Organizational Behavior 17th Edition by Stephen P. Robbins – Test Bank

$25.00

Category:

Description

INSTANT DOWNLOAD WITH ANSWERS
Organizational Behavior 17th Edition by Stephen P. Robbins – Test Bank

Organizational Behavior, 17e (Robbins)

Chapter 2   Diversity in Organizations

 

1) Kimberly Ortiz strongly believes in working for a company that promotes diversity. She believes that such organizations are respectful of differences and allow employees more exposure. She recently attended an interview where she was told that the company follows policies that focus on organizational diversity. However, when she finally joined the company, she had a strong feeling that the company’s claim was not true. Which of the following, if true, weakens Kimberly’s belief that the company does not encourage diversity?

  1. A) Eighty-five percent of the top management positions in the company are held by men.
  2. B) She is the only African-American member in the entire workforce.
  3. C) The workforce is not dominated by any specific ethnic or racial group.
  4. D) The previous company she worked for made a conscious effort to employ an equal number of men and women.
  5. E) Her team members believe that they are treated equally in spite of differences in performance.

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) The fact that the workforce is not dominated by any one ethnic or racial group indicates that the workplace has a mix of all ethnicities and races and does not discriminate. The fact that 85 percent of the top management positions of the company are held by men works against the argument because it shows that the company is biased toward men. In addition, if Kimberly is the only African-American member in the entire workforce, it shows that the company is biased toward other racial groups. Kimberly’s previously working for a company that believes in gender equality is irrelevant to this argument. Her team members being treated equally in spite of differences in performance represents unfair discrimination. It works against the argument.

LO:  2.1: Describe the two major forms of workplace diversity.

AACSB:  Reflective thinking

Difficulty:  Hard

Quest. Category:  Critical Thinking

 

2) ________ diversity refers to diversity in observable attributes such as race, ethnicity, sex, and age.

  1. A) Psychographic
  2. B) Additive
  3. C) Surface-level
  4. D) Disjunctive
  5. E) Conjunctive

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Surface-level diversity refers to differences in easily perceived characteristics, such as gender, race, ethnicity, age, and disability, that do not necessarily reflect the ways people think or feel but that may activate certain stereotypes.

LO:  2.1: Describe the two major forms of workplace diversity.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

3) Which of the following is true with respect to surface-level diversity?

  1. A) It refers to psychographic characteristics of the members of a group.
  2. B) People with surface-level diversity will also share deep-level diversity.
  3. C) It indicates differences of values, emotions and personality traits between people.
  4. D) It refers to differences in easily perceived characteristics, such as gender and race.
  5. E) It represents a person’s or group’s thought processes and feelings.

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Surface-level diversity refers to differences in easily perceived characteristics, such as gender, race, ethnicity, age, and disability, that do not necessarily reflect the ways people think or feel but that may activate certain stereotypes.

LO:  2.1: Describe the two major forms of workplace diversity.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

4) Differences in ________ indicate surface-level diversity.

  1. A) personality
  2. B) values
  3. C) style of work
  4. D) ethnicity
  5. E) attitudes

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Surface-level diversity refers to differences in easily perceived characteristics, such as gender, race, ethnicity, age, and disability, that do not necessarily reflect the ways people think or feel but that may activate certain stereotypes.

LO:  2.1: Describe the two major forms of workplace diversity.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

5) Which of the following most likely indicates surface-level similarity?

  1. A) Tim and Jake are colleagues who take risks and are quick decision makers.
  2. B) The employees at GenSys prefer teamwork over individual assignments.
  3. C) Nina and Chuck are colleagues who share similar views on corporate social responsibility.
  4. D) Jane and Sara grew up in the same town and went to school together.
  5. E) Hannah and Nate are both introspective and tend to be slow to reach decisions.

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Surface-level diversity refers to differences in easily perceived characteristics, such as gender, race, ethnicity, age, and disability, that do not necessarily reflect the ways people think or feel but that may activate certain stereotypes.

LO:  2.1: Describe the two major forms of workplace diversity.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Application

 

6) ________ diversity refers to diversity with respect to attributes that are less easy to observe initially but that can be inferred after more direct experience.

  1. A) Surface-level
  2. B) Additive
  3. C) Demographic
  4. D) Deep-level
  5. E) Conjunctive

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) As people get to know one another, they become less concerned about demographic differences if they see themselves as sharing more important characteristics, such as personality and values, that represent deep-level diversity.

LO:  2.1: Describe the two major forms of workplace diversity.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

7) Which of the following best represents deep-level similarity?

  1. A) colleagues who both hail from the same neighborhood in Alabama
  2. B) employees who are college graduates with a degree in business management
  3. C) employees who speak Spanish and share similar religious values
  4. D) employees who seek challenges in assignments and like to work collaboratively
  5. E) employees in their mid-thirties with 10 years’ work experience in the publishing industry

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Demographics mostly reflect surface-level diversity, not thoughts and feelings, and can lead employees to perceive one another through stereotypes and assumptions. However, evidence has shown that as people get to know one another, they become less concerned about demographic differences if they see themselves as sharing more important characteristics, such as personality and values, that represent deep-level diversity.

LO:  2.1: Describe the two major forms of workplace diversity.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

8) Malcolm Industries recently hired a large number of workers for the company’s new construction factory in Colorado. During the hiring process, the management made a clear effort to recruit physically strong individuals because the work at the factory involves manual labor. The jobs need to be performed by individuals who have the energy and physical stamina to work for long hours. Which of the following surface-level characteristics did the company most likely concentrate on when selecting the new workers?

  1. A) age
  2. B) values
  3. C) beliefs
  4. D) religion
  5. E) personality

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Surface-level diversity refers to differences in easily perceived characteristics, such as gender, race, ethnicity, age, and disability, that do not necessarily reflect the ways people think or feel but that may activate certain stereotypes.

LO:  2.1: Describe the two major forms of workplace diversity.

AACSB:  Analytical thinking

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Application

 

9) A difference in ________ would indicate deep-level diversity.

  1. A) gender
  2. B) age
  3. C) ethnicity
  4. D) disability
  5. E) values

Answer:  E

Explanation:  E) Deep-level diversity comprises differences in values, personality, and work preferences that become progressively more important for determining similarity as people get to know one another better.

LO:  2.1: Describe the two major forms of workplace diversity.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

 

10) ________ differences between people represent deep-level diversity.

  1. A) Race
  2. B) Age
  3. C) Ethnicity
  4. D) Gender
  5. E) Personality

Answer:  E

Explanation:  E) Deep-level diversity comprises differences in values, personality, and work preferences that become progressively more important for determining similarity as people get to know one another better.

LO:  2.1: Describe the two major forms of workplace diversity.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

11) The management at Climate Action Development needs to recruit campaign managers for its Renewable Energy Project. They are looking for candidates who are assertive, extroverted, and who can tackle challenges head-on. Which of the following deep-level characteristics should they focus on to best help them recruit the right candidate for the job?

  1. A) race
  2. B) age
  3. C) ethnicity
  4. D) values
  5. E) personality

Answer:  E

Explanation:  E) Deep-level diversity comprises differences in values, personality, and work preferences that become progressively more important for determining similarity as people get to know one another better.

LO:  2.1: Describe the two major forms of workplace diversity.

AACSB:  Analytical thinking

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Application

 

12) Over the past 50 years, the earnings gap between whites and other racial and ethnic groups has decreased significantly.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Over the past 50 years, the earnings gap between whites and other racial and ethnic groups has decreased significantly.

LO:  2.1: Describe the two major forms of workplace diversity.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

 

13) Demographics mostly reflect deep-level rather than surface-level diversity.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Demographics mostly reflect surface-level diversity, not thoughts and feelings, and can lead employees to perceive one another through stereotypes and assumptions. However, evidence has shown that as people get to know one another, they become less concerned about demographic differences if they see themselves as sharing more important characteristics, such as personality and values, that represent deep-level diversity.

LO:  2.1: Describe the two major forms of workplace diversity.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

14) Two colleagues who bond over similarities of growing up in a French-speaking locality can be said to have deep-level similarities rather than surface-level similarities.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Differences in easily perceived characteristics, such as gender, race, ethnicity, age, and disability, that do not necessarily reflect the ways people think or feel but that may activate certain stereotypes are known as surface-level diversity.

LO:  2.1: Describe the two major forms of workplace diversity.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Application

15) Differences in easily perceived characteristics, such as gender, race, ethnicity, age, and disability, give rise to surface-level diversity. The Atalissa scandal serves as a reminder that true fairness is not just a warm feeling toward the disabled, but the ethical responsibility of us all.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Differences in easily perceived characteristics, such as gender, race, ethnicity, age, and disability, that do not necessarily reflect the ways people think or feel but that may activate certain stereotypes are known as surface-level diversity. The exploitation of the disabled men in the opening story is a tragic example of mistreating people for the ways in which they are different. Not only were the men abused by their supposed caretakers, but they also suffered workplace discrimination that kept them in debilitating roles without regard to their abilities and needs. In this chapter, we look at how organizations should work to maximize the potential contributions of a diverse workforce.

LO:  2.1: Describe the two major forms of workplace diversity.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Application

 

 

16) List some of the concerns that HR managers are likely to face with a changing workforce.

Answer:  The aging of the workforce is the most significant concern of HR managers. The loss of skills resulting from the retirement of many baby boomers, increased medical costs due to an aging workforce, and many employees’ needs to care for elderly relatives will also gain prominence. Other issues include developing multilingual training materials and providing work-life benefits for dual-career couples. In addition, managers will have to encourage diversity in age, race, gender, ethnicity, religion, and disability status and deal with the challenges that it brings.

LO:  2.1: Describe the two major forms of workplace diversity.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Hard

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

17) Explain the play of surface-level similarity and deep-level diversity in a workplace environment with the help of an example.

Answer:  Yoko and Kishi who work in a finance firm both hail from Miyagi. They speak Japanese fluently and easily bonded over their shared culture and love for karaoke. Such similarities refer to surface-level similarities. However, a few months later, when they had to work on an account together, they faced several disagreements due to differences in their work styles and personalities. Yoko was more impulsive and liked to make quick decisions. On the other hand, Kishi liked to deliberate over decisions and implementation processes. In addition, Yoko was optimistic about situations whereas Kishi was overly critical and skeptical about most processes. These fundamental differences in beliefs and thought processes resulted in clashes between them. Such differences represent deep-level diversity.

LO:  2.1: Describe the two major forms of workplace diversity.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Hard

Quest. Category:  Synthesis

18) Define surface-level diversity and deep-level diversity.

Answer:  Surface-level diversity refers to differences in easily perceived characteristics, such as gender, race, ethnicity, age, and disability, that do not necessarily reflect the ways people think or feel but that may activate certain stereotypes. On the other hand, differences in values, personality, and work preferences that become progressively more important for determining similarity as people get to know one another better are categorized under deep-level diversity.

LO:  2.1: Describe the two major forms of workplace diversity.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

 

19) The human resources department of Orbit Bank believes in being unbiased toward all employees and treating them fairly. They believe it is crucial that the company treat all their employees equally. However Susan Daniels, an employee at the bank, recently filed a lawsuit against the company, claiming that she was discriminated against. Which of the following, if true, best justifies Susan’s action?

  1. A) The company did not give her preferential treatment even though she was from the host country.
  2. B) She was asked whether she was over eighteen during the first round in the interview process.
  3. C) Her colleagues expressed their dissatisfaction over their pay and severance packages.
  4. D) She had faced a similar situation of discrimination in her previous company.
  5. E) She was given the same incentives as her colleagues in spite of performing better than them.

Answer:  E

Explanation:  E) Orbit Bank discriminated against Susan by giving her the same incentives as her colleagues even though she performed better than them. If the company gave her preferential treatment because she was from the host country, the company would then be discriminating against the other employees. Asking whether she is over eighteen years of age is a question that interviewers are allowed to ask during the interview process to ensure the candidate is legally allowed to gain employment. Whether Susan faced a similar situation in the previous company is irrelevant to the argument. Susan’s colleagues stating their unhappiness about their pay and severance package is not related to Susan filing a lawsuit against the company for discriminating against her.

LO:  2.2: Demonstrate how workplace discrimination undermines organizational effectiveness.

AACSB:  Reflective thinking

Difficulty:  Hard

Quest. Category:  Critical Thinking

20) In a workplace, ________ involves overt threats or bullying directed at members of specific groups of employees.

  1. A) intimidation
  2. B) risk aversion
  3. C) inequity aversion
  4. D) optimism bias
  5. E) ambiguity aversion

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) In a workplace, intimidation involves overt threats or bullying directed at members of specific groups of employees.

LO:  2.2: Demonstrate how workplace discrimination undermines organizational effectiveness.

AACSB:  Ethical understanding and reasoning

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

 

21) April’s colleague Nathan has consistently pestered her to go out on a date with him. Though she has refused his offer several times, he keeps persisting. She found an envelope on her desk from Nathan with inappropriate pictures and cartoons, which left her infuriated. She now intends to go discuss the matter with the human resource department of her company. Which of the following forms of discrimination is April most likely to cite?

  1. A) sexual harassment
  2. B) cyberstalking
  3. C) mobbing
  4. D) exclusion
  5. E) electronic harassment

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Sexual harassment refers to unwanted sexual advances and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature that create a hostile or offensive work environment.

LO:  2.2: Demonstrate how workplace discrimination undermines organizational effectiveness.

AACSB:  Analytical thinking

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Application

 

22) Which of the following refers to a kind of discrimination that refers to overt threats or bullying directed at members of specific groups of employees?

  1. A) intimidation
  2. B) impact bias
  3. C) inequity aversion
  4. D) framing effect
  5. E) benefaction

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Intimidation is a kind of discrimination which refers to overt threats or bullying directed at members of specific groups of employees.

LO:  2.2: Demonstrate how workplace discrimination undermines organizational effectiveness.

AACSB:  Ethical understanding and reasoning

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

23) Which of the following is the best example of the use of intimidation?

  1. A) Anya’s boss, Kira, sets difficult targets and hints that Anya may lose her job if she doesn’t meet them.
  2. B) Jill’s manager, Steve, rarely considers her business ideas, but he consistently praises the contributions of Jill’s colleague, Emily.
  3. C) Natasha’s colleagues often make jokes using cultural or ethnic stereotypes.
  4. D) Although Kathleen had spent a longer time in the organization, her colleague Gary was promoted to a management position.
  5. E) Jane’s colleagues recently forgot to invite her to a team lunch, a fact that caused her great distress.

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Intimidation is a kind of discrimination which refers to overt threats or bullying directed at members of specific groups of employees.

LO:  2.2: Demonstrate how workplace discrimination undermines organizational effectiveness.

AACSB:  Analytical thinking

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Application

 

24) Hazel Samuels has been working at her company for the past two years and consistently gets yelled at by her manager even when she is not at fault. He often makes derogatory references to her ethnicity. In addition, during team meetings, she is his target for practical jokes and nasty pranks. She is extremely upset and decides not to be subjected to such treatment any longer. Which of the following kinds of discrimination is she most likely to report to the human resource department in such a situation?

  1. A) intimidation
  2. B) sexual harassment
  3. C) hazing
  4. D) mobbing
  5. E) whistle-blowing

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Intimidation is a kind of discrimination which refers to overt threats or bullying directed at members of specific groups of employees.

LO:  2.2: Demonstrate how workplace discrimination undermines organizational effectiveness.

AACSB:  Analytical thinking

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Application

 

25) Which of the following is the best example of mockery as a tool of discriminatory treatment in organizations?

  1. A) Rifka’s supervisor often stereotypes Rifka because of her ethnic heritage and makes jokes about her ethnicity.
  2. B) Because she is considerably older than the rest of her team, Hannah’s colleagues often do not invite her to team lunches or informal team get-togethers.
  3. C) Joan’s boss sets impossible targets and reprimands her in front of her colleagues if she fails to complete them on time.
  4. D) Sheena is the only African-American employee in her department and often feels left out of office jokes and gossip.
  5. E) Most of Leanne’s co-workers are male and share inappropriate jokes at the office.

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Mockery often refers to jokes or jokes about negative stereotypes.

LO:  2.2: Demonstrate how workplace discrimination undermines organizational effectiveness.

