Organizational Behaviour Understanding And Managing Life At Work 10th Edition by Gary Johns – Test Bank

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Organizational Behaviour Understanding And Managing Life At Work 10th Edition by Gary Johns – Test Bank

Organizational Behaviour, 10e (Johns/Saks)

Chapter 6   Motivation in Practice

 

6.1

 

1) Piece rate pay systems

  1. A) usually increase cooperation among workers on peripheral, nonproduction tasks (for example, keeping the shop clean).
  2. B) have generally been supported by unions.
  3. C) are especially useful when few objective performance criteria exist.
  4. D) generally lead to increased productivity unless restriction occurs.
  5. E) are most effective when applied to white-collar jobs.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 202

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.1 Discuss how to tie pay to performance on production jobs and the difficulties of wage incentive plans.

 

2) Restriction of productivity is a phenomenon associated with

  1. A) piece rate pay.
  2. B) hourly pay.
  3. C) MBO.
  4. D) job enrichment.
  5. E) merit pay.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 204

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.1 Discuss how to tie pay to performance on production jobs and the difficulties of wage incentive plans.

 

3) Joe, Margaret, and Denise are co-workers. Joe produces five widgets and is paid $5. Margaret produces twenty widgets and is paid $20. Denise produces fifty widgets and is paid $50. These workers are being paid according to a(n)________ pay plan.

  1. A) merit
  2. B) hourly
  3. C) Scanlon
  4. D) piece rate
  5. E) lump sum

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 202

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.1 Discuss how to tie pay to performance on production jobs and the difficulties of wage incentive plans.

 

4) Research on financial incentives and pay-for-performance plans have found that they

  1. A) increase performance but have no effect on turnover.
  2. B) increase performance and lower turnover.
  3. C) lower performance and lower turnover.
  4. D) lower performance and increase turnover.
  5. E) have no effect on performance or turnover.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 202

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.1 Discuss how to tie pay to performance on production jobs and the difficulties of wage incentive plans.

 

5) Which of the following is most accurate about the importance of pay as a motivator?

  1. A) Employees overestimate the importance of pay as a motivator.
  2. B) Employees and managers overestimate the importance of pay as a motivator.
  3. C) Employees and managers underestimate the importance of pay as a motivator.
  4. D) Employees overestimate and managers underestimate the importance of pay as a motivator.
  5. E) Employees underestimate and managers overestimate the importance of pay as a motivator.

Answer:  C

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 202

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.1 Discuss how to tie pay to performance on production jobs and the difficulties of wage incentive plans.

 

6) As the size of the team ________, the relationship between any individual’s productivity and his or her pay ________.

  1. A) increases; increases
  2. B) decreases; decreases;
  3. C) increases; decreases
  4. D) decreases; will approach zero
  5. E) increases; becomes stable

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 204

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.1 Discuss how to tie pay to performance on production jobs and the difficulties of wage incentive plans.

 

7) Tanya’s work group restricts its productivity. According to the text, this is a pretty good sign that the group members are paid an hourly wage.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 204

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.1 Discuss how to tie pay to performance on production jobs and the difficulties of wage incentive plans.

 

 

8) Financial incentives and pay-for-performance have no effect on turnover.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 202

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.1 Discuss how to tie pay to performance on production jobs and the difficulties of wage incentive plans.

9) When workers are paid according to the performance of their work group, the relationship between individual pay and productivity decreases as the group gets bigger.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 204

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.1 Discuss how to tie pay to performance on production jobs and the difficulties of wage incentive plans.

 

10) Restriction of productivity has been a problem with wage incentive plans.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 204

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.1 Discuss how to tie pay to performance on production jobs and the difficulties of wage incentive plans.

 

11) Pay is one of the most important and effective motivators of performance.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 202

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.1 Discuss how to tie pay to performance on production jobs and the difficulties of wage incentive plans.

 

12) Wage incentive plans have become one of the most common forms of motivation in Canadian organizations.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 205

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.1 Discuss how to tie pay to performance on production jobs and the difficulties of wage incentive plans.

 

13) ________ pay plans can stimulate productivity, but they can also lead to restriction of productivity.

Answer:  Piece rate

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 202

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.1 Discuss how to tie pay to performance on production jobs and the difficulties of wage incentive plans.

 

 

14) Employees and managers seriously underestimate the importance of ________ as a motivator.

Answer:  pay

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 202

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.1 Discuss how to tie pay to performance on production jobs and the difficulties of wage incentive plans.

 

15) Financial incentives and pay-for-performance plans have been found to increase performance and lower ________.

Answer:  turnover

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 202

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.1 Discuss how to tie pay to performance on production jobs and the difficulties of wage incentive plans.

16) ________ may well be the most important and effective motivator of performance.

Answer:  Pay

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 202

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.1 Discuss how to tie pay to performance on production jobs and the difficulties of wage incentive plans.

 

17) Discuss some of the potential problems of wage incentive plans.

Answer:  Lowered quality; differential opportunity; reduced cooperation; incompatible job design; and restriction of productivity.

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 203

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.1 Discuss how to tie pay to performance on production jobs and the difficulties of wage incentive plans.

 

18) What is restriction of productivity and why does it occur?

Answer:  It is the artificial limitation of work output that can occur under wage incentive plans. Workers come to an informal agreement about what constitutes a fair day’s work and limit their output accordingly. It can occur for a number of reasons: Sometimes workers feel that increased productivity due to the incentive will lead to reductions in the workforce or they fear that if they produce at an especially high level, the organization will reduce the rate of payment to cut labour costs (rate-cutting).

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 204

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.1 Discuss how to tie pay to performance on production jobs and the difficulties of wage incentive plans.

 

 

6.2

 

1) Managers have a tendency to ________ the pay of their boss and ________ the pay of their employees.

  1. A) underestimate; underestimate
  2. B) underestimate; overestimate
  3. C) overestimate; overestimate
  4. D) overestimate; underestimate
  5. E) correctly estimate; underestimate

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 208

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.2 Explain how to tie pay to performance on white-collar jobs and the difficulties of merit pay plans.

2) As discussed in the book, the rationale for removing the secrecy surrounding salaries is that

  1. A) we should be honest with employees, and this is a good place to start.
  2. B) they know salaries anyway, via the grapevine, but secrecy reduces confidence in the company.
  3. C) positive motivational consequences may occur if the pay system is well designed.
  4. D) consumers should understand that labour costs contribute greatly to retail prices.
  5. E) a more open pay policy will expose the inadequacy of the merit system.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 208

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.2 Explain how to tie pay to performance on white-collar jobs and the difficulties of merit pay plans.

 

3) The systematic mis-estimates that managers make of the pay of others in their firm suggests that they will often

  1. A) underestimate the pay of employees.
  2. B) experience equity with regard to peers.
  3. C) underestimate the value of a promotion.
  4. D) overestimate the value of a promotion.
  5. E) experience equity with regard to employees.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 208

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.2 Explain how to tie pay to performance on white-collar jobs and the difficulties of merit pay plans.

 

 

4) Alice, a middle manager in an oil company, makes $35,000 a year. Her boss makes $41,000, her peers average $33,000, and her employees average $29,000. Alice doesn’t know the pay of these co-workers, but we ask her to guess. Research suggests that she will say

  1. A) the employees average $28,000.
  2. B) the boss makes $43,000.
  3. C) the peers average $34,000.
  4. D) the boss makes $45,000.
  5. E) the peers average $30,000.

Answer:  C

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 208

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.2 Explain how to tie pay to performance on white-collar jobs and the difficulties of merit pay plans.

5) One reason why merit pay plans are employed with a much greater frequency than wage incentive plans is that

  1. A) white-collar workers particularly believe that performance should be an important determinant of pay.
  2. B) blue-collar jobs more often offer objective performance criteria with which pay can be linked.
  3. C) blue-collar workers tend to perceive a strong link between rewards and performance.
  4. D) merit pay plans that are actually in use are very effective.
  5. E) substantial evidence indicates that merit plans are very effective for improving performance.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 205

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.2 Explain how to tie pay to performance on white-collar jobs and the difficulties of merit pay plans.

 

6) A lump sum bonus is

  1. A) a payment that employees receive as part of the Scanlon plan.
  2. B) a wage incentive that is awarded in a single payment and built into base pay.
  3. C) a wage incentive that is awarded in a single payment and not built into base pay.
  4. D) merit pay that is awarded in a single payment and not built into base pay.
  5. E) merit pay that is awarded in a single payment and built into base pay.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 206

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.2 Explain how to tie pay to performance on white-collar jobs and the difficulties of merit pay plans.

 

 

7) Whole Foods is noted in the text for its approach to

  1. A) job design.
  2. B) profit sharing.
  3. C) pay secrecy.
  4. D) management by objectives.
  5. E) flexible work arrangements.

Answer:  C

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 209

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.2 Explain how to tie pay to performance on white-collar jobs and the difficulties of merit pay plans.

 

8) What organization has an open book policy that allows employees to see the compensation of their co-workers?

  1. A) Lincoln Electric Company
  2. B) Whole Foods
  3. C) Ontario Lottery and Gaming Corporation
  4. D) WestJet Airlines
  5. E) Telus

Answer:  B

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 209

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.2 Explain how to tie pay to performance on white-collar jobs and the difficulties of merit pay plans.

9) Managers habitually underestimate the pay that their bosses receive.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 208

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.2 Explain how to tie pay to performance on white-collar jobs and the difficulties of merit pay plans.

 

10) Managers are more supportive than blue-collar employees of the idea that pay should be closely tied to performance.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 205

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.2 Explain how to tie pay to performance on white-collar jobs and the difficulties of merit pay plans.

 

11) Merit pay plans attempt to link pay to performance on blue-collar jobs.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 205

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.2 Explain how to tie pay to performance on white-collar jobs and the difficulties of merit pay plans.

 

12) Generally, managers underestimate the pay of their employees and peers and overestimate the pay of their superiors.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 208

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.2 Explain how to tie pay to performance on white-collar jobs and the difficulties of merit pay plans.

 

13) Employees, but not managers, underestimate the importance of pay as a motivator.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 202

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.2 Explain how to tie pay to performance on white-collar jobs and the difficulties of merit pay plans.

 

14) Wage incentive plans are employed with much greater frequency than merit pay plans.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 205

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.2 Explain how to tie pay to performance on white-collar jobs and the difficulties of merit pay plans.

 

15) Merit pay plans have become one of the most common forms of motivation in Canadian organizations.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 205

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.2 Explain how to tie pay to performance on white-collar jobs and the difficulties of merit pay plans.

16) Whole Foods is an example of a company that has a strict policy that enforces pay secrecy.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 209

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.2 Explain how to tie pay to performance on white-collar jobs and the difficulties of merit pay plans.

 

17) When asked to make estimates of the pay of various organizational members, managers tend to ________ the pay of their superiors.

Answer:  underestimate

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 208

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.2 Explain how to tie pay to performance on white-collar jobs and the difficulties of merit pay plans.

 

 

18) When asked to estimate the pay of their peers and employees, managers tend to ________ the correct figure.

Answer:  overestimate

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 208

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.2 Explain how to tie pay to performance on white-collar jobs and the difficulties of merit pay plans.

 

19) ________ are used to tie pay to performance on white-collar jobs.

Answer:  Merit pay plans

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 205

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.2 Explain how to tie pay to performance on white-collar jobs and the difficulties of merit pay plans.

 

20) Your boss has just given you merit pay in the form of a one-time payment that will not be built into your base pay. This is known as a ________.

Answer:  lump sum bonus

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 206

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.2 Explain how to tie pay to performance on white-collar jobs and the difficulties of merit pay plans.

 

21) Whole Foods is noted for its policy when it comes to pay ________.

Answer:  secrecy

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 209

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.2 Explain how to tie pay to performance on white-collar jobs and the difficulties of merit pay plans.

 

22) Whole Foods has an ________ book policy when it comes to pay secrecy.

Answer:  open

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 209

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.2 Explain how to tie pay to performance on white-collar jobs and the difficulties of merit pay plans.

23) Discuss some of the potential problems of merit pay plans.

Answer:  Low discrimination; small increases; and pay secrecy.

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 206

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.2 Explain how to tie pay to performance on white-collar jobs and the difficulties of merit pay plans.

 

 

24) Your organization is considering implementing a merit pay plan. However, you are concerned about this because many such systems are in fact ineffective. You have arranged to meet with management to discuss this and you need to provide them with some evidence of why merit pay plans are often ineffective and what can be done to make them more effective. What will you tell them?

Answer:  Merit pay plans are often ineffective because workers do not see a link between their job performance and their pay and, in many cases, pay is, in fact, not related to performance. Evidence for this includes findings that show that pay increases in a given year are often uncorrelated with pay increases in adjacent years, which seems unlikely if organizations are truly tying pay to performance. Furthermore, in most organizations, seniority, the number of employees, and job level account for more variation in pay than performance does. The main problems with merit pay plans are low discrimination, small increases, and pay secrecy. To make the program effective, you need to emphasize the importance of ensuring that performance is linked to pay and that the best performers do in fact receive the most or highest merit pay rewards.

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 206

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.2 Explain how to tie pay to performance on white-collar jobs and the difficulties of merit pay plans.

 

25) Your organization is considering implementing a merit pay plan in the hopes of increasing employee’s and manager’s motivation and satisfaction. However, you are concerned about this because they want to maintain pay secrecy. You have arranged to meet with management to discuss this with them. What will you tell them about pay secrecy and how it might impact the effectiveness of the merit pay plan?

