Organizational Development The Process of Leading Organizational Change 4th Edition By Donal L. – Test Bank

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Organizational Development The Process of Leading Organizational Change 4th Edition By Donal L. – Test Bank

Chapter 6: Entry and Contracting

Test Bank

 

Multiple Choice

 

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a phase in which setting up the intervention for success occurs?
  2. entry
  3. contracting
  4. data gathering
  5. evaluation

Ans: D

AACSB: Systems and processes in organizations

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Entry and Contracting
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. In the contracting process, the practitioner and client explore both the formal and______ contractual elements of their relationship.
  2. psychological
  3. biological
  4. social
  5. fiscal

Ans: A

AACSB: Interpersonal relations and teamwork

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Entry and Contracting
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. For ______, gaining entry is often as the result of marketing and selling one’s expertise or success to a potential client.
  2. internal consultants
  3. external consultants
  4. practical consultants
  5. dialogic consultants

Ans: B

AACSB: Interpersonal relations and teamwork

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Entry
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. ______ are more likely to use strategies such as networking, direct mail, or websites to gain entry.
  2. Internal consultants
  3. External consultants
  4. Practical consultants
  5. Dialogic consultants

Ans: B

AACSB: Thinking creatively

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Entry
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The entry stage should be seen as:
  2. the first stage in a relationship and trust-building process.
  3. the first opportunity to discuss contractual obligations.
  4. the first chance for a client to officially meet the consultant.
  5. the first stage in scheduling all future meetings.

Ans: B

AACSB: Analytical thinking

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Entry
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which type of client is identified as the intial point of communication in the client organization?
  2. contact client
  3. intermediate client
  4. primary client
  5. unwitting client

Ans: A

AACSB: Group and individual behaviors

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Who Is the Client?
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which type of client is identified as those that are included in meetings or from whom data are gathered during the course of the engagement?
  2. contact clients
  3. intermediate clients
  4. primary clients
  5. indirect clients

Ans: B

AACSB: Interpersonal relations and teamwork

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Who Is the Client?
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which type of client is defined as having responsibility for the problem the consultant is working to address and is generally the one paying for the consultant’s services?
  2. intermediate client
  3. primary client
  4. unwitting client
  5. indirect client

Ans: B

AACSB: Leading in organizational situations

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Who Is the Client?
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which type of client is often affected by the engagement or intervention but may not know of the activity or that it will concern them?
  2. intermediate client
  3. primary client
  4. unwitting client
  5. indirect client

Ans: C

AACSB: Reflective thinking

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Who Is the Client?
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which type of client is not known to the consultant but is conscious that they are stakeholders in the outcome?
  2. intermediate client
  3. primary client
  4. unwitting client
  5. indirect client

Ans: D

AACSB: Making sound decisions

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Who Is the Client?
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which type of client consists of the larger system or organization?
  2. primary client
  3. indirect client
  4. ultimate client
  5. contact client

Ans: C

AACSB: Systems and processes in organizations

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Who Is the Client?
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Given that the client can change depending on the target of the intervention, ______ can be seen as the client when interpersonal issues are involved.
  2. relationships
  3. group process
  4. society at large
  5. organizations

Ans: A

AACSB: Interpersonal relations and teamwork

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Who Is the Client?
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Given that the client can change depending on the target of the intervention, ______ can be seen as the client when multiple systems are involved.
  2. relationships
  3. group process
  4. society at large
  5. organizations

Ans: C

AACSB: Contexts of organizations in a global society

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Who Is the Client?
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Contracting is a ______ process.
  2. one-time
  3. continual
  4. temporary
  5. permanent

Ans: B

AACSB: Systems and processes in organizations

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: What Is Contracting?
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The ______ contract consists of topics that one develop as part of an official professional agreement.
  2. formal
  3. informal
  4. psycholocial
  5. dialogic

Ans: A

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: What Is Contracting?
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The ______ contract is an explicit agreement about the consulting relationship.
  2. formal
  3. informal
  4. psychological
  5. dialogic