AACSB:  Analytical thinking

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Application

 

26) A person who is made fun of because he is an Arab-American is being subjected to ________, a kind of discrimination in work environments.

  1. A) mockery
  2. B) vandalism
  3. C) cyberstalking
  4. D) gaslighting
  5. E) monomania

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Mockery often refers to jokes or jokes about negative stereotypes. For instance, Arab-Americans have been asked at work whether they were carrying bombs or were members of terrorist organizations. This is an example of mockery.

LO:  2.2: Demonstrate how workplace discrimination undermines organizational effectiveness.

AACSB:  Ethical understanding and reasoning

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

 

27) Stacy Hanes is an African-American woman who has recently taken her first job and does not seem to like the work environment at all. Her colleagues put down her ideas at team meetings and refer to them as “stupid.” In addition, they make fun of her race and often ask her if she is educated enough to work for the company. Which of the following kinds of discrimination is Hanes most likely subject to?

  1. A) mockery
  2. B) sexual harassment
  3. C) stalking
  4. D) deception
  5. E) subterfuge

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Jokes or negative stereotypes, which are sometimes the result of jokes taken too far, refer to mockery and insults.

LO:  2.2: Demonstrate how workplace discrimination undermines organizational effectiveness.

AACSB:  Analytical thinking

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Application

28) ________, which may occur intentionally or unintentionally, refers to keeping certain people in a work place away from job opportunities, social events, discussions, or informal mentoring.

  1. A) Exclusion
  2. B) Mockery
  3. C) Stalking
  4. D) Ragging
  5. E) Bullying

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Exclusion of certain people from job opportunities, social events, discussions, or informal mentoring may occur unintentionally. For instance, many women in finance claim they are assigned to marginal job roles or are given light workloads that do not lead to promotion.

LO:  2.2: Demonstrate how workplace discrimination undermines organizational effectiveness.

AACSB:  Ethical understanding and reasoning

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

 

29) Jill Ivey has been working as a sales executive at Orbit Bank for the last two years. However, she has noticed that she is often not given an opportunity to attend training programs that her team members attend every quarter. She also is disappointed about the fact that she never gets to handle corporate clients, which provides better chances of a promotion. Which of the following kinds of discrimination is she most likely to have been subjected to?

  1. A) exclusion
  2. B) mockery
  3. C) gaslighting
  4. D) destabilization
  5. E) mobbing

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Exclusion of certain people from job opportunities, social events, discussions, or informal mentoring may occur unintentionally. For instance, many women in finance claim they are assigned to marginal job roles or are given light workloads that do not lead to promotion.

LO:  2.2: Demonstrate how workplace discrimination undermines organizational effectiveness.

AACSB:  Analytical thinking

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Application

 

30) Women being assigned marginal job roles that do not lead to promotion is an example of the ________ form of discrimination.

  1. A) hazing
  2. B) gaslighting
  3. C) coercion
  4. D) exclusion
  5. E) battery

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) The exclusion of certain people from job opportunities, social events, discussions, or informal mentoring may occur unintentionally. For instance, many women in finance claim they are assigned to marginal job roles or are given light workloads that do not lead to promotion.

LO:  2.2: Demonstrate how workplace discrimination undermines organizational effectiveness.

AACSB:  Ethical understanding and reasoning

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

31) Which of the following is true with respect to workplace discrimination?

  1. A) Discrimination occurs more at lower levels in the organization than higher levels.
  2. B) It may lead to reduced productivity and citizenship behavior.
  3. C) Only intentional discrimination is addressed by diversity management efforts.
  4. D) Forms of discrimination like exclusion are easy to root out.
  5. E) The discriminators are invariably aware of their action toward the victim.

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Discrimination can occur in many ways, and its effects can be just as varied depending on the organizational context and the personal biases of its members. Discrimination can lead to serious negative consequences for employers, including reduced productivity and citizenship behavior, negative conflicts, and increased turnover.

LO:  2.2: Demonstrate how workplace discrimination undermines organizational effectiveness.

AACSB:  Ethical understanding and reasoning

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

32) Unfair discrimination involves noticing and being aware of individual characteristics among people in a group.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Unfair discrimination involves overlooking individual characteristics and assuming everyone in a group is the same. This discrimination is often very harmful to organizations and employees.

LO:  2.2: Demonstrate how workplace discrimination undermines organizational effectiveness.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

33) Effective diversity management involves eliminating unfair discrimination.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Effective diversity management involves eliminating unfair discrimination. Unfair discrimination involves overlooking individual characteristics and assuming everyone in a group is the same.

LO:  2.2: Demonstrate how workplace discrimination undermines organizational effectiveness.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

34) Women being passed over for promotion even when they are performing better than men is an example of a discriminatory practice.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Actions taken by representatives of an organization that deny equal opportunity to perform or unequal rewards for performance are known as discriminatory policies or practices.

LO:  2.2: Demonstrate how workplace discrimination undermines organizational effectiveness.

AACSB:  Ethical understanding and reasoning

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

35) Denying overseas assignments to certain deserving employees over others is a form of exclusion, a kind of workplace discrimination.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Exclusion of certain people from job opportunities, social events, discussions, or informal mentoring, which can occur unintentionally, refers to exclusion, a form of workplace discrimination.

LO:  2.2: Demonstrate how workplace discrimination undermines organizational effectiveness.

AACSB:  Ethical understanding and reasoning

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Application

 

36) Explain how surface-level similarity can lead to unfair discrimination. Substantiate your answer with the help of a scenario.

Answer:  Regina works as a sales manager in Rhode Island’s Corporation Bank. She strongly believes that as a manager, she plays an important role to ensure that all employees are treated equally in the company. She notices that one of her sales teams comprises Teresa, Gloria, and Antonio, who all hail from Madrid. All three graduated from the same university and began their careers with Alliance Bank. In the last few months, Regina has had a chance to review Teresa’s work and notices that she has made an exceptional number of sales in the past year, way above her set targets. When it comes to giving bonuses, she assumes that since Teresa, Gloria, and Antonio have such similar educational and professional backgrounds, they are bound to have similar productivity standards. She offers all three of them the same bonus without analyzing individual performances, assuming they performed equally well. Regina’s behavior in this scenario can be characterized as unfair discrimination. A person who undertakes unfair discrimination rather than looking at individual characteristics assumes everyone in a group is the same. She is stereotyping all three employees because they have surface-level similarities of similar educational and professional backgrounds.

LO:  2.2: Demonstrate how workplace discrimination undermines organizational effectiveness.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Hard

Quest. Category:  Synthesis

 

37) Compare and contrast unfair discrimination and diversity management.

Answer:  Unfair discrimination assumes everyone in a group is the same. This discrimination is often very harmful to organizations and employees. Diversity management, on the other hand, makes everyone more aware of and sensitive to the needs and differences of others. This definition highlights the fact that diversity programs include and are meant for everyone. For instance, if a manager promotes all employees in a team when only one employee deserves a promotion, the manager is engaging in unfair discrimination. If the manager, on the other hand, makes his/her team recognize and respect differences between team members, the manager is undertaking diversity management.

LO:  2.2: Demonstrate how workplace discrimination undermines organizational effectiveness.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Synthesis

 

38) Explain three different kinds of workplace discrimination.

Answer:  Sexual harassment refers to verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature that creates a hostile or offensive work environment. Intimidation refers to overt threats or bullying directed at members of specific groups of employees. Exclusion is another kind of workplace discrimination where certain people are excluded from job opportunities, social events, discussions, or informal mentoring, and it can occur unintentionally.

LO:  2.2: Demonstrate how workplace discrimination undermines organizational effectiveness.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

39) Compare and contrast exclusion and intimidation at workplaces with the help of an example.

Answer:  Ally Beal has been working in a law firm for the last two years and has been bullied by her manager ever since she joined. She is given targets that are impossible to complete within the given time frame. When she is unable to complete her work, her manager admonishes her in front of everyone. Intimidation may be defined as overt threats or bullying directed at members of specific groups of employees. In contrast, exclusion involves certain people being excluded from job opportunities, social events, discussions, or informal mentoring. If Beal is excluded from discussions that involve making decisions about client’s accounts, which are being attended by all other team members, she is being subjected to exclusion.

LO:  2.2: Demonstrate how workplace discrimination undermines organizational effectiveness.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Synthesis

 

40) With the help of an example, explain incivility as a form of indiscrimination at workplaces.

Answer:  Incivility refers to disrespectful treatment, including behaving in an aggressive manner, interrupting a person, or ignoring his/her opinions. For instance, if Mark’s colleagues never listen to his ideas or suggestions, he is experiencing incivility. In addition, incivility may also involve his colleagues behaving in a hostile or threatening manner. This form of discrimination is especially hard to root out because it is impossible to observe and may occur simply because the actor is not aware of the effects of his/her actions.

LO:  2.2: Demonstrate how workplace discrimination undermines organizational effectiveness.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Application

 

 

41) Which of the following is a biographical characteristic of an employee?

  1. A) length of tenure
  2. B) work preferences
  3. C) personality
  4. D) values
  5. E) beliefs

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Biographical characteristics refer to personal characteristics such as age, gender, race, and length of tenure that are objective and easily obtained from personnel records. These characteristics are representative of surface-level diversity.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

42) Which of the following is true with respect to biographical characteristics?

  1. A) They are non-objective in nature and cannot be observed.
  2. B) They represent characteristics such as personality and work ethics.
  3. C) They cannot be obtained from personnel records.
  4. D) They are representative of surface-level diversity.
  5. E) They comprise features such as motivation and commitment.

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Biographical characteristics refer to personal characteristics such as age, gender, race, and length of tenure that are objective and easily obtained from personnel records. These characteristics are representative of surface-level diversity.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

43) Which of the following explains why the relationship between age and job performance is likely to be of increasing importance during the next decade?

  1. A) The workforce is shrinking, and older workers are compelled to work beyond retirement.
  2. B) A decline in immigration has opened up more entry-level positions for older workers.
  3. C) Increasing job opportunities are opening up in the domestic sector, resulting in a dearth of employees.
  4. D) U.S. legislation, in effect, outlaws mandatory retirement.
  5. E) A majority of people believe that productivity rises as a person grows older.

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) U.S. legislation, for all intents and purposes, outlaws mandatory retirement. Most U.S. workers today no longer have to retire at age 70.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

44) Raylon Inc. is in the process of recruiting a new operations manager. The human resources team has narrowed the candidate list down to two candidates but cannot come to an agreement about whom to hire. Though both candidates have the relevant qualifications for the post, one will soon be 60 years old. The other candidate is in his early thirties. Rachel, a member of the HR team, recommends hiring the older candidate, citing his years of experience and leadership ability. Tim, on the other hand, strongly recommends that the company hire the younger candidate, as he is likely to be more flexible when it comes to working. Which of the following, if true, most strengthens Rachel’s argument?

  1. A) The job requires frequent travel around the company’s six factories located across the country.
  2. B) Most of the employees the operations manager will be supervising are under 30 years of age.
  3. C) Research has shown that older workers are more prone to absenteeism for health-related issues.
  4. D) Almost half of the company’s top managers are in the 45-65 age bracket.
  5. E) The company recently instituted a new production system that cuts waste by 30 percent.

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) The fact that most of the employees the operations manager will supervise are under 30 indicates that the leadership ability of the older candidate will be a valuable asset. The frequent travel requirements favor the younger candidate and work against the argument. The statistics of higher absenteeism rates for older employees favor the younger candidate. The ages of the company’s top managers are irrelevant to the argument. The new technology might make the older candidate’s experience worthless and would favor the younger candidate.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

AACSB:  Reflective thinking

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Critical Thinking

 

45) Which of the following is the most likely reason why employers should employ older workers?

  1. A) They adjust to new technology promptly.
  2. B) Older workers have extensive work experience.
  3. C) Older workers are flexible and learn quickly.
  4. D) They have shorter tenures and hence lower pension benefits than younger workers.
  5. E) The rates of unavoidable absences are lower than those of younger workers.

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Employers in the United States see a number of positive qualities older workers bring to their jobs, such as experience, judgment, a strong work ethic, and commitment to quality. But older workers are also perceived as lacking flexibility and resisting new technology.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

46) Thurman Inc., a manufacturing company in Vermont, needs to hire employees for its new office in the city. The positions require the employees to travel across the country regularly. The management has specified that they are looking for employees below the age of 40 who are young and dynamic. Which of the following beliefs is the management most likely to hold?

  1. A) Younger workers make stronger judgments.
  2. B) Younger workers are more flexible to change.
  3. C) Younger workers have more experience.
  4. D) Younger workers have stronger work ethics.
  5. E) Younger workers are more committed to quality.

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) When organizations are actively seeking individuals who are adaptable and open to change, the negatives associated with age clearly hinder the initial hiring of older workers and increase the likelihood they will be let go during cutbacks.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

47) Angela Wells recently applied for a job at Spiga, a lounge in Paris. Having worked in several restaurants and lounges in and across France, she was confident that she would get the job. However, soon after the interview, she was informed that another candidate was offered the job, even though the other candidate had limited experience in comparison to her. Angela feels that she was discriminated against. Which of the following, if true, would best justify Angela’s assumption?

  1. A) The woman who was selected over her could speak French fluently.
  2. B) Angela is a single mother with two young children.
  3. C) Angela does not have a degree in hospitality management.
  4. D) The lounge caters to elite business clientele in Paris.
  5. E) Angela learned of the position through a friend working at the lounge.

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) The fact that Angela has two young children may bias the employer against her because working mothers are often known to be inflexible when it comes to work schedules. The fact that the other candidate could speak French fluently weakens Angela’s assumption because it will help the candidate communicate better if she knows the local language. The fact that Angela does not have a degree in hospitality management weakens her assumption. The lounge catering to an elite clientele is irrelevant to this argument. In addition, Angela getting to know of the position through a friend who works at the lounge plays no role in this argument.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

AACSB:  Reflective thinking

Difficulty:  Hard

Quest. Category:  Critical Thinking

 

48) Raylon Inc. needs to hire a new floor supervisor. As the company has recently made an effort to increase diversity within the organization, the HR team wants to hire a qualified female candidate for the role instead of adequately qualified male candidates. However, top management insists that optimal performance is the top priority and that the candidate hired should be the person best suited for the job. Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen HR’s case for hiring the female candidate?

  1. A) There are nearly as many female employees on the floor as male employees.
  2. B) The company has recently introduced policies that provide greater benefits for working and single mothers.
  3. C) Most of the top-level managers in the company are female.
  4. D) The company policy stipulates that each employee has to work at least one week per month on a night shift.
  5. E) Both candidates have the qualifications required to perform up to expectations.

Answer:  E

Explanation:  E) If both candidates have the potential to perform up to expectations, hiring the female candidate will allow the company to increase diversity while maintaining its performance. The fact that there are almost as many female employees on the floor as male employees would indicate that the workforce was diverse as to gender and would weaken HR’s argument. The company’s increasing benefits for working mothers would weaken HR’s case if the candidate has children but would not affect it if she does not. The fact that most top-level managers are female weakens HR’s argument as this would indicate that the company does incorporate gender diversity. The requirement that employees work a night shift one week a month is irrelevant to the argument.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

AACSB:  Reflective thinking

Difficulty:  Hard

Quest. Category:  Critical Thinking

 

49) ________ refers to the biological heritage people use to identify themselves.

  1. A) Race
  2. B) Values
  3. C) Beliefs
  4. D) Religion
  5. E) GMA

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Race refers to the biological heritage people use to identify themselves.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

50) Green Planet, an environmental organization, recently opened an office in Indonesia. The organization is currently looking for employees to staff a deforestation project in the country. They need to recruit individuals who understand the intricacies of Jakarta’s culture and the mindset of the locals and are fluent in the local language. Which of the following are they most likely to consider while they recruit for these positions?

  1. A) race
  2. B) age
  3. C) beliefs
  4. D) gender
  5. E) length of service

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Biographical characteristics such as age, gender, race, disability, and length of service are some of the most obvious ways employees differ. Race refers to the biological heritage people use to identify themselves.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Application

 

51) ________ may be defined as an individual’s current capacity to perform the various tasks in a job.