Answer:  Pay secrecy can threaten the effectiveness of merit pay plans. The problem is that even if merit pay is administered fairly, is contingent on performance, and is generous, employees might remain ignorant of these facts because they have no way of comparing their own merit pay with that of others. As a consequence, such secrecy might severely damage the motivational potential impact of a well-designed merit plan. To make matters worse, in the absence of better information, employees are inclined to “invent” salaries for other members and this can reduce both satisfaction and motivation. Several studies have found that managers have a tendency to overestimate the pay of their employees and their peers and to underestimate the pay of their superiors. This can reduce satisfaction with pay, damage perceptions of the linkage between performance and rewards, and reduce the valence of promotion to a higher level of management.

Diff: 3     Type: ES     Page Ref: 206

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.2 Explain how to tie pay to performance on white-collar jobs and the difficulties of merit pay plans.

 

6.3

 

1) The Scanlon Plan is a type of ________ system.

  1. A) job enrichment
  2. B) MBO
  3. C) gain-sharing
  4. D) piece rate pay
  5. E) skill-based

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 212

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.3 Explain the various approaches to use pay to motivate teamwork.

 

2) The owner of Acme Manufacturing Company is thinking about introducing the Scanlon Plan. This plan will most likely have the greatest impact on his employees’

  1. A) job design.
  2. B) autonomy.
  3. C) working hours.
  4. D) pay.
  5. E) skill level.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 212

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.3 Explain the various approaches to use pay to motivate teamwork.

 

3) Which system is specifically based on cost reduction?

  1. A) Gain-sharing
  2. B) MBO
  3. C) Merit pay
  4. D) Goal setting
  5. E) Skill-based pay

Answer:  A

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 212

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.3 Explain the various approaches to use pay to motivate teamwork.

 

4) Under a skill-based pay plan, people are paid according to

  1. A) their personal productivity.
  2. B) the number of tasks they know how to perform.
  3. C) their contribution to product or service quality.
  4. D) how skillfully they can perform their main job function.
  5. E) the goals which have been established through MBO.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 212

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.3 Explain the various approaches to use pay to motivate teamwork.

5) An organization wishes to base pay on objective, measurable performance data, but the performance of individual workers cannot be isolated and measured. Which system should it adopt?

  1. A) Piece rate
  2. B) Gain sharing
  3. C) Merit pay
  4. D) Hourly pay
  5. E) Skill-based pay

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 212

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.3 Explain the various approaches to use pay to motivate teamwork.

 

6) Which pay system is intentionally designed to motivate groups of employees rather than individual employees?

  1. A) Gain-sharing
  2. B) Goal setting
  3. C) Piece rate pay
  4. D) Merit pay
  5. E) Skill-based pay

Answer:  A

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 212

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.3 Explain the various approaches to use pay to motivate teamwork.

 

7) In a study in a unionized auto parts manufacturing plant, a Scanlon gain-sharing program had a positive effect on the

  1. A) scrap and waste reduction.
  2. B) labour required.
  3. C) number of suggestions provided by employees.
  4. D) number of errors made by employees.
  5. E) quality and quantity of parts.

Answer:  C

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 212

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.3 Explain the various approaches to use pay to motivate teamwork.

 

8) The Scanlon Plan is a group-oriented rather than an individual-oriented pay plan.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 212

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.3 Explain the various approaches to use pay to motivate teamwork.

 

 

9) Sydney works under a gain-sharing plan. In other words, he is paid according to individual piece rate.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 202

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.3 Explain the various approaches to use pay to motivate teamwork.

10) Skill-based pay is a motivation system whereby people are paid on the basis of how many skills they have mastered.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 212

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.3 Explain the various approaches to use pay to motivate teamwork.

 

11) Profit sharing seems to work best in larger firms that regularly turn a handsome profit.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 211

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.3 Explain the various approaches to use pay to motivate teamwork.

 

12) ________ is a group incentive pay system that is based on cost reductions.

Answer:  Gain-sharing

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 212

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.3 Explain the various approaches to use pay to motivate teamwork.

 

13) The system of pay which pays on the basis of the number of job skills acquired is called ________.

Answer:  skill-based pay

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 212

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.3 Explain the various approaches to use pay to motivate teamwork.

 

14) Profit sharing works best in ________ that regularly turn a profit.

Answer:  smaller firms

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 211

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.3 Explain the various approaches to use pay to motivate teamwork.

 

15) Your organization is considering offering an employee stock ownership plan (ESOP), but they are hesitating because ESOPs lose their motivational potential in a ________ when a company’s share price goes down.

Answer:  weak economy

Diff: 3     Type: SA     Page Ref: 211

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.3 Explain the various approaches to use pay to motivate teamwork.

 

16) The most common gain-sharing plan is the ________.

Answer:  Scanlon Plan

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 212

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.3 Explain the various approaches to use pay to motivate teamwork.

 

17) ________ costs can be high with a skill-based pay system.

Answer:  Training

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 213

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.3 Explain the various approaches to use pay to motivate teamwork.

18) Describe three types of incentive plans which use pay to motivate teamwork. Which one do you think is probably the most effective, overall? Explain your reasons.

Answer:  There are four types of plans described in the text: Profit sharing, ESOPs, Gain-sharing (including the Scanlon Plan), and skill-based pay. The second part of the question requires students to weigh the advantages and disadvantages of each incentive plan and to defend their position on one. In reality, there is evidence to support the merits of each. The key point is that each one has a different motivational focus and should support the strategic needs of an organization.

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 211

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.3 Explain the various approaches to use pay to motivate teamwork.

 

6.4

 

1) The practices of Scientific Management seem LEAST compatible with

  1. A) job enrichment.
  2. B) piece rate pay.
  3. C) high specialization.
  4. D) goal setting.
  5. E) close supervision.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 214

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

 

2) In general, we would not expect a high scope job to ________ than a low scope job.

  1. A) have higher “motivating potential”
  2. B) pay more
  3. C) conform more closely to the principles of Scientific Management
  4. D) involve more task variety
  5. E) have more job depth

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 214

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

3) Debbie’s job is very broad, but it has almost no depth. She is most likely a(n)

  1. A) manager.
  2. B) physician.
  3. C) assembly line utility worker.
  4. D) quality control inspector.
  5. E) professor.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 214

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

4) Al’s job is very broad, but it has almost no depth. Al has a(n) ________ job.

  1. A) high-scope
  2. B) high MPS
  3. C) low-scope
  4. D) enriched
  5. E) high autonomy

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 214

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

 

5) Which job enrichment technique would prove most threatening to workers with poor social skills?

  1. A) Reducing supervision
  2. B) Combining tasks
  3. C) Making feedback more direct
  4. D) Establishing client relationships
  5. E) Reducing reliance on others

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 219

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

6) Very strict union rules about who does what work are most likely to pose a problem for installing which system?

  1. A) Merit pay
  2. B) Flextime
  3. C) Job enrichment
  4. D) Scanlon plan
  5. E) Gain-sharing

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 220

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

7) What is the motivating potential score (MPS) for this job profile? Variety = 1; identity = 2; significance = 3; autonomy = 3; feedback = 5.

  1. A) 14
  2. B) 28
  3. C) 30
  4. D) 45
  5. E) 90

Answer:  C

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 217

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

 

8) According to Hackman and Oldham’s Job Characteristic Model, employees should respond most favourably to jobs high in motivating potential when growth need strength is ________ and satisfaction with job context factors is ________.

  1. A) high; high
  2. B) high; low
  3. C) low; high
  4. D) low; low
  5. E) moderate; low

Answer:  A

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 218

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

9) In terms of job design, satisfaction with ________ would not be an example of context satisfaction.

  1. A) supervision
  2. B) autonomy
  3. C) pay
  4. D) company policy
  5. E) workplace safety

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 218

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

10) Which of the following is both a core job characteristic and a necessary condition for goals to motivate performance?

  1. A) Pay
  2. B) Identity
  3. C) Growth need strength
  4. D) Feedback
  5. E) Context satisfaction

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 217

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

 

11) A company is thinking about enriching a certain job. Which of the following factors would suggest that this strategy is incorrect?

  1. A) The current job has a very high Motivating Potential Score (MPS).
  2. B) The workers have very high growth need strength.
  3. C) Context satisfaction among the workers is very high.
  4. D) The job knowledge and skills of the workers are very high.
  5. E) Task significance is low.

Answer:  A

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 217

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

12) The degree to which a job has a substantial impact on the lives of other people, whether those people are in the immediate organization or in the world at large is called

  1. A) task identity.
  2. B) skill variety.
  3. C) task significance.
  4. D) autonomy.
  5. E) feedback.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 217

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

13) In Hackman and Oldham’s Job Characteristics Model, which of the following is NOT a critical psychological state?

  1. A) Meaningfulness of work
  2. B) Significance of task
  3. C) Responsibility for outcomes
  4. D) Knowledge of results
  5. E) None of the above

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 218

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

 

14) Veronica doesn’t feel responsible for the outcomes of her work. According to Hackman and Oldham’s Job Characteristics Model, which core job characteristic is low?

  1. A) Feedback
  2. B) Skill variety
  3. C) Task identity
  4. D) Autonomy
  5. E) Task significance

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 217

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

15) What is the motivating potential score (MPS) for a job in which all five core characteristics are scored “4” on the Job Diagnostic Survey?

  1. A) 20
  2. B) 48
  3. C) 64
  4. D) 80
  5. E) 96

Answer:  C

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 217

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

16) According to the Job Characteristics Model, what should be done to increase experienced responsibility for work outcomes?

  1. A) Increase skill variety
  2. B) Increase task significance
  3. C) Reduce feedback
  4. D) Increase autonomy
  5. E) Reduce task identity

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 218

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

 

17) Ross’s job is very low in feedback. According to Hackman and Oldham’s Job Characteristics Model, which psychological state will be most affected by this low feedback?

  1. A) Knowledge of results of the work
  2. B) Experienced meaningfulness of the work
  3. C) Experienced responsibility for work outcomes
  4. D) Experienced identity of the work
  5. E) Experienced autonomy

Answer:  A

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 218

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

18) Establishing client relationships is an example of which motivational strategy?

  1. A) Goal setting
  2. B) Flextime
  3. C) Gain-sharing
  4. D) Job enrichment
  5. E) Job sharing

Answer:  D

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 219

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

19) The extent to which an individual identifies psychologically with his/her work and the importance of work to one’s total self-image is known as

  1. A) job enrichment.
  2. B) job involvement.
  3. C) experienced meaningfulness.
  4. D) task significance.
  5. E) experienced responsibility for outcomes of the work.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 219

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

 

20) Recent research into the Job Characteristics Model has confirmed that in addition to the original outcomes provided by the use of the model (e.g., job satisfaction and internal work motivation), all of the following were discovered to be beneficial outcomes EXCEPT

  1. A) supervisor satisfaction.
  2. B) co-worker satisfaction.
  3. C) compensation satisfaction.
  4. D) promotion satisfaction.
  5. E) career satisfaction.

Answer:  E

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 218

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

21) What is task identity?

  1. A) It is the opportunity to do a variety of job activities using various skills and talents.
  2. B) It is the impact that a job has on other people.
  3. C) It is the extent to which an individual identifies psychologically with his/her job.
  4. D) It is the extent to which a job involves doing a complete piece of work, from beginning to end.
  5. E) It is the extent to which an individual can identify the core tasks of a job.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 217

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

22) In order to increase the scope of employees’ jobs and help them build greater skills and expertise by performing different jobs, many organizations have implemented ________ programs.

  1. A) career scouting
  2. B) career ramping
  3. C) job splicing
  4. D) job rotation
  5. E) job scouting

Answer:  D

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 215

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

 

23) If your boss has given you a stretch assignment, what does this mean?

  1. A) You have many more tasks to perform as part of your job.
  2. B) You will have to get more accomplished in a shorter period of time.
  3. C) You will have to share your job with another employee.
  4. D) You will be working on a variety of tasks with new responsibilities.
  5. E) You will be working on a new task for an extended period of time.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 215

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

24) Where do the moderator variables in the Job Characteristics Model intervene?

  1. A) Between job characteristics and the critical psychological states
  2. B) Between the critical psychological states and outcomes
  3. C) Between job characteristics and the critical psychological states, and between the critical psychological states and outcomes
  4. D) Between job characteristics and outcomes
  5. E) Between job characteristics and growth need strength

Answer:  C

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 218

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

25) What does prosocial motivation refer to?

  1. A) The desire to expend effort to benefit one’s co-workers
  2. B) The desire to expend effort to benefit other people
  3. C) The desire to expend effort to benefit the organization
  4. D) The desire to expend effort to improve one’s performance
  5. E) The desire to expend effort to improve group effectiveness

Answer:  B

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 222

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

 

26) Where does the Job Characteristics Model falter in its predictions?

  1. A) Growth need strength and knowledge and skill
  2. B) Growth need strength and context satisfaction
  3. C) Knowledge and skills and context satisfaction
  4. D) Task identity and the critical psychological states
  5. E) Feedback and knowledge of results

Answer:  B

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 219

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

27) If your boss has decided to redesign your job using job enlargement, what does this mean?

  1. A) You will have more job scope.
  2. B) You will have more job breadth and less job depth.
  3. C) You will have more job breadth.
  4. D) You will have less job breadth and more job depth.
  5. E) You will have more job depth.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 220

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

28) If your job has been redesigned so that you are given more boring, fragmented, routine tasks to do, what has happened?

  1. A) Job enrichment
  2. B) Job derichment
  3. C) Job engorgement
  4. D) Job shrinkage
  5. E) Job enlargement

Answer:  E

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 220

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

29) What does task variety refer to?

  1. A) The extent to which a job requires an individual to perform a wide range of tasks on the job
  2. B) The extent to which a job requires an individual to use a variety of different skills to perform a job
  3. C) The extent to which a job involves performing specialized tasks or possessing specialized knowledge and skill
  4. D) The extent to which the tasks on a job are complex and difficult to perform
  5. E) The extent to which a job requires an individual to learn to perform a variety of tasks

Answer:  A

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 221

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

30) What does skill variety refer to?

