of dopamine, allowing released dopamine to remain in the synapse for a longer period of time. This drug must be a(n):
A. stimulant. C. opiate.
B. depressant. D. antipsychotic.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   4.4 People Use—and Abuse—Many Psychoactive Drugs          OBJ:    4.4A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. To be considered a stimulant, a drug must ________ both ________ activity.
A. decrease; mental and behavioral C. increase; mental and behavioral
B. decrease; mental and emotional D. increase; mental and emotional

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   4.4 People Use—and Abuse—Many Psychoactive Drugs          OBJ:    4.4A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Stimulant drugs have all of the following effects EXCEPT:
A. increased heart rate and blood pressure.
B. improved mood.
C. increased sleep.
D. increased mental concentration at low doses.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   4.4 People Use—and Abuse—Many Psychoactive Drugs          OBJ:    4.4A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Tetrahydrocannabinol is the psychoactive chemical in which drug?
A. marijuana C. tetracycline
B. MDMA D. crack cocaine

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   4.4 People Use—and Abuse—Many Psychoactive Drugs          OBJ:    4.4A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Janice took a stimulant medication called Adderall to help her study. After a few minutes, she noticed that she was sweating and her heart was racing. These symptoms occurred because of the drug’s effect on Janice’s:
A. parasympathetic nervous system. C. amygdala.
B. sympathetic nervous system. D. brain stem.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   4.4 People Use—and Abuse—Many Psychoactive Drugs          OBJ:    4.4A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Methamphetamine and cocaine differ in which of the following ways?
A. They belong to different drug classes.
B. Only one of the drugs operates on the dopamine system.
C. They remain in the body for different lengths of time.
D. Only one of the drugs was used in pharmaceuticals.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   4.4 Addiction Has Physical and Psychological Aspects   OBJ:   4.4A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Moderate doses of alcohol are associated with ________, while larger doses of alcohol are associated with ________.
A. more negative moods; more positive moods
B. more positive moods; more negative moods
C. improved sexual performance; impaired sexual performance
D. impaired sexual performance; improved sexual performance

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   4.4 People Use—and Abuse—Many Psychoactive Drugs          OBJ:    4.4A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a consequence of prolonged methamphetamine use?
A. frontal lobe damage C. pepleted dopamine levels
B. memory impairment D. reduced pain tolerance

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   4.4 People Use—and Abuse—Many Psychoactive Drugs          OBJ:    4.4A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following individuals is most likely to use marijuana for a medicinal purpose?
A. an Alzheimer’s patient for memory loss
B. a schizophrenic to reduce fearful hallucinations
C. an alcoholic to reduce the withdrawal symptoms
D. a cancer patient undergoing chemotherapy to reduce nausea

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   4.4 People Use—and Abuse—Many Psychoactive Drugs          OBJ:    4.4A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. Marijuana has been known to produce memory effects in long-time users. This result is most likely due to the altering of a large percentage of ________ receptors in the ________ of the brain.
A. cannabinoid; frontal lobe C. ACTH; frontal lobe
B. cannabinoid; hippocampus D. ACTH; hippocampus

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   4.4 People Use—and Abuse—Many Psychoactive Drugs          OBJ:    4.4A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Like methamphetamine, ________ increases the concentration of dopamine in the synapse.
A. cocaine C. MDMA
B. alcohol D. heroin

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   4.4 People Use—and Abuse—Many Psychoactive Drugs          OBJ:    4.4A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. After using a recreational drug at a party, Fawn became energetic, talkative, and lively. Which of the following drugs is mostly likely to produce these effects?
A. alcohol C. cocaine
B. heroin D. marijuana

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   4.4 People Use—and Abuse—Many Psychoactive Drugs          OBJ:    4.4A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Methamphetamine increases the concentration of dopamine in synapses. In this way, it is similar to:
A. marijuana. C. cocaine.
B. opiates. D. marijuana.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   4.4 People Use—and Abuse—Many Psychoactive Drugs          OBJ:    4.4A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Frontal lobe damage is associated with the long-term use of:
A. methamphetamine. C. LSD.
B. marijuana. D. heroin.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   4.4 People Use—and Abuse—Many Psychoactive Drugs          OBJ:    4.4A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. In comparison to cocaine, methamphetamine does all of the following EXCEPT it:
A. increases the release of dopamine. C. is easier to manufacture.
B. stays in the body longer. D. has fewer side effects.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   4.4 People Use—and Abuse—Many Psychoactive Drugs          OBJ:    4.4A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Ecstasy differs from amphetamines in that it ________ and ________.
A. increases dopamine release; decreases serotonin release
B. decreases dopamine release; increases serotonin release
C. increases dopamine release; decreases MDMA release
D. decreases dopamine release; decreases MDMA release

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   4.4 People Use—and Abuse—Many Psychoactive Drugs          OBJ:    4.4A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT an effect of opiate drugs?
A. feeling of intense pleasure C. increased heart rate
B. pain relief or analgesia D. relaxation

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   4.4 People Use—and Abuse—Many Psychoactive Drugs          OBJ:    4.4A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Opiates such as heroin have enormous reward value to the brain because they ________ and ________.
A. activate dopamine receptors; bind with opiate receptors
B. inhibit dopamine receptors; bind with opiate receptors
C. activate dopamine receptors; block opiate receptors
D. inhibit dopamine receptors; block opiate receptors