  1. A) Ability
  2. B) Age
  3. C) Duty
  4. D) Role
  5. E) Tenure

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Ability is an individual’s current capacity to perform the various tasks in a job. Overall abilities are essentially made up of two sets of factors: intellectual and physical.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

52) Recent U.S. legislation has instituted mandatory retirement at 70 in order to ensure that jobs are available for younger workers.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  A reason that the relationship between age and job performance is likely to be of growing significance in the next decade is that U.S. legislation outlaws mandatory retirement.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

53) Older people are more likely to quit and change jobs than younger employees.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  The older a person gets, the less likely he/she is to quit a job, according to studies on the age-turnover relationship. As workers get older, they have fewer job opportunities because their skills have become more specialized to certain types of work.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

54) In general, older employees have lower rates of avoidable absence than do younger employees. However, they have equal rates of unavoidable absence, such as sickness absences.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  In general, older employees have lower rates of avoidable absence than do younger employees. However, they have equal rates of unavoidable absence, such as sickness absences.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

55) There has been a significant decrease in the female participation in the workforce over the past 40 years.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  There has been a significant increase in the female participation in the workforce over the past 40 years. In addition, rethinking of what constitutes male and female roles, we can assume no significant difference in job productivity between men and women.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

56) Studies show that satisfaction tends to continually increase among nonprofessionals as they age, whereas it falls among professionals during middle age and then rises again in the later years.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Studies show that satisfaction tends to continually increase among professionals as they age, whereas it falls among nonprofessionals during middle age and then rises again in the later years.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

57) The U.S. Bureau of the Census does not allow for classification of individuals by race.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  The U.S. Bureau of the Census classifies individuals according to seven broad racial categories: American Indian and Alaska Native, Asian, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, Some Other Race, White, and Two or More Races.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

58) Hispanics can be of any race.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  The U.S. Bureau of the Census classifies individuals according to seven broad racial categories: American Indian and Alaska Native, Asian, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, Some Other Race, White, and Two or More Races. An ethnicity distinction is also made between native English speakers and Hispanics: Hispanics can be of any race.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

59) According to the Americans with Disabilities Act, employers are under no obligation to make accommodations for individuals with physical or mental disabilities.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  With the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) in 1990, the representation of individuals with disabilities in the U.S. workforce rapidly increased. According to the ADA, employers are required to make reasonable accommodations so their workplaces will be accessible to individuals with physical or mental disabilities.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

60) A person suffering from alcoholism is not classified as disabled according to the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, as alcoholism is self-induced.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission classifies a person as disabled who has any physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities. Examples include alcoholism, diabetes, chronic back pain, missing limbs, among others.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

61) Federal law in the United States prohibits discrimination against employees based on sexual orientation.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Federal law in the United States does not prohibit discrimination against employees based on sexual orientation. However, many states and municipalities do.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

62) The relationship between age and job performance is likely to be an issue of increasing importance during the next decade. Explain.

Answer:  The relationship between age and job performance is likely to be an issue of increasing importance during the next decade for at least three reasons. First, a widespread belief is that job performance declines with increasing age. Regardless of whether this is true, a lot of people believe it and act on it. Second, the workforce is aging. For instance, many employers recognize that older workers represent a huge potential pool of high-quality applicants. The third reason is U.S. legislation that, for all intents and purposes, outlaws mandatory retirement. For instance, most U.S. workers today no longer have to retire at age 70. This may mean an increased number of older workers in the workforce.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

63) Evaluate the benefits and disadvantages of an older workforce.

Answer:  There are a number of positive qualities older workers bring to their jobs, such as experience, judgment, a strong work ethic, and commitment to quality, but older workers are also perceived as lacking flexibility and resisting new technology. When organizations are actively seeking individuals who are adaptable and open to change, the negatives associated with age clearly hinder the initial hiring of older workers and increase the likelihood they will be let go during cutbacks. As workers get older, they have fewer alternative job opportunities as their skills have become more specialized to certain types of work. Their long tenure also tends to provide them with higher wage rates, longer paid vacations, and more attractive pension benefits. In general, older employees have lower rates of avoidable absence than do younger employees. However, they have equal rates of unavoidable absence, such as sickness absences.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

64) Explain how studying individuals with disabilities is an integral part of the study of organizational behavior.

Answer:  With the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) in 1990, the representation of individuals with disabilities in the U.S. workforce rapidly increased. According to the ADA, employers are required to make reasonable accommodations so their workplaces will be accessible to individuals with physical or mental disabilities. Making inferences about the relationship between disability and employment outcomes is difficult because the term disability is so broad. The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission classifies a person as disabled who has any physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities. Some jobs obviously cannot be accommodated to some disabilities. For example, the law and common sense recognize that a blind person could not be a bus driver. However, the increasing presence of computer technology and other adaptive devices is shattering many traditional barriers to employment, making it easier for the disabled to enter the workforce.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

65) What is the significance of “reasonable accommodations” for diversity management in workplaces?

Answer:  With the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) in 1990, the representation of individuals with disabilities in the U.S. workforce rapidly increased. According to the ADA, employers are required to make reasonable accommodations so their workplaces will be accessible to individuals with physical or mental disabilities. Some jobs obviously cannot be accommodated to some disabilities. For example, the law and common sense recognize that a blind person could not be a bus driver. However, the increasing presence of computer technology and other adaptive devices is shattering many traditional barriers to employment, making it easier for the disabled to enter the workforce.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

66) Compare and contrast four different kinds of physical abilities.

Answer:  Extent flexibility is the ability to move the trunk and back muscles as far as possible. Dynamic flexibility refers to the ability to make rapid, repeated flexing movement. Both of these physical abilities can be classified under flexibility factors. Explosive strength is the ability to expend a maximum of energy in one or a series of explosive acts. In comparison, the ability to exert force against external objects is known as static strength. Both of these physical abilities can be classified under strength factors.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Synthesis

 

67) ________ is a dimension of intellectual ability which refers to the ability to understand what is read or heard and the relationship of words to each other.

  1. A) Lateral masking
  2. B) Verbal comprehension
  3. C) Depth perception
  4. D) Spatial visualization
  5. E) Visual perception

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Verbal comprehension is a dimension of intellectual ability which refers to the ability to understand what is read or heard and the relationship of words to each other.

LO:  2.4: Explain how other differentiating characteristics factor into OB.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

68) ________ refers to a dimension of intellectual ability which involves identifying a logical sequence in a problem and using this logical sequence to solve the problem.

  1. A) Inductive reasoning
  2. B) Spatial visualization
  3. C) Form perception
  4. D) Visual perception
  5. E) Visual prosthesis

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Inductive reasoning refers to the ability to identify a logical sequence and then using this logical sequence to solve the problem.

LO:  2.4: Explain how other differentiating characteristics factor into OB.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

69) ________ is a dimension of intellectual ability which involves using logic to assess the implications of an argument.

  1. A) Deductive reasoning
  2. B) Spatial visualization
  3. C) Haptic perception
  4. D) Multistable perception
  5. E) Lateral masking

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Deductive reasoning may be defined as a person’s ability to use logic and assess the implications of an argument. For instance, a supervisor choosing between two different suggestions needs to have the deductive visualization dimension of intellectual ability.

LO:  2.4: Explain how other differentiating characteristics factor into OB.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

70) Religious discrimination claims have been a shrinking source of discrimination claims in the United States.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Religious discrimination claims have been a growing source of discrimination claims in the United States.

LO:  2.4: Explain how other differentiating characteristics factor into OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

71) How does tenure, a biographical characteristic, play a role in the study of organizational behavior?

Answer:  Tenure, defined as work experience, appears to be a good predictor of employee productivity. Research relating tenure indicates how seniority is negatively related to absenteeism. In terms of both frequency of absence and total days lost at work, tenure is the single most important explanatory variable. Tenure is also a potent variable in explaining turnover. The longer a person is in a job, the less likely he/she is to quit. Moreover, consistent with research suggesting past behavior is the best predictor of future behavior, evidence indicates tenure at an employee’s previous job is a powerful predictor of that employee’s future turnover. It shows tenure and job satisfaction are positively related. When age and tenure are treated separately, tenure appears a more consistent and stable predictor of job satisfaction than age.

LO:  2.4: Explain how other differentiating characteristics factor into OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

72) When does an individual’s religious belief become an employment issue? Give examples of such instances.

Answer:  Faith can be an employment issue when religious beliefs prohibit or encourage certain behaviors. Based on their religious beliefs, some pharmacists refuse to hand out RU-486, the “morning after” abortion pill. Many Christians do not believe they should work on Sundays, and many conservative Jews believe they should not work on Saturdays. Religious individuals may also believe they have an obligation to express their beliefs in the workplace, and those who do not share those beliefs may object.

LO:  2.4: Explain how other differentiating characteristics factor into OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

73) ________ is a dimension of intellectual ability which refers to the ability to do speedy and accurate arithmetic.

  1. A) Number aptitude
  2. B) Verbal comprehension
  3. C) Deductive reasoning
  4. D) Spatial visualization
  5. E) Amodal perception

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Number aptitude is a dimension of intellectual ability which refers to the ability to do speedy and accurate arithmetic. For instance, an accountant computing sales tax on a set of items needs to have number aptitude of intellectual ability.

LO:  2.5: Demonstrate the relevance of intellectual and physical abilities to OB.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

74) Which of the following best describes spatial visualization?

  1. A) the ability to imagine how an object would look if its position were changed
  2. B) the ability to retain and recall or remember past experiences
  3. C) the ability to identify visual similarities and differences quickly and accurately
  4. D) the ability to understand what is read or heard and the relation between words
  5. E) the ability to calculate numbers in a speedy and accurate manner

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Spatial visualization refers to the ability to imagine how an object would look if its position were changed. For instance, an interior decorator redecorating an office needs to have the spatial visualization dimension of intellectual ability.

LO:  2.5: Demonstrate the relevance of intellectual and physical abilities to OB.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

75) Rene Cox works as a media officer in a global forest protection organization. Her job requires her to interact with a large number of people from the press with whom she needs to establish strong professional relationships. This requires her to remember a large number of people’s names and the organizations with which they are associated. Which of the following dimensions of intellectual ability will best help her accomplish this task?

  1. A) inductive reasoning
  2. B) spatial visualization
  3. C) memory
  4. D) visual perception
  5. E) polymodality

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Memory refers to the ability to retain and recall past experiences. For example, a salesperson who tries to remember the names of customers needs to have a good memory dimension of intellectual ability.

LO:  2.5: Demonstrate the relevance of intellectual and physical abilities to OB.

AACSB:  Analytical thinking

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Application

76) Gina Sanchez, an architect in California, is renovating an old school building and turning it into a retail and entertainment space. She must decide how the existing layout can be redesigned and modified to best suit the new uses. Which of the following dimensions of intelligence will most help Gina reimagine the existing building?

  1. A) haptic perception
  2. B) spatial visualization
  3. C) memory
  4. D) inductive reasoning
  5. E) deductive reasoning

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Spatial visualization refers to the ability to imagine how an object would look if its position were changed. For instance, an interior decorator redecorating an office needs to have the spatial visualization dimension of intellectual ability.

LO:  2.5: Demonstrate the relevance of intellectual and physical abilities to OB.

AACSB:  Analytical thinking

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Application

 

77) Irene Jones, a project manager at a water conservation foundation, is holding a team meeting to discuss the different modes of spreading awareness about the issue of water conservation to the public. A team member, John Sullivan, states that using broadcasting media is the best way to reach out to the public. On the other hand, Pamela Riley states that print media is the right medium to spread word about the issue. Jones is now weighing the pros and cons of both her team members’ suggestions before choosing the medium that will be most appropriate for the water conservation project. Which of the following dimensions of intellectual ability is Jones most likely to be using to make her decision?

  1. A) number aptitude
  2. B) spatial visualization
  3. C) memory
  4. D) lateral masking
  5. E) deductive reasoning

Answer:  E

Explanation:  E) Deductive reasoning may be defined as a person’s ability to use logic and assess the implications of an argument. In this situation, Jones is using logic to weigh the pros and cons of both broadcasting media and print media before arriving at a decision about how to reach out to the public about the issue of water conservation.

LO:  2.5: Demonstrate the relevance of intellectual and physical abilities to OB.

AACSB:  Analytical thinking

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Application

 

78) A market researcher who uses his ability to identify a logical sequence to predict demand for a new line of winter clothing is using the ________ dimension of intellectual ability.

  1. A) spatial visualization
  2. B) inductive reasoning
  3. C) verbal comprehension
  4. D) lateral masking
  5. E) deductive reasoning

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Inductive reasoning refers to the ability to identify a logical sequence and then solving the next time period problem.

LO:  2.5: Demonstrate the relevance of intellectual and physical abilities to OB.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

79) Jeremy Samuels works in a police department in California. His job often requires him to observe clues that criminals leave behind. His job is to analyze these clues, which helps the department catch the criminal. Which of the following dimensions of intellectual ability does Samuels most likely have?

  1. A) spatial visualization
  2. B) perceptual speed
  3. C) extent flexibility
  4. D) dynamic flexibility
  5. E) number aptitude

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Perceptual speed is a dimension of intellectual ability which refers to identifying visual similarities and differences quickly and accurately.

LO:  2.5: Demonstrate the relevance of intellectual and physical abilities to OB.

AACSB:  Analytical thinking

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Application

 

80) Lorna Perry, who works in a financial firm in Michigan, is required to calculate a large number of clients’ accounts daily. She needs to tally figures and check accuracy at a high speed. Which of the following dimensions of intellectual ability does Perry most likely use?

  1. A) number aptitude
  2. B) perpetual speed
  3. C) extent flexibility
  4. D) visual perception
  5. E) deductive reasoning

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Number aptitude is a dimension of intellectual ability which refers to the ability to do speedy and accurate arithmetic.

LO:  2.5: Demonstrate the relevance of intellectual and physical abilities to OB.

AACSB:  Analytical thinking

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Application

81) Audrey Smith is a renowned psychiatrist in New Jersey. While interacting with patients, she needs to understand their points of view by listening intently to what they say. It is important that she understands their problems so that she can offer advice. In such a situation, Smith is using the ________ dimension of intellectual ability.

  1. A) number aptitude
  2. B) perpetual speed
  3. C) spatial visualization
  4. D) verbal comprehension
  5. E) lateral thinking

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Verbal comprehension is a dimension of intellectual ability which refers to the ability to understand what is read or heard and the relationship of words to each other.

LO:  2.5: Demonstrate the relevance of intellectual and physical abilities to OB.

AACSB:  Analytical thinking

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Application

 

82) ________ refers to an overall factor of intelligence as suggested by the positive correlations among specific intellectual ability dimensions.

  1. A) General mental ability
  2. B) Malleable intelligence
  3. C) Extelligence
  4. D) The Flynn effect
  5. E) Virtual memory

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) General mental ability refers to an overall factor of intelligence as suggested by the positive correlations among specific intellectual ability. Evidence strongly suggests the idea that the structures and measures of intellectual abilities generalize across cultures.

LO:  2.5: Demonstrate the relevance of intellectual and physical abilities to OB.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

83) The ________ is the most widely used intelligence test in hiring decisions and takes only twelve minutes to be completed.

  1. A) Wonderlic Cognitive Ability Test
  2. B) Ammons Quick Test
  3. C) Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales
  4. D) Kohs block design test
  5. E) Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) The Wonderlic Cognitive Ability Test is the most widely used intelligence test in hiring decisions and takes only twelve minutes to be completed.

LO:  2.5: Demonstrate the relevance of intellectual and physical abilities to OB.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

84) ________ may be referred to as the capacity to undertake tasks that demand stamina, dexterity, and strength.

  1. A) Cognitive abilities
  2. B) Intellectual abilities
  3. C) Mental abilities
  4. D) Physical abilities
  5. E) Emotional intelligence

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Physical abilities may be referred to as the capacity to undertake tasks that demand stamina, dexterity, and strength. Research on many jobs has identified nine basic abilities needed in the performance of physical tasks.

LO:  2.5: Demonstrate the relevance of intellectual and physical abilities to OB.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

85) ________ refers to the ability to exert force against external objects.

  1. A) Body coordination
  2. B) Dynamic flexibility
  3. C) Static strength
  4. D) Extent flexibility
  5. E) Cognitive ability

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Physical abilities may be referred to as the capacity to undertake tasks that demand stamina, dexterity, and strength. Research on many jobs has identified nine basic abilities needed in the performance of physical tasks.