  1. A) The extent to which a job requires an individual to perform a wide range of tasks on the job
  2. B) The extent to which a job requires an individual to use a variety of different skills to perform a job
  3. C) The extent to which a job involves performing specialized tasks or possessing specialized knowledge and skill
  4. D) The extent to which the tasks on a job are complex and difficult to perform
  5. E) The extent to which a job requires an individual to learn to perform a variety of tasks

Answer:  B

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 221

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

31) Morgeson and Humphrey developed a scale to measure work design characteristics. What is it called?

  1. A) Job Diagnostic Survey
  2. B) Work Design Survey
  3. C) Job Diagnostic Questionnaire
  4. D) Work Design Questionnaire
  5. E) Work Design Scale

Answer:  B

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 221

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

32) Which of the following best represents the categories associated with work design characteristics?

  1. A) Motivational characteristics, task characteristics, social characteristics
  2. B) Motivational characteristics, task characteristics, work context characteristics
  3. C) Task characteristics, social characteristics, work context characteristics
  4. D) Motivational characteristics, social characteristics, work context characteristics
  5. E) Motivational characteristics, social characteristics, job characteristics

Answer:  D

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 221

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

33) The motivational characteristics associated with work design include

  1. A) task characteristics and knowledge characteristics.
  2. B) task characteristics and social characteristics.
  3. C) task characteristics and work context characteristics.
  4. D) social characteristics and work context characteristics.
  5. E) job characteristics and task characteristics.

Answer:  A

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 221

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

34) Which of the following is NOT associated with the social characteristics of work design?

  1. A) Interaction inside the organization
  2. B) Social support
  3. C) Interdependence
  4. D) Interaction outside of the organization
  5. E) Feedback from others

Answer:  A

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 221

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

 

35) Compared to motivational characteristics, social characteristics have been found to be more strongly related to

  1. A) job satisfaction and organizational commitment.
  2. B) job satisfaction and turnover intentions.
  3. C) organizational commitment and turnover intentions.
  4. D) job satisfaction and turnover.
  5. E) turnover intentions and turnover.

Answer:  C

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 221

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

36) After graduating from university, Sara told her friends that she wants to find a job where she can make a difference in other people’s lives. What is this an example of?

  1. A) Job involvement
  2. B) Prosocial motivation
  3. C) Task identity
  4. D) Social support
  5. E) Growth need strength

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 222

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

37) The idea that work can be designed to provide opportunities to connect and interact with other people is known as

  1. A) work design.
  2. B) job design.
  3. C) social architecture of jobs.
  4. D) relational architecture of jobs.
  5. E) prosocial motivation.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 222

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

 

38) Which of the following is an example of the relational architecture of jobs?

  1. A) A student has just found out that she will receive a scholarship.
  2. B) A call centre employee has been told about a scholarship recipient.
  3. C) A call centre employee has been given the opportunity to interact with other employees.
  4. D) A call centre employee has been given a university scholarship.
  5. E) A call centre employee has been given more job autonomy.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 222

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

39) After graduating from university, Gwen decided to find a job that was consistent with the relational architecture of jobs. Which of the following would be a good job for her?

  1. A) A job that involves doing a whole piece of work and the results can easily be identified
  2. B) A job that provides opportunities for advice and assistance from others
  3. C) A job that provides opportunities to connect and interact with other people
  4. D) A job in which others in the organization provide information about one’s performance
  5. E) A job that provides direct and clear information about the effectiveness of task performance

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 222

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

40) If Kayla is concerned about the degree to which her new job allows correct or appropriate posture and movement, what should she ask about?

  1. A) Physical demands of the job
  2. B) Ergonomics
  3. C) Equipment use
  4. D) Work conditions
  5. E) Interdependence

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 221

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

 

41) Which of the following is NOT an example of knowledge characteristics of work design?

  1. A) Job complexity
  2. B) Information processing
  3. C) Problem solving
  4. D) Specialization
  5. E) Task variety

Answer:  E

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 221

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

42) The model of relational job design was developed by

  1. A) Adam Grant.
  2. B) Frederick Morgeson and Stephen Humphrey.
  3. C) J. Richard Hackman and Greg Oldham.
  4. D) Frederick Winslow Taylor.
  5. E) Peter Drucker.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 222

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

43) Who, in the following list, is NOT associated with job design?

  1. A) Adam Grant
  2. B) Frederick Morgeson and Stephen Humphrey
  3. C) J. Richard Hackman and Greg Oldham
  4. D) Frederick Winslow Taylor
  5. E) Peter Drucker

Answer:  E

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 215

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

 

44) Luke wants a job where he will be able to use many of his skills. What work design characteristic should he be asking about during his job interview?

  1. A) Autonomy
  2. B) Task variety
  3. C) Skill variety
  4. D) Job complexity
  5. E) Specialization

Answer:  C

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 217

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

45) The awareness and inclusion of motivational characteristics, social characteristics, and work context characteristics when designing how work gets done is known as

  1. A) Job Characteristics Model.
  2. B) work design characteristics.
  3. C) relational job design.
  4. D) job enrichment.
  5. E) relational architecture of jobs.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 221

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

46) Task variety refers to the extent to which a job requires an individual to use a variety of different skills to perform a job.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 217

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

47) Skill variety refers to the degree to which a job requires employees to perform a wide range of tasks on the job.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 217

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

 

48) The Scientific Management movement strongly supported job enrichment.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 214

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

49) In the Job Characteristics Model, autonomy is the core job characteristic that leads to the critical psychological state known as “experienced responsibility for outcomes of work.”

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 218

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

50) According to the Job Characteristics Model, people with low growth need strength should respond best to jobs with a high motivating potential.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 218

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

51) Hackman and Oldham developed a questionnaire called the Work Design Questionnaire to measure the core characteristics of jobs.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 217

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

52) Both job enrichment and goal setting theory stress the value of performance feedback to employees.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 220

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

 

53) Job enrichment is said to improve job context satisfaction.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 219

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

54) The traditional view of job design stressed job simplification.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 214

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

55) Job breadth refers to the number of different activities performed in a job.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 214

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

56) The notion of job depth corresponds very closely to what Hackman and Oldham call skill variety.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 214

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

57) According to the Job Characteristics Model, context satisfactions is a moderator variable.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 218

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

58) A low scope job would have a low motivating potential score.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 214

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

59) Unions have traditionally been very active in demanding job enrichment.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 220

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

60) Stretch assignments give employees more tasks at the same level to perform but leave other core characteristics unchanged.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 215

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

61) Among the five core job characteristics, only skill variety is related to all of the outcomes in the Job Characteristics Model.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 205

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

62) Research on the Job Characteristics Model supports the role of growth need strength as a moderating variable.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 219

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

 

63) In general, job enrichment involves increasing the motivating potential of jobs via the arrangement of the critical psychological states.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 219

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

64) Employees who have challenging and enriched jobs tend to have higher levels of job involvement.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 219

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

65) Job enrichment and job enlargement both involve increasing the depth of a job.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 220

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

66) If your boss gives you more tasks to perform along with more responsibility and autonomy, then you are experiencing job enlargement.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 220

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

67) Job enlargement involves increasing the breadth and depth of a job.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 220

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

 

68) A good example of job enlargement would be to give workers more boring, fragmented, routine tasks to perform.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 220

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

69) Task characteristics are similar to the core job characteristics of the Job Characteristics Model.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 221

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

70) The motivational characteristics category of work design includes task characteristics and social characteristics.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 221

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

71) Task variety and skill variety refer to the same thing.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 221

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

72) The relational architecture of jobs has to do with designing jobs so that employees have opportunities to connect and interact with their co-workers.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 222

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

 

73) One of the objectives of job enrichment is to increase prosocial motivation.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 219

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

74) Providing employees more opportunities to interact and connect with each other is an example of the relational architecture of jobs.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 222

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

75) In the Job Characteristics Model, the core job characteristic of ________ is most likely to lead to the psychological state of experienced responsibility for work outcomes.

Answer:  autonomy

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 218

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

76) Combining tasks, establishing client relationships, and reducing supervision are examples of how to accomplish ________.

Answer:  job enrichment

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 219

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

77) In terms of job design, the Scientific Management movement advocated ________ jobs.

Answer:  simple

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 214

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

 

78) The extent to which an individual identifies psychologically with his or her work and the importance of work to one’s total self-image is called ________.

Answer:  job involvement

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 219

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

79) A variable that influences the extent to which a job that is high in motivating potential will lead to favourable outcomes is called a ________.

Answer:  moderator

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 218

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

80) In the Job Characteristics Model, the ________ intervene between the core job characteristics and work outcomes.

Answer:  psychological states

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 218

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

81) A job in which a whole piece of work is done from beginning to end is said to be high in ________.

Answer:  task identity

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 217

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

82) Recent research into the Job Characteristics Model suggests that ________ is the most critical psychological state.

Answer:  experienced meaningfulness

Diff: 3     Type: SA     Page Ref: 219

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

 

83) If your boss asks you to work on a variety of tasks with new responsibilities, you have been given a ________ assignment.

Answer:  stretch

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 215

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

84) ________ assignments offer employees challenging opportunities to broaden their skills.

Answer:  Stretch

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 215

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

85) Among the five job characteristics, ________ is important for experienced responsibility for outcomes of the work.

Answer:  autonomy

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 218

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

86) The job characteristics model seems to falter in its predictions about growth needs and ________.

Answer:  context satisfaction

Diff: 3     Type: SA     Page Ref: 219

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

87) Employees who have challenging and enriched jobs tend to have higher levels of ________.

Answer:  job involvement

Diff: 3     Type: SA     Page Ref: 219

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

88) All of the ________ have been found to be positively related to job involvement.

Answer:  job characteristics

Diff: 3     Type: SA     Page Ref: 219

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

89) In general, ________ involves increasing the motivating potential of jobs via the arrangement of their core characteristics.

Answer:  job enrichment

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 219

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

90) In order to redesign your jobs, your boss has just given you more boring, fragmented, routine tasks to perform at the same level. This is known as ________.

Answer:  job enlargement

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 220

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

91) When job enrichment results in increasing job breadth but leaves other core characteristics unchanged, it is known as ________.

Answer:  job enlargement

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 220

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

92) The term ________ has been used to refer to the enrichment of jobs that are already perceived as too rich by their incumbents.

Answer:  job engorgement

Diff: 3     Type: SA     Page Ref: 220

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

 

93) If an organization is facing a difficult financial period but does not want to lay off employees, one cost cutting measure they can implement and still keep everyone’s jobs is ________.

Answer:  work sharing

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 226

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

94) ________ consists of three categories: motivational characteristics, social characteristics, and work context characteristics.

Answer:  Work design characteristics

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 221

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

95) The goal of ________ is to identify the characteristics that make some tasks more motivating than others and to capture these characteristics in the design of jobs.

Answer:  job design

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 213

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

96) ________ characteristics refer to the attributes of the task, job, and social and organizational environment.

Answer:  Work design

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 221

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

97) ________ involves the degree to which a job requires employees to perform a wide range of tasks on the job.

Answer:  Task variety

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 221

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

 

98) ________ reflects the extent to which a job requires an individual to use a variety of different skills to perform a job.

Answer:  Skill variety

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 221

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

99) ________ characteristics are similar to the core job characteristics of the Job Characteristics Model.

Answer:  Task

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 221

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

100) ________ characteristics have to do with the interpersonal and social aspects of work.

Answer:  Social

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 221

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

101) ________ characteristics refer to the context within which work is performed.

Answer:  Work context

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 221

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

102) ________ characteristics refer to the kinds of knowledge, skill, and ability demands required to perform a job.

Answer:  Knowledge

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 221

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

 

103) The desire to expend effort to benefit other people is known as ________.

Answer:  prosocial motivation

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 222

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

104) Structural properties of work that shape employees’ opportunities to connect and interact with other people is known as the ________.

Answer:  relational architecture of jobs

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 222

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

105) What are the two main factors which determine job scope? Give examples of jobs which have low job scope and high job scope.

Answer:  Job breadth and job depth. A traditional assembly line job would have low job scope. A manager or professor would generally have high job scope.

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 214

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

106) Explain the relationship between the core job characteristics and the critical psychological states in the Hackman and Oldham Job Characteristics Model.

Answer:  The core job characteristics affect the meaningfulness, responsibility, and knowledge of results experienced by the worker. Specifically, skill variety, task identity, and task significance all affect the experienced meaningfulness. Autonomy affects the level of responsibility, and feedback gives the worker knowledge of the results.

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 218

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

 

107) Describe several job enrichment strategies which a manager might try to implement, depending on the organizational context.

Answer:  Combining tasks, establishing internal and external client relationships, reducing supervision, forming work teams, and making feedback more direct.

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 219

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

108) Discuss some of the potential problems of job enrichment.

Answer:  Poor diagnosis; lack of desire or skill; demand for rewards; union resistance; and supervisory resistance.

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 220

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

109) Two organizations are considering job redesign in order to improve employee motivation. One organization is planning on job enrichment and the other is going to use job enlargement. Each organization has asked you to explain how they should proceed and the likely outcomes of their job redesign programs. What will you tell them?

Answer:  Job enrichment is the design of jobs to enhance intrinsic motivation, quality of working life, and job involvement. Job enrichment procedures can include combining tasks, establishing client relationships (internal and external), reducing supervision, forming teams, and making feedback more direct. The organization can expect an improvement in employees’ intrinsic motivation and job involvement. Job enlargement involves increasing job breadth by giving employees more tasks at the same level to perform but leaves the other core job characteristics unchanged. As a result, it is unlikely to improve intrinsic motivation especially if employees are just given more boring, fragmented, routine tasks to do.

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 219

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

110) Work design characteristics acknowledges both the job and the broader work environment. They include the attributes of the task, job, and social and organizational environment and consist of three categories. Identify and describe each of the three categories and give an example of each.

