Personality Theory and Research 13th Edition By by Daniel Cervone – Test Bank

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Personality Theory and Research 13th Edition By by Daniel Cervone – Test Bank

 

Sample  Questions

 

Chapter: Chapter 03: A Psychodynamic Theory: Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality

 

 

 

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

  1. An early influence on the development of Freud’s process model of dynamic functioning was
    1. Brucke’s physiological model.
    2. Einstein’s physics model.
    3. Charcot’s model for hysteria.
    4. all of the above.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. The 19th century movement which argued that natural science principles could explain all human biological and psychological functioning was called
    1. psychoanalysis.
    2. mechanism.
    3. hypnotism.
    4. catharsis.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. Various factors affected Freud’s theory.  Which of the following is not one of these influences?
    1. Victorian era.
    2. World War I.
    3. academic psychology.
    4. anti-semitism.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is an important component of the Freudian view of the person?
    1. energy system.
    2. pleasure principle.
    3. both (a) and (b).
    4. neither (a) nor (b).

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. Which concept expresses a release of emotion following talking about one’s problems?
    1. catharsis.
    2. free association.
    3. transference neurosis.
    4. dream interpretation.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. Freud sees society as
    1. frustrating a person’s basic desires.
    2. necessary for happiness.
    3. prohibiting any gratification.
    4. conflicting with demands of the ego.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. At the heart of the psychoanalytic view of the person is that the person is
    1. a scientist.
    2. a computer.
    3. basically like other species.
    4. an energy system.

 

Ans: d

 

 

 

  1. Voon et al. (2010) used fMRI to track the brain activation of people with and without conversion disorder.  What results would have supported the idea that people with conversion disorder are likely faking their symptoms?
    1. similar strength of connection between regions associated with emotion and motor movement between the two groups
    2. the same pattern of brain activity in response to emotional faces
    3. different strength of connection between regions associated with emotion and motor movement between the two groups
    4. a and c are correct

 

Ans: d

 

 

  1. Voon et al. (2010) used fMRI to track the brain activation of people with and without conversion disorder.  What results would Freud have predicted?
    1. similar strength of connection between regions associated with emotion and motor movement between the two groups
    2. the same pattern of brain activity in response to emotional faces
    3. different strength of connection between regions associated with emotion and motor movement between the two groups
    4. a and c are correct

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. Using fMRI, Voon et al. (2010) found that individuals with conversion disorder had a stronger connection between the regions of the brain associated with emotion and those associated with motor movement.  How does this help us to understand the disorder?
    1. The emotions of people with conversion disorder interfere with their ability to control movement
    2. People with conversion disorder are much more emotional in general
    3. The emotions of people with conversion disorder interfere with their ability to control thinking
    4. People with conversion disorder get overly upset because of their symptoms

 

Ans: a

 

 

  1. Research on thought suppression suggests that
    1. this may contribute to the development of phobias.
    2. this is good for one’s physical health.
    3. both (a) and (b).
    4. neither (a) nor (b).

 

Ans: a

 

 

  1. Very briefly, the goal of psychoanalysis could be stated to be
    1. increased control over the instincts and drives which
    2. seek expression in antisocial behavior.
    3. the ability to restrict the reduction of tension through
    4. the seeking of pleasure and heightened conformity to the
    5. demands of social life.
    6. both (a) and (b).

 

Ans: d

 

 

 

  1. The development of the idea of catharsis is the result of
    1. correlational research
    2. biological research
    3. experimental research
    4. a clinical case study

 

Ans: d

 

 

 

  1. Freud suggested that people function according to the
    1. evolutionary principle.
    2. pleasure principle.
    3. actualization principle.
    4. all of the above.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. Psychoanalysis is
    1. a theory of personality.
    2. a method of therapy.
    3. a technique for research.
    4. all of the above.

 

Ans: d

 

 

 

  1. The foundation for Freud’s view of human functioning was the principle of
    1. uncertainty.
    2. conservation of energy.
    3. regression to the mean.
    4. all of the above.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. Emotional relief gained through talking about one’s problems is covered under the concept of
    1. cathexis.
    2. anticathexis.
    3. mechanism of defense.
    4. catharsis.

 

Ans: d

 

 

 

  1. According to psychoanalytic theory, pleasure is based on
    1. the release of energy.
    2. tension reduction.
    3. the discharge of an instinct.
    4. all of the above.

 

Ans: d

 

 

 

  1. According to Freud, aggression
    1. is an instinctual part of life.
    2. resides in the ego.
    3. resides in the superego.
    4. is inevitably fused with sex.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. According to Freud, scientific and artistic activities express the
    1. sexual instincts.
    2. aggressive instincts.
    3. both a and b.
    4. neither a nor b.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. Freud
    1. was largely unaware of scientific principles.
    2. felt that conceptual clarity came before descriptive observation.
    3. felt that descriptive observation came before conceptual clarity.
    4. dismissed the significance of scientific principles.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. Freud was not impressed with supportive findings from experimental psychology because
    1. he was largely attacked by academic psychology.
    2. he did not understand the value of laboratory research.
    3. the Vienna circle argued against their value.
    4. he was sufficiently impressed with clinical observations.