LO:  2.5: Demonstrate the relevance of intellectual and physical abilities to OB.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

86) Which of the following is a kind of physical ability which refers to the ability to make rapid, repeated flexing movements?

  1. A) equilibrium
  2. B) balance
  3. C) dynamic flexibility
  4. D) static strength
  5. E) body coordination

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Dynamic flexibility refers to the ability to make rapid, repeated flexing movements. It is one of the nine types of physical abilities which research on hundreds of jobs has identified.

LO:  2.5: Demonstrate the relevance of intellectual and physical abilities to OB.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

87) Which of the following best describes the physical ability known as trunk strength?

  1. A) the ability to maintain equilibrium despite forces pulling off balance
  2. B) the ability to coordinate the simultaneous actions of different parts of the body
  3. C) the ability to expend a maximum of energy in one or a series of explosive acts
  4. D) the ability to exert muscular strength using the abdominal muscles
  5. E) the ability to move the trunk and back muscles as far as possible

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) The ability to exert muscular strength using the trunk (particularly abdominal) muscles is known as trunk strength.

LO:  2.5: Demonstrate the relevance of intellectual and physical abilities to OB.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

88) Which of the following best describes the physical ability known as dynamic strength?

  1. A) the ability to maintain equilibrium despite forces pulling off balance
  2. B) the ability to coordinate the simultaneous actions of different parts of the body
  3. C) the ability to exert muscular force repeatedly or continuously over time
  4. D) the ability to expend a maximum of energy in one or a series of explosive acts
  5. E) the ability to move the trunk and back muscles as far as possible

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) The ability to exert muscular force repeatedly or continuously over time is dynamic strength.

LO:  2.5: Demonstrate the relevance of intellectual and physical abilities to OB.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

89) Which of the following best describes the physical ability known as dynamic flexibility?

  1. A) the ability to exert force against external objects
  2. B) the ability to make rapid, repeated flexing movements
  3. C) the ability to exert muscular force repeatedly or continuously over time
  4. D) the ability to expend a maximum of energy in one or a series of explosive acts
  5. E) the ability to move the trunk and back muscles as far as possible

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) The ability to make rapid, repeated flexing movements is known as dynamic flexibility.

LO:  2.5: Demonstrate the relevance of intellectual and physical abilities to OB.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

 

90) The ability to move the trunk and back muscles as far as possible is known as ________.

  1. A) static strength
  2. B) stamina
  3. C) trunk strength
  4. D) extent flexibility
  5. E) balance

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) The ability to move the trunk and back muscles as far as possible is known as extent flexibility.

LO:  2.5: Demonstrate the relevance of intellectual and physical abilities to OB.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

91) The physical ability that allows a body to maintain equilibrium despite opposing forces is known as ________.

  1. A) stamina
  2. B) extent flexibility
  3. C) static strength
  4. D) body coordination
  5. E) balance

Answer:  E

Explanation:  E) Balance is the ability to maintain equilibrium despite forces pulling off balance.

LO:  2.5: Demonstrate the relevance of intellectual and physical abilities to OB.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

92) The physical ability that allows a body to continue maximum effort at maintaining prolonged effort over time is known as ________.

  1. A) stamina
  2. B) extent flexibility
  3. C) static strength
  4. D) body coordination
  5. E) balance

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) The dimension of physical ability that allows a body to continue maximum effort at maintaining prolonged effort over time is known as stamina.

LO:  2.5: Demonstrate the relevance of intellectual and physical abilities to OB.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

 

93) The less complex a job in terms of information-processing demands, the more general intelligence and verbal abilities are necessary to perform successfully.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Jobs differ in the demands they place on intellectual abilities. The more complex a job in terms of information-processing demands, the more general intelligence and verbal abilities are necessary to perform successfully.

LO:  2.5: Demonstrate the relevance of intellectual and physical abilities to OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

94) The structures and measures of intellectual abilities generalize across cultures.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Evidence strongly supports the idea that the structures and measures of intellectual abilities generalize across cultures. Thus, someone in Venezuela or Sudan does not have a different set of mental abilities than a U.S. or Czech worker.

LO:  2.5: Demonstrate the relevance of intellectual and physical abilities to OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

95) Perceptual speed is the ability to imagine how an object would look if its position in space were changed.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Perceptual speed is the ability to identify visual similarities and differences quickly and accurately.

LO:  2.5: Demonstrate the relevance of intellectual and physical abilities to OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

96) Inductive reasoning is the ability to identify a logical sequence in a problem and then solve the problem.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Inductive reasoning is the ability to identify a logical sequence in a problem and then solve the problem.

LO:  2.5: Demonstrate the relevance of intellectual and physical abilities to OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

 

97) Memory is not a component of intelligence and is considered as a separate faculty.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  The seven most frequently cited dimensions making up intellectual abilities are number aptitude, verbal comprehension, perceptual speed, inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning, spatial visualization, and memory.

LO:  2.5: Demonstrate the relevance of intellectual and physical abilities to OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

98) There is a strong correlation between intelligence and job satisfaction.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  While intelligence is a big help in performing a job well, it does not make people happier or more satisfied with their jobs. The correlation between intelligence and job satisfaction is about zero. Research suggests that although intelligent people perform better and tend to have more interesting jobs, they are also more critical when evaluating their job conditions.

LO:  2.5: Demonstrate the relevance of intellectual and physical abilities to OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

99) Physical abilities may be defined as the capacity to do tasks that demand stamina, dexterity, strength, and similar characteristics.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Physical abilities may be defined as the capacity to do tasks that demand stamina, dexterity, strength, and similar characteristics. Though the changing nature of work suggests intellectual abilities are increasingly important for many jobs, physical abilities have been and will remain valuable.

LO:  2.5: Demonstrate the relevance of intellectual and physical abilities to OB.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

100) Diversity management refers to being unbiased by overlooking the differences between individuals in an organization.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Diversity management makes everyone more aware of and sensitive to the needs and differences of others.

LO:  2.5: Demonstrate the relevance of intellectual and physical abilities to OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

 

101) A method of enhancing workforce diversity is to target recruiting messages to specific demographic groups who are underrepresented in the workforce.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  One method of enhancing workforce diversity is to target recruiting messages to specific demographic groups underrepresented in the workforce. This means placing advertisements in publications geared toward specific demographic groups; recruiting at colleges, universities, and other institutions with significant numbers of underrepresented minorities; and forming partnerships with associations like the Society for Women Engineers or the Graduate Minority Business Association.

LO:  2.5: Demonstrate the relevance of intellectual and physical abilities to OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

102) Targeting recruiting messages to specific demographic groups underrepresented in the workforce is an example of unfair discrimination.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  One method of enhancing workforce diversity is to target recruiting messages to specific demographic groups underrepresented in the workforce. This means placing advertisements in publications geared toward specific demographic groups; recruiting at colleges, universities, and other institutions with significant numbers of underrepresented minorities; and forming partnerships with associations like the Society for Women Engineers or the Graduate Minority Business Association.

LO:  2.5: Demonstrate the relevance of intellectual and physical abilities to OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

103) What is the relevance of the various types of intellectual ability for organizational behavior?

Answer:  The capacity to do mental activities such as thinking, reasoning, and problem solving can be defined as intellectual ability. The seven most frequently cited dimensions making up intellectual abilities are number aptitude, verbal comprehension, perceptual speed, inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning, spatial visualization, and memory. Intelligence dimensions are positively related, so if a person scores high on verbal comprehension, for example, he/she is more likely to score high on spatial visualization. In addition, jobs differ in the demands they place on intellectual abilities. The more complex a job is in terms of information-processing demands, the more general intelligence and verbal abilities are necessary to perform successfully. Where employee behavior is highly routine and there are few or no opportunities to exercise discretion, a high IQ is not as important to performing well. However, this does not mean people with high IQs cannot have an impact on traditionally less complex jobs.

LO:  2.5: Demonstrate the relevance of intellectual and physical abilities to OB.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

 

104) Define any four dimensions of intellectual ability.

Answer:  Number aptitude refers to the ability to do speedy and accurate arithmetic. Spatial visualization refers to the ability to imagine how an object would look if its position in space were changed. Deductive reasoning refers to the ability to use logic and access implications of an argument. Perceptual speed refers to the ability to identify visual similarities and differences quickly and accurately. Inductive reasoning is the ability to identify a logical sequence in a problem and then solve the problem. Memory is the ability to retain and recall past experiences.

LO:  2.5: Demonstrate the relevance of intellectual and physical abilities to OB.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

105) A diversity program effective in improving representation in management is a strategy to measure the representation of minorities in managerial positions.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  A diversity program effective in improving representation in management is a strategy to measure the representation of minorities and women in managerial positions, and it holds managers accountable for achieving more demographically diverse management teams.

LO:  2.6: Describe how organizations manage diversity effectively.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

106) Improving recruiting practices and making selection systems more transparent are ways of preventing target groups from being underutilized.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Organizational leaders should examine their workforce to determine whether target groups have been underutilized. If groups of employees are not proportionally represented in top management, managers should look for any hidden barriers to advancement. They can often improve recruiting practices, make selection systems more transparent, and provide training for those employees who have not had adequate exposure to certain material in the past.

LO:  2.6: Describe how organizations manage diversity effectively.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

 

107) Describe some ways by which management can attract, select, and recruit diverse employees in an organization.

Answer:  A method of enhancing workforce diversity is to target recruiting messages to specific demographic groups underrepresented in the workforce. This means placing advertisements in publications geared toward specific demographic groups; recruiting at colleges, universities, and other institutions with significant numbers of underrepresented minorities; and forming partnerships with associations. Diversity advertisements that fail to show women and minorities in positions of organizational leadership send a negative message about the diversity climate at an organization. The selection process is one of the most important places to apply diversity efforts. Managers who hire need to value fairness and objectivity in selecting employees and focus on the productive potential of new recruits. When managers use a well-defined protocol for assessing applicant talent, and the organization clearly prioritizes nondiscrimination policies, qualifications become far more important in determining who gets hired than demographic characteristics.

LO:  2.6: Describe how organizations manage diversity effectively.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

108) Discuss the effects of diversity within a group on group performance.

Answer:  In some cases, diversity in traits can hurt team performance, whereas in others it can facilitate it. Whether diverse or homogeneous teams are more effective depends on the characteristic of interest. Demographic diversity (in gender, race, and ethnicity) does not appear to either help or hurt team performance in general. On the other hand, teams of individuals who are highly intelligent, conscientious, and interested in working in team settings are more effective. Thus, diversity on these variables is likely to be a bad thing—it makes little sense to try to form teams that mix in members who are lower in intelligence, conscientiousness, and interest in teamwork. In other cases, differences can be a strength. Groups of individuals with different types of expertise and education are more effective than homogeneous groups. Similarly, a group made entirely of assertive people who want to be in charge or a group whose members all prefer to follow the lead of others will be less effective than a group that mixes leaders and followers. Regardless of the composition of the group, differences can be leveraged to achieve superior performance. The most important way is to emphasize the higher-level similarities among members. In other words, groups of diverse individuals will be much more effective if leaders can show how members have a common interest in the group’s success.

LO:  2.6: Describe how organizations manage diversity effectively.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

 

109) Discuss the basic components necessary for a workforce program to encourage diversity within the organization.

Answer:  Effective, comprehensive workforce programs encouraging diversity have three distinct components. First, they teach managers about the legal framework for equal employment opportunity and encourage fair treatment of all people regardless of their demographic characteristics. Second, they teach managers how a diverse workforce will be better able to serve a diverse market of customers and clients. Third, they foster personal development practices that bring out the skills and abilities of all workers, acknowledging how differences in perspective can be a valuable way to improve performance for everyone.

LO:  2.6: Describe how organizations manage diversity effectively.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

110) Explain why affirmative action and attempts to encourage diversity within organizations may be received unfavorably by employees. What can organizations do to minimize unfavorable reactions to policies?

Answer:  Student responses may vary but should incorporate the idea that most negative reactions to employment discrimination are based on the idea that discriminatory treatment is unfair. Regardless of race or gender, people are generally in favor of diversity-oriented programs, including affirmative action, if they believe the policies ensure everyone a fair opportunity to show their skills and abilities.

LO:  2.6: Describe how organizations manage diversity effectively.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

 

Organizational Behavior, 17e (Robbins)

Chapter 18   Organizational Change and Stress Management

 

1) An example of change in the nature of the workforce is an increase in ________.

  1. A) college attendance
  2. B) mergers and consolidations
  3. C) capital investment
  4. D) divorce rates
  5. E) cultural diversity

Answer:  E

Explanation:  E) Almost every organization must adjust to a multicultural environment, demographic changes, immigration, and outsourcing. This represents the changing nature of the workforce.

LO:  18.1: Contrast the forces for change and planned change.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

2) Organizations are increasingly adjusting their processes and positioning their products as environment friendly and sustainable in order to increase their appeal to consumers. This is a response to changes in ________.

  1. A) demographic trends
  2. B) social trends
  3. C) cultural trends
  4. D) legal requirements
  5. E) nature of the workforce

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Social trends don’t remain static. Consumers now meet and share information in chat rooms and blogs. Companies must continually adjust product and marketing strategies to be sensitive to changing social trends. Consumers, employees, and organizational leaders are more sensitive to environmental concerns. “Green” practices are quickly becoming expected rather than optional.

LO:  18.1: Contrast the forces for change and planned change.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

3) Tescra Education is an educational publishing company that provides textbooks in the area of higher education. The company has been in business for almost 20 years now and has earned substantial profits during this period. Which of the following trends, if true, would drive the company to change its business strategy?

  1. A) a rise in the cost of electronic products such as iPads and e-book readers and subscription charges for educational apps
  2. B) an upward trend in students’ preference for face-to-face interaction with instructors using traditional classroom learning techniques
  3. C) a need for learning environments where students feel safe to apply the knowledge they’ve acquired in the classroom to real-life situations
  4. D) a decrease in the number of people going back to school to upgrade their skills, due to an economic boom
  5. E) an increase in the number of laws and regulations related to intellectual property

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) If students feel the need for learning environments where they feel safe to apply the knowledge they’ve acquired in the classroom to real-life situations, then online learning methods would be best suited to meet this need. This would require the company to change its business strategy from providing textbooks to focusing on online learning. A rise in the cost of technological tools and a preference for face-to-face interaction with instructors using traditional classroom learning techniques would increase the requirement for textbooks and would not have an impact on the company’s business strategy. A decrease in the number of people going back to school to upgrade their skills would imply that there are a fewer number of students and hence the company would not need to change its strategy. Intellectual property laws apply to both online and traditional publishing and would not drive a company to change its business strategy.

LO:  18.1: Contrast the forces for change and planned change.

AACSB:  Reflective thinking

Difficulty:  Hard

Quest. Category:  Critical Thinking

 

Fony Corp., headquartered in China, is a leading manufacturer of electronic devices and solutions intended for professional markets. The company is considering upgrading the technology currently being used at Fony’s manufacturing facility, located in Guangdong, that specializes in producing lithium-ion batteries, which are used to power laptops, cameras, cell phones, and other similar gadgets. The new technology is expected to increase efficiency levels and will also allow for greater adherence to quality standards.

 

4) Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the argument that Fony Corp. should upgrade its technology?

  1. A) The market for consumer electronics such as laptops, cameras, cell phones, and other similar gadgets is in the late maturity stage.
  2. B) Fony will be able to recover the cost of the new technology within eight years.
  3. C) Fony’s main client account is at risk after the client had to recall nearly 2 million notebooks owing to defective batteries.
  4. D) The existing technology is currently functioning at the optimal level and the cost of maintenance is minimal.
  5. E) Fony last upgraded its technology six years ago and it has an adequate budget to fund the acquisition.

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) If Fony’s future as a supplier to a primary client is under threat due to its production of defective batteries, then this would most strengthen the argument to upgrade its technology. Given the new technology will ensure better quality, this option would be the most compelling argument. If the market for consumer electronics is in the late maturity stage, then this would weaken the argument. The fact that Fony will be able to recover the cost of the new technology within eight years neither strengthens nor weakens the argument. If the existing technology is functioning at the optimal level and the cost of maintenance is minimal, then this weakens the argument. The argument is not strengthened by the fact that Fony last upgraded its technology six years ago and has an adequate budget to fund the acquisition.

LO:  18.1: Contrast the forces for change and planned change.