Ans: C

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: What Is Contracting?
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which of the following purposes of contracting is rationale for a practitioner to conduct an initial set of diagnostic activities as a starting point?
  2. To further explore the problem
  3. To clarify the client’s goals and objectives for the request
  4. To allow the client to get to know the consultant, the consultant to get to know the client and the organization, and for both parties to validate that the project is one that the consultant has the knowledge and skills to accept
  5. To understand the organization’s committment to change

Ans: A

AACSB: Analytical thinking

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: The Purpose of Contracting
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Which of the following purposes of contracting outlines the appropriate time to elucidate what the client expects to see when the engagement is finished, as well as how the engagement will be evaluated?
  2. To further explore the problem
  3. To clarify the client’s goals and objectives for the request
  4. To allow the client to get to know the consultant, the consultant to get to know the client and the organization, and for both parties to validate that the project is one that the consultant has the knowledge and skills to accept
  5. To understand the organization’s commitment to change

Ans: B

AACSB: Written and oral communication

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: The Purpose of Contracting
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Which of the following purposes of contracting is described as an opportunity for a practitioner to validate that a project is able to be accepted, and often the practitioner should do more listening than talking?
  2. To clarify the client’s goals and objectives for the request
  3. To allow the client to get to know the consultant, the consultant to get to know the client and the organization, and for both parties to validate that the project is one that the consultant has the knowledge and skills to accept
  4. To understand the organization’s commitment to change
  5. To create an environment in which consultation can success by agreeing on mutual roles and needs

Ans: B

AACSB: Reflective thinking

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: The Purpose of Contracting
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Which of the following purposes of contracting is described as an oppportunity for practitioners to ask questions about the problem and the client’s suggested approach, which then means the consultant can validate the likelihood of being able to carry out an intervention?
  2. To understand the organization’s commitment to change
  3. To create an environment in which consultation can succeed by agreeing on mutual roles and needs
  4. To clarify time pressures and expectations
  5. To clarify how the client and consultant will interact

Ans: A

AACSB: Leading in organizational situations

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: The Purpose of Contracting
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Which of the following purposes of contracting deals with sharing expectations about mutual involvement during the project?
  2. To understand the organization’s commitment to change
  3. To create an environment in which consultation can succeed by agreeing on mutual roles and needs
  4. To clarify time pressures and expectations
  5. To clarify how the client and consultant will interact

Ans: B

AACSB: Interpersonal relations and teamwork

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: The Purpose of Contracting
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which of the following purposes of contracting discusses the need for the client and consultant both to explore checkpoints and deadlines for the project and various stages along the way?
  2. To undertsand the organization’s commitment to change
  3. To create an environment in which consultation can succeed by agreeing on mutual roles and needs
  4. To clarify time pressures and expectations
  5. To clarify how the client and consultant will interact

Ans: C

AACSB: Systems and processes in organizations

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: The Purpose of Contracting
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which of the following purposes of contracting discusses the practicalities of meeting schedules and expectations for an equal relationship in which authenticity and honesty are necessities.
  2. To create an environment in which consultation can succeed by agreeing on mutual roles and needs
  3. To allow the client to get to know the consultant, the consultant to get to know the client and the organization, and for both parties to validate that the project is one that the consultant has the knowledge and skills to accept
  4. To clarify time pressures and expectations
  5. To clarify how the client and consultant will interact

Ans: D

AACSB: Group and individual behaviors

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: The Purpose of Contracting
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Which of the following purposes of contracting discusses the notion of handling sensitive information and the necessity to understand and clarify these concerns?
  2. To create an environment in which consultation can succeed by agreeing on mutual roles and needs
  3. To clarify how the client and consultant will interact
  4. To plan next steps
  5. To clarify confidentiality needs

Ans: D

AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: The Purpose of Contracting
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which purpose of contracting discusses the understanding of what the both consultant and client should to next?
  2. To clarify confidentiality needs
  3. To plan next steps
  4. To clarify time pressures and expectations
  5. To clarify how the client and consultant will interact

Ans: B

AACSB: Making sound decisions

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: The Purpose of Contracting
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT an indication of a successful contracting meeting?
  2. consultant and client have come to an agreement on the process for moving forward
  3. consultant and client have appropriately negotiated needs and roles
  4. consultant and client have inconsistencies in expectations
  5. consultant and client are each satisfied with the relationship