 

Ans: d

 

 

 

  1. The characteristics of the unconscious are seen most clearly in
    1. dreams.
    2. mechanisms of defense.
    3. guilt.
    4. all of the above.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1.  Contemporary research in psychology demonstrates that
    1. there is no unconscious.
    2. Freud’s ideas about the unconscious were fundamentally correct.
    3. unconscious processes are actually conscious.
    4. unconscious processes exist but often differ from Freud’s depictions of them.

 

Ans: d

 

 

 

  1. A part of psychoanalytic theory is that psychic life can be described in terms of the degree to which we are aware of phenomena.  There are three such levels of awareness.  Which of the following is not one of these levels?
    1. conscience.
    2. conscious.
    3. unconscious.
    4. preconscious.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. The most important and difficult to demonstrate aspect of the unconscious is
    1. people’s behavior always is influenced by events of which they are unaware.
    2. people can recall things previously forgotten.
    3. people keep memories and feelings out of awareness for motivated reasons.
    4. none of the above

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. During the phallic stage the aim is
    1. intercourse.
    2. forepleasure and autoeroticism.
    3. power and control over others.
    4. incorporation of the loved object.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. The research on perceptual defense suggests that
    1. people can consciously defend against certain perceptions.
    2. people can unconsciously reject emotional stimuli.
    3. people can unconsciously reject neutral stimuli.
    4. all of the above.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. The level of consciousness where we are able to be aware of phenomena if we direct our attention to them is
    1. unconscious.
    2. preconscious.
    3. conscious.
    4. subliminal activation.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. The preconscious differs from the unconscious in that
    1. the preconscious relates to phenomena we are able to be aware of if we attend to them.
    2. the preconscious relates to phenomena we cannot be aware of.
    3. the preconscious relates to phenomena before they happen.
    4. there is no difference.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is not true?
    1. the unconscious cannot be observed directly.
    2. the unconscious is fluid.
    3. the unconscious includes repressed wishes.
    4. the unconscious tracks time and space.

 

Ans: d

 

 

 

  1. A critical element of subliminal psychodynamic activation research is that
    1. the stimuli must be neutral.
    2. the stimuli must be active.
    3. the stimuli cannot be presented psychodynamically.
    4. the stimuli must be perceived subliminally.

 

Ans: d

 

 

 

  1. According to psychoanalytic theory, the instincts can be
    1. blocked, expressed, displaced, aim-inhibited.
    2. converted into animal magnetism.
    3. diverted so that all energy is lost.
    4. all of the above.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. According to Freud’s psychoanalytic formulations, the “pleasure principle” finds its expression in the operation of
    1. the ego.
    2. the superego.
    3. the id.
    4. all of the above.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. The id
    1. seeks perfection.
    2. seeks reality.
    3. seeks pleasure.
    4. all of the above.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is present at birth?
    1. id.
    2. ego.
    3. superego.
    4. all of the above.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. The psychoanalytic structure that operates according to the pleasure principle is the
    1. id.
    2. ego.
    3. superego.
    4. none of the above.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. Guilt and self-condemnation reflect the functioning of
    1. the superego.
    2. the ego.
    3. the id.
    4. all of the above.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. The psychoanalytic concept for the aspect of human functioning associated with rewards for striving for ideals and punishments for violating moral standards is the
    1. unconscious.
    2. superego.
    3. ego.
    4. id.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. Psychoanalytic theory suggests that the unconscious
    1. plays a major role in motivation.
    2. plays a minor role in motivation.
    3. plays no role in motivaton.
    4. its role cannot be determined.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. If someone were to feel guilty about wanting to strike his father after being provoked, even though the action was never carried out, Freud would probably say that guilt was due to the action of which of the following?
    1. weak ego.
    2. harsh superego.
    3. an emerging id.
    4. both (a) and (c) in combination.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. Id is to ego
    1. fantasy is to reality.
    2. anxiety is to cathexis.
    3. defense mechanisms are to satisfaction.
    4. “want” is to “ought”.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. Id is to pleasure principle as ego is to
    1. pain principle.
    2. perfection principle.
    3. societal principle.
    4. reality principle.

 

Ans: d

 

 

 

  1. Psychoanalytic theory suggests that the “Reality Principle” and the “Pleasure Principle” operate together in the following manner:
    1. they are constantly opposed to each other.
    2. they work “hand-in-hand” together.
    3. when the “reality principle” is operative the “pleasure principle” is repressed.
    4. when the “reality principle” is functioning, the functions of the “pleasure principle” are temporarily suspended.

 

Ans: d

 

 

 

  1. According to Freudian theory, personality is regarded as a hydraulic system with psychic energy being the currency of the system.  According to Freud’s later formulations, which of the following were the two major sources of psychic energy?
    1. life instinct and libido.
    2. death instinct and ego instincts.
    3. ego instincts and sexual instincts.
    4. life instinct and death instinct.

 

Ans: d

 

 

 

  1. For Freud, the goal of all behavior is
    1. survival.
    2. consciousness.
    3. pleasure.
    4. all of the above.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. Libido is
    1. the energy of the life instinct.
    2. the energy of the death instinct.
    3. both (a) and (b).
    4. neither (a) nor (b).

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. The term “libido” is the name for the energy associated with Freud’s
    1. sexual instincts.
    2. death instinct.
    3. life instinct.
    4. none of the above.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. Basically, defense mechanisms are mechanisms by which a person can defend oneself from anxiety emanating from which of the following sources?
    1. ego.
    2. id.
    3. superego.
    4. all of the above.