AACSB:  Reflective thinking

Difficulty:  Hard

Quest. Category:  Critical Thinking

 

5) Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the argument that Fony Corp. should upgrade its technology?

  1. A) Employees fear that the new technology will render them obsolete.
  2. B) The company will be able to recover the cost of the technology within four years of implementation.
  3. C) The new technology is expected to reduce the company’s overall cost of production.
  4. D) The company’s main client is threatening legal action after it had to recall nearly 2 million notebooks owing to defective batteries.
  5. E) The technology which the company is considering adopting was recently developed and has not yet been successfully implemented in a real business context.

Answer:  E

Explanation:  E) If the technology which the company plans to adopt was newly developed and the company will be first to use it in a real business context, then this is a potential risk for the company, should the implementation fail. Hence, this most weakens the argument that Fony should upgrade its technology. The company should not avoid upgrading its technology just because of employees’ unfounded fears that they might be rendered obsolete due to the new technology. That Fony will be able to recover the cost of the new technology within four years slightly strengthens the argument. If the technology is expected to reduce the cost of production, then this would strengthen the argument to upgrade the technology, as would the threat of legal action by a client.

LO:  18.1: Contrast the forces for change and planned change.

AACSB:  Reflective thinking

Difficulty:  Hard

Quest. Category:  Critical Thinking

 

6) An example of change in competition is ________.

  1. A) U.S. manufactured Toyota vehicles
  2. B) collapse of Enron Corporation
  3. C) Iraq-U.S. war
  4. D) increased interest in urban living
  5. E) a decrease in interest rates

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Competitors are as likely to come from across the ocean as from across town. Successful organizations will be fast on their feet, capable of developing new products rapidly and getting them to market quickly. They’ll be flexible and will require an equally flexible and responsive workforce.

LO:  18.1: Contrast the forces for change and planned change.

AACSB:  Analytical thinking

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Application

 

7) A paper sales company designs and offers a new method of purchasing and shipping commercial quantities of paper through its Web site. The company used to do its business through its sales representative. This is an example of a(n) ________ change.

  1. A) accidental
  2. B) secondary
  3. C) planned
  4. D) cognitive
  5. E) integrated

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) The change mentioned in the case is an example of a planned change, or activities that are intentional and goal oriented, compared to accidental change, which refers to activities that just happen.

LO:  18.1: Contrast the forces for change and planned change.

AACSB:  Analytical thinking

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Application

 

8) ________ are persons who act as catalysts and assume the responsibility for managing refinement activities.

  1. A) Early adopters
  2. B) Free riders
  3. C) Laggards
  4. D) Change agents
  5. E) Whistle-blowers

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Change agents are responsible for managing change activities in an organization. They see a future for the organization that others have not identified, and they are able to motivate, invent, and implement this vision. Change agents can be managers or nonmanagers, current or new employees, or outside consultants.

LO:  18.1: Contrast the forces for change and planned change.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

 

9) Management of a company threatens to close a manufacturing plant in the company whose employees are resisting an across-the-board pay cut. But this threat is actually untrue. In this case, which of the following tactics of overcoming resistance to change is being used by the management?

  1. A) procedural fairness
  2. B) negotiation
  3. C) conciliation
  4. D) manipulation
  5. E) arbitration

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Manipulation refers to covert influence attempts. Twisting facts to make them more attractive, withholding information, and creating false rumors to get employees to accept change are all examples of manipulation.

LO:  18.1: Contrast the forces for change and planned change.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

10) Companies with dominant market share are less susceptible to the forces of change than smaller businesses.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  No company today is in a particularly stable environment. Even those with dominant market share must change, sometimes radically.

LO:  18.1: Contrast the forces for change and planned change.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

11) Change is not as inevitable for companies as it is for individuals.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Change is just as inevitable for companies as it is for individuals, and each company will have its own way of responding to changes and strategizing future changes. Taking away the maps and switching to compasses is not something all global corporations can do, but maybe someday that will change, too.

LO:  18.1: Contrast the forces for change and planned change.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

 

12) What are the various forces that make it necessary for organizations to change?

Answer:  The six specific forces for change are the nature of the workforce, technology, economic shocks, competition, social trends, and world politics.

  1. a) The nature of the workforce includes multicultural environment, demographic changes, immigration, and outsourcing.
  2. b) Technology is continually changing jobs and organizations.
  3. c) The housing and financial sectors recently have experienced extraordinary economic shocks, leading to the elimination, bankruptcy, or acquisition of several companies.
  4. d) Competition is changing. Competitors are as likely to come from across the ocean as from across town. Successful organizations will be fast on their feet, capable of developing new products rapidly and getting them to market quickly.
  5. e) Social trends don’t remain static. Consumers now meet and share information in chat rooms and blogs. Companies must continually adjust product and marketing strategies to be sensitive to changing social trends.
  6. f) World politics is changing. The opening of China and Southeast Asia and the rise of Muslim fundamentalism are examples of changing world politics.

LO:  18.1: Contrast the forces for change and planned change.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

13) Who are change agents?

Answer:  Change agents are the people in an organization who are responsible for presenting and managing change activities. They see a future for the organization that others have not identified, and they are able to motivate, invent, and implement this vision. Change agents can be managers or nonmanagers, current or new employees, or outside consultants.

LO:  18.1: Contrast the forces for change and planned change.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

14) Define change agent and describe where change is most likely to come from. Compare who is most likely to be an agent of change and who is most likely to resist change. Explain your answer.

Answer:  Change agents are the people in an organization who are responsible for presenting and managing change activities. They see a future for the organization that others have not identified, and they are able to motivate, invent, and implement this vision. Change agents can be managers or nonmanagers, current or new employees, or outside consultants. Because change invariably threatens the status quo, it inherently implies political activity. Politics suggests the impetus for change is more likely to come from outside change agents, employees new to the organization (who have less invested in the status quo), or managers slightly removed from the main power structure.

 

Managers who have spent their entire careers with a single organization and achieved a senior position in the hierarchy are often major impediments to change. It is a very real threat to their status and position and, therefore, they are the most likely to resist organizational change. When forced to introduce change, longtime power holders tend to implement incremental changes. Radical change is too threatening.

LO:  18.1: Contrast the forces for change and planned change.

AACSB:  Analytical thinking

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Synthesis

 

15) Which of the following reactions from employees is preferable as a response to change?

  1. A) silence
  2. B) apathy
  3. C) resignation
  4. D) open discussion
  5. E) increase in the use of sick time

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Employees who have negative feelings about a change cope by not thinking about it, increasing their use of sick time, and quitting. All these reactions can sap the organization of vital energy when it is most needed. Resistance to change can be positive if it leads to open discussion and debate. These responses are usually preferable to apathy or silence and can indicate that members of the organization are engaged in the process, providing change agents an opportunity to explain the change effort.

LO:  18.2: Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

16) It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is ________.

  1. A) concealed
  2. B) deferred
  3. C) passive
  4. D) implicit
  5. E) overt

Answer:  E

Explanation:  E) Resistance doesn’t necessarily surface in standardized ways. It can be overt, implicit, immediate, or deferred. It’s easiest for management to deal with overt and immediate resistance, such as complaints, a work slowdown, or a strike threat. The greater challenge is managing resistance that is implicit or deferred.

LO:  18.2: Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

17) A(n) ________ resistance to change clouds the link between the change and the reaction to it and may surface weeks, months, or even years later.

  1. A) overt
  2. B) immediate
  3. C) active
  4. D) explicit
  5. E) deferred

Answer:  E

Explanation:  E) A deferred resistance to change clouds the link between the change and the reaction to it and may surface weeks, months, or even years later.

LO:  18.2: Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

18) Which of the following resistances to change is overt and immediate?

  1. A) loss of loyalty
  2. B) increased absenteeism
  3. C) loss of motivation
  4. D) increased error
  5. E) complaint

Answer:  E

Explanation:  E) Complaint is an overt and immediate response to change.

LO:  18.2: Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

19) Which of the following resistances to change is implicit?

  1. A) strike
  2. B) increased error
  3. C) resignation
  4. D) complaint
  5. E) work slowdown

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Resistance to change that is implicit or deferred is difficult to manage. Examples of such responses are loss of loyalty or motivation and increased errors or absenteeism.

LO:  18.2: Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

20) Organizations have built-in mechanisms—like their selection processes and formalized regulations—to produce stability. When an organization is confronted with change, these mechanisms act as a counterbalance to sustain stability. Which of the following organizational sources of resistance to change is represented by these mechanisms?

  1. A) group inertia
  2. B) selective information processing
  3. C) employee-orientation
  4. D) structural inertia
  5. E) product-orientation

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Organizations have built-in mechanisms—like their selection processes and formalized regulations—to produce stability. When an organization is confronted with change, these mechanisms act as a counterbalance to sustain stability. These mechanisms represent structural inertia.

LO:  18.2: Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

21) Which of the following is an example of an individual source of resistance to change?

  1. A) limited focus of change
  2. B) product orientation
  3. C) fear of the unknown
  4. D) structural inertia
  5. E) employee orientation

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Individual sources of resistance to change are habit, security, economic factors, fear of the unknown, and selective information processing.

LO:  18.2: Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

22) As a result of changing technology and unstable environment, your company is planning to undertake restructuring of the business. The employees in your company are worried about this upcoming change and many of them are anxious due to a fear that they will lose their jobs as a result of this change. But that is not the case. The company only wants to restructure its business units, and it is not planning to cut down on jobs. In such a situation, which of the following techniques is most likely to be used by your company to deal with the employees’ resistance to change?

  1. A) implementing changes fairly
  2. B) education and communication
  3. C) participation
  4. D) manipulation and cooptation
  5. E) coercion

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Communicating the logic of a change can reduce employee resistance on two levels. First, it fights the effects of misinformation and poor communication: if employees receive the full facts and clear up misunderstandings, resistance should subside. Second, communication can help “sell” the need for change by packaging it properly.

LO:  18.2: Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

23) Which of the following is an example of an organizational source of resistance to change?

  1. A) limited focus of change
  2. B) security
  3. C) fear of the unknown
  4. D) selective information processing
  5. E) habit

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Organizational sources of resistance to change include structural inertia, limited focus of change, group inertia, threat to expertise, threat to established power relationships, and threat to established resource allocations.

LO:  18.2: Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

24) Limited focus of change is a major source of resistance to change that originates from an organizational source. It indicates that ________.

  1. A) groups in the organization that control sizable resources often resist change
  2. B) changes in organizational patterns may threaten the expertise of specialized groups so these groups tend to resist change
  3. C) organizations have structural inertia that acts as a counterbalance to sustain stability
  4. D) organizations consist of a number of interdependent subsystems and one can’t be changed without affecting the others
  5. E) even if individuals want to change their behavior, group norms may act as a constraint

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Organizations are made up of a number of interdependent subsystems. One can’t be changed without affecting the others. So limited changes in subsystems tend to be nullified by the larger system. This source of resistance to change is known as limited focus of change.

LO:  18.2: Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

25) Selective information processing is a major source of resistance to change. It indicates that ________.

  1. A) changes in organizational patterns may threaten the expertise of specialized groups so these groups tend to resist change
  2. B) individuals hear what they want to hear and they ignore information that challenges the world they’ve created
  3. C) limited changes in subsystems tend to be nullified by the larger system
  4. D) groups in the organization that control sizable resources often resist change
  5. E) even if individuals want to change their behavior, group norms may act as a constraint

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Individuals are guilty of selectively processing information in order to keep their perceptions intact. They hear what they want to hear, and they ignore information that challenges the world they’ve created.

LO:  18.2: Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

26) After restructuring, your division has had trouble filling the open positions with appropriate candidates. The selection processes used by human resources have not yet adjusted to the new criteria required for the restructured job positions. This problem is an example of which kind of resistance to change?

  1. A) structural inertia
  2. B) limited focus of change
  3. C) group inertia
  4. D) threat to expertise
  5. E) threat to established power relationships

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) This is an example of structural inertia. Organizations have built-in mechanisms, such as their selection processes and formalized regulations, to produce stability. When an organization is confronted with change, this structural inertia acts as a counterbalance to sustain stability.

LO:  18.2: Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.

AACSB:  Analytical thinking

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Application

 

27) Which tactic for overcoming resistance to change basically assumes that the source of resistance lies in misinformation?

  1. A) implementing changes fairly
  2. B) participation
  3. C) education and communication
  4. D) coercion
  5. E) cooptation and manipulation

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Communicating the logic of a change can reduce employee resistance on two levels. First, it fights the effects of misinformation and poor communication: if employees receive the full facts and clear up misunderstandings, resistance should subside. Second, communication can help “sell” the need for change by packaging it properly.

LO:  18.2: Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

 

28) Which of the following tactics for overcoming resistance to change is most likely to be beneficial when employees’ fear and anxiety are high?

  1. A) manipulation
  2. B) building support and commitment
  3. C) participation
  4. D) implementing changes fairly
  5. E) coercion

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) When employees’ fear and anxiety are high, counseling and therapy, new-skills training, or a short paid leave of absence may facilitate adjustment. These are the various ways of building support and commitment.

LO:  18.2: Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

29) Procedural fairness while implementing changes is especially important when ________.

  1. A) the organization is facing intense competition
  2. B) the employees have participated in the decision-making process
  3. C) the employees perceive the outcome as negative
  4. D) the environment in which the business operates is dynamic
  5. E) the employees are resisting the change due to group inertia

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) One way organizations can minimize negative impact is to make sure change is implemented fairly. Procedural fairness is especially important when employees perceive an outcome as negative, so it’s crucial that employees see the reason for the change and perceive its implementation as consistent and fair.

LO:  18.2: Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

30) Using covert influence to overcome resistance to change is called ________.

  1. A) negotiation
  2. B) conciliation
  3. C) education
  4. D) coercion
  5. E) manipulation

Answer:  E

Explanation:  E) Manipulation refers to covert influence attempts. Twisting facts to make them more attractive, withholding information, and creating false rumors to get employees to accept change are all examples of manipulation.

LO:  18.2: Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

 

31) If individuals resisting change are included in making change decisions in an attempt to gain their support, this approach is called ________.

  1. A) cooptation
  2. B) exploitation
  3. C) arbitration
  4. D) coercion
  5. E) conciliation

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Cooptation combines manipulation and participation. It seeks to “buy off” the leaders of a resistance group by giving them a key role, seeking their advice not to find a better solution but to get their endorsement.

LO:  18.2: Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

32) Which tactic to overcome resistance to change is a relatively inexpensive way to gain the support of adversaries, but may backfire if the targets become aware of the tactic?

  1. A) negotiation
  2. B) conciliation
  3. C) manipulation
  4. D) coercion
  5. E) arbitration

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Both manipulation and cooptation are relatively inexpensive ways to gain the support of adversaries, but they can backfire if the targets become aware they are being tricked or used. Once that’s discovered, the change agent’s credibility may drop to zero.

LO:  18.2: Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

33) “Buying off” the leaders of a resistance group by giving them a key role and seeking their advice not to find a better solution but to get their endorsement is an example of ________.

  1. A) coercion
  2. B) cooptation
  3. C) procedural fairness
  4. D) distributive bargaining
  5. E) operant conditioning

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Cooptation combines manipulation and participation. “Buying off” the leaders of a resistance group by giving them a key role and seeking their advice not to find a better solution but to get their endorsement is an example of cooptation.

LO:  18.2: Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

 

34) The application of direct threats or force upon resisters is called ________.

  1. A) negotiation
  2. B) cooptation
  3. C) manipulation
  4. D) coercion
  5. E) arbitration

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Coercion is the application of direct threats or force on the resisters. If management really is determined to close a manufacturing plant whose employees don’t acquiesce to a pay cut, the company is using coercion.

LO:  18.2: Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Your company, Johnson Farm Products, has decided to expand its traditional business serving farm owners in order to include home gardeners in its customer base. This change is not met with enthusiasm by the sales personnel who have had good long-term relationships with area farmers. You know that the change will be difficult to implement if you cannot overcome the resistance of the sales personnel and obtain their cooperation.

 

35) You have brought in the local extension agent to explain demographics and the changing nature of the area in which you live. The method for overcoming resistance that you have chosen is ________.