Ans: C

AACSB: Interpersonal relations and teamwork

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Success in the Contracting Meeting
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. During a contracting meeting, consultants should ensure they ______ because it is important to allow the clients to have the opportunity to express themselves.
  2. listen
  3. speak
  4. dispute
  5. neglect

Ans: A

AACSB: Written and oral communication

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Success in the Contracting Meeting
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. It is critical a consultant take time to organize and ______ to ensure information is learned about the situation and the potential for a successful engagement.
  2. listen
  3. ask questions
  4. propose solutions
  5. deny further opportunities for engagement

Ans: B

AACSB: Written and oral communication

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Success in the Contracting Meeting
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which of the following is one way a practitioner can help to not overwhelm a client with various questions?
  2. ask questions that appear to wander away from the immediate problem
  3. use a critical tone to demonstrate the severity of the impeding issue
  4. narrow an exhaustive list of questions to ones that a client can address immediately
  5. ask a barrage of questions to ensure all information is obtained at the onset

Ans: C

AACSB: Written and oral communication

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Success in the Contracting Meeting
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Weisbord is known for indicating that
  2. a consultant can turn down an engagement if it is unlikely to succeed.
  3. a consultant does not need to rely on the contracting phase.
  4. a consultant is never finished with contracting.
  5. a consultant must find an ending with contracting.

Ans: C
AACSB: Thinking creatively

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Recontracting
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Which of the following is not an example of how recontracting is an implicit evaluation and renegotiation that occurs at each stage?
  2. evaluate progress
  3. retain previously discussed roles and processes
  4. change roles and processes based on past experience or anticipated future needs
  5. additional data gathering is necessary

Ans: D

AACSB: Systems and processes in organizations

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Recontracting
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Which of the following should the consultant and client NOT do when going through the recontracting process?
  2. allow obstacles to prevent engagement from progressing
  3. review the original agreement
  4. discuss the engagement
  5. discuss the new situation

Ans: A

AACSB: Analytical thinking

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Recontracting
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which of the following is not identified as an ethical dilemma for consultants in the entry and contracting stages?
  2. misrepresentation and collusion
  3. misuse of data
  4. value and goal conflict
  5. technical ineptness

Ans: B

AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Ethics in Contracting
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. A consultant leading a client to believe they have extensive experience with related problems or overstating certifications is an example of which ethical dilemma?
  2. misrepresentation and collusion
  3. misuse of data
  4. value and goal conflict
  5. technical ineptness

Ans: A

AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Ethics in Contracting
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. If a client seeks to use the consultant in a spy role, this is an example of which ethical dilemma?
  2. misrepresentation and collusion
  3. misuse of data
  4. value and goal conflict
  5. technical ineptness

Ans: C

AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Ethics in Contracting
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. If a consultant does not appropriately follow the OD consulting process, this is an example of which of the following ethical dilemmas?
  2. misrepresentation and collusion
  3. misuse of data
  4. value and goal conflict
  5. technical ineptness

Ans: D

AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Ethics in Contracting
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. ______ can occur when a consultant and client agree to “exclude outside parties for personal gain or protection.”
  2. Misrepresentation
  3. Collusion
  4. Role conflict
  5. Recontracting

Ans: B

AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Ethics in Contracting
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. When parties agree on a contract, the next phase begins
  2. evaluation
  3. intervention
  4. diagnosis
  5. data gathering

Ans: D

AACSB: Systems and processes in organizations

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Contracting as Data Gathering
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The ______ process actually provides much data to the practitioner because information and observations have already been shared.
  2. entry
  3. contracting
  4. diagnosis
  5. feedback

Ans: B

AACSB: Systems and processes in organizations

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Contracting as Data Gathering
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a problem that can be attributed to ineffective contracting?
  2. lack of commitment to taking action
  3. disagreements about the consultant’s role
  4. confusion about the objectives of the engagement
  5. correcting misunderstandings or missteps

Ans: D

AACSB: Reflective thinking

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Summary
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

True/False

  1. If a successful foundational relationship is established in the contracting stage, the consulting agreement has a less likelihood of success.