 

Ans: d

 

 

  1. Research on projection suggests that defenses
    1. are specific to content and circumstances.
    2. are specific to content, but not circumstances.
    3. are specific to circumstances, but not content.
    4. are not affected by content and circumstances.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. The defense mechanism in which the person attributes to others what is denied in the self is called
    1. projection.
    2. isolation.
    3. denial.
    4. reaction formation.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. “Not looking” is expressive of the mechanism of defense called
    1. projection.
    2. denial.
    3. repression.
    4. blind-sight.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. Research on projection by Newman and colleagues indicates that
    1. the only way to understand projection is to adopt the energy model of mind developed by Freud.
    2. projection can be understood via the principles of contemporary social-cognitive psychology.
    3. projection rarely occurs, contrary to Freud’s expectations.
    4. projection occurs very frequently, contrary to Freud’s expectations.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. The mechanism of defense that is critical in alcohol and drug addiction is
    1. projection.
    2. denial.
    3. repression.
    4. sublimation.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. The type of defense mechanism in which an action is recognized but the underlying motive for the action is not is
    1. rationalization.
    2. reaction-formation.
    3. repression.
    4. denial.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. Rationalization involves
    1. dismissing a thought from consciousness.
    2. perception of an action but not the motive for it.
    3. denial of the emotion accompanying an act.
    4. rationing the affect to fit the situation.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. The defense mechanism that transforms anxiety-producing feelings into their opposite is
    1. projection.
    2. repression.
    3. reaction formation.
    4. undoing.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. John says that if he really puts his mind to it he could ace the course.  This illustrates which mechanism of defense?
    1. projection.
    2. isolation.
    3. undoing.
    4. rationalization.

 

Ans: d

 

 

 

  1. Intellectualization occurs with the defense mechanism of
    1. denial.
    2. repression.
    3. undoing.
    4. isolation.

 

Ans: d

 

 

 

  1. The process when you remove a thought or wish from consciousness is
    1. repression.
    2. anxiety.
    3. execution.
    4. guilt.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. Which defense mechanism plays a part in all other defense mechanisms?
    1. reaction-formation.
    2. repression.
    3. rationalization.
    4. regression.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. Repressive style is associated with
    1. low reactivity to stress.
    2. high self-esteem.
    3. risk of health difficulties.
    4. all of the above.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. Experimental research on repressive coping styles by Weinberger, Schwartz, and Davidson demonstrates that:
    1. people’s self-reports of their level of anxiety accurately predict the level of anxiety they actually experience when they are in stressful situations.
    2. some individuals who describe themselves as being “low anxious” actually show extremely high levels of anxiety reactions in stressful situations.
    3. mental energy associated with conflicts that date back to childhood and concern sexuality are at the heart of all adult anxiety reactions, whether people realize it or not.
    4. anxiety (or neuroticism) is primarily inherited (i.e., most of the variance in neuroticism is due to genetics).

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. The “major” or “primary” defense mechanism, according to psychoanalytic theory is
    1. rationalization.
    2. projection.
    3. repression.
    4. denial.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. The overprotective mother who cannot allow into consciousness any hostility toward her children is using the defense mechanism of
    1. reaction formation.
    2. sublimation.
    3. denial.
    4. rationalization.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. The defense mechanism of isolation is where
    1. the normal affect accompanying certain thoughts is denied.
    2. certain acts are magically wished away.
    3. the person denies certain impulses or thoughts access to consciousness.
    4. what is internal and unacceptable is separated and then viewed as external.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. The student who said (s)he flunked the major exam because the questions were childish is using the defense mechanism called
    1. undoing.
    2. projection.
    3. reaction-formation.
    4. rationalization.

 

Ans: d

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following defense mechanisms involves replacement of the original object of gratification with a higher cultural goal?
    1. repression.
    2. sublimation.
    3. denial.
    4. reaction-formation.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. In examination of the operation of mechanisms of defense one can expect them to appear
    1. under all conditions.
    2. under conditions of threat.
    3. when the person is asleep.
    4. when a person is intoxicated or tired.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. Research on repression suggests that
    1. guilt decreases arousal.
    2. physiological arousal may be blocked.
    3. physiological arousal may not be perceived.
    4. arousal increases guilt.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. Relative to those low on repression, repressors
    1. recall negative emotions and early memories.
    2. recall negative emotions but not early memories.
    3. recall early memories but not negative emotions.
    4. have trouble recalling negative emotions and early memories.

 

Ans: d

 

 

 

  1. Psychoanalytic theory suggests that unconscious influences are found in
    1. out of character behavior.
    2. rational action.
    3. mathematical formulas.
    4. all of the above.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. Another term for perception without awareness is
    1. repression.
    2. sublimation.
    3. subliminal perception.
    4. supraliminal perception.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. Evidence of the influence of images presented with a tachistoscope supports the principle of
    1. repression.
    2. sublimation.
    3. catharsis.
    4. perception without awareness.