Answer:  The motivational characteristics category includes task characteristics (similar to those of the Job Characteristics Model) as well as knowledge characteristics that refer to the kinds of knowledge, skill, and ability demands required to perform a job.

 

Social characteristics are the interpersonal and social aspects of work and include social support, interdependence, interaction outside of the organization, and feedback from others.

 

Work context characteristics refer to the context within which work is performed and consist of ergonomics, physical demands, work conditions, and equipment used.

Diff: 3     Type: ES     Page Ref: 221

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

111) What does the relational architecture of jobs mean and what are its implications for job design?

Answer:  It refers to the structural properties of work that shape employees’ opportunities to connect and interact with other people. The idea is to design putting an emphasis on strong relational aspects and to consider their social impact and value. In effect, this involves designing jobs so that employees have contact with those who benefit from their work.

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 222

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

112) Describe how you would design a job in accordance with relational job design and provide an example of such a job.

Answer:  If you were to design a job in accordance with the relational job design you would want to ensure that employees have opportunities to connect and interact with other people. You would emphasize the relational aspects of the job and you would design it so that employees have contact with those who benefit from their work. Examples from the text include call centre employees who raise funds for a university. The callers in one study were provided with a brief exposure to a scholarship recipient who benefited from their work. In another study, callers read stories about how former callers helped to finance student scholarships.

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 222

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

113) Describe two new models of job design.

Answer:  Two new models of job design: work design and relational job design.

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 221

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

114) What are work design characteristics and how do they extend the Job Characteristics Model?

Answer:  Work design characteristics refer to attributes of the task, job, and social and organizational environment. They extend the Job Characteristics Model by including additional characteristics besides the core job characteristics (task characteristics). In addition to task characteristics, work design characteristics include knowledge characteristics, social characteristics, and work context characteristics.

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 221

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.4 Compare and contrast the different approaches to job design, including the traditional approach, the Job Characteristics Model, job enrichment, work design, and relational job design.

 

6.5

 

1) Which motivational technique is most closely associated with goal setting?

  1. A) Job enrichment
  2. B) Wage incentives
  3. C) MBO
  4. D) Flextime
  5. E) Job sharing

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 223

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.5 Understand the connection between goal setting and Management by Objectives.

 

2) Which motivational strategy is most clearly associated with written agreements and paperwork?

  1. A) Job enrichment
  2. B) Management by Objectives
  3. C) Flextime
  4. D) Compressed workweek
  5. E) Job sharing

Answer:  B

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 223

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.5 Understand the connection between goal setting and Management by Objectives.

 

3) One problem that may cause MBO to fail is that

  1. A) top management gets too involved in the MBO program.
  2. B) MBO may lead to problems in achieving adequate supervisory coverage.
  3. C) performance reviews may become an exercise in punishing employees.
  4. D) workers may become fatigued because of longer working days.
  5. E) the objectives are too specific.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 223

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.5 Understand the connection between goal setting and Management by Objectives.

 

4) “Establishing internal client relationships” is a motivational strategy advocated by Management by Objectives.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 219

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.5 Understand the connection between goal setting and Management by Objectives.

 

5) Research evidence on management by objectives shows that MBO programs rarely result in productivity gains.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 223

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.5 Understand the connection between goal setting and Management by Objectives.

 

6) ________ is an elaborate, on going, systematic program designed to facilitate goal establishment, goal accomplishment, and employee development.

Answer:  Management by Objectives

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 223

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.5 Understand the connection between goal setting and Management by Objectives.

 

7) ________ theory provides the theoretical foundation for Management by Objectives.

Answer:  Goal setting

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 223

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.5 Understand the connection between goal setting and Management by Objectives.

 

8) The research evidence shows that management by objectives (MBO) programs result in clear ________ gains.

Answer:  productivity

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 223

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.5 Understand the connection between goal setting and Management by Objectives.

 

9) What is Management by Objectives (MBO)? What advice would you give to a manager who is considering MBO for her workplace?

Answer:  MBO is an elaborate, systematic ongoing program designed to facilitate goal establishment, goal accomplishment, and employee development. MBO is a time-consuming process which must have the full commitment of top management. Goals must be as specific and measurable as possible and periodic appraisal meetings should be held to diagnose the reasons for success or failure.

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 223

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.5 Understand the connection between goal setting and Management by Objectives.

 

10) Your organization is considering implementing a management by objectives (MBO) program in the hopes of increasing employee motivation and productivity. However, you are concerned about this because a number of factors can cause MBO programs to fail. You have arranged to meet with management to discuss this with them. What will you tell them about the effectiveness of MBO programs and the reasons they sometimes fail?

Answer:  MBO programs can result in clear productivity gains. However, a number of factors can cause them to fail. For example, it is an elaborate, difficult, and time-consuming process and its implementation requires the full commitment of top management–programs without such commitment are much less effective than those with it. Without such commitment, managers at lower levels simply go through the motions of practising MBO. This can also lead to the haphazard specification of objectives and thus subvert the very core of MBO–which is goal setting. A frequent symptom of this degeneration is the complaint that MBO is “just a bunch of paperwork.” Setting specific, quantifiable objectives can be a difficult process that results in an overemphasis on measurable objectives at the expense of more qualitative objectives. As well, an excessive short-term orientation can be a problem. A final reason for failure can occur if the performance review becomes an exercise in punishing employees for failing to achieve objectives.

Diff: 3     Type: ES     Page Ref: 223

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.5 Understand the connection between goal setting and Management by Objectives.

 

6.6

 

1) When an organization faces a slow-down in business activity, there may be a reduction in the number of hours employees work in order to avoid layoffs. This is called

  1. A) reduction contingency.
  2. B) job contingency.
  3. C) work sharing.
  4. D) work sustainability.
  5. E) layoff avoidance.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 226

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

2) The book cites several examples of companies that have engaged in work sharing. Their workers accepted a reduction in their weekly hours in order to avoid

  1. A) excessive retraining costs.
  2. B) wage increases.
  3. C) compliance with government workforce diversity policy.
  4. D) layoffs.
  5. E) Both C and D

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 226

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

3) “Core time” is

  1. A) a term associated with the compressed workweek.
  2. B) the time under which pay is calculated at a base rate rather than an overtime rate.
  3. C) the time when employees working under flex-time are all in the office.
  4. D) the time frame over which goals are set in a Management by Objectives program.
  5. E) the overlap in shifts between two workers who are job sharing.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 224

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

4) In a flex-time system, the period when all employees must be present at work is called

  1. A) full force.
  2. B) flexband.
  3. C) core time.
  4. D) nonflex.
  5. E) compressed time.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 224

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

5) In a flex-time system, core time is

  1. A) the total amount of time per week that each employee must work.
  2. B) the time of the day when all employees must be present at work.
  3. C) the time period within which employees are free to exercise flextime privileges.
  4. D) the amount of time an employee must work to acquire flextime privileges.
  5. E) the time in excess of a normal work shift.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 224

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

6) Which of the following consequences is least likely to occur as a result of flex-time?

  1. A) Increased job satisfaction
  2. B) Decreased turnover
  3. C) Decreased absenteeism
  4. D) Increased satisfaction with work schedule
  5. E) Increased productivity

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 225

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

7) In its most simple form, people who work under a compressed workweek work

  1. A) fewer days per week than normal.
  2. B) less weeks per year than normal.
  3. C) less hours per day than normal.
  4. D) fewer hours per week than normal.
  5. E) fewer hours per month than normal.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 225

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

8) What is job sharing?

  1. A) Two people do one job.
  2. B) Two people do the work of three people.
  3. C) Two people help each other do their separate jobs.
  4. D) Two jobs are given to one individual.
  5. E) Two jobs are combined into one and shared by two people.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 226

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

9) If your organization has just offered you the opportunity to work at a telework centre, what does this mean?

  1. A) You can work out of an office located near your home.
  2. B) You can work at home and telecommute.
  3. C) You will no longer be able to have your own office.
  4. D) You can spend part of the week working anywhere you want.
  5. E) You can work anywhere you want all the time.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 227

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

10) If you work for a company that has a distributed work program, what does this mean?

  1. A) You can either work at home and telecommute, or work at the company’s offices.
  2. B) You must work at home and telecommute.
  3. C) You can arrive and leave work when you want within certain time periods.
  4. D) You can work at home, at a satellite office, or at the company’s offices.
  5. E) You can work at a satellite office near your home.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 227

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

11) If your company allows employees to work at their business office, a satellite office, and/or a home office, what kind of program do they have?

  1. A) Telecommuting program
  2. B) Telework centre program
  3. C) Flexible work program
  4. D) Distributed work program
  5. E) Alternative work office program

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 227

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

12) At Bell Canada, employees are eligible to participate in the company’s ________ program.

  1. A) telework centre
  2. B) job sharing
  3. C) distant staffing
  4. D) distributed work
  5. E) compressed workweek

Answer:  D

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 227

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

13) What is the most common compressed workweek system?

  1. A) the 5-40 system
  2. B) the 4-40 system
  3. C) the 4-50 system
  4. D) the 3-40 system
  5. E) the 5-50 system

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 225

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

14) A review of research on the compressed workweek concluded that

  1. A) there is a positive effect on absenteeism.
  2. B) there is a positive effect on productivity.
  3. C) there is a positive effect on job satisfaction.
  4. D) there is a positive effect on satisfaction with one’s boss.
  5. E) there is a positive effect on life satisfaction.

Answer:  C

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 226

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

15) Work options that permit flexibility in terms of where and/or when work is completed are called

  1. A) flexible work schedules.
  2. B) flexible work options.
  3. C) workplace flexibility.
  4. D) flexible work arrangements.
  5. E) flexible work time.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 224

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

16) Flexible work arrangements are work options that permit flexibility in terms of

  1. A) where, when, and/or how work is completed.
  2. B) where and/or when work is completed.
  3. C) where and/or how work is completed.
  4. D) when and/or how work is completed.
  5. E) where work is completed.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 224

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

17) Flexible work arrangements that permit flexibility in terms of when employees can work are called

  1. A) flex-time and compressed work week.
  2. B) job sharing and work sharing.
  3. C) flex-time and telecommuting.
  4. D) compressed work week and telecommuting.
  5. E) flex-time, compressed work week, and telecommuting.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 224

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

18) Flexible work arrangements that permit flexibility in terms of where employees can work are called

  1. A) flex-time.
  2. B) job sharing.
  3. C) telecommuting.
  4. D) compressed work week.
  5. E) work sharing.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 227

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

19) Telecommuting has been found to be positively related to

  1. A) job performance.
  2. B) organizational citizenship behaviours.
  3. C) job performance and organizational citizenship behaviours.
  4. D) organizational commitment.
  5. E) organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behaviours.

Answer:  C

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 228

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

20) Telecommuting has been found to be positively related to job performance and organizational citizenship behaviours in part because it

  1. A) increases employees’ perceptions of fairness.
  2. B) increases employees’ perceptions of responsibility.
  3. C) increases employees’ perceptions of accountability.
  4. D) increases employees’ perceptions of autonomy.
  5. E) increases employees’ perceptions of control.

Answer:  D

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 228

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

21) June works a compressed workweek. This means that she works fewer total hours a week than normal.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 225

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

 

22) The compressed workweek holds the number of days worked constant but reduces the number of hours worked each day.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 225

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

23) The primary purpose of flexible work arrangements is to motivate employees to work harder.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 224

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

24) Core time is the period when employees working under flex-time are all in the office.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 224

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

25) The most common compressed workweek is the 4-50 system.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 225

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

26) Research on the compressed workweek has found that there is a positive effect on absenteeism.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 226

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

27) A telework centre refers to the office in an individual’s home used by employees who telecommute.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 227

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

28) Employees who can work at their company’s office, a satellite office, or a home office participate in a distant staffing program.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 227

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

 

29) Flexible work arrangements refer to work options that permit flexibility in terms of where, when, and/or how work is completed.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 224

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

30) Flexible work arrangements refer to work options that permit flexibility in terms of when and/or how work is completed.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 224

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

31) Flexible work arrangements refer to work options that permit flexibility in terms of where and/or when work is completed.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 224

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

32) The purpose of flexible work arrangements is to motivate employees to work harder and produce performance benefits.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 224

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

33) Flex-time and telecommuting are examples of flexible work arrangements that provide flexibility in terms of when employees work.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 224

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

34) Flex-time and the compressed workweek are examples of flexible work arrangements that provide flexibility in terms of where employees perform their job.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 224

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

 

35) Telecommuting is an example of a flexible work arrangement that provides flexibility in terms of where employees can perform their job.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 227

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

36) Telecommuting is an example of a flexible work arrangement that provides employees flexibility in terms of when they work.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 227

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

37) Flex-time and telecommuting are examples of flexible work arrangements that provide flexibility in terms of where employees perform their job.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 224

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

38) One of the reasons that telecommuting is positively related to job performance is because it increases employees’ perceptions of fairness.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 3     Type: TF     Page Ref: 228

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

39) One of the reasons that telecommuting is positively related to job performance is because it increases employees’ perceptions of autonomy.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 228

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

40) The ________ reduces the number of days per week worked but not the number of hours per week.

Answer:  compressed workweek

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 225

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

 

41) ________ is a system that permits employees to choose their own work arrival and departure times.

Answer:  Flex-time

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 224

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

42) Gigantico Insurance is interested in reducing lateness among its staff. This might be accomplished by installing a flexible work arrangement called ________.

Answer:  flex-time

Diff: 3     Type: SA     Page Ref: 224

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

43) The purpose of flexible work arrangements is not to produce direct performance benefits, but rather to promote ________.

Answer:  job satisfaction

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 224

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

44) The most common compressed workweek is the ________ system.

Answer:  4-40

Diff: 3     Type: SA     Page Ref: 225

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

45) Research on the compressed workweek has found that there is a positive effect on job satisfaction and satisfaction with ________.