Ans: F

AACSB: Interpersonal relations and teamwork

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location:  Entry and Contracting
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Advice and counsel on behaviors of specific individuals or job applicants is an inappropriate OD practitioner role.

Ans: T

AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Ethical Issues During the Entry Stage
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. All client types have the same needs or expectations as do others.

Ans: F

AACSB: Making sound decisions

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Who Is the Client?
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Contracting requires a written legal form.

Ans: F

AACSB: Contexts of organizations in a global society

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: What is Contracting?
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. According to Schein, contracting has both formal and psychological components.

Ans: T

AACSB: Contexts of organizations in a global society

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: What is Contracting?
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. One purpose of contracting could be to further explore the problem.

Ans: T

AACSB: Written and oral communication

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Purpose of Contracting
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Questions should not be asked by the consultant during the contracting meeting.

Ans: F

AACSB: Written and oral communication

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Success in the Contracting Meeting
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Recontracting can actually be viewed similarly to the original contracting session.

Ans: T

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Recontracting
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. OD consultants do not ever lead clients to believe that they have specific expertise or overstate their certifications or other specialized skills.

Ans: F

AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Ethics in Contracting
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Client responses can be illustrative or symbolic of how others in the organization may be feeling and can be instructive as the consultant approaches the data gathering process.

Ans: T

AACSB: Individual and group behaviors

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Contracting as Data Gathering
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

 

Essay

 

  1. Discuss why it is critical to invest time early during the first three phases.

Ans: Answers may vary, but discussion regarding that many problems that occur later on in the consulting process are attributed to shortcuts or omissions in contracting. Cunningham further describes this: “The planned change process requires more time in the formative sequences of the process… . . .” Essentially, skipping ahead can have serious consequences later on.

AACSB: Systems and processes in organizations

Cognitive Domain:  Application

Answer Location:  Entry and Contracting
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Discuss ethical issues that are present during the entry stage.

Ans: Answers may vary. Discussion of inappropriate expectations should be addressed. Additionally, the influence of organizational politics, unethical positions for the consultant, misrepresentation, and so forth could all be further explored.

AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Ethical Issues During the Entry Stage
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Discuss the various purposes of contracting.

Ans: (1) To further explore the problem; (2) To clarify the client’s goals and objectives for the request; (3) To allow the client to get to know the consultant, the consultant to get to know the client and the organization, and for both parties to validate that the project is one that the consultant has the knowledge and skills to accept; (4) To understand the organization’s commitment to change; (5) To create an environment in which consultation can succeed by agreeing on mutual roles and needs; (6) To clarify time pressures and expectations; (7) To clarify how the client and consultant will interact; (8) To clarify confidentiality needs; and (9) To plan next steps.

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Purpose of Contracting
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. What are ethical issues in contracting? Discuss.

Ans: (1) Misrepresentation and collusion; (2) Value and goal conflict; (3) Technical ineptness

AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Ethics in Contracting
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. What type of instances constitute recontracting?

Ans: Answers may vary. Some sample responses may include (1) new information being gathered; (2) the feeling that additional data needs to be gathered; (3) progress is not being seen; (4) barriers are identified; (5) changing goals or budget; (6) personnel changes; or (7) obstacles in place to prevent completion of original agreement

AACSB: Reflective thinking

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Recontracting
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

 

Chapter 7: Data Gathering

Test Bank

 

Multiple Choice

 

 

  1. ______ is an intervention in itself, because it completes the picture of the organization and expands the knowledge for both the client and practitioner.
  2. Contracting
  3. Data gathering
  4. Diagnosis
  5. Feedback

Ans: B

AACSB: Integrating knowledge across fields

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Data Gathering
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. In data gathering, despite various warnings, unfortunately, ______ often trumps accurate data and careful diagnosis.
  2. speed
  3. consistency
  4. bias
  5. diligence

Ans: A

AACSB: Making sound decisions

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: The Importance of Data Gathering
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. ______ are those initial explanations of the situation that highlight symptoms of which the client is most painfully aware.
  2. Presenting problems
  3. Underlying problems
  4. Interventions
  5. Data gathering methods