 

Ans: d

 

 

 

  1. Research indicates that events of early childhood may leave an emotional memory that influences later functioning without the person having a conscious memory of the event.  This is because a part of the brain, the amygdala, is involved at that point in time but prior to the development of more mature brain structures involved in memory, such as the hippocampus.  This finding is
    1. Consistent with both psychoanalytic  theory and cognitive science
    2. Consistent with only psychoanalytic theory
    3. Consistent with only cognitive science
    4. Inconsistent with both psychoanalytic theory and cognitive science

 

Ans: a

 

 

  1. In an experiment by Westen and Weinberger, participants judged a supposed political candidate less favorably if they had been subliminally primed with the word RATS than if they had been subliminally primed with other less negative words (e.g., STAR).  Which of the following psychoanalytic concepts does this best illustrate?
    1. The reality principle
    2. Secondary process thinking
    3. Unconscious processing
    4. Free association

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. The defense mechanism in which the original object of gratification is replaced by a higher cultural goal is called
    1. sublimation.
    2. projection.
    3. repression.
    4. rationalization.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is not a defense mechanism?
    1. undoing.
    2. denial.
    3. reaction-formation.
    4. subliminal psychodynamic activation.

 

Ans: d

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is not descriptive of primary process thought?
    1. language of conscious.
    2. often seen in dreams.
    3. characteristics of people are fused and mixed.
    4. fantasy and reality slip into one another.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. Within the psychoanalytic system of personality and personality development, the transition from “Primary Process” thinking to “Secondary Process” thinking is parallel to
    1. development of the id and the superego.
    2. the development of the ego and the superego.
    3. the development of the id and the ego.
    4. none of the above.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. The terms “anal,” “genital,” and “oral” refer to
    1. erogenous zones.
    2. shifting foci of body tension with development.
    3. developmental stages in psychoanalytic theory.
    4. all of the above.

 

Ans: d

 

 

 

  1. The development of the superego is often associated with the end of which stage of psychosexual development?
    1. genital.
    2. phallic.
    3. oral.
    4. anal.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. The correct order of progression through Freud’s stages of psychosexual development is
    1. anal – oral – genital – latency-phallic.
    2. oral – anal – genital – latency-phallic.
    3. oral – anal – phallic – latency-genital.
    4. oral – phallic – anal – latency-genital.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. The Oedipus Complex is associated with
    1. identification with the like-sexed parent.
    2. the beginning of superego.
    3. castration anxiety.
    4. all of the above.

 

Ans: d

 

 

 

  1. The stage of development where excitation and tension comes to focus in the genitals is the
    1. oral stage.
    2. anal stage.
    3. phallic stage.
    4. latency stage.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. According to the Oedipus Complex, every boy is fated to struggle with wishes to kill his
    1. mother.
    2. father.
    3. professor.
    4. brother.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. Research on Oedipal behaviors suggests that around age four children show
    1. behavior consistent with psychoanalytic theory.
    2. behavior that contradicts psychoanalytic theory.
    3. only the behavior of boys fit the theory.
    4. only the behavior of girls fit the theory.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is an erogenous zone according to pychoanalytic theory?
    1. the mouth.
    2. the anus.
    3. the genitals.
    4. all of the above.

 

Ans: d

 

 

 

  1. The major contribution of Erikson’s view is
    1. the connection made to ethology.
    2. the attention given to social-interpersonal factors in development.
    3. an appreciation of aim-inhibited instincts in development.
    4. the importance of latency in development.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is not a significant component of Erikson’s psychosocial theory of development?
    1. emphasized interpersonal processes.
    2. emphasized stages over the life span.
    3. emphasized the future as well as the past.
    4. emphasized the “collective unconscious.”

 

Ans: d

 

 

 

  1. In Erikson’s model, the stage comparable to Freud’s anal stage is
    1. autonomy vs. shame and doubt.
    2. industry vs. inferiority.
    3. integrity vs. despair.
    4. trust vs. mistrust.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. The evidence concerning the relationship between early experiences and adult personality suggests that
    1. early experience shapes adult personality.
    2. adult personality is independent of early experience.
    3. early experience is critical for the development of sex-role differences.
    4. later experience can reshape much of what has been formed earlier.

 

Ans: d

 

 

 

  1. Research on the later effects of early experiences shows evidence of
    1. continuities and discontinuities.
    2. early experience being fundamental.
    3. early experience being unimportant.
    4. the effects of single, dramatic experiences.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. Research relating the appearance of psychological problems in children to earlier development suggests that
    1. one can predict, but not work back from the present.
    2. one can understand later pathology in terms of earlier experiences, but it is difficult to predict.
    3. earlier experience and later pathology are unrelated.
    4. one can understand and predict later pathology in terms of evidence of difficulties during the pregenital stage of development.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is not an identity status emphasized by Marcia?
    1. identity achievement.
    2. identity foreclosure.
    3. identity moratorium.
    4. multiple identity.

 

Ans: d

 

 

True/False

 

 

 

  1. Research suggests that the suppression of exciting thoughts can promote excitement.

 

Ans: True

 

 

 

  1. Catharsis is a method of allowing all thoughts to come forth without inhibition or falsification.

 

Ans: False

 

 

 

  1. According to Freud, there are three levels of consciousness.

 

Ans: True

 

 

 

  1. Psychoanalytic theory is primarily focused on the conscious state of mind.

 

Ans: False

 

 

 

  1. The unconscious can be observed directly.

 

Ans: False

 

  1. It is commonly accepted that stimuli not consciously perceived may still influence our thoughts.

 

Ans: True

 

 

 

  1. The fluidity of the instincts allows for variability in behavior.

 

Ans: True

 

 

 

  1. In psychoanalytic theory, the source of all psychic energy lies in states of bodily excitation.

 