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   4.4 People Use—and Abuse—Many Psychoactive Drugs          OBJ:    4.4A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Which of the following drug(s) costs the United States the most in terms of lost workdays, medical treatment, and rehabilitation costs?
A. alcohol C. cocaine and methamphetamine
B. marijuana D. opiates

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   4.4 People Use—and Abuse—Many Psychoactive Drugs          OBJ:    4.4A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. According to cross-cultural studies, ________ consume the most alcohol.
A. women C. the elderly
B. men D. teenagers

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   4.4 People Use—and Abuse—Many Psychoactive Drugs          OBJ:    4.4A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following statements is NOT a theory suggested to explain gender differences in alcohol consumption?
A. Women do not metabolize alcohol as quickly, and they consume less to get the same psychoactive effect as men get.
B. Women may be as likely to drink, but they hide it better.
C. Drinking by men is more socially acceptable.
D. Women are less likely genetically to have an addictive personality.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   4.4 People Use—and Abuse—Many Psychoactive Drugs          OBJ:    4.4A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. Walter has a strong desire to use methamphetamine, even though he no longer enjoys the feelings it produces. This phenomenon is primarily due to activity in the:
A. amygdala. C. cannabinoid system.
B. nucleus accumbens. D. hippocampus.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   4.4 Addiction Has Physical and Psychological Aspects   OBJ:   4.4A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Preeti tried a new drug. She noticed that her mood was improved, but she was also restless, had an elevated heart rate, and had trouble sleeping several hours later. The drug was most likely a:
A. stimulant. C. psychedelic.
B. narcotic. D. depressant.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   4.4 People Use—and Abuse—Many Psychoactive Drugs          OBJ:    4.4A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Lucy tried a new drug. She noticed that she felt alert, sociable, and wide awake. Which of the following neurotransmitter systems did the drug most likely affect?
A. serotonin C. GABA
B. cannabinoid D. dopamine

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   4.4 People Use—and Abuse—Many Psychoactive Drugs          OBJ:    4.4A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. The main effects of alcohol occur because alcohol:
A. blocks the reuptake of serotonin.
B. blocks the reuptake of dopamine.
C. stimulates the central nervous system.
D. dampens the central nervous system.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   4.4 People Use—and Abuse—Many Psychoactive Drugs          OBJ:    4.4A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Research has shown that the effects of alcohol on emotions and behavior:
A. are nearly identical across individuals.
B. are highly dissimilar with age, with young people enjoying the effects more.
C. may differ greatly based on the expectations of the individual who is drinking.
D. vary widely, depending on whether the individual is a frequent or chronic drinker.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   4.4 People Use—and Abuse—Many Psychoactive Drugs          OBJ:    4.4A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. The compulsive use of a drug despite negative consequences is referred to as:
A. tolerance. C. addiction.
B. withdrawal. D. dependence.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   4.4 Addiction Has Physical and Psychological Aspects   OBJ:   4.4B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The need to use a drug regularly is termed:
A. dependence. C. addiction.
B. habituation. D. abuse.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   4.4 Addiction Has Physical and Psychological Aspects   OBJ:   4.4B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Giacomo has used crystal methamphetamine for a while. To feel the effects of the drug, he now needs to take more than he used to. Which term best describes Giacomo’s experience?
A. tolerance C. withdrawal
B. dependence D. addiction

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   4.4 Addiction Has Physical and Psychological Aspects   OBJ:   4.4B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. When Terry stopped using oxycontin, he had chills, cramps, and diarrhea. Which term offers the most specific description of Terry’s experience?
A. tolerance C. dependence
B. withdrawal D. addiction

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   4.4 Addiction Has Physical and Psychological Aspects   OBJ:   4.4B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Byron drinks five or more cups of coffee each day during the week. On Saturday and Sunday mornings, when he sleeps in late, he often has a headache when he gets up, and it only goes away after he drinks some coffee. It is likely that Byron is experiencing:
A. tolerance symptoms. C. withdrawal symptoms.
B. psychological dependency. D. contextual cravings.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   4.4 Addiction Has Physical and Psychological Aspects   OBJ:   4.4B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. The need for continued use of a drug to avoid symptoms of withdrawal is:
A. tolerance. C. abuse.
B. withdrawal. D. dependence.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   4.4 Addiction Has Physical and Psychological Aspects   OBJ:   4.4B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Jon used to feel drunk after two drinks. It now takes five or six drinks for him to experience the same level of intoxication. This phenomenon is called:
A. tolerance. C. addiction.
B. withdrawal. D. dependence.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   4.4 Addiction Has Physical and Psychological Aspects   OBJ:   4.4B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a risk factor for addiction?
A. positive drug expectations C. certain personality traits
B. damage to the insula D. identification with high-risk groups

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   4.4 Addiction Has Physical and Psychological Aspects   OBJ:   4.4B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. James is experiencing a strong drug craving. He is most likely experiencing activation in his:
A. amygdala. C. insula.
B. parasympathetic nervous system. D. sympathetic nervous system.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   4.4 Addiction Has Physical and Psychological Aspects   OBJ:   4.4B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Mary has developed a tolerance to alcohol. This means:
A. Mary “wants” but does not “like” alcohol.
B. Mary is dependent on alcohol.
C. Mary needs more alcohol to feel intoxicated than she used to need.
D. Mary has withdrawal symptoms if she stops using alcohol.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   4.4 Addiction Has Physical and Psychological Aspects   OBJ:   4.4B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Applying

 

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