Ans: A

AACSB: Analytical thinking

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Presenting Problems and Underlying Problems
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. ______ are described as the root cause or core, fundamental issues that are producing symptoms within the organization.
  2. Presenting problems
  3. Underlying problems
  4. Interventions
  5. Data gathering methods

Ans: B

AACSB: Analytical thinking

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Presenting Problems and Underlying Problems
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which step in the data gathering process discusses the client or another representative explaining to organizational members what data are being gathered, by whom, using what methods, and for what purposes?
  2. Determine approach to be used
  3. Announce project
  4. Prepare for data collection
  5. Collect data

Ans: B

AACSB: Systems and processes in organizations

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Data Gathering Process
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Data gathering through ______ relies heavily on cooperation form organizational members who will only open up to discuss serious issues if they trust the individual asking questions.
  2. interviews
  3. focus groups
  4. surveys
  5. unobtrusive measures

Ans: A

AACSB: Analytical thinking

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Interviews
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Most OD interviews are ______.
  2. formal
  3. structured
  4. semistructured
  5. unstructured

Ans: C

AACSB: Analytical thinking

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Interviews
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. A practitioner can be more confident that enough people have been chosen when interviews begin to gather ______.
  2. new information
  3. relevant information
  4. repetitive information
  5. impractical information

Ans: C

AACSB: Reflective thinking

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Interviews
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. When scheduling interviews regarding interpersonally sensitive topics, contact is best done via ______.
  2. in person or phone.
  3. e-mail.
  4. electronic poll.
  5. text message.

Ans: A

AACSB: Written and oral communication

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Interviews
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What type of environment is best for interviews?
  2. general public
  3. in a frequently visited location
  4. private location free from distraction
  5. within the workplace where colleagues can overhear

Ans: C

AACSB: Analytical thinking

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Interviews
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Information is ______ if no one other than the consultant will know what was said in the interview.
  2. anonymous
  3. confidential
  4. shared
  5. identifiable

Ans: B

AACSB: Social responsibility

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Interviews
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. ______ are usually a small number of organizational members who are facilitated by a consultant who poses questions and then allows for group discussion.
  2. Interviews
  3. Focus groups
  4. Observations
  5. Unobtrusive measures

Ans: B

AACSB: Group and individual behaviors

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Focus Groups
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Avoiding ______ can be a challenge as part of focus groups because some participants may be reluctant to offer a different view, especially if members have a close relationship outside of the focus group.
  2. mindshift
  3. bias
  4. assimilation
  5. groupthink

Ans: D

AACSB:

Cognitive Domain:

Answer Location:
Difficulty Level:

 

  1. When selecting participants for focus groups, there is an advantage to utilizing ______ groups; these employees may share a similar background because they have something in common.
  2. heterogeneous
  3. homogeneous
  4. random
  5. purposeful

Ans: B

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Focus Groups
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Historically speaking, ______ has been one of the most commonly used methods of data gathering.
  2. interviews
  3. focus groups
  4. surveys/questionnaires
  5. observations

Ans: C

AACSB: Statistics/quantitative methods

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Surveys/Questionnaires
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The benefit to ______ is you can collect data from a large group of participants at one time.
  2. interviews
  3. unobtrusive measures
  4. observations
  5. surveys/questionnaires

Ans: D

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Surveys/Questionnaires
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Most surveys use a combination of fixed-response and ______ questions.
  2. closed-ended
  3. open-ended
  4. essay
  5. ranking

Ans: B

AACSB: Statistics/quantitative methods

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Surveys/questionnaires
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Given the nature of a global environment, which of the following is necessary when development surveys/questionnaires?
  2. translate or localize questions
  3. indicate a bias toward particular groups/regions
  4. ask questions that can be answered multiple ways
  5. do not define terms

Ans: A

AACSB: Diverse and multicultural work environments

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Surveys/questionnaires
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which of the following methods of data gathering allows the consultant to collect data on actual behavior rather than reports of people’s behavior?
  2. interviews
  3. focus groups
  4. surveys/questionnaires
  5. observations

Ans: D

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: comprehension

Answer Location: Observations
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Self-report data are always a reflection of past events, whereas ______collects data on what is happening in the present.
  2. interviews
  3. focus groups
  4. surveys/questionnaires
  5. observation