Ans: True

 

 

 

  1. The id represents the source of all drive energy.

 

Ans: True

 

 

 

  1. The ego represents the source of drive energy.

 

Ans: False

 

 

 

  1. The delay of instinct gratification until circumstances permit the most pleasure is known as the pleasure principle.

 

Ans: False

 

 

 

  1. The superego operates on the basis of the pleasure principle.

 

Ans: False

 

 

 

  1. The superego operates according to the reality principle.

 

Ans: False

 

 

 

  1. People develop defense mechanisms to protect themselves against anxiety.

 

Ans: True

 

 

 

  1. In psychoanalytic theory, anxiety represents a partial repetition of an earlier traumatic experience.

 

Ans: True

 

 

 

  1. Isolation is the defense mechanism in which the impulse is allowed to enter consciousness without the corresponding affect.

 

Ans: True

 

 

 

  1. In isolation, the impulse, thought, or act is denied normal accompanying emotion.

 

Ans: True

 

 

 

  1. In psychoanalytic theory, repression is the fundamental mechanism of defense.

 

Ans: True

 

 

 

  1. Marcia suggests that how identity formation is handled establishes a fixed pattern for life.

 

Ans: False

 

 

 

  1. Erikson’s stages are noteworthy in their emphasis on psychosocial development.

 

Ans: True

Essay Questions

 

 

 

  1. Discuss Freud’s concepts of id, ego, and superego in terms of a) the development and b) the functions of each.

 

  1. Provide an example of an experimental research finding in contemporary psychology that supports psychoanalytic theory.  In what ways is this contemporary scientific evidence superior to the case study evidence presented by Freud?

 

  1. Discuss the concept of the unconscious in terms of its importance in psychoanalytic theory and its potential for study in the laboratory.

 

Chapter: Chapter 05: A Phenomenological Theory: Carl Rogers’ Person-Centered Theory of Personality

 

 

 

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

  1. Rogers’ theory is primarily a theory of
    1. the structure of personality.
    2. the nature of psychology as a science.
    3. the process of change.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. Two main trends seen throughout Rogers’ life are
    1. a concern with the subjective-experiential and the objective-scientific.
    2. concern with religion and philosophy.
    3. concern with individuals and media.
    4. concern with the correlational approach and theconstruct validity approach.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

Rogers’ theory of personality is associated with a particular view of human nature.  That view is reflected in which of the following statements?

  1. to the extent that people are as Freud pictured them they are neurotic.
  2. human nature is basically negative.
  3. self-actualization is essentially the same as Freud’s concept of socialization.
  4. people are basically sinful.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements does not accurately reflect an aspect of Rogers’ theory of personality?
  1. A person’s phenomenological field is made up of both conscious and unconscious perceptions.
  2. The most important determinants of behavior are those which are unconscious.
  3. A person’s phenomenological field is made up of both symbolized and unsymbolized perceptions.
  4. The most important determinants of behavior are those which are symbolized.

 

    1. Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. The phenomenological approach emphasizes
  1. feelings-experiences.
  2. self-report measures.
  3. all of the above.

 

Ans: d

 

 

 

  1. The person’s perceptions of the world make up the
  1. construct system.
  2. phenomenal field.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is not expressive of Rogers?
  1. experience is the highest authority.
  2. people have inherently cruel parts.
  3. life is a flowing, changing process.
  4. people drop false fronts when provided with security.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. In terms of the potential for discovery of laws of personality, Rogers is

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. For Rogers, the highest authority is
  1. the scientific process.
  2. there is no single authority.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. In terms of his view of people, Rogers
  1. has a Pollyanna view.
  2. denies that people can be hostile or selfish.
  3. emphasizes the potential for destruction.
  4. emphasizes positive tendencies.

 

Ans: d

 

 

  1. Research by Lieberman, Jarcho, and Sapute (2004) confirms the Rogerian idea that people have a core _____ sense of self.
    1. counterintuitive
    2. intuitive
    3. counternormative
    4. nonintuitive

 

 

Ans: b

 

 

  1. Research by Lieberman, Jarcho, and Sapute (2004) indicates that when people think intuitively about themselves the brain regions that become active are those that are relatively more connected to emotional life, including an area of the temporal lobe, the posterior cingulate cortex, and the _____.
    1. amygdala
    2. fornix
    3. hippocampus
    4. hypothalamus

 

Ans: a

 

 

  1. Research by D’Argembeau et al. (2010) confirmed the Rogerian prediction that the actual self and _____ self are distinct structures of personality
    1. aggrandized
    2. unwanted
    3. feared
    4. ideal

 

Ans: d

 

 

  1. In research by D’Argembeau et al. (2010), the medial prefrontal cortex of participants’ brains became more active when they thought about their _____selves, relative to when they thought of their _____selves.
    1. present actual; future ideal
    2. present actual; future feared
    3. future ideal; present actual
    4. future ideal; present feared

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following was not employed by phenomenologists?
  1. Q-sort.
  2. semantic differential.
  3. adjective checklist.