Answer:  work schedule

Diff: 3     Type: SA     Page Ref: 226

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

46) Your organization has decided to provide workers with an office close to their home that provides all of the amenities of a home office. This is known as a ________.

Answer:  telework centre

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 227

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

 

47) Your organization has decided to provide workers with a combination of remote work arrangements that will allow them to work at the company’s office, a satellite office, or their home office. These arrangements are a part of what constitutes ________.

Answer:  distributed work programs

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 227

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

48) Flexible work arrangements refer to work options that permit flexibility in terms of where and/or ________ work is completed.

Answer:  when

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 224

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

49) Flexible work ________ refer to work options that permit flexibility in terms of where and/or when work is completed.

Answer:  arrangements

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 224

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

50) Flex-time is a work arrangement that provides flexibility in terms of ________ employees work.

Answer:  when

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 224

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

51) The compressed workweek is a work arrangement that provides flexibility in terms of ________ employees work.

Answer:  when

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 225

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

52) Telecommuting is a work arrangement that provides flexibility in terms of ________ employees work.

Answer:  where

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 227

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

 

53) ________ is a work arrangement that provides flexibility in terms of where employees work.

Answer:  Telecommuting

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 227

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

54) Telecommuting is positively related to job performance in part because it increases employees’ perceptions of ________.

Answer:  autonomy

Diff: 3     Type: SA     Page Ref: 228

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

55) The contingency factors that should be considered when choosing a motivational practice include employee needs, the nature of the job, ________ characteristics, and the desired outcome.

Answer:  organization

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 228

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

56) The contingency factors that should be considered when choosing a motivational practice include employee needs, the nature of the job, organization characteristics, and the desired ________.

Answer:  outcome

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 228

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

57) Describe four programs which utilize flexible work arrangements as motivators. Give examples of jobs which might apply to each program.

Answer:  Flex-time, compressed workweeks, job sharing, and telecommuting. There are several examples of jobs cited in the text on pages 224-228. Generally, examples for compressed workweeks and job sharing can be blue or white collar jobs from almost any industry, while flex-time and telecommuting programs tend to apply more toward white collar jobs.

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 224

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

58) Discuss the benefits and potential problems of telecommuting.

Answer:  Benefits include greater flexibility in work schedules; distant staffing; lower costs; a potential increase of employee productivity; stress reduction when grinding commutes are eliminated; greater work-life balance.

Problems can include damage to informal communication; decreased visibility when promotions are considered; problems handling rush projects; workload spillover for non-telecommuters; distractions at home; feelings of isolation; overwork.

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 228

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

59) Lawyers at the You Don’t Pay Unless We Win law firm have been complaining about their long work hours and the lack of flexibility. The partners of the firm are considering making changes so that employees have some flexibility in terms of where and/or when they work. What are some of the flexible work arrangements they should consider and what effect might they have on employees.

Answer:  Flexible work arrangements permit employees flexibility in terms of where and/or when work is completed. Flex-time and the compressed workweek provide flexibility in terms of when employees work while telecommuting provides flexibility in terms of where they perform their job. In terms of the effects these programs will have on employees, flex-time can have a positive effect on productivity, job satisfaction, and satisfaction with work schedule, and it can lower absenteeism; the compressed workweek can have a positive effect on job satisfaction and satisfaction with work schedule; and telecommuting can have a positive effect on job satisfaction, job performance, and it can reduce work-family conflict, stress, and turnover intentions.

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 224

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.6 Explain how flexible work arrangements respect employee diversity.

 

6.7

 

1) Which of the following is NOT a contingency factor for choosing motivational practices?

  1. A) employee needs
  2. B) management needs
  3. C) nature of the job
  4. D) organization characteristics
  5. E) desired outcome

Answer:  B

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 228

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  6.7 Describe the factors that organizations should consider when choosing motivational practices.

 

2) Describe the factors that an organization needs to consider when choosing to implement a motivational practice.

Answer:  The general approach to this issue is one of fit. The motivational practices implemented by an organization should fit with the organization’s culture and system of management practices. The choice of motivational practices requires a thorough diagnosis of the organization and the needs and desires of employees. More specifically, the choice of motivational practices should consider four key factors: the needs of employees, the nature of the job, the characteristics of the organization, and the motivational outcomes that an organization desires. The most effective motivational system will depend on these factors. Motivational systems that make use of a variety of motivators are likely to be most effective.

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 228

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  6.7 Describe the factors that organizations should consider when choosing motivational practices.

 

Organizational Behaviour, 10e (Johns/Saks)

Chapter 7   Groups and Teamwork

 

7.1

 

1) Temporarily organized groups that are formed to achieve particular goals or solve particular problems are called

  1. A) work groups.
  2. B) task forces.
  3. C) committees.
  4. D) informal groups.
  5. E) self-managed teams.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 242

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

 

2) According to behavioural scientists

  1. A) groups have at least five members.
  2. B) group members have a common goal and interact with each other.
  3. C) group members must interact face-to-face.
  4. D) informal groups are shown on organizational charts.
  5. E) members of larger groups tend to report higher levels of satisfaction.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 242

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

 

3) Identify the proper sequence of group development activities.

  1. A) Forming, norming, storming, performing, adjourning
  2. B) Forming, storming, performing, norming, adjourning
  3. C) Forming, storming, norming, performing, adjourning
  4. D) Norming, forming, storming, performing, adjourning
  5. E) Storming, forming, norming, performing, adjourning

Answer:  C

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 243

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

 

 

4) During which stage of group development is conflict likely to develop?

  1. A) Forming
  2. B) Storming
  3. C) Norming
  4. D) Adjourning
  5. E) Performing

Answer:  B

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 243

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

5) In the punctuated equilibrium model of group development, a critical point occurs

  1. A) when the group enters the storming stage.
  2. B) at the midpoint of the group’s allotted time until deadline.
  3. C) at the midpoint of the volume of work that has to be accomplished.
  4. D) at the middle of Phase 1.
  5. E) towards the end of Phase 2.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 244

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

 

6) In the punctuated equilibrium model of group development, the midpoint transition occurs

  1. A) when half the group’s time is elapsed.
  2. B) when half the group’s work is done.
  3. C) at the beginning of Phase 1.
  4. D) at the end of Phase 2.
  5. E) as the group enters the storming stage.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 244

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

 

7) In the stage model of group development, conflict is a particular problem

  1. A) in the stage before norming.
  2. B) in the forming stage.
  3. C) in the adjourning stage.
  4. D) in the stage after norming.
  5. E) in the performing stage.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 243

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

 

 

8) Connie Gersick’s research resulted in which of the following?

  1. A) Typical stages of group development
  2. B) Punctuated equilibrium model
  3. C) Model of the role assumption process
  4. D) Model of group cohesiveness
  5. E) Model of factors that influence work group effectiveness

Answer:  B

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 244

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

9) What did Connie Gersick study to learn about the development of groups?

  1. A) Workers at Federal Express improving billing accuracy and reducing lost packages
  2. B) Student groups doing class projects
  3. C) Sales teams at UPS that sell and deliver products and services
  4. D) Teams at Rubbermaid that invent and design innovative household products
  5. E) A team at Thermos that invented an ecologically friendly electric barbecue grill

Answer:  B

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 244

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

 

10) You have been assigned a group project in your organizational behaviour course. You have six weeks to complete it. When will the midpoint transition occur?

  1. A) At about one week
  2. B) At about two weeks
  3. C) At about three weeks
  4. D) At about four weeks
  5. E) At about five weeks

Answer:  C

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 244

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

 

11) At what stage during group development does conflict often emerge?

  1. A) Forming
  2. B) Storming
  3. C) Norming
  4. D) Performing
  5. E) Adjourning

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 243

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

 

 

12) The hierarchy of most organizations is a series of informal, interlocked work groups.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 242

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

 

13) The punctuated equilibrium model only works for groups that successfully manage the midpoint transition.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 244

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

 

14) The proper sequence of group development activities is forming, storming, norming, performing, adjourning.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 243

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

15) Conflict is particularly likely to develop during the norming stage of group development.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 243

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

 

16) The punctuated equilibrium theory of group development has five phases.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 244

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

 

17) All groups go through the typical stages of group development.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 243

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

 

18) The concept of punctuated equilibrium applies to groups without deadlines.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 244

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

 

 

19) By definition, a group has at least ________ members.

Answer:  two

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 242

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

 

20) ________ refers to the characteristics of the stable social organization of a group.

Answer:  Group structure

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 245

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

 

21) Distinguish between formal and informal work groups in organizations. Give an example of each.

Answer:  Formal work groups are established to facilitate the achievement of organizational goals. Examples include departments, task forces, and committees. Informal groups emerge naturally in response to the common interests of organizational members. Examples might include a softball team, a fitness group or a wine tasting club.

Diff: 1     Type: ES     Page Ref: 242

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

 

22) Describe the five stages of group development. At which stage is conflict most likely to emerge?

Answer:  Forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning are the five stages of group development. Conflict emerges in the storming stage.

Diff: 1     Type: ES     Page Ref: 243

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

23) You have just formed a group as a part of a class assignment to complete a group project. You have four weeks to complete the project and present it to the class. What can you tell the other group members about how the group will develop and how they should proceed? What advice will you give them?

Answer:  According to the punctuated equilibrium model, the group will experience stretches of group stability punctuated by a critical first meeting (Phase 1), a midpoint change (midpoint transition) in group activity, and a rush to task completion (Phase 2). Based on the model, you can offer group members the following advice:

-Prepare carefully for the first meeting;

-as long as people are working, do not look for radical progress during Phase 1;

-manage the midpoint transition carefully;

-be sure that adequate resources are available to execute the Phase 2 plan;

-and resist deadline changes.

Diff: 3     Type: ES     Page Ref: 244

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

 

24) You have just formed a group as a part of a class assignment to complete a group project. You want to make sure that it follows the different stages of group development. What are the different stages of group development and what should happen at each stage?

Answer:  The five stages of group development are forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. During the forming stage, group members should orient themselves by “testing the waters.” During the storming stage, confrontation and criticism will occur, and group members must sort out roles and responsibilities. During the norming stage members must resolve issues that provoked storming and develop social consensus. During the performing stage, group members must devote their energies toward task accomplishment. And during the adjourning stage rites and rituals affirm the group’s successful development and members often exhibit emotional support for each other.

Diff: 3     Type: ES     Page Ref: 243

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

 

25) What is group cohesiveness and what factors influence cohesiveness?

Answer:  Group cohesiveness refers to the degree to which a group is attractive to its members. The factors that influence cohesiveness are threat and competition, success, member diversity, size, and toughness of initiation.

Diff: 3     Type: ES     Page Ref: 252

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

 

7.2

 

1) As a group size increases

  1. A) members become less inhibited about participating in group activities.
  2. B) members become more satisfied with group membership.
  3. C) the group consistently performs better.
  4. D) the time available for verbal participation by each member decreases.
  5. E) performance on conjunctive tasks improves.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 245

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

2) Which of the following equations is accurate?

  1. A) Potential performance = actual performance + process losses
  2. B) Process losses = potential performance + actual performance
  3. C) Potential performance = actual performance — process losses
  4. D) Actual performance = potential performance — process losses
  5. E) Process performance = actual performance — process losses

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

3) A group performing a disjunctive task will perform at the level of

  1. A) its best member.
  2. B) its worst member.
  3. C) the average performance of all its members.
  4. D) the member who is most friendly to other members.
  5. E) the relative process loss.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

4) One reason for members reporting less satisfaction in larger groups is

  1. A) they have more time to develop friendships with other group members.
  2. B) individual members can identify less easily with the success of the group.
  3. C) opportunities for participation increase in larger groups.
  4. D) conflict and dissension are less likely in larger groups.
  5. E) people are less inhibited about participating in larger groups.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 245

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

5) On which task is the presence of only one poor performer most likely to damage group performance?

  1. A) Conjunctive
  2. B) Disjunctive
  3. C) Reflexive
  4. D) Additive
  5. E) Complexive

Answer:  A

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

6) A television news team consists of a reporter, a camera operator, and a sound technician. Their job is to get good news reports to the station in time to make the evening news. A bad story, a bad picture, or bad sound means they have failed. This is a(n) ________ task.

  1. A) additive
  2. B) disjunctive
  3. C) conjunctive
  4. D) reflexive
  5. E) complexive

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

7) Which of the following statements is most indicative of a process loss?

  1. A) As the task force got bigger, it encountered more coordination problems.
  2. B) Bill forgot how to program FORTRAN computer language because he hadn’t used it in ten years.
  3. C) Nan experienced role conflict when her boss told her to do something that she felt was unethical.
  4. D) Zeke worked harder when his colleagues were present than when he was alone.
  5. E) Carly was clearly the star of the group and they could not have completed the project on time without her participation.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

8) The relationship between group size and group ________ is particularly complex and highly contingent upon the task being performed.

  1. A) cohesiveness
  2. B) member participation
  3. C) member satisfaction
  4. D) performance
  5. E) norms

Answer:  D

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

9) Which of the following is an example of process loss?

  1. A) No one in the group could remember how to work the video machine.
  2. B) Because the group was so large, communication became a problem.
  3. C) After losing the game, the team was much less cohesive.
  4. D) After they failed to land the big contract, the status of the sales staff decreased.
  5. E) The source of the quality problems could have originated in any one of three separate departments.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

10) As a group performing an additive task gets bigger

  1. A) process losses decrease.
  2. B) the average productivity per member decreases.
  3. C) group cohesiveness should increase.
  4. D) potential group productivity decreases.
  5. E) the performance of the best member becomes more critical to group success.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

11) Which of the following is an additive task for a group?

  1. A) Picking grapes at harvest
  2. B) Passing water buckets along a human chain
  3. C) Writing a short story
  4. D) Working in a self-managed group
  5. E) Looking for a single error in a complicated computer program

Answer:  A

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

12) Diverse groups tend to develop more ________ than less diverse groups.