Ans: D

AACSB: Making sound decisions

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Observations
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Observations are likely to alter the circumstances and potentially change the behavior of those being observed, often referred to as ______.
  2. groupthink
  3. the Hawthorne Effect
  4. Small Group Polarization.
  5. the Placebo Effect

Ans: B

AACSB: Making sound decisions

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Observations
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Data gathering through the use of ______ is when data are generally readily available because they are produced during the ordinary course of organizational activity.
  2. interviews
  3. surveys/questionnaires
  4. observations
  5. unobtrusive measures

Ans: D

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Unobtrusive Measures
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which type of unobtrusive measure could include articles in local newspapers, employee newsletters, or other forms of artifacts?
  2. historical data
  3. official documents
  4. databases
  5. online environment

Ans: A

AACSB: Reflective thinking

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Unobtrusive Measures
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Job descriptions, personnel fiels, or meeting minutes are examples of which of the following unobtrusive measures?
  2. historical data
  3. official documents
  4. databases
  5. online environment

Ans: B

AACSB: Reflective thinking

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Unobtrusive Measures
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Social media sites, wikis, and review sites are examples of which of the following unobtrusive measures?
  2. historical data
  3. official documents
  4. online environment
  5. physical environment

Ans: C

AACSB: Information technology

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Unobtrusive Measures
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Architecture, signage, and design of work areas are examples of which of the following unobtrusive measures?
  2. historical data
  3. databases
  4. official documents
  5. physical environment

Ans: D

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Unobtrusive Measures
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The potential expense, time and data intensive, only provides one perspective, and time-consuming analysis are all disadvantages of which of the following data gathering methods?
  2. interviews
  3. focus groups
  4. surveys/questionnaires
  5. unobtrusive measures

Ans: A

AACSB: Analytical thinking

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Table 7.1
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Typically takes a short amount of time and allows a broad range of topics to be addressed are two advantages of which of the following data gathering methods?
  2. interviews
  3. focus groups
  4. surveys/questionnaires
  5. unobtrusive measures

Ans: C

AACSB: Statistics/quantitative methods

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Table 7.1
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. High validity and can provide triangulation are two advantages of which of the following data gathering methods?
  2. focus groups
  3. surveys/questionnaires
  4. observations
  5. unobtrusive measures

Ans: D

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Table 7.1
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which of the following criteria when selecting a data gathering method relates to potential cost in terms of money and time?
  2. investment required
  3. access
  4. relevance to problem
  5. accuracy

Ans: A

AACSB: Making sound decisions

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Creating a Data Gathering Strategy and Proposing an Approach
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following criteria when selecting a data gathering method discusses prone to bias?
  2. access
  3. relevance to the problem
  4. accuracy
  5. flexibility

Ans: C

AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Creating a Data Gathering Strategy and Proposing an Approach
Difficulty Level:

 

  1. Difficulty in following up in depth on a single issue and the potential for a low response rate are two disadvantages to which data gathering method?
  2. interviews
  3. unobtrusive measures
  4. focus groups
  5. surveys/questionnaires

Ans: D

AACSB: Statistics/quantitative methods

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Table 7.1
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. For example, a survey cannot be altered in design once it has been administered, which relates to which criteria when selecting data gathering methods?
  2. access
  3. flexibility
  4. investment required
  5. relevance to the problem

Ans: B

AACSB: Making sound decisions

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Creating a Data Gathering Strategy and Proposing an Approach
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. When a practitioner discloses who made a particular comment during an interview even after pledging to the respondent that comments would remain anonymous is an example of which ethical issue?
  2. collusion
  3. misuse of data
  4. informed consent
  5. data protection

Ans: B

AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Ethical Issues With Data Gathering
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Secure locations, using pseudonyms, and destroying audio/video after transcription are examples of items to consider under which ethical issue?
  2. collusion
  3. misuse of data
  4. informed consent
  5. data protection

Ans: D

AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Ethical Issues with Data Gathering
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Architecture, break room area, and uniforms are all examples of which of the following unobtrusive measures?
  2. historical data
  3. online environment
  4. formal physical environment
  5. personal physical environment