 

Ans: d

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is not a phenomenological method?
  1. Q-sort.
  2. Thematic Apperception Test.
  3. adjective checklist.
  4. semantic differential.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

 

  1. The Q-sort can be used as a quantitative measure of
  1. the difference in meaning between two concepts.
  2. the independence of various motives.
  3. anxiety associated with incongruence.
  4. depression associated with incongruence.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. According to Rogers, the direction of our movement basically is toward
  1. self-actualization.
  2. all of the above.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements is not true of Rogers’ phenomenological theory?
  1. Reactions to the environment are based on individual perceptions.
  2. Subjective self-reports can be treated objectively.
  3. There is an orderly process of change.
  4. Structure and fixity are more important than process and change.

 

Ans: d

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is not a characteristic Rogerian emphasis?
  1. objective tests.
  2. unstructured tests.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following was developed as a measure of attitudes and the meaning of concepts?
  1. Q-data.
  2. Q-sort.
  3. adjective checklist.
  4. semantic differential.

 

Ans: d

 

 

 

  1. Unconscious is to projective, as _______     is to the Q-sort.
  1. phenomenal field.
  2. self-actualization.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is not part of the phenomenal field?
  1. conscious perceptions.
  2. unconscious perceptions.
  3. all of the above.

 

Ans: d

 

 

 

  1. For Rogers, the source of most concepts is (are)
  1. psychological tests.

 

Ans: d

 

 

 

  1. According to the phenomenological position
  1. the normal individual perceives the world in ways corresponding to other individuals.
  2. for normals, the phenomenological field contains chiefly conscious perceptions.
  3. the most important determinants of behavior are the unconscious ones.
  4. study of the subjective phenomena cannot be “scientific.”

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. Within the framework of the Rogerian theory of personality, the “self” is the most important structural concept.  In short, the “self” is
  1. those particular parts of an individual’s phenomenal field which relate to the individual.
  2. the total system of events which make up the individual’s life.
  3. the perceptions and meanings which are potentially relevant to the individual and which are highly valued by the individual.
  4. all of the above.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. As Rogers conceptualizes it, a number of meaningful statements can be made about the “self.”  Which of the following statements would Rogers agree with?
  1. In general, the complex of meanings and perceptions which make up the “self” are unsymbolized by the individual.
  2. The “self” is not structural in nature–being instead, an amorphous unit.
  3. The “self” represents an organized set of perceptions.
  4. The concept of the “self” as conceptualized by Rogers does not fit into what traditionally has been a topic of study in psychology.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. The self as Rogers has conceptualized it and as related to his client-centered therapy can be thought of as
  1. self-as-progress.
  2. self-as-object.
  3. self-as-doer.
  4. all of the above.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. A measure of the self-concept used frequently by Rogers in his research is called
  1. REP test.
  2. Q technique.
  3. Rorschach test.
  4. self-as-object.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. For Rogers, the self is made up of                         `
  1. an organization of parts.
  2. stimulus-response units.
  3. parts that basically are stable and unchanging.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. According to current research, recognition of the self
  1. is limited to humans.
  2. is limited to humans and chimps.
  3. is present in humans and dolphins.
  4. is present in dogs if they are given practice.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. One measure of recognition of the self is
  1. self-directed mirror behavior.
  2. startle response at one’s mirror image.
  3. reflected appraisals.
  4. all of the above.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. An outstanding feature of the Q-sort is that
  1. it is an objective measure of the phenomenal field.
  2. it provides for comparisons of concepts.
  3. it does not require a verbal response.
  4. it can be used with all age groups.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. On the Q-sort, the subject distributes the statements according to
  1. a random distribution.
  2. a normal distribution.
  3. a binomial distribution.
  4. whichever distribution is chosen by the experimenter.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is not typically a measure of the self-concept?
  1. Q-sort.
  2. adjective checklist.
  3. semantic differential.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. Compared to people with high self-esteem, research shows that people with low self-esteem
    1. are more motivated to improve their negative moods
    2. are less motivated to improve their negative moods
    3. are equally motivated to improve their negative moods

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. With which of the following statements would Rogers be most likely to disagree?
  1. There is no one self but many selves.
  2. Most tests of the self only get at a conscious aspect.
  3. Most tests used are subject to defensive distortion.
  4. No one test provides a satisfactory measure of the self concept.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. Stephenson developed the
  1. Q-sort technique.
  2. adjective checklist.
  3. semantic differential.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. In the Q-sort, the subject
  1. sorts statements into categories following a normal distribution.
  2. sorts statements into categories following a binomial distribution.
  3. sorts statements into self and ideal self categories.
  4. sorts statements into desired self and undesired self categories.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. The concept of self-actualization most differs from
  1. a tension-reduction model.
  2. an existential model.
  3. an ego model.
  4. all of the above.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. The concept of self-actualization
  1. can be measured in terms of projective tests.
  2. is too concrete to be of scientific utility.
  3. has yet to be tied to an objective measure.
  4. all of the above.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. The psychoanalytic concept most relevant to that of self-actualization is
  1. competence motivation.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. Freud is to drives as Rogers is to
  1. tension reduction.
  2. self actualization.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. According to Rogers, the basic tendency for humans is to strive for
  1. satisfaction of biological needs.
  2. meeting security needs.
  3. self-actualization.
  4. psychosocial maturation.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. Research on the variability of self suggests that
  1. high variability expresses flexibility.
  2. high variability expresses instability.
  3. variability is not a personality characteristic.
  4. none of the above.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. Within the Rogerian framework of personality, anxiety is the result of
  1. the need for positive regard from others.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. The process of subception refers to
  1. cases in which an individual can experience a stimulus without bringing it into awareness.
  2. self-consistency.
  3. the process whereby a therapist understands the emotional experience of a client.
  4. the need for positive regard from others.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. Rogers’ view of self-actualization includes
  1. a concept similar to competence motivation.
  2. a concept like tension-reduction.
  3. one of three motives relevant to process.
  4. both (a) and (b).