  1. A) roles
  2. B) poorly
  3. C) quickly
  4. D) slowly
  5. E) loyalty norms

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 247

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

13) Tasks that depend on the performance of the best group member’s performance are

  1. A) disjunctive.
  2. B) conjunctive.
  3. C) injunctive.
  4. D) reflexive.
  5. E) complexive.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

14) The group had trouble coordinating its efforts because it was so big. This is an example of

  1. A) a conjunctive task.
  2. B) social loafing.
  3. C) a process loss.
  4. D) role ambiguity.
  5. E) punctuated equilibrium.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

15) Which of the following type of group can enhance team creativity and innovation?

  1. A) Self-managed
  2. B) Informal
  3. C) Cohesive
  4. D) Diverse
  5. E) Cross-functional

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 247

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

16) The Stinky Cheese Company has decided to form work teams in all of their plants. They are most concerned about team creativity and innovation. What type of teams should they use?

  1. A) Self-managed teams
  2. B) Virtual teams
  3. C) Cohesive teams
  4. D) Diverse teams
  5. E) Cross-functional teams

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 247

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

17) Which of the following can badly damage cohesiveness in diverse groups?

  1. A) Deep diversity
  2. B) Surface diversity
  3. C) Age
  4. D) Gender
  5. E) Race

Answer:  A

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 247

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

18) Many examples of “whistle-blowing” are signals of

  1. A) person-role conflict.
  2. B) role ambiguity.
  3. C) inter-role conflict.
  4. D) intersender role conflict.
  5. E) intrasender role conflict.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

19) On an additive task, the presence of an especially strong group member can compensate for a weak group member.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

20) On a conjunctive task, the presence of an especially strong group member can compensate for a weak group member.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

21) Potential group performance minus process losses equals actual group performance.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

22) One of the members of Jim’s self-managed work team had forgotten how to use Excel. This is an example of a process loss.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

23) The self-managed work teams at Excelsior Widgets were so large that confusion and poor coordination existed within every team. This is an example of a process loss.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

 

24) On disjunctive tasks, potential group performance should depend on the performance of the best member.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

25) Large groups promote greater member satisfaction than small groups.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 245

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

26) A sequential assembly line type of task is an example of a conjunctive task.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

27) As group size increases, the time available for verbal participation by each member increases.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 245

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

28) Process losses damage group performance.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

29) Disjunctive tasks depend on the performance of the best group member.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

30) Once they develop, more and less diverse groups can be equally cohesive and productive.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 247

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

 

31) Surface diversity can badly damage group cohesiveness.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 247

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

32) When working on a ________ task the potential performance of a group depends on the performance of its best member.

Answer:  disjunctive

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

33) “One weak link in the chain” severely damages a group’s performance on a(n) ________ task.

Answer:  conjunctive

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

34) For a(n) ________ task, the potential performance of the group equals the sum of the individual members’ performances.

Answer:  additive

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

35) Actual group performance equals potential performance minus ________.

Answer:  process losses

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

36) The most basic structural characteristics along which groups vary are size and ________.

Answer:  member diversity

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 245

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

37) ________ groups have a more difficult time communicating effectively and becoming cohesive.

Answer:  Diverse

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 247

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

 

38) Explain the difference between additive tasks, disjunctive tasks, and conjunctive tasks. Give an example of each.

Answer:  Additive tasks are those tasks in which group performance is dependent on the sum of the performance of individual members (e.g., moving a heavy crate). Disjunctive tasks are those tasks in which group performance is dependent on the performance of the best group member (e.g., debugging a software program). Conjunctive tasks are those tasks in which the performance of the group is limited by its poorest performer (e.g., sequential tasks such as assembly lines).

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

7.3

 

1) A manager recommends an employee for a promotion because the employee stood up for the manager during a leadership crisis. Which reward allocation norm led the superior to recommend this employee for promotion?

  1. A) Reciprocity
  2. B) Equity
  3. C) Equality
  4. D) Social responsibility
  5. E) Performance

Answer:  A

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 248

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

2) Lisa is a very religious person whose boss tells her to offer an illegal bribe to a government official to obtain a lucrative contract. What kind of role conflict is she experiencing?

  1. A) Person-role
  2. B) Interrole
  3. C) Intrasender
  4. D) Intersender
  5. E) Role ambiguity

Answer:  A

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

 

3) Darlene is a physician who is employed as the director of research for a large drug company. She often worries that her actions as a manager could possibly violate the physicians’ code of professional conduct. This is most clearly an example of ________ conflict.

  1. A) person-role
  2. B) intrasender
  3. C) intersender
  4. D) interrole
  5. E) role ambiguity

Answer:  D

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

4) Who is experiencing interrole conflict?

  1. A) Jack is vice-president of sales and marketing.
  2. B) The straw boss on the construction job was unsure if he was a worker or a supervisor.
  3. C) The head of engineering told Jan to do one thing, and the head of design told her to do the opposite.
  4. D) The plant manager debated in his mind whether he should open the valve and risk polluting the environment.
  5. E) Michael’s boss told him to relax as he handed him another report to finish by the end of the day.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

5) The members of a work group are paid a group bonus according to the productivity of the group. Because of this, each member expects the other to perform at the highest level. This expectation is an example of which aspect of group structure?

  1. A) Status
  2. B) Cohesiveness
  3. C) A norm
  4. D) A role
  5. E) A disjunctive task

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 247

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

 

6) Which of the following statements about norms is TRUE?

  1. A) A person can have his or her own private, personal norm.
  2. B) Norms are generally unrelated to attitudes.
  3. C) Norms are not an aspect of group structure.
  4. D) Norms cannot be targeted at a specific individual.
  5. E) Normative influence is often unconscious.

Answer:  E

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 247

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

7) The workforce petitioned management to be paid on an individual piece rate basis. Which reward allocation norm do the workers favour?

  1. A) Social responsibility
  2. B) Equality
  3. C) Equity
  4. D) Reciprocity
  5. E) Loyalty

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 248

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

8) The boss who constantly changes his mind can cause uncertainty for an employee. To put this another way

  1. A) intrasender role conflict can cause role ambiguity.
  2. B) role ambiguity can cause intersender role conflict.
  3. C) person-role conflict can cause role ambiguity.
  4. D) role ambiguity can cause interrole conflict.
  5. E) intersender role conflict can cause interrole conflict.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

9) Which aspect of group structure most closely reflects the way members evaluate each other?

  1. A) Size
  2. B) Roles
  3. C) Norms
  4. D) Status
  5. E) Diversity

Answer:  D

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

 

10) Higher status group members ________ than lower status members.

  1. A) are addressed more frequently
  2. B) have more influence
  3. C) communicate more
  4. D) participate more
  5. E) all of the above

Answer:  E

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 251

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

11) Which of the following statements about status and communication is TRUE?

  1. A) Lower-status members do more talking.
  2. B) Most people like to communicate with others at their own status or lower.
  3. C) Communication has a tendency to move down the status hierarchy.
  4. D) Status has very little relation to communication in organizations.
  5. E) People can be inhibited from communicating upward if status differences are large.

Answer:  E

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 251

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

12) Janice thought that her summer job as a municipal garbage collector would be easy. Unfortunately, her supervisor tells her to do one thing one day and the exact opposite the next day. Janice’s role ambiguity

  1. A) is inherent in the job she performs.
  2. B) stems from a role sender.
  3. C) stems from the social facilitation effect.
  4. D) is a function of intersender role conflict.
  5. E) is a function of person-role conflict.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 249

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

13) Which of the following statements about status is TRUE?

  1. A) Informal status in the organization is more likely than formal status to carry over into the community.
  2. B) In most organizations, formal and informal status systems are equivalent.
  3. C) All organizations have both formal and informal status systems.
  4. D) In organizations, status symbols are more a part of the informal status system than the formal status system.
  5. E) Most organizations try not to tie status symbols to assigned roles.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

14) Which of the following statements is TRUE?

  1. A) The “class clown” fills an emergent role in his or her school.
  2. B) People with similar attitudes are less likely to form a group than those with different attitudes.
  3. C) A group has at least three members.
  4. D) Moving a heavy crate is a disjunctive task.
  5. E) Equity norms allocate rewards equally to everyone in the group.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 249

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

15) Positions in a group that have attached to them a set of expected behaviours are called

  1. A) roles.
  2. B) norms.
  3. C) status symbols.
  4. D) attributes.
  5. E) conjunctive tasks.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 248

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

16) Robin is a member of a task force that may do away with her own department. Robin is most obviously experiencing

  1. A) intrasender role conflict.
  2. B) person-role conflict.
  3. C) interrole conflict.
  4. D) role ambiguity.
  5. E) intersender role conflict.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

17) Which of the following types of role conflict is most likely to provoke role ambiguity?

  1. A) Intrasender role conflict
  2. B) Intersender role conflict
  3. C) Interrole conflict
  4. D) Person-role conflict
  5. E) Status-role conflict

Answer:  A

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

 

18) The first-line supervisor who serves as the interface between “management” and “the workers” is most likely to experience ________ role conflict when labour relations are poor.

  1. A) intrasender
  2. B) intersender
  3. C) boundary
  4. D) person-role
  5. E) status

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

19) Which of the following factors is most influential in achieving formal organizational status?

  1. A) Age
  2. B) Assigned role in the organization
  3. C) Nationality and religion
  4. D) Ability to perform disjunctive tasks
  5. E) Loyalty norms

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

20) Organizations that allocate rewards to those who truly need the rewards have adopted a reward system that is based on a(n) ________ norm.

  1. A) social responsibility
  2. B) reciprocity
  3. C) equity
  4. D) equality
  5. E) loyalty

Answer:  A

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 248

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

21) What is the most important function of norms?

  1. A) To increase group cohesiveness
  2. B) To prevent social loafing
  3. C) To prevent intersender role conflict
  4. D) To provide regularity and predictability of behaviour
  5. E) To prevent interrole conflict

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 247

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

 

22) What kinds of roles develop in organizations?

  1. A) Designated roles and assigned roles
  2. B) Designated roles and informal roles
  3. C) Assigned roles and informal roles
  4. D) Designated roles and emergent roles
  5. E) Formal roles and informal roles

Answer:  D

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 249

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

23) Selma and Sam have just started new jobs at the same company. After one month, Selma has become known by her co-workers as the new software engineer, and Sam has become known as the office gossip. What kind of roles are these?

  1. A) Selma’s role is designated and Sam’s role is designated.
  2. B) Selma’s role is designated and Sam’s role is assigned.
  3. C) Selma’s role is assigned and Sam’s role is designated.
  4. D) Selma’s role is emergent and Sam’s role is emergent.
  5. E) Selma’s role is designated and Sam’s role is emergent.

Answer:  E

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 249

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

24) What elements can lead to role ambiguity?

  1. A) Organizational factors, individual factors, role senders,
  2. B) Individual factors, role senders, focal person
  3. C) Organizational factors, individual factors, focal person
  4. D) Organizational factors, role senders, focal person
  5. E) Individual factors, group factors, organizational factors

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 249

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

25) All of the following are frequent outcomes of role ambiguity EXCEPT

  1. A) absenteeism.
  2. B) job stress.
  3. C) dissatisfaction.
  4. D) reduced organizational commitment.
  5. E) intentions to quit.

Answer:  A

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 249

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

 

26) Employees who straddle the boundary between the organization and its clients or customers are especially likely to encounter what form of role conflict?

  1. A) Intrasender role conflict
  2. B) Intersender role conflict
  3. C) Interrole conflict
  4. D) Person-role conflict
  5. E) All of the above

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

27) Whistle-blowing is often a signal of what form of role conflict?

  1. A) Intrasender role conflict
  2. B) Intersender role conflict
  3. C) Interrole conflict
  4. D) Person-role conflict
  5. E) None of the above

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

28) Which of the following has levelled status barriers?

  1. A) Clothing
  2. B) Casual Friday policies
  3. C) Job titles
  4. D) Email
  5. E) Work schedules

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 251

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

29) Studies of jury deliberations have found that jurors with high social status

  1. A) participate more.
  2. B) have more effect on the verdict.
  3. C) participate less and have more effect on the verdict.
  4. D) participate more and have more effect on the verdict.
  5. E) participate more and have less effect on the verdict.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 251

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

 

30) Much normative influence is unconscious.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 247

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

31) The most important function that norms serve is to increase group cohesiveness.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 247

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

32) The production manager tells Louis to do one thing and the sales manager says to do the opposite. Louis is experiencing intersender role conflict.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

33) According to the text, norms are personal, individual standards of conduct.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 247

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

34) Seniority is the most important criterion in a formal status system.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

35) The boss who is constantly changing his mind is likely to provoke intrasender role conflict in employees.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

36) The controller told Jan to do one thing and the controller’s secretary told Jan to do the opposite. Jan is experiencing interrole conflict.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

 

37) Role conflict is defined as a lack of clarity of job goals or methods.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

38) Jim is quiet and shy. He takes a job as a bouncer in a nightclub. This may provoke person-role conflict.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

39) The informal status system of an organization involves status symbols such as company cars, large offices, and first class air travel.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 251

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

40) Role ambiguity is defined as the presence of incompatible role expectations.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

41) The manager who can’t make up her mind will likely cause her employee to experience intrasender role conflict.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

42) Reward allocation norms, such as equity norms, means that all group members expect to be treated equally.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 248

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

43) High status persons tend to initiate and receive less communication than low status persons.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 251

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

 

44) Most Western organizations tend to stress allocation of rewards according to some combination of equity and social responsibility.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 248

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

45) Expectations that social units have regarding the behaviour of others are called ________.

Answer:  norms

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 247

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

46) ________ are positions in a group that have attached to them a set of expected behaviours.

Answer:  Roles

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 248

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

47) Jim’s boss tells him to do one thing one minute and the opposite thing the next minute. Jim is experiencing ________.