  1. A) education and communication
  2. B) participation
  3. C) negotiation
  4. D) manipulation and cooptation
  5. E) coercion

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) In this example, the method chosen for overcoming resistance is education and communication. Communicating the logic of a change can reduce employee resistance on two levels. First, it fights the effects of misinformation and poor communication; if employees receive the full facts and clear up misunderstandings, resistance should subside. Second, communication can help “sell” the need for change by packaging it properly.

LO:  18.2: Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.

AACSB:  Analytical thinking

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Application

 

 

36) You have decided to involve the sales personnel in planning for the change and in stocking appropriate new items to sell to gardeners. The method for overcoming resistance that you have chosen is ________.

  1. A) education and communication
  2. B) participation
  3. C) negotiation
  4. D) manipulation
  5. E) coercion

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) In this example, the method chosen for overcoming resistance is participation. It’s difficult to resist a change decision in which we’ve participated. Assuming participants have the expertise to make a meaningful contribution, their involvement can reduce resistance, obtain commitment, and increase the quality of the change decision.

LO:  18.2: Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.

AACSB:  Analytical thinking

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Application

37) You have threatened to eliminate positions and even to close down the company if your sales personnel don’t change their attitudes. The method for overcoming resistance that you have chosen is ________.

  1. A) education and communication
  2. B) participation
  3. C) negotiation
  4. D) coercion
  5. E) cooptation

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) In this example, the method chosen for overcoming resistance is coercion. Coercion is the application of direct threats or force on the resisters. If management really is determined to close a manufacturing plant whose employees don’t acquiesce to a pay cut, the company is using coercion. Other examples are threats of transfer, loss of promotions, negative performance evaluations, and a poor letter of recommendation.

LO:  18.2: Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.

AACSB:  Analytical thinking

Difficulty:  Hard

Quest. Category:  Application

 

 

Strum Services provides content management services to major educational publishers. Due to low morale, the level of employee output has been below par, which has caused a backlog in work.

 

38) Which of the following, if true, would strengthen the argument to use coercive techniques in this situation?

  1. A) The company is on a tight deadline to complete a major project for an important client.
  2. B) The company is in its lean season and work volumes are low.
  3. C) The company can afford to hire temp workers to handle the backlog and complete the work on time.
  4. D) The company’s workforce is comprised of employees with highly specialized skill sets.
  5. E) Employees are demotivated because of the company’s stringent work culture.

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) If the company is on a tight deadline to complete a major project for an important client, then this would most likely justify the use of coercive techniques. If the company is in its lean season and work volumes are low, then this weakens the argument to use coercive techniques. If the company can afford to hire temp workers to handle the backlog and complete the work on time, then this would weaken the need to use coercion. If employees have highly specialized skill sets, then the use of coercion might result in employee backlash. If employees are demotivated because of the stringent work culture, then using coercive techniques would only demoralize them further.

LO:  18.2: Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.

AACSB:  Reflective thinking

Difficulty:  Hard

Quest. Category:  Critical Thinking

 

39) Which of the following, if true, would weaken the argument to use coercive techniques in this situation?

  1. A) The company cannot afford to hire temp workers to handle the backlog and complete the work on time.
  2. B) The company has taken several efforts to improve the level of employee morale and motivation.
  3. C) The company’s current work volumes are quite high.
  4. D) The company recently learned that one of its clients utilizes the services of a rival content management firm.
  5. E) The company just finished its peak season, during which employees were required to work overtime and on weekends.

Answer:  E

Explanation:  E) If the company just finished its peak season, during which employees were required to work overtime and on weekends, then this would explain their low morale. Using coercive techniques under such conditions would not be effective. If current work volumes are high, and if the option of hiring temp workers is not available to the company, then coercive techniques might be required. If the company runs the risk of losing business to a rival firm due to poor productivity, then the use of coercion would make sense. The argument is only slightly strengthened by the fact that the company has taken several efforts to improve employee morale and motivation.

LO:  18.2: Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.

AACSB:  Reflective thinking

Difficulty:  Hard

Quest. Category:  Critical Thinking

 

40) Underscoring the importance of social context, other work shows that even individuals who are generally resistant to change will be more willing to accept new and different ideas when they feel supported by their coworkers and believe the environment is safe for taking risks.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Underscoring the importance of social context, other work shows that even individuals who are generally resistant to change will be more willing to accept new and different ideas when they feel supported by their coworkers and believe the environment is safe for taking risks.

LO:  18.2: Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

41) Resistance to change can be positive if it leads to open discussion and debate.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Resistance to change can be positive if it leads to open discussion and debate. These responses are usually preferable to apathy or silence and can indicate that members of the organization are engaged in the process, providing change agents an opportunity to explain the change effort.

LO:  18.2: Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

42) Cooptation combines manipulation and participation.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Cooptation combines manipulation and participation. It seeks to “buy off” the leaders of a resistance group by giving them a key role, seeking their advice not to find a better solution but to get their endorsement.

LO:  18.2: Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

43) Employees are more accepting of changes when they are committed to the organization as a whole.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Employees are more accepting of changes when they are committed to the organization as a whole.

LO:  18.2: Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

44) What are the various individual sources of resistance to change?

Answer:  The various individual sources of resistance to change are:

  1. a) Habit: To cope with life’s complexities, we rely on habits or programmed responses. But when confronted with change, this tendency to respond in our accustomed ways becomes a source of resistance.
  2. b) Security: People with a high need for security are likely to resist change because it threatens feelings of safety.
  3. c) Economic factors: Changes in job tasks or established work routines can arouse economic fears if people are concerned that they won’t be able to perform the new tasks or routines to their previous standards, especially when pay is closely tied to productivity.
  4. d) Fear of the unknown: Change substitutes ambiguity and uncertainty for the unknown.
  5. e) Selective information processing: Individuals are guilty of selectively processing information in order to keep their perceptions intact. They hear what they want to hear, and they ignore information that challenges the world they’ve created.

LO:  18.2: Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

45) What are the various organizational sources of resistance to change?

Answer:  The various organizational sources of resistance to change are:

  1. a) Structural inertia: Organizations have built-in mechanisms—like their selection processes and formalized regulations—to produce stability. When an organization is confronted with change, this structural inertia acts as a counterbalance to sustain stability.
  2. b) Limited focus of change: Organizations are made up of a number of interdependent subsystems. One can’t be changed without affecting the others. So limited changes in subsystems tend to be nullified by the larger system.
  3. c) Group inertia: Even if individuals want to change their behavior, group norms may act as a constraint.
  4. d) Threat to expertise: Changes in organizational patterns may threaten the expertise of specialized groups.
  5. e) Threat to established power relationships: Any redistribution of decision-making authority can threaten long-established power relationships within the organization.
  6. f) Threat to established resource allocations: Groups in the organization that control sizable resources often see change as a threat. They tend to be content with the way things are.

LO:  18.2: Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

 

46) Describe the various ways of overcoming resistance to change.

Answer:  The various ways of overcoming resistance to change are:

  1. a) Education and communication: Communicating the logic of a change can reduce employee resistance on two levels. First, it fights the effects of misinformation and poor communication: if employees receive the full facts and clear up misunderstandings, resistance should subside. Second, communication can help “sell” the need for change by packaging it properly.
  2. b) Participation: It’s difficult to resist a change decision in which we’ve participated. Assuming participants have the expertise to make a meaningful contribution, their involvement can reduce resistance, obtain commitment, and increase the quality of the change decision.
  3. c) Building support and commitment: When employees’ fear and anxiety are high, counseling and therapy, new-skills training, or a short paid leave of absence may facilitate adjustment. When managers or employees have low emotional commitment to change, they favor the status quo and resist it. So firing up employees can also help them emotionally commit to the change rather than embrace the status quo.
  4. d) Develop positive relationships: People are more willing to accept changes if they trust the managers implementing them.
  5. e) Implementing changes fairly: One way organizations can minimize negative impact is to make sure change is implemented fairly. Procedural fairness is especially important when employees perceive an outcome as negative, so it’s crucial that employees see the reason for the change and perceive its implementation as consistent and fair.
  6. f) Manipulation and cooptation: Manipulation refers to covert influence attempts. Twisting facts to make them more attractive, withholding information, and creating false rumors to get employees to accept change are examples of manipulation. Cooptation, on the other hand, combines manipulation and participation. It seeks to “buy off” the leaders of a resistance group by giving them a key role, seeking their advice not to find a better solution but to get their endorsement. Both manipulation and cooptation are relatively inexpensive ways to gain the support of adversaries, but they can backfire if the targets become aware they are being tricked or used.
  7. g) Selecting people who accept change: Research suggests the ability to easily accept and adapt to change is related to personality—some people simply have more positive attitudes about change than others. Such individuals are open to experience, take a positive attitude toward change, are willing to take risks, and are flexible in their behavior.
  8. h) Coercion: Last on the list of tactics is coercion, the application of direct threats or force on the resisters. Examples of coercion are threats of transfer, loss of promotions, negative performance evaluations, and a poor letter of recommendation.

LO:  18.2: Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.

Difficulty:  Hard

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

 

47) Describe the organizational factors that create stress and discuss how they compare to the factors of resistance to change. How are they similar and different? Are the methods for managing change useful for managing stress caused by organizational factors?

Answer:  Pressures to avoid errors or complete tasks in a limited time, work overload, a demanding and insensitive boss, and unpleasant co-workers are examples of organizational factors that cause stress. These factors are based on task, role, and interpersonal demands. Task demands relate to a person’s job. They include the design of the job (its degrees of autonomy, task variety, degree of automation), working conditions, and the physical work layout. Role demands relate to pressures placed on a person as a function of the particular role he or she plays in the organization. Role conflicts create expectations that may be hard to reconcile or satisfy. Role overload occurs when the employee is expected to do more than time permits. Interpersonal demands are pressures created by other employees. Lack of social support from colleagues and poor interpersonal relationships can cause stress, especially among employees with a high social need. A rapidly growing body of research has also shown that negative co-worker and supervisor behaviors, including fights, bullying, incivility, racial harassment, and sexual harassment, are especially strongly related to stress at work.

 

Organizational change is threatening to people and they often resist. Employees latch onto whatever data they can find that suggests they are okay and don’t need to change, because change causes stress. Employees who have negative feelings about a change cope by not thinking about it, increasing their use of sick time, and quitting. However, resistance to change, like stress, can be a positive factor. Stress is positive as it can challenge a person and make them rise to an occasion. Resistance to change is positive if it leads to open discussion and debate.

 

Both change and stress are coped with by education and communication, abundance of resources, and wide social support. Other tactics for handling resistance to change, such as manipulation, would lead to increased stress and do not have a positive effect on stress factors.

LO:  18.2: Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.

AACSB:  Analytical thinking

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Synthesis

48) Who developed a three-step model for change that included unfreezing, movement, and refreezing?

  1. A) John Kotter
  2. B) David McClelland
  3. C) Douglas Surber
  4. D) Lawrence Summers
  5. E) Kurt Lewin

Answer:  E

Explanation:  E) Kurt Lewin argued that successful change in organizations should follow three steps: unfreezing the status quo, movement to a desired end state, and refreezing the new change to make it permanent.

LO:  18.3: Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

49) Which of the following is one of the three steps in the Lewin’s three-step change model?

  1. A) analysis
  2. B) movement
  3. C) evaluation
  4. D) dreaming
  5. E) designing

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) The three steps in the Lewin’s three-step change model are unfreezing, movement, and refreezing.

LO:  18.3: Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

50) ________ is one way to achieve unfreezing of an organization’s status quo.

  1. A) Increasing the driving forces directing behavior away from the status quo
  2. B) Incorporating a structural inertia in the structure of the organization
  3. C) Increasing employee investment in the status quo
  4. D) Decreasing management’s investment in change
  5. E) Increasing the rigidity of the organizational hierarchy

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) The status quo is an equilibrium state. To move from equilibrium, to overcome the pressures of both individual resistance and group conformity, unfreezing must happen. The driving forces, which direct behavior away from the status quo, can be increased to achieve unfreezing.

LO:  18.3: Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

51) Who built on Lewin’s three-step model to create a more detailed eight-step plan for implementing change?

  1. A) John Kotter
  2. B) David McClelland
  3. C) Douglas Surber
  4. D) Lawrence Summers
  5. E) Henry Mintzberg

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) John Kotter built on Lewin’s three-step model to create a more detailed approach for implementing change. Kotter began by listing common mistakes managers make when trying to initiate change. Kotter then established eight sequential steps to overcome these problems.

LO:  18.3: Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

 

52) Which of the following is the first step in Kotter’s eight-step plan for implementing change?

  1. A) Create a new vision to direct the change and strategies for achieving the vision.
  2. B) Establish a sense of urgency by creating a compelling reason for why change is needed.
  3. C) Plan for, create, and reward short-term “wins” that move the organization toward the new vision.
  4. D) Form a coalition with enough power to lead the change.
  5. E) Communicate the vision throughout the organization.

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) The first step in Kotter’s eight-step plan for implementing change is establishing a sense of urgency by creating a compelling reason for why change is needed.

LO:  18.3: Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

53) Which of the following is the last step in Kotter’s eight-step plan for implementing change?

  1. A) Form a coalition with enough power to lead the change.
  2. B) Establish a sense of urgency by creating a compelling reason for why change is needed.
  3. C) Communicate the vision throughout the organization.
  4. D) Reinforce the changes by demonstrating the relationship between new behaviors and organizational success.
  5. E) Consolidate improvements, reassess changes, and make necessary adjustments in the new programs.

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) The last step in Kotter’s eight-step plan for implementing change is reinforcing the changes by demonstrating the relationship between new behaviors and organizational success.

LO:  18.3: Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

54) John Kotter built on Lewin’s three-step model to create a more detailed approach for implementing change. Which of the following steps in Kotter’s eight-step plan for implementing change represents the unfreezing stage in Lewin’s three-step model?

  1. A) Plan for, create, and reward short-term “wins” that move the organization toward the new vision.
  2. B) Consolidate improvements, reassess changes, and make necessary adjustments in the new programs.
  3. C) Create a new vision to direct the change and strategies for achieving the vision.
  4. D) Empower others to act on the vision by removing barriers to change and encouraging risk taking and creative problem solving.
  5. E) Reinforce the changes by demonstrating the relationship between new behaviors and organizational success.

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) The first four steps in Kotter’s eight-step plan for implementing change represent the unfreezing stage in Lewin’s three-step model. One of these four steps is “Create a new vision to direct the change and strategies for achieving the vision.”

LO:  18.3: Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

55) Which of the following steps in Kotter’s eight-step plan for implementing change represents the movement stage in Lewin’s three-step model?

  1. A) Establish a sense of urgency by creating a compelling reason for why change is needed.
  2. B) Plan for, create, and reward short-term “wins” that propel the organization toward the new vision.
  3. C) Form a coalition with enough power to lead the change.
  4. D) Create a new vision to direct the change and strategies for achieving the vision.
  5. E) Reinforce the changes by demonstrating the relationship between new behaviors and organizational success.

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Planning for, creating, and rewarding short-term “wins” that move the organization toward the new vision is the sixth step in Kotter’s eight-step plan for implementing change, and it represents the movement stage in Lewin’s model. Steps 5 through 7 in Kotter’s eight-step plan represent the movement stage in the Lewin’s three-step model.

LO:  18.3: Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

56) Which of the following steps in Kotter’s eight-step plan for implementing change represents the refreezing stage in Lewin’s three-step model?

  1. A) Plan for, create, and reward short-term “wins” that move the organization toward the new vision.
  2. B) Consolidate improvements, reassess changes, and make necessary adjustments in the new programs.
  3. C) Create a new vision to direct the change and strategies for achieving the vision.
  4. D) Empower others to act on the vision by removing barriers to change and encouraging risk taking and creative problem solving.
  5. E) Reinforce the changes by demonstrating the relationship between new behaviors and organizational success.

Answer:  E

Explanation:  E) Reinforcing the changes by demonstrating the relationship between new behaviors and organizational success is the last step in Kotter’s eight-step plan for implementing change and it represents the refreezing stage in Lewin’s three-step model.

LO:  18.3: Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

57) ________ is a change process based on systematic collection of data and selection of a change action based on what the analyzed data indicate.

  1. A) Organizational development
  2. B) Action research
  3. C) Planned change
  4. D) Process consultation
  5. E) Organizational restructuring

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Action research is defined as a change process based on systematic collection of data and selection of a change action based on what the analyzed data indicate. Its value is in providing a scientific methodology for managing planned change.