 

Ans: d

 

 

 

  1. The view that one should be true to oneself is violated in
  1. self-ideal self discrepancy.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. According to Rogers, the response to incongruence is
  1. self-actualization.
  2. none of the above.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. Efforts to maintain self-consistency have been demonstrated in relation to
  1. all of the above.

 

Ans: d

 

 

 

  1. Relative to nondefensive subjects, defensive subjects are likely to
  1. be more self-actualizing.
  2. recall more stimuli inconsistent with the self.
  3. recall fewer stimuli inconsistent with the self.
  4. show no difference in recall of stimuli inconsistent with the self.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. The concept of self consistency was originally developed by

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. According to Lecky,
  1. the individual seeks to maintain the self structure.
  2. rewards determine the elements of the self.
  3. the individual seeks self enhancement.
  4. all of the above.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. Cartwright found subjects were better able to recall
  1. adjectives consistent with the self.
  2. adjectives inconsistent with the self.
  3. There was no difference.
  4. It depended on the situation.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. Congruence is a synonym for
  1. moral integrity.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. According to Rogers, vulnerability to anxiety is due to
  1. aggressive thoughts.
  2. unconscious wishes.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. According to Rogers, a discrepancy between perceived self and experience leads to a state of

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. A discrepancy between self and experience leads to the state of
  1. reflected appraisal.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. Rogers’ concept for the experiencing of a stimulus without bringing it into awareness is
  1. self-actualization.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. Subception is the process through which experiences unavailable to awareness can lead to

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. Two major defensive processes described by Rogers are
  1. distortion and denial.
  2. distortion and subception.
  3. denial and subception.
  4. distortion and repression.

 

Ans: a

 

 

  1. Through the defense mechanism of denial we
  1. allow an experience into awareness, but in a form consistent with the self.
  2. preserve the self structure from threat.
  3. experience a stimulus without bringing it into awareness.
  4. none of the above.

 

    1. Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. The basis for the denial of experience is
  1. imposition of conditions of worth.
  2. early trauma.
  3. fixation and regression.
  4. all of the above.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. According to Rogers, an organism may react to threatening stimuli with
  1. neither (a) nor (b).
  2. both (a) and (b).

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. Freud’s concept of the superego might be related to Rogers’ concept of
  1. self-actualization.
  2. need for positive regard.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. For Rogers, defense occurs due to the threat of
  1. loss of positive regard.
  2. reflected appraisal.
  3. the ideal self.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. One way in which people maintain a self-concept is through
  1. being hostile to others.
  2. a self-fulfilling prophecy.
  3. manipulating others through guilt.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. Parents who communicate negative appraisals may be suspected of
  1. having low self-regard.
  2. being hostile.
  3. enforcing strict standards.
  4. being zealous in the enforcement of rules.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. The development of self-esteem is associated with
  1. freedom within boundaries.
  2. freedom without boundaries.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. 67. Rogerian theory holds that the dissociation of experiences and the rift between organism and self in children are the results of
    1. unconditional positive regard given to the child by the parents.
    2. conditional positive regard.
    3. the imposition of conditions of worth on the child.
    4. both (b) and (c).

 

Ans: d

 

 

 

  1. With regard to the interaction of parent and child during the child’s development, it has been found that
  1. there appears to be an inverse relationship between the types of evaluations a parent makes of himself and the types of evaluations he makes of the child.
  2. the most critical determinant of what a child feels about himself is his perception of his parents’ feeling about him.
  3. children of authoritarian parents tend to have greater intellectual development.
  4. children of democratic parents tend to be more aggressive in filling their needs.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. Parental attitudes and practices are very important factors in the development of self-esteem in children.  The research on the subject to date indicates that
  1. parental permissiveness allows the child to develop confidence in his own decisions and enhances self-esteem.
  2. parents of high self-esteem children tend to set behavioral guidelines and enforce them consistently.
  3. parents of high self-esteem children tend to set few behavioral guidelines and are consistent in their enforcement of those rules.
  4. low self-esteem children are given a wide latitude for individual action within the limited rules which are established.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. The development of creative potential is associated with conditions of
  1. psychological safety and freedom.
  2. psychological safety and no guidelines.
  3. guidelines and intermittent reinforcement.
  4. all of the above.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. The utilization of the views of others to define the self is expressed in the concept of
  1. reflected appraisals.
  2. self-directedness.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following does not have a significant effect on the development of self-esteem in children?
  1. degree of acceptance.
  2. amount of education.
  3. permissiveness and punishments.
  4. democratic practices.

 

Ans: b

 

 

  1. Parents with high self-esteem were found to
  1. give little guidance.
  2. set ambiguous limits.
  3. make clear demands.
  4. all of the above.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is not suggested as an important aspect of parent-child interaction?
  1. degree of acceptance.
  2. degree of narcissism.
  3. democratic processes.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. Research suggests that the following parental attitudes most facilitate psychological growth in children:
  1. acceptant, authoritarian.
  2. acceptant, democratic.
  3. strict, democratic.
  4. authoritarian, kind.