Ans: C

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Unobtrusive Measures
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Employee bulletin boards and desk decorations are examples of which of the following unobtrusive measures?
  2. official documents
  3. historical data
  4. formal physical environment
  5. personal physical environment

Ans: D

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Unobtrusive Measures
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. A few members dominating the discussion is a critical disadvantage of which data gathering method?
  2. interviews
  3. focus groups
  4. observations
  5. unobtrusive measures

Ans: B

AACSB: Analytical thinking

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Table 7.1
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Potential for little preparation and the opportunity to be “in the moment” are advantages to which data gathering method?
  2. interviews
  3. focus groups
  4. surveys/questionnaires
  5. observations

Ans: D

AACSB: Analytical thinking

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Table 7.1
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. According to Argyris, ______ information is necessary for the client to learn and for the interventionist to help.
  2. Useful
  3. Specific
  4. Valid
  5. Detailed

Ans: C

AACSB: Written and oral communication

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Importance of Data Gathering
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

 

 

True/False

  1. Interventions designed to address presenting problems but that do not address underlying problems are likely to still produce long-term results.

Ans: F

AACSB: Reflective thinking

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Presenting Problems and Underlying Problems
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Without greater detail and multiple perspectives regarding the nature and extent of the problem, the chosen interventions may target the wrong areas.

Ans: T

AACSB: Making sound decisions

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Presenting Problems and Underlying Problems
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Interviews are probably the most common method of data collection in OD.

Ans: T

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Interviews
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Focus groups are typically deemed appropriate for very sensitive issues.

Ans: F

AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Focus Groups
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. When conducting focus groups, a process is utilized that is very similar to interviewing.

Ans: T

AACSB: Reflective thinking

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Focus Groups
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. An organizational survey that appears to promise change will only deepen or increase cynicism among members if nothing is done with the results.

Ans: T

AACSB: Analytical thinking

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Surveys/Questionnaires
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Having a background in statistical analysis is not useful when working with surveys/questionnaires.

Ans: F

AACSB: Statistics/quantitative methods

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Surveys/questionnaires
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Observations are extremely useful for studying unusual problems or infrequent interactions.

Ans: F

AACSB: Analytical thinking

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Observations
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Organizational policies that restrict use of personnel files is an example of an access criteria when selecting data gathering methods.

Ans: T

AACSB: Analytical thinking

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Creating a Data Gathering Strategy and Proposing an Approach
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. OD practitioners should treat their own research practices and research practices with an organization differently with regard to informed consent.

Ans: F

Ethical understanding and reasoning

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Ethical Issues With Data Gathering
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

 

Essay

 

  1. What are three reasons that data gathering should be taken seriously?

Ans: Responses may vary, however, these items would be appropriate starting points: (1) good data collection generates information about organizational functioning, effectiveness, and health; (2) data collection can be a force that can spark interest in change; (3) practitioners who do data collection well can continue fostering the relationship among all involved.

AACSB: Making sound decisions

Cognitive Domain:  Analysis

Answer Location:  The Importance of Data Gathering
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Outline the five-step approach to the data gathering process.

Ans: Details regarding the following steps should be discussed: (1) Determine approach to be used; (2) Announce project; (3) Prepare for data collection; (4) Collect data; and (5) Do data analysis and presentation

AACSB: Integrating knowledge across fields

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Data Gathering Process
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Discuss data gathering methods, including pros and cons of each.

Ans: Responses may vary, but the methods to be discussed should include Interviews, Focus groups, Surveys/questionnaires, Observations, Unobtrusive measures.

AACSB: Analytical thinking

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Data Gathering Methods
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Discuss the criteria to be considered when choosing a data gathering strategy.

Ans: Responses may vary, but key items to be included are (1) Investment required; (2) Access; (3) Relevance to the problem; (4) Accuracy, and (5) Flexibility

AACSB: Making sound decisions

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Creating a Data Gathering Strategy and Proposing an Approach
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Identify ethical issues that are present with data gathering.

Ans: Responses may vary, but key information should include the misuse of data, the notion of informed consent, data protection, and whom is benefitted.

AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Ethical Issues with Data Gathering
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

 

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