Answer:  intrasender role conflict

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

48) The controller tells Tina to do one thing and the firm’s legal counsel tells her to do the opposite. Tina is experiencing ________.

Answer:  intersender role conflict

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

49) Jason had trouble balancing the demands of work with the needs of his family. Jason is experiencing ________.

Answer:  interrole conflict

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

50) Stanley decided that he just didn’t have the right personality for sales. In terms of role dynamics, Stanley is experiencing ________.

Answer:  person-role conflict

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

51) One’s rank or social position in a group is called ________.

Answer:  status

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

52) ________ occurs when job goals or the method of performing one’s job is unclear.

Answer:  Role ambiguity

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 249

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

53) By definition, incompatible role expectations cause ________.

Answer:  role conflict

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

54) Managers are most likely to develop norms regarding the performance and ________ of employees.

Answer:  attendance

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 248

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

55) Studies of jury deliberations show that jurors with higher ________ participate more and have more effect on the verdict.

Answer:  social status

Diff: 3     Type: SA     Page Ref: 251

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

56) Gary Lee is the supervisor of the sheet metal shop at Kapster Enterprises. He is known for his friendly, easygoing manner and mild temperament. Recently, he was asked by his boss to introduce several new policies designed to tighten-up break times and reduce unnecessary overtime. Gary has always considered himself to be a friend as well as a supervisor to his employees. In fact he often socializes with them just as he did before he was promoted to supervisor. Now his boss wants him to start adopting a tougher, more controlling leadership style. His workers, on the other hand, want Gary to “cut them some slack” and give them more freedom in their duties. Discuss the three types of role conflict which Gary is experiencing.

Answer:  Gary is likely experiencing intersender role conflict (what the boss wants versus what the subordinates want), interrole conflict (he is both a friend and a supervisor to his workers), and person-role conflict (he may not have it in him to become tough on his employees, or anyone else, for that matter).

Diff: 3     Type: ES     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

57) Describe four types of reward allocation norms which may affect how workers are paid and rewarded in organizations. Which one do you think is the fairest, overall? Why?

Answer:  Equity, equality, reciprocity, and social responsibility. The second part of the question challenges students to consider the merits of each norm, and to take a position in support of one. Of course, they all have merit, depending on the circumstances, but most organizations would officially support reward allocation based on some combination of equity and equality norms.

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 248

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

58) What are the different kinds of role conflict and what can managers do to help prevent employee role conflict?

Answer:  Intrasender role conflict occurs when a single role sender provides incompatible role expectations to a role occupant. Intersender role conflict occurs when two or more role senders provide a role occupant with incompatible expectations. Interrole conflict occurs when several roles are held by a role occupant that involve incompatible expectations. Person-role conflict occurs when role demands call for behaviour that is incompatible with the personality or skills of a role occupant. Managers can help prevent employee role conflict by avoiding self-contradictory messages, conferring with other role senders, being sensitive to multiple role demands, and fitting the right person to the right role.

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

59) Members of your organization are complaining that they are not sure how they should be performing their job and what methods they should be using to perform it. You have been assigned the task of finding out more about this problem in terms of what it is, what causes it, the consequences it can have, and how it can be prevented. What will you tell management about these issues?

Answer:  The problem is role ambiguity. Role ambiguity refers to a lack of clarity of job goals or methods of performing the job. A number of factors or elements can cause role ambiguity including organizational factors, role senders, and the focal person. The consequences include job stress, dissatisfaction, reduced organizational commitment, lower performance, and intentions to quit. Managers can reduce role ambiguity by providing clear performance expectations and performance feedback, especially for new employees and for those in more intrinsically ambiguous jobs.

Diff: 3     Type: ES     Page Ref: 249

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

7.4

 

1) The task force is large, successful, and experiencing moderate threat. Which factor would most likely prevent the task force from being cohesive?

  1. A) Its size
  2. B) Its success
  3. C) The threat
  4. D) Its homogeneous makeup
  5. E) Its tough initiation procedures

Answer:  A

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 253

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.4 Discuss the causes and consequences of group cohesiveness.

 

2) Highly cohesive work groups almost always

  1. A) have high levels of turnover.
  2. B) accomplish their own goals effectively.
  3. C) produce more than less cohesive groups.
  4. D) produce less than less cohesive groups.
  5. E) accomplish the goals of the organization effectively.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 254

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.4 Discuss the causes and consequences of group cohesiveness.

 

3) Which factor is least likely to promote group cohesiveness?

  1. A) Losing a contest
  2. B) Winning a contest
  3. C) Competing in a contest
  4. D) Experiencing a tough initiation into the group
  5. E) Small group size

Answer:  A

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 252

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.4 Discuss the causes and consequences of group cohesiveness.

 

4) Highly cohesive groups tend to be ________ than less cohesive groups.

  1. A) more productive
  2. B) less productive
  3. C) more or less productive
  4. D) more conflict-ridden
  5. E) larger

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 254

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.4 Discuss the causes and consequences of group cohesiveness.

5) Which of the following statements concerning group cohesiveness is FALSE?

  1. A) Smaller groups generally have a more difficult time becoming and staying cohesive.
  2. B) Groups that are tough to get into should be more attractive than those that are easy to join.
  3. C) A group becomes more attractive to its members when it has successfully accomplished some important goal.
  4. D) Under extreme threat or loss of a contest, group cohesiveness is likely to suffer.
  5. E) Voluntary turnover from highly cohesive groups should be low.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 253

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.4 Discuss the causes and consequences of group cohesiveness.

 

6) Tough initiation into a group increases group cohesiveness.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 253

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.4 Discuss the causes and consequences of group cohesiveness.

 

7) The performance of cohesive groups is consistently better than that of incohesive groups.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 254

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.4 Discuss the causes and consequences of group cohesiveness.

 

8) To increase group cohesiveness, make the group extremely difficult to get into.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 253

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.4 Discuss the causes and consequences of group cohesiveness.

 

9) Up to a point, threat promotes group cohesiveness.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 252

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.4 Discuss the causes and consequences of group cohesiveness.

 

10) Higher levels of diversity on a team will lead to higher cohesiveness.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 252

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.4 Discuss the causes and consequences of group cohesiveness.

 

11) Groups that are especially attractive to their members are labelled ________ groups.

Answer:  cohesive

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 252

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.4 Discuss the causes and consequences of group cohesiveness.

12) Competition, success, small size, and a tough initiation are part of the recipe for forming a(n) ________ group.

Answer:  cohesive

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 252

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.4 Discuss the causes and consequences of group cohesiveness.

 

13) Julia Franco, the VP of Operations at Zeta Manufacturing, is concerned about the consistently low levels of productivity in the assembly plant. At a meeting with company executives, she proposes the introduction of some social activities to increase cohesiveness among the workers, and thereby improve productivity. Gordon Wong, the VP of Human Resources, disagrees. “This group of workers is known to frequent the local pub everyday after work and vacation together on long weekends. If you increase cohesiveness any further, productivity will probably come to a complete halt!” Who do you think is correct? Explain your answer.

Answer:  This question is intended to test students’ understanding of the relationship between cohesiveness, norms, and performance. Like Julia, many students automatically assume that high cohesiveness will lead to improved performance. However, this is only true if the group productivity norms support the goals of the organization. If, as Gordon suggests, cohesiveness is high and group productivity norms are poor from an organizational standpoint, then increasing cohesiveness will not lead to improved performance. Julia may have to reduce the cohesiveness of the group first (e.g., by removing key members, adding new members, or perhaps introducing competition or conflict into the group) and then encourage the adoption of better performance norms, perhaps through an incentive program, as one example, before trying to increase cohesiveness.

Diff: 3     Type: ES     Page Ref: 254

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.4 Discuss the causes and consequences of group cohesiveness.

 

7.5

 

1) Which of the following is an example of a process loss?

  1. A) Performance norm
  2. B) Disjunctive task
  3. C) Reduced status
  4. D) Social loafing
  5. E) Loyalty norm

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.5 Explain the dynamics of social loafing.

 

 

2) Social loafing is an example of

  1. A) role conflict.
  2. B) role ambiguity.
  3. C) a disjunctive task.
  4. D) punctuated equilibrium.
  5. E) a process loss.

Answer:  E

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 255

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.5 Explain the dynamics of social loafing.

3) What are the two forms of social loafing?

  1. A) The free loader effect and the free rider effect
  2. B) The free loader effect and the sucker effect
  3. C) The free rider effect and the sucker effect
  4. D) The free rider effect and the solo effect
  5. E) The free rider effect and the loafer effect

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 255

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.5 Explain the dynamics of social loafing.

 

4) All of the following are ways to counteract social loafing EXCEPT

  1. A) making individual performance more visible.
  2. B) establishing a superordinate goal.
  3. C) increasing performance feedback.
  4. D) increasing feelings of indispensability.
  5. E) making sure that the work is interesting.

Answer:  B

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 256

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.5 Explain the dynamics of social loafing.

 

5) Social loafing is a motivation problem.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 3     Type: TF     Page Ref: 255

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.5 Explain the dynamics of social loafing.

 

6) Social loafing is a ________ problem.

Answer:  motivation

Diff: 3     Type: SA     Page Ref: 255

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.5 Explain the dynamics of social loafing.

 

 

7) In the ________, people lower their effort to get a free ride at the expense of their fellow group members.

Answer:  free rider effect

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 255

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.5 Explain the dynamics of social loafing.

 

8) In the ________, people lower their effort because of the feeling that others are free riding, that is, they are trying to restore equity in the group.

Answer:  sucker effect

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 255

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.5 Explain the dynamics of social loafing.

9) The tendency to withhold physical or ________ effort when performing a group task is called social loafing.

Answer:  intellectual

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 255

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.5 Explain the dynamics of social loafing.

 

10) Describe the two main forms of social loafing. What are some ways to counteract them?

Answer:  Free rider effect and sucker effect. Ways to counteract them include increasing the visibility of individual performance, making the work more interesting, increasing workers’ feelings of indispensability, increasing performance feedback, and rewarding group performance.

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 255

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.5 Explain the dynamics of social loafing.

 

11) You have just formed a group as a part of a class assignment to complete a group project. You are concerned that some of the group members are not going to put in the physical or intellectual effort required to complete their tasks. What is this called and what are its different forms? What can you to prevent this problem in your group?

Answer:  The problem is social loafing which refers to the tendency to withhold physical or intellectual effort when performing a group task. The two forms of it are the free rider effect and the sucker effect. To prevent or counteract social loafing you can make individual performance more visible, making the work more interesting, increase group members’ feelings of indispensability, increase performance feedback, and reward group performance.

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 255

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.5 Explain the dynamics of social loafing.

 

 

7.6

 

1) Conventional specialized ________ usually disappear when effective self-managed teams are used by organizations.

  1. A) norms
  2. B) aspirations
  3. C) tasks
  4. D) values
  5. E) roles

Answer:  E

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 258

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.6 Discuss how to design and support self-managed teams.

2) A successful self-managed work team would probably NOT be

  1. A) extremely large.
  2. B) high in social skills.
  3. C) highly cohesive.
  4. D) performing an interesting task.
  5. E) high in expertise.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 258

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.6 Discuss how to design and support self-managed teams.

 

3) Which factor is most important in leading to the success of a self-managed work team?

  1. A) Extra pay
  2. B) Large size
  3. C) An interesting task
  4. D) Great similarity of members
  5. E) Great diversity of members

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 257

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.6 Discuss how to design and support self-managed teams.

 

4) Self-managed work groups typically

  1. A) are used only for white-collar work.
  2. B) have highly specialized, carefully defined roles within the group.
  3. C) suffer from the free rider effect.
  4. D) perform best when assigned to very routine tasks.
  5. E) must have stable membership to be effective.

Answer:  E

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 258

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.6 Discuss how to design and support self-managed teams.

 

5) What kind of tasks are most appropriate for self-managed work groups?

  1. A) Blue-collar
  2. B) White-collar
  3. C) Complex and challenging
  4. D) Routine and boring
  5. E) Conjunctive

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 257

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.6 Discuss how to design and support self-managed teams.

6) The team members’ shared beliefs that their team can successfully perform a given task is known as

  1. A) self-efficacy.
  2. B) mutual-gain.
  3. C) collective efficacy.
  4. D) mutual satisfaction.
  5. E) collective self-interest.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 256

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.6 Discuss how to design and support self-managed teams.

 

7) Just because a sports team has the most talented players, it does not necessarily mean the team will be the most successful in the league. The team usually needs to have a strong sense of ________ in order to become better than simply the sum of its players.

  1. A) fear
  2. B) homogeneity
  3. C) ethnic diversity
  4. D) self-efficacy
  5. E) collective efficacy

Answer:  E

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 256

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.6 Discuss how to design and support self-managed teams.

 

 

8) The textbook cites the example of how job seekers at Britain’s Pret A Manger sandwich and coffee shops must work in a shop for a day and then the staff votes on whether the person can join the team. This is one strategy that can be used to help ensure the ________ of a new employee.

  1. A) heredity
  2. B) compensation
  3. C) homogeneity
  4. D) heterogeneity
  5. E) fit

Answer:  E

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 258

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.6 Discuss how to design and support self-managed teams.

 

9) What kind of jobs have self-managed teams been used for?

  1. A) White-collar
  2. B) Blue-collar
  3. C) White-collar and blue-collar
  4. D) Medical and professional
  5. E) Professional

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 257

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.6 Discuss how to design and support self-managed teams.

10) All of the following are common areas of training for self-managed teams EXCEPT for

  1. A) technical training.
  2. B) social skills training.
  3. C) language skills training.
  4. D) business training.
  5. E) quality control training.

Answer:  E

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 259

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.6 Discuss how to design and support self-managed teams.