 

Ans: b

 

 

 

  1. According to Rogers, the imposition of conditions of worth on children causes
  1. a lack of self-efficacy.
  2. demands on the ego.
  3. a rift between organism and self.
  4. a rift between self and negative self.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. The evaluation an individual makes and maintains with regard to the self is
  1. self-efficacy.
  2. reflected appraisal.
  3. positive regard.
  4. self-esteem.

 

Ans: d

 

 

 

  1. According to Coopersmith, which of the following is not a building block for high self-esteem in children?
  1. loving mother.
  2. democratic parenting.
  3. varying enforcement of rules.
  4. they all are building blocks.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. Parents of children with high self-esteem
  1. set clearly defined limits which are enforced.
  2. use punishments rather than awards for behaviors.
  3. are autocratic.
  4. don’t compromise their methods of control.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following was not true of Rogers?
  1. emphasized change.
  2. used few structural concepts.
  3. emphasized the defensive processes present in the person.
  4. emphasized self-report.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. The phenomenal approach emphasizes how
  1. people view themselves.
  2. people view the world around them.
  3. both a and b.
  4. neither a nor b.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. According to the research by Block and Robins, during adolescence self-esteem
  1. increases in males and decreases in females.
  2. increases in males and in females.
  3. decreases in males and females.
  4. decreases in males and increases in females.

 

Ans: a

 

 

 

  1. Congruence involves bringing together
  1. feelings and ideal self.
  2. behavior and ideal self.
  3. feelings and self concept.
  4. none of the above.

 

Ans: c

 

 

 

  1. A criticism of Rogers’s concept of self-esteem is that it is
  1. too global.
  2. too specific.
  3. too vague.
  4. too concrete.

 

Ans: a

 

 

True/False Questions

 

 

 

  1. The phenomenological approach stresses that people should be understood in terms of how they view themselves and the world around them.

 

Ans: True

 

 

 

  1. The phenomenal field is limited to conscious perceptions and experiences.

 

Ans: False

 

 

 

  1. According to Rogers, the phenomenal field of the individual includes both conscious and unconscious perceptions.

 

Ans: True

 

 

 

  1. Rogers preferred the use of structured questionnaires to less structured self-report measures.

 

Ans: False

 

 

 

  1. According to Rogers, the core of our nature is essentially positive.

 

Ans: True

 

 

 

  1. As was true for Freud, Rogers felt that the most important determinants of behavior are unconscious.

 

Ans: False

 

 

 

  1. Rogers agreed with Freud that personality is relatively fixed.

 

    1. Ans: False

 

 

 

  1. Rogers attempted to integrate humanism and empiricism.

 

Ans: True

 

 

 

  1. According to Rogers, major parts of the self are unconscious.

 

Ans: False

 

 

 

  1. The Rogerian self is analogous to a little person inside of us.

 

Ans: False

 

 

 

  1. Children are like members of other species in their lack of mirror self-recognition.

 

Ans: False

 

 

 

  1. The Q-sort is used to assess the phenomenal field.

 

Ans: True

 

 

 

  1. The Q-sort was developed by Rogers.

 

Ans: False

 

 

 

  1. The Q-sort can be used to get at unconscious attitudes and beliefs.

 

Ans: False

 

 

 

  1. The Q-sort and semantic differential both measure consistency between self and experience.

 

Ans: False

 

 

 

  1. Rogers recognized the importance of motives-drives in human behavior.

 

Ans: True

 

 

 

  1. Self-actualization involves the process of reducing tension while actualizing the self.

 

Ans: False

 

 

 

  1. According to Rogers, individuals tend to behave in ways consistent with the self.

 

Ans: True

 

 

 

  1. Cartwright found that individuals recall self-consistent information better than information inconsistent with the self.

 

Ans: True

 

 

 

  1. According to Rogers, distortion protects the self structure from threat by allowing experiences into awareness in an acceptable form.

 

Ans: True

 

 

 

  1. According to Rogers, distortion and denial are defenses against incongruence.

 

Ans: True

 

 

 

  1. The ultimate goal for Rogers is a state of congruence between experience and self.

 

Ans: True

 

 

 

  1. Denial allows experience into awareness in a form consistent with the self.

 

Ans: False

 

 

 

  1. Subception is the experiencing of the effects of a stimulus without being aware of it.

 

Ans: False

 

 

 

  1. In Rogerian theory, a stimulus experienced without being brought into awareness is described under the concept of subception.

 

Ans: True

 

 

 

  1. People with low self-esteem are more likely to cheat than are those with high self-esteem.

 

Ans: True

 

 

 

  1. Research on self-esteem change during adolescence suggests an increase for males and decrease for females.

 

Ans: True

 

 

 

  1. According to Rogers, states of incongruence generate defensive processes.

 

    1. Ans: True

 

 

 

  1. Congruence involves consistency between self and feeling.

 

Ans: True

 

 

 

  1. Research suggests that variability in self in different situations is expressive of positive mental health.

 

Ans: False

 

 

 

 

 

Essay Questions

 

 

 

  1. Compare the views of Freud and Rogers on the nature of the person and science.

 

  1. Discuss Rogers’ views of the self, self processes, and their measurement.

 

  1. How is Rogers’s theory about the nature of self-concept linked to his use of the Q-sort technique as a method of personality assessment?

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