LO:  18.3: Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

 

58) The step in the action research process where information is gathered about problems, concerns, and needed changes is known as the ________ stage.

  1. A) feedback
  2. B) evaluation
  3. C) diagnosis
  4. D) action
  5. E) prognosis

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) A change agent begins by gathering information about problems, concerns, and needed changes from members of the organization in the diagnosis stage. In action research, the change agent asks questions, reviews records, and interviews employees and listens to their concerns.

LO:  18.3: Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

59) ________ is a collection of change methods that seek to improve organizational effectiveness and employee well-being.

  1. A) Organizational development
  2. B) Organizational polarization
  3. C) Operant conditioning
  4. D) Organizational restructuring
  5. E) Action research

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Organizational development (OD) is a collection of change methods that try to improve organizational effectiveness and employee well-being. OD methods value human and organizational growth, collaborative and participative processes, and a spirit of inquiry.

LO:  18.3: Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

60) The deemphasizing of hierarchical authority and control in organizational development is referred to as ________.

  1. A) horizontal integration
  2. B) power equalization
  3. C) trust and support
  4. D) respect for people
  5. E) vertical blending

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Power equalization is one of the values in OD. It means that effective organizations deemphasize hierarchical authority and control.

LO:  18.3: Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

 

61) ________ is a method of changing behavior through unstructured group interaction.

  1. A) Action research
  2. B) Planned modification
  3. C) Process consultation
  4. D) Sensitivity training
  5. E) Psychoanalysis

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Sensitivity training refers to an early method of changing behavior through unstructured group interaction. Members are brought together in a free and open environment in which participants discuss themselves and their interactive processes, loosely directed by a professional behavioral scientist who created the opportunity to express ideas, beliefs, and attitudes without taking any leadership role.

LO:  18.3: Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

62) Which of the following is an organizational development technique that involves an outsider assisting a manager to identify what to improve and how?

  1. A) action research
  2. B) intergroup development
  3. C) appreciative inquiry
  4. D) process consultation
  5. E) social reinforcement

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Managers often sense their unit’s performance can be improved but are unable to identify what to improve and how. The purpose of process consultation (PC) is for an outside consultant to assist a client, usually a manager, to perceive, understand, and act upon process events with which the manager must deal.

LO:  18.3: Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

 

63) Rather than looking for problems, ________ seeks to identify the unique qualities and special strengths of an organization, which can then be built upon to improve performance.

  1. A) appreciative inquiry
  2. B) action research
  3. C) team building
  4. D) process consultation
  5. E) social reinforcement

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Most organizational development approaches are problem centered. They identify a problem or set of problems, then look for a solution. Appreciative inquiry (AI) instead accentuates the positive. Rather than looking for problems to fix, it seeks to identify the unique qualities and special strengths of an organization, which members can build on to improve performance. That is, AI focuses on an organization’s successes rather than its problems.

LO:  18.3: Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

64) Which of the following is a step in the appreciative inquiry process?

  1. A) analysis
  2. B) dreaming
  3. C) inferring
  4. D) classifying
  5. E) collaboration

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) The appreciative inquiry process consists of four steps: discovery, dreaming, design, and destiny. These steps are often played out in a large-group meeting over a two- or three-day time period and overseen by a trained change agent.

LO:  18.3: Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

65) Appreciative inquiry (AI) is an organizational development technique. Which of the following statements is true regarding appreciative inquiry?

  1. A) It tries to identify discrepancies among member perceptions and solve these differences.
  2. B) It uses high-interaction group activities to increase trust and openness among team members, improve coordinative efforts, and increase team performance.
  3. C) It involves an outside consultant who helps the manager to analyze processes within his or her unit and identify what to improve and how.
  4. D) It consists of four steps including discovery, dreaming, design, and destiny.
  5. E) It seeks to change groups’ attitudes, stereotypes, and perceptions about each other.

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) AI focuses on an organization’s successes rather than its problems. The AI process consists of four steps—discovery, dreaming, design, and destiny—often played out in a large-group meeting over a two- or three-day time period and overseen by a trained change agent.

LO:  18.3: Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

66) Which of the following steps of the appreciative inquiry attempts to identify what people think are the organization’s strengths?

  1. A) dreaming
  2. B) destiny
  3. C) collaboration
  4. D) inferring
  5. E) discovery

Answer:  E

Explanation:  E) The appreciative inquiry process consists of four steps—discovery, dreaming, design, and destiny—often played out in a large-group meeting over a two- or three-day time period and overseen by a trained change agent. Discovery sets out to identify what people think are the organization’s strengths.

LO:  18.3: Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

67) During the dreaming step of appreciative inquiry, participants ________.

  1. A) identify the organization’s strengths
  2. B) use information from the discovery phase to speculate on possible futures
  3. C) find a common vision of how the organization will look in the future
  4. D) write action plans and develop implementation strategies
  5. E) recount times they felt the organization worked best

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) During the dreaming step of appreciative inquiry, employees use information from the discovery phase to speculate on possible futures, such as what the organization will be like in five years.

LO:  18.3: Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

68) During the design step of appreciative inquiry, participants ________.

  1. A) find a common vision of how the organization will look in the future
  2. B) use information from the discovery phase to speculate on possible futures
  3. C) identify the organization’s strengths
  4. D) recount times they felt the organization worked best
  5. E) write action plans and develop implementation strategies

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) During the design step of appreciative inquiry, participants find a common vision of how the organization will look in the future and agree on its unique qualities.

LO:  18.3: Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

69) Appreciative inquiry refers to a change process based on the systematic collection of data and selection of a change action based on what the analyzed data indicates.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Action research is a change process based on the systematic collection of data and selection of a change action based on what the analyzed data indicate. Its value is in providing a scientific methodology for managing planned change.

LO:  18.3: Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

70) Organizational development (OD) is a collection of change methods that try to improve organizational effectiveness and employee well-being.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Organizational development (OD) is a collection of change methods that try to improve organizational effectiveness and employee well-being.

LO:  18.3: Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

71) Sensitivity training emphasizes changing behavior through structured group interaction.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Sensitivity training refers to an early method of changing behavior through unstructured group interaction.

LO:  18.3: Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

 

72) In the case of process consultation, the consultants do not solve the organization’s problems but rather guide or coach the client to solve his or her own problems after jointly diagnosing what needs improvement.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  In the case of process consultation, the consultants do not solve the organization’s problems but rather guide or coach the client to solve his or her own problems after jointly diagnosing what needs improvement.

LO:  18.3: Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

73) Intergroup development seeks to change groups’ attitudes, stereotypes, and perceptions that groups have of each other.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Intergroup development seeks to change groups’ attitudes, stereotypes, and perceptions about each other. Here, training sessions closely resemble diversity training, except that rather than focusing on demographic differences, they focus on differences among occupations, departments, or divisions within an organization.

LO:  18.3: Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

74) Appreciative inquiry involves identifying and fixing problems.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Appreciative inquiry (AI) accentuates the positive. Rather than looking for problems to fix, it seeks to identify the unique qualities and special strengths of an organization, which members can build on to improve performance. AI focuses on an organization’s successes rather than its problems.

LO:  18.3: Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

 

75) Describe Lewin’s three-step model used for managing change.

Answer:  Kurt Lewin argued that successful change in organizations should follow three steps: unfreezing the status quo, movement to a desired end state, and refreezing the new change to make it permanent.

 

Before implementing a change, organizations tend to be in an equilibrium state. To move from equilibrium—to overcome the pressures of both individual resistance and group conformity—unfreezing must happen in one of three ways. The driving forces, which direct behavior away from the status quo, can be increased. The restraining forces, which hinder movement away from equilibrium, can be decreased. A third alternative is to combine the first two approaches. Research on organizational change has shown that to be effective, change has to happen quickly. Organizations that build up to change do less well than those that get to and through the movement stage quickly. Once change has been implemented, to be successful the new situation must be refrozen so it can be sustained over time. Without this last step, change will likely be short-lived and employees will attempt to revert to the previous equilibrium state.

LO:  18.3: Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

76) List the eight steps in Kotter’s eight-step plan for implementing change.

Answer:  The eight steps in Kotter’s eight-step plan for implementing change are:

  1. Establish a sense of urgency by creating a compelling reason for why change is needed.
  2. Form a coalition with enough power to lead the change.
  3. Create a new vision to direct the change and strategies for achieving the vision.
  4. Communicate the vision throughout the organization.
  5. Empower others to act on the vision by removing barriers to change and encouraging risk taking and creative problem solving.
  6. Plan for, create, and reward short-term “wins” that move the organization toward the new vision.
  7. Consolidate improvements, reassess changes, and make necessary adjustments in the new programs.
  8. Reinforce the changes by demonstrating the relationship between new behaviors and organizational success.

LO:  18.3: Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

 

77) What is organizational development? What are the various values on which the organizational development techniques are based?

Answer:  Organizational development (OD) is a collection of change methods that try to improve organizational effectiveness and employee well-being. OD methods value human and organizational growth, collaborative and participative processes, and a spirit of inquiry.

The underlying values in most OD efforts are:

  1. Respect for people. Individuals are perceived as responsible, conscientious, and caring. They should be treated with dignity and respect.
  2. Trust and support. An effective and healthy organization is characterized by trust, authenticity, openness, and a supportive climate.
  3. Power equalization. Effective organizations deemphasize hierarchical authority and control.
  4. Confrontation. Problems should be openly confronted, not swept under the rug.
  5. Participation. The more engaged in the decisions they are, the more people affected by a change will be committed to implementing it.

LO:  18.3: Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

78) What are the various organizational development techniques?

Answer:  The various organizational development techniques are:

  1. a) Sensitivity training: It refers to an early method of changing behavior through unstructured group interaction.
  2. b) Survey feedback: The survey feedback approach provides one tool for assessing attitudes held by organizational members, identifying discrepancies among member perceptions, and solving these differences.
  3. c) Process consultation: The purpose of process consultation is for an outside consultant to assist a client to perceive, understand, and act upon process events with which he or she must deal. These might include workflow, informal relationships among unit members, and formal communication channels.
  4. d) Team building: Team building utilizes high-interaction group activities to increase trust and openness among team members.
  5. e) Intergroup development: Intergroup development seeks to change the attitudes, stereotypes, and perceptions that groups have of each other.
  6. f) Appreciative inquiry: Appreciative inquiry seeks to identify the unique qualities and special strengths of an organization, which can then be built upon to improve performance. That is, it focuses on an organization’s successes rather than its problems.

LO:  18.3: Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.

Difficulty:  Hard

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

 

79) Describe the process of appreciative inquiry (AI).

Answer:  Appreciative inquiry (AI) accentuates the positive. Rather than looking for problems to fix, it seeks to identify the unique qualities and special strengths of an organization, which members can build on to improve performance. That is, AI focuses on an organization’s successes rather than its problems. The AI process consists of four steps, discovery, dreaming, design, and destiny, often played out in a large-group meeting over a two- or three-day time period and overseen by a trained change agent. Discovery sets out to identify what people think are the organization’s strengths. Employees recount times they felt the organization worked best or when they specifically felt most satisfied with their jobs. In dreaming, employees use information from the discovery phase to speculate on possible futures, such as what the organization will be like in five years. In design, participants find a common vision of how the organization will look in the future and agree on its unique qualities. For the fourth step, participants seek to define the organization’s destiny or how to fulfill their dream, and they typically write action plans and develop implementation strategies.

LO:  18.3: Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

80) Compare and contrast the AI strategy for managing change and the double-loop learning organization focused on creating change. How are they similar and different?

Answer:  Appreciative inquiry (AI) accentuates the positive. Rather than looking for problems to fix, it seeks to identify the unique qualities and special strengths of an organization, which members can build on to improve performance. That is, AI focuses on an organization’s successes rather than its problems. The AI process consists of four steps, discovery, dreaming, design, and destiny, often played out in a large-group meeting over a two- or three-day time period and overseen by a trained change agent. Discovery sets out to identify what people think are the organization’s strengths. Employees recount times they felt the organization worked best or when they specifically felt most satisfied with their jobs. In dreaming, employees use information from the discovery phase to speculate on possible futures, such as what the organization will be like in five years. In design, participants find a common vision of how the organization will look in the future and agree on its unique qualities. For the fourth step, participants seek to define the organization’s destiny or how to fulfill their dream, and they typically write action plans and develop implementation strategies.

 

In double-loop learning, organizations correct errors by modifying objectives, policies, and standard routines. Double-loop learning challenges deeply rooted assumptions and norms. It provides opportunities for radically different solutions to problems and dramatic jumps in improvement. It’s one in which people put aside their old ways of thinking, learn to be open with each other, understand how their organization really works, form a plan or vision everyone can agree on, and work together to achieve that vision.

 

AI and double-loop learning are similar in that they both have management’s support for explicit, positive change. Although AI doesn’t necessarily flatten the organization’s structure, it reaches out to all levels of the organization for ideas, creating a team-like structure which is characteristic of the double-loop learning organization. However, double-loop learning creates a more innovative culture and rewards failures, whereas with AI, although all suggestions are listened to, it is up to management which ideas actually get implemented.

LO:  18.3: Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.

AACSB:  Analytical thinking

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Synthesis

 

 

81) Which of the following types of changes involves a new idea being applied to initiating or improving a product, process, or service?

  1. A) continuous improvement
  2. B) double-loop learning
  3. C) innovation
  4. D) process reengineering
  5. E) organizational streaming

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Innovation, a more specialized kind of change, is a new idea applied to initiating or improving a product, process, or service. So all innovations imply change, but not all changes necessarily introduce new ideas or lead to significant improvements.

LO:  18.4: Demonstrate three ways of creating a culture for change.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

82) Which of the following statements is true regarding innovation in organizations?

  1. A) Organic structures negatively influence innovation.
  2. B) Interunit communication is low in innovative organizations.
  3. C) Short tenure in management is associated with innovation.
  4. D) Innovation is nurtured when there is an abundance of resources.
  5. E) Innovative organizations reward both successes and failures.

Answer:  E

Explanation:  E) Organic structures positively influence innovation. Long tenure in management is associated with innovation. Innovation is nurtured when there are slack resources. Interunit communication is high in innovative organizations. Innovative organizations reward both successes and failures. They celebrate mistakes.

LO:  18.4: Demonstrate three ways of creating a culture for change.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

 

83) Bart has a new idea for a way to cut costs in his department, but he is not willing to share his idea with his boss because the last department head that tried new cost cutting methods was recently fired because the new methods could not achieve expected results. Based on the example, how can Bart’s company improve the culture to create innovation?

  1. A) flatten the organizational structure
  2. B) reward both successes and failures
  3. C) increase the resources in Bart’s department
  4. D) encourage communication between various departments
  5. E) conduct team-building activities

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Innovative organizations tend to have similar cultures. They encourage experimentation. People will suggest and try new ideas only when they feel such behaviors exact no penalties. Managers in innovative organizations recognize that failures are a natural by-product of venturing into the unknown.

LO:  18.4: Demonstrate three ways of creating a culture for change.

AACSB:  Analytical thinking

Difficulty:  Hard

Quest. Category:  Application

84) Which of the following actions can extinguish risk taking and innovation?

  1. A) long tenure in management
  2. B) encouraging experimentation
  3. C) rewarding for the absence of failures rather than for the presence of successes
  4. D) using organic organizational structures
  5. E) using an organizational structure that scores low on vertical differentiation, formalization, and centralization

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Innovative organizations encourage experimentation. Organic structures positively influence innovation because they’re lower in vertical differentiation, formalization, and centralization. The long tenure in management is associated with innovation. Innovative organizations reward both successes and failures. They celebrate mistakes. Unfortunately, in too many organizations, people are rewarded for the absence of failures rather than for the presence of successes. Such cultures extinguish risk taking and innovation.

LO:  18.4: Demonstrate three ways of creating a culture for change.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

 

85) Brian’s team just had a research breakthrough. They’ll need several thousands of dollars to complete the project. Brian has called a series of meetings in which he’s promoting the significance of the new discovery, explaining the economic benefits that will result from the final project, and answering questions. Brian is a(n) ________ within his company.

  1. A) change agent
  2. B) arbitrator
  3. C) manipulator
  4. D) idea champion
  5. E) stress creator

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Brian is an idea champion. Idea champions are individuals who take an innovation and actively and enthusiastically promote the idea, build support, overcome resistance, and ensure that the idea is implemented.