 

11) Shared beliefs that a team can successfully perform a given task is known as

  1. A) group cohesiveness.
  2. B) superordinate goals.
  3. C) shared mental models.
  4. D) collective efficacy.
  5. E) social norms.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 256

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.6 Discuss how to design and support self-managed teams.

 

12) What is collective efficacy?

  1. A) shared beliefs that a team can successfully achieve a goal
  2. B) shared beliefs that a team can successfully perform a given task
  3. C) team members share identical information about how they should interact and what their task is
  4. D) attractive outcomes that can only be achieved by collaboration
  5. E) shared beliefs that a team will outperform other teams

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 256

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.6 Discuss how to design and support self-managed teams.

 

13) Self-managed work teams are most effective when the tasks that they are required to perform are simple rather than complex.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 257

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.6 Discuss how to design and support self-managed teams.

 

14) Self-managed work teams are most effective when the members develop a very high degree of role specialization.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 258

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.6 Discuss how to design and support self-managed teams.

15) Self-managed work teams are most effective when they experience a fairly high degree of member turnover. This prevents the team from becoming “stale.”

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 258

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.6 Discuss how to design and support self-managed teams.

 

16) Collective efficacy refers to shared beliefs that a team can outperform other teams.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 256

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.6 Discuss how to design and support self-managed teams.

 

17) Collective efficacy refers to shared beliefs that a team can successfully perform a given task.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 256

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.6 Discuss how to design and support self-managed teams.

 

 

18) Rules and procedures are an important principle for the effectiveness of self-managed teams.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 262

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.6 Discuss how to design and support self-managed teams.

 

19) ________ provide their members with the opportunity to do challenging work under reduced supervision.

Answer:  Self-managed work teams

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 257

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.6 Discuss how to design and support self-managed teams.

 

20) Conventional highly specialized ________ generally disappear in effective self-managed work groups.

Answer:  roles

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 258

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.6 Discuss how to design and support self-managed teams.

 

21) Collective ________ consists of shared beliefs that a team can successfully perform a given task.

Answer:  efficacy

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 256

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.6 Discuss how to design and support self-managed teams.

22) What are self-managed teams and how should they be designed in terms of tasks, composition, and support.

Answer:  Self-managed teams are groups that have the opportunity to do challenging work under reduced supervision. The tasks assigned to self-managed teams should be complex and challenging, requiring high interdependence among team members for accomplishment. The tasks should have the qualities of enriched jobs. In order for a self-managed team to become effective, its composition should focus on: stability of group membership; small size; members with a high level of task expertise and social skills; members similar enough to work well together but diverse enough to bring a variety of perspectives and skills to the task at hand. Support factors that can assist self-managed teams in staying effective are: training in various areas, rewards tied to team accomplishment, and management support that encourages independence.

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 257

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.6 Discuss how to design and support self-managed teams.

 

 

7.7

 

1) All relevant specialties should be included when designing

  1. A) virtual teams.
  2. B) self-managed teams.
  3. C) cross-functional teams.
  4. D) any kind of team.
  5. E) task forces.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 261

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.7 Explain the logic behind cross-functional teams, and describe how they can operate effectively.

 

2) When team members share identical information about how they should interact and what their task is, they are experiencing

  1. A) shared mental models.
  2. B) shared status.
  3. C) shared litmus testing.
  4. D) shared heritage.
  5. E) shared leadership.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 262

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.7 Explain the logic behind cross-functional teams, and describe how they can operate effectively.

3) Instilling shared mental models in many cross-functional teams can often be challenging because of the

  1. A) reluctance to agree on what the project is.
  2. B) avoidance of revealing that each person has an opinion.
  3. C) slow moving process of working in a cross-functional team.
  4. D) resistance to cross-functional teams in organizations.
  5. E) divergent backgrounds of the team members.

Answer:  E

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 262

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.7 Explain the logic behind cross-functional teams, and describe how they can operate effectively.

 

 

4) Work groups that bring people with different functional specialties together to better invent, design, or deliver a product or service are called

  1. A) self-managed teams.
  2. B) virtual teams.
  3. C) task forces.
  4. D) cross-functional teams.
  5. E) formal teams.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 261

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.7 Explain the logic behind cross-functional teams, and describe how they can operate effectively.

 

5) What do Rubbermaid and Novartis and Wyeth have in common?

  1. A) They have used virtual teams.
  2. B) They have used self-managed teams.
  3. C) They have used cross-functional teams.
  4. D) They have used diverse work teams.
  5. E) They have all used task forces.

Answer:  C

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 261

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.7 Explain the logic behind cross-functional teams, and describe how they can operate effectively.

 

6) Superordinate goals are an important factor that contribute to the effectiveness of

  1. A) cohesive groups.
  2. B) virtual teams.
  3. C) cross-functional teams.
  4. D) self-managed teams.
  5. E) diverse groups.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 261

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.7 Explain the logic behind cross-functional teams, and describe how they can operate effectively.

 

7) The Really Sweet Candy Company is interested in developing new and innovative types of candy and has decided to form cross-functional teams. Which of the following is NOT something they need to consider if they want to ensure that the teams are effective?

  1. A) composition
  2. B) superordinate goals
  3. C) technical training
  4. D) autonomy
  5. E) rules and procedures

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 261

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.7 Explain the logic behind cross-functional teams, and describe how they can operate effectively.

 

8) A cross-functional team can also be self-managed.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 261

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.7 Explain the logic behind cross-functional teams, and describe how they can operate effectively.

 

9) Superordinate goals are especially important for the effectiveness of self-managed teams.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 261

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.7 Explain the logic behind cross-functional teams, and describe how they can operate effectively.

 

10) Training is an important principle for the effectiveness of cross-functional teams.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 259

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.7 Explain the logic behind cross-functional teams, and describe how they can operate effectively.

 

11) The term for a team composed of individuals from several different departments is a ________ team.

Answer:  cross-functional

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 261

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.7 Explain the logic behind cross-functional teams, and describe how they can operate effectively.

 

 

12) Superordinate goals are attractive outcomes that can only be achieved by ________.

Answer:  collaboration

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 261

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.7 Explain the logic behind cross-functional teams, and describe how they can operate effectively.

13) Cross-functional team leaders need especially strong ________ skills in addition to task expertise.

Answer:  people

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 262

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.7 Explain the logic behind cross-functional teams, and describe how they can operate effectively.

 

14) ________ are attractive outcomes that can only be achieved by collaboration.

Answer:  Superordinate

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 261

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.7 Explain the logic behind cross-functional teams, and describe how they can operate effectively.

 

15) Shared ________ models mean that the team members share identical information about how they should interact and what their task is.

Answer:  mental

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 262

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.7 Explain the logic behind cross-functional teams, and describe how they can operate effectively.

 

16) What does it mean when a project team is comprised of members with shared mental models? Please explain and provide a clear example. Why is it more challenging to have shared mental models in cross-functional teams?

Answer:  Shared mental models mean that team members share identical information about how they should interact and what their task is. (Insert example). Cross-functional teams present particular challenges because each team member is coming from a different part of the organization and/or has a different kind of professional background (e.g., Marketing versus Engineering).

Diff: 3     Type: ES     Page Ref: 262

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.7 Explain the logic behind cross-functional teams, and describe how they can operate effectively.

 

 

17) What are cross-functional teams and what factors contribute to their effectiveness?

Answer:  Cross-functional teams are work groups that bring people with different functional specialties together to better invent, design, or deliver a product or service. The factors that contribute to their effectiveness include: composition that consists of all relevant specialties; superordinate goals; close physical proximity of team members; autonomy from the larger organization; some basic decision rules and procedures; and leaders with strong people skills in addition to task expertise.

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 261

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.7 Explain the logic behind cross-functional teams, and describe how they can operate effectively.

7.8

 

1) Which of the following is a primary feature of virtual teams?

  1. A) Team member stability
  2. B) Small group size
  3. C) Diversity of members
  4. D) Lack of face-to-face contact
  5. E) Superordinate goals

Answer:  D

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 262

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

2) The technologies used by virtual teams tend to be

  1. A) either asynchronous or synchronous ones.
  2. B) asynchronous ones.
  3. C) synchronous ones.
  4. D) chat and groupware.
  5. E) email, faxes, and voice mail.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 262

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

 

3) Virtual teams are

  1. A) groups that exist throughout an organization and include customers and suppliers.
  2. B) groups that use technology to accomplish their tasks and communicate with other groups in the organization.
  3. C) groups of people who have expertise in technology and are always available when a task needs to be completed.
  4. D) groups that use technology to communicate and collaborate across time, space, and organizational boundaries.
  5. E) groups of individuals who are always available when the organization needs to form a team.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 262

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

4) Which of the following is the most accurate statement about virtual teams?

  1. A) Although they were once a dream, they are now spreading and are used by numerous companies.
  2. B) Although they were once a dream, they are now being used by a small and select group of companies.
  3. C) Although they still remain a dream, some companies are now experimenting with them.
  4. D) Although they still remain a dream, some companies plan to begin using them in the next five to ten years.
  5. E) Although they were once a dream, it now appears that they will never deliver the benefits that many had hoped for.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 262

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

5) Which one of the following is NOT an advantage of virtual teams?

  1. A) Around-the-clock work
  2. B) Reduced travel time
  3. C) Reduced cost
  4. D) Larger talent pool
  5. E) Trust

Answer:  E

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 263

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

 

6) Research on virtual teams has found that, compared to face-to-face teams, virtual teams engage in a

  1. A) larger volume of information sharing.
  2. B) lower volume of information sharing.
  3. C) similar volume of information sharing.
  4. D) lower volume of unique information sharing.
  5. E) larger volume of redundant information sharing.

Answer:  B

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 265

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

7) A major disadvantage of virtual teams is that they increase

  1. A) instances of discrimination.
  2. B) stereotyping.
  3. C) the formation of cliques.
  4. D) personality conflicts.
  5. E) miscommunication.

Answer:  E

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 264

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

8) What type of group has a uniqueness advantage?

  1. A) Self-managed teams
  2. B) Virtual teams
  3. C) Cohesive teams
  4. D) Diverse teams
  5. E) Cross-functional teams

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 265

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

 

9) Which of the following is most accurate about virtual teams compared to face-to-face teams?

  1. A) Virtual teams engage in a larger volume of information sharing but are more likely to share unique information.
  2. B) Virtual teams engage in a lower volume of information sharing and are less likely to share unique information.
  3. C) Virtual teams engage in a larger volume of information sharing and are less likely to share unique information.
  4. D) Virtual teams engage in a lower volume of information sharing but are more likely to share unique information.
  5. E) Virtual teams engage in a lower volume of information sharing that is more likely to be redundant information.

Answer:  D

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 265

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

10) Hybrid teams that combine face-to-face interaction with virtual interaction are especially likely to

  1. A) be cohesive.
  2. B) share information.
  3. C) experience role ambiguity.
  4. D) experience role conflict.
  5. E) have social loafing problems.

Answer:  B

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 265

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

11) Virtual teams are often cross-functional in nature.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 262

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

12) The technologies of virtual teams are usually just asynchronous ones.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 262

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

13) Virtual teams allow for a better work-life balance.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 263

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

 

14) One of the primary features of virtual teams is the lack of face-to-face contact between team members.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 262

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

15) The recruitment of members for virtual teams should focus on good technical expertise rather than interpersonal skills.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 265

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

16) An important characteristic of virtual teams is that the members do not need to get to know each other.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 265

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

17) In many cases, virtual teams falter not due to weak technical skills but due to poor communication and cooperation.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 265

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

18) Virtual teams engage in a lower volume of information sharing compared to face-to-face teams.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 265

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

19) The uniqueness advantage has to do with cross-functional teams.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 265

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

20) Virtual teams are more likely to share unique information than face-to-face teams.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 265

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

21) The performance of virtual teams is especially dependent on them having a high volume of open communication.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 265

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

22) Hybrid teams that combine face-to-face interaction with virtual interaction are least likely to share information.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 265

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

23) Virtual teams are often ________ in nature.

Answer:  cross-functional

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 262

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

24) Virtual teams are work groups that use technology to communicate and collaborate across time, space, and organizational ________.

Answer:  boundaries

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 262

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

25) Along with their reliance on computer and electronic technology, the primary feature of a virtual team is the lack of ________ contact between team members due to geographic dispersion.

Answer:  face-to-face

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 262

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

26) When recruiting members for virtual teams, it is important to find people with good ________ skills, not just technical expertise.

Answer:  interpersonal

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 265

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

 

27) Compared to face-to-face teams, virtual teams engage in a lower volume of ________ sharing.

Answer:  information

Diff: 3     Type: SA     Page Ref: 265

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

28) Compared to face-to-face teams, virtual teams are more likely to share ________ information which was not known by other team members.

Answer:  unique

Diff: 3     Type: SA     Page Ref: 265

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

29) The uniqueness advantage is associated with ________ teams.

Answer:  virtual

Diff: 3     Type: SA     Page Ref: 265

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

30) ________ teams can allow for a better work-life balance.

Answer:  Virtual

Diff: 3     Type: SA     Page Ref: 263

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

31) What are the lessons and things that managers should consider when developing virtual teams?

Answer:  Recruitment in terms of attitude and personality and good interpersonal skills in addition to technical expertise; invest in training for both technical and interpersonal skills; personalization (encourage team members to get to know each other); goals and ground rules should be clearly defined as well as rules for communication standards and responses, and provide feedback to keep team members informed of progress and the big picture.

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 265

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

32) Define virtual teams and discuss the advantages and challenges of virtual teams.

Answer:  Virtual teams are work groups that use technology to communicate and collaborate across time, space, and organizational boundaries. They have many advantages: around-the-clock work; reduced travel time and cost; and larger talent pool. The disadvantages are: miscommunication; the difficulty to develop trust; feelings of isolation; the costs of cutting-edge technology; and new challenges for management such as dealing with employees who are no longer in view.

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 262

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

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