LO:  18.4: Demonstrate three ways of creating a culture for change.

AACSB:  Analytical thinking

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Application

 

86) Idea champions display characteristics associated with ________ leadership.

  1. A) narcissistic
  2. B) transformational
  3. C) autocratic
  4. D) transactional
  5. E) laissez-faire

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Idea champions display characteristics associated with transformational leadership—they inspire and energize others with their vision of an innovation’s potential and their strong personal conviction about their mission.

LO:  18.4: Demonstrate three ways of creating a culture for change.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

87) ________ involves correcting errors using past routines and present policies.

  1. A) Process reengineering
  2. B) Single-loop learning
  3. C) Circular logrolling
  4. D) Double-loop learning
  5. E) Organizational restructuring

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Most organizations engage in single-loop learning. When they detect errors, their correction process relies on past routines and present policies.

LO:  18.4: Demonstrate three ways of creating a culture for change.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

 

88) ________ involves correcting errors by modifying the organization’s objectives, policies, and standard routines.

  1. A) Action research
  2. B) Double-loop learning
  3. C) Process reengineering
  4. D) Single-loop learning
  5. E) Organizational restructuring

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Learning organizations that use double-loop learning correct errors by modifying objectives, policies, and standard routines. Double-loop learning challenges deeply rooted assumptions and norms. It provides opportunities for radically different solutions to problems and dramatic jumps in improvement.

LO:  18.4: Demonstrate three ways of creating a culture for change.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

89) In order to make their firm a learning organization, managers should ________.

  1. A) increase the number of hierarchical levels in the organization
  2. B) avoid the use of cross-functional teams
  3. C) penalize mistakes
  4. D) increase the degree of departmentalization
  5. E) redesign the organizational structure

Answer:  E

Explanation:  E) The formal structure of an organization can be a serious impediment to learning. Flattening the structure, eliminating or combining departments, and increasing the use of cross-functional teams reinforces interdependence and reduces boundaries, helping to create a learning organization. Also, managers should reward people who take chances and make mistakes.

LO:  18.4: Demonstrate three ways of creating a culture for change.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

90) Belonging creates paradoxes between establishing a sense of collective identity and acknowledging our desire to be recognized and accepted as unique individuals.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Belonging creates paradoxes between establishing a sense of collective identity and acknowledging our desire to be recognized and accepted as unique individuals.

LO:  18.4: Demonstrate three ways of creating a culture for change.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

 

91) Paradox theory states the key paradox in management is that there is no final optimal status for an organization.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Managers can learn a few lessons from paradox theory, which states the key paradox in management is that there is no final optimal status for an organization. The first is that as the environment and members of the organization change, different elements take on more or less importance.

LO:  18.4: Demonstrate three ways of creating a culture for change.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

92) Short tenure in management is associated with innovation.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Long tenure in management is associated with innovation.

LO:  18.4: Demonstrate three ways of creating a culture for change.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

93) Passion for change among entrepreneurs is greatest when work roles and the social environment encourage them to put their creative identities forward.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Situations can also influence the extent to which idea champions are forces for change. Passion for change among entrepreneurs is greatest when work roles and the social environment encourage them to put their creative identities forward. On the flip side, work roles that push creative individuals to do routine management and administration tasks will diminish both the passion for and implementation of change.

LO:  18.4: Demonstrate three ways of creating a culture for change.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

94) Double-loop learning is an error correction process that relies on past routines and present policies.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Organizations using double-loop learning to correct errors by modifying objectives, policies, and standard routines. Double-loop learning challenges deeply rooted assumptions and norms. It provides opportunities for radically different solutions to problems and dramatic jumps in improvement.

LO:  18.4: Demonstrate three ways of creating a culture for change.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

95) Learning organizations use single-loop learning.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Most organizations engage in single-loop learning. When they detect errors, their correction process relies on past routines and present policies. In contrast, learning organizations use double-loop learning.

LO:  18.4: Demonstrate three ways of creating a culture for change.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

96) Where the allostatic load is too great and too prolonged, we may experience psychological or physiological stress symptoms.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  If you’re feeling especially confident in your abilities and have lots of support from others, you may increase your willingness to experience strain and be better able to mobilize coping resources. This would be a situation where the allostatic load was not too great; in other cases where the allostatic load is too great and too prolonged, we may experience psychological or physiological stress symptoms.

LO:  18.4: Demonstrate three ways of creating a culture for change.

Difficulty:  Hard

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

97) What are the various structural variables that facilitate innovation?

Answer:  Structural variables have been the most studied potential source of innovation. A comprehensive review of the structure-innovation relationship leads to the following conclusions. First, organic structures positively influence innovation. Because they’re lower in vertical differentiation, formalization, and centralization, organic organizations facilitate the flexibility, adaptation, and cross-fertilization that make the adoption of innovations easier. Second, long tenure in management is associated with innovation. Managerial tenure apparently provides legitimacy and knowledge of how to accomplish tasks and obtain desired outcomes. Third, innovation is nurtured when there are slack resources. Having an abundance of resources allows an organization to afford to purchase innovations, bear the cost of instituting them, and absorb failures. Finally, interunit communication is high in innovative organizations. These organizations are high users of committees, task forces, cross-functional teams, and other mechanisms that facilitate interaction across departmental lines.

LO:  18.4: Demonstrate three ways of creating a culture for change.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

98) ________ is a dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, demand, or resource related to what the individual desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important.

  1. A) Change
  2. B) Stress
  3. C) Innovation
  4. D) Stimulation
  5. E) Creativity

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Stress is a dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, demand, or resource related to what the individual desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important.

LO:  18.5: Identify the potential environmental, organizational, and personal sources of stress at work and the role of individual and cultural differences.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

99) Which of the following stressors is likely to produce less strain than the other stressors?

  1. A) confusion over job responsibilities
  2. B) office politics
  3. C) lack of unity of command
  4. D) red tape
  5. E) pressure to complete tasks

Answer:  E

Explanation:  E) Pressure to complete tasks is a challenge stressor whereas red tape, office politics, lack of unity of command, and confusion over job responsibilities are hindrance stressors. Although research is just starting to accumulate, early evidence suggests challenge stressors produce less strain than hindrance stressors.

LO:  18.5: Identify the potential environmental, organizational, and personal sources of stress at work and the role of individual and cultural differences.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

100) One of Carl’s department employees was severely injured on the job. Carl has called in psychological counselors to talk to the other employees and scheduled a series of safety trainings for the department to be completed by the end of the week. He has also asked the HR personnel to talk to the department about the disability insurance that the company offers and make sure that his employees know what is available. Carl is using ________ to help cope with the stress caused by his employee’s injury.

  1. A) demands
  2. B) action research
  3. C) resources
  4. D) innovation
  5. E) appreciative inquiry

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Resources are things within an individual’s control that he or she can use to resolve the demands. Research suggests adequate resources help reduce the stressful nature of demands when demands and resources match. Having resources to cope with stress is just as important in offsetting it as demands are in increasing it.

LO:  18.5: Identify the potential environmental, organizational, and personal sources of stress at work and the role of individual and cultural differences.

AACSB:  Analytical thinking

Difficulty:  Hard

Quest. Category:  Application

 

101) Political uncertainties, economic uncertainties, and technological change are examples of the ________ factors of potential stress.

  1. A) structural
  2. B) environmental
  3. C) organizational
  4. D) personal
  5. E) social

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) There are three main types of environmental uncertainty or stress: economic, political, and technological.

LO:  18.5: Identify the potential environmental, organizational, and personal sources of stress at work and the role of individual and cultural differences.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

102) Jerry is feeling very stressed because his boss expects a project to be delivered to the client within a very unreasonable deadline. Jerry has to work nights and weekends to make the deadline. Jerry is feeling stress due to a(n) ________ factor.

  1. A) environmental
  2. B) organizational
  3. C) economic
  4. D) structural
  5. E) personal

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Organizational stress factors include pressures to avoid errors or complete tasks in a limited time, work overload, a demanding and insensitive boss, and unpleasant co-workers.

LO:  18.5: Identify the potential environmental, organizational, and personal sources of stress at work and the role of individual and cultural differences.

AACSB:  Analytical thinking

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Application

 

103) Family issues, economic problems, and personality characteristics are examples of the ________ factor of potential stress.

  1. A) social
  2. B) environmental
  3. C) structural
  4. D) psychological
  5. E) personal

Answer:  E

Explanation:  E) One category that creates stress is factors in the employee’s personal life: family issues, personal economic problems, and inherent personality characteristics. Marital difficulties, the breaking of a close relationship, and discipline troubles with children create stresses employees often can’t leave at the front door when they arrive at work.

LO:  18.5: Identify the potential environmental, organizational, and personal sources of stress at work and the role of individual and cultural differences.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

104) Benny is stressed with the new corporate reorganization. He now reports to a foreign office that has usurped many of his responsibilities, including the contract labor for his projects. Therefore, he’s working with new and less qualified contractors with whom he doesn’t have a relationship. However, the managers of the other departments find themselves in the same boat, and every day they are able to laugh over lunch about their new managerial impotence. ________ is helping Benny handle his stress.

  1. A) Emotional contagion
  2. B) Cognitive dissonance
  3. C) Social support
  4. D) Time management
  5. E) Self-efficacy

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Social support, collegial relationships with co-workers or supervisors, can buffer the impact of stress. It acts as a palliative, mitigating the negative effects of even high-strain jobs. Benny is using this social support to be able to laugh at his new situation.

LO:  18.5: Identify the potential environmental, organizational, and personal sources of stress at work and the role of individual and cultural differences.

AACSB:  Analytical thinking

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Application

 

105) Risa has to work long hours and sometimes weekends, losing out on family time. Risa doesn’t find her long hours overly stressful, but rather she sees it as her contribution to maintaining her family’s equilibrium and well-being and bettering her children’s future. In which country is Risa most likely employed?

  1. A) Venezuela
  2. B) United States
  3. C) Canada
  4. D) United Kingdom
  5. E) Netherlands

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) A study of 5,270 managers from 20 countries found individuals from individualistic countries such as the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom experienced higher levels of stress due to work interfering with family than did individuals from collectivist countries in Asia and Latin America. The authors proposed that this may occur because in collectivist cultures working extra hours is seen as a sacrifice to help the family, whereas in individualistic cultures work is seen as a means to personal achievement that takes away from the family.

LO:  18.5: Identify the potential environmental, organizational, and personal sources of stress at work and the role of individual and cultural differences.

AACSB:  Analytical thinking

Difficulty:  Hard

Quest. Category:  Application

 

106) Rudolf is dealing with impending layoffs at work. Yesterday, at a pharmacy, he measured his blood pressure and it was high. He also notices that when he thinks about the future, his heart rate accelerates. Rudolf is demonstrating ________ symptoms of stress.

  1. A) psychological
  2. B) physiological
  3. C) behavioral
  4. D) personal
  5. E) reactive

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Specialists in the health and medical sciences have determined that stress can cause physiological symptoms such as changes in metabolism, increased heart and breathing rates, increased blood pressure, and headaches. Stress can even induce heart attacks.

LO:  18.5: Identify the potential environmental, organizational, and personal sources of stress at work and the role of individual and cultural differences.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Application

 

107) Excessive smoking, substance abuse, and sleep disorders are all examples of ________ symptoms of stress.

  1. A) personal
  2. B) psychological
  3. C) behavioral
  4. D) physiological
  5. E) pathological

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Behavior-related stress symptoms include changes in productivity, absence, and turnover, as well as changes in eating habits, increased smoking or consumption of alcohol, rapid speech, fidgeting, and sleep disorders.

LO:  18.5: Identify the potential environmental, organizational, and personal sources of stress at work and the role of individual and cultural differences.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

 

108) Which of the following types of jobs is least likely to create stress and reduce satisfaction?

  1. A) jobs that make multiple and conflicting demands
  2. B) jobs that provide a high level of feedback
  3. C) jobs that lack clarity about the employee’s duties
  4. D) jobs that provide the employees less control over the pace of their work
  5. E) jobs that provide a low level of variety

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Jobs that provide a low level of variety, significance, autonomy, feedback, and identity appear to create stress and reduce satisfaction and involvement in the job. Jobs that make multiple and conflicting demands or that lack clarity about the employee’s duties, authority, and responsibilities increase both stress and dissatisfaction.

LO:  18.5: Identify the potential environmental, organizational, and personal sources of stress at work and the role of individual and cultural differences.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

109) Experience on the job tends to be positively related to work stress.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Experience on the job tends to be negatively related to work stress. Voluntary turnover is more probable among people who experience more stress. Therefore, people who remain with an organization longer are those with more stress-resistant traits or those more resistant to the stress characteristics of their organization.

LO:  18.5: Identify the potential environmental, organizational, and personal sources of stress at work and the role of individual and cultural differences.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

110) The single factor most consistently related to stress in the workplace is the amount of work that needs to be done, followed closely by the presence of looming deadlines.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  The single factor most consistently related to stress in the workplace is the amount of work that needs to be done, followed closely by the presence of looming deadlines.

LO:  18.5: Identify the potential environmental, organizational, and personal sources of stress at work and the role of individual and cultural differences.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

111) Discuss some of the psychological consequences of stress and describe some of the individual approaches to managing stress.

Answer:  Stress can cause dissatisfaction. Job-related stress can cause job-related dissatisfaction. Other psychological states include tension, anxiety, irritability, boredom, and procrastination. Jobs that make multiple and conflicting demands or that lack clarity about the employee’s duties, authority, and responsibilities increase both stress and dissatisfaction. Similarly, the less control people have over the pace of their work, the greater the stress and dissatisfaction. Although more research is needed to clarify the relationship, jobs that provide a low level of variety, significance, autonomy, feedback, and identity appear to create stress and reduce satisfaction and involvement in the job. Not everyone reacts to autonomy in the same way, however. For those who have an external locus of control, increased job control increases the tendency to experience stress and exhaustion.

 

Individual strategies that have proven effective include implementing time-management techniques, increasing physical exercise, relaxation training, and expanding the social support network. An understanding and utilization of basic time management principles can help individuals better cope with tensions created by job demands. A few of the best-known time-management principles are (1) making daily lists of activities to be accomplished, (2) prioritizing activities by importance and urgency, (3) scheduling activities according to the priorities set, and (4) knowing your daily cycle and handling the most demanding parts of your job when you are most alert and productive. Physicians have recommended noncompetitive physical exercise, such as aerobics, walking, jogging, swimming, and riding a bicycle, as a way to deal with excessive stress levels. Individuals can teach themselves to reduce tension through relaxation techniques such as meditation, hypnosis, and biofeedback. Talking with friends, family, or work colleagues provides an outlet when stress levels become excessive. Expanding your social support network provides someone to hear your problems and offer a more objective perspective on the situation than your own.

LO:  18.5: Identify the potential environmental, organizational, and personal sources of stress at work and the role of individual and cultural differences.

AACSB:  Analytical thinking

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Synthesis

 

 

112) Compare and contrast challenge stressors and hindrance stressors.

Answer:  Recently, researchers have argued that challenge stressors—or stressors associated with workload, pressure to complete tasks, and time urgency—operate quite differently from hindrance stressors—or stressors that keep you from reaching your goals (for example, red tape, office politics, confusion over job responsibilities). Although research is just starting to accumulate, early evidence suggests challenge stressors produce less strain than hindrance stressors. A meta-analysis of responses from more than 35,000 individuals showed role ambiguity, role conflict, role overload, job insecurity, environmental uncertainty, and situational constraints were all consistently negatively related to job performance. There is also evidence that challenge stress improves job performance in a supportive work environment, whereas hindrance stress reduces job performance in all work environments.

LO:  18.5: Identify the potential environmental, organizational, and personal sources of stress at work and the role of individual and cultural differences.

AACSB:  Analytical thinking

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Synthesis

113) Louise is overwhelmed with the new tasks that she has been assigned after the department merger. Each day, she arrives at work and makes a list of the new tasks, writes a number next to each one according to the urgency of completion, and schedules a time to complete each one. Although she’s still stressed, Louise is able to get most of the work done and feels better at the end of the day. Louise is using ________ techniques to reduce her stress.

  1. A) job enrichment
  2. B) goal setting
  3. C) relaxation
  4. D) time-management
  5. E) job enlargement

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Louise is using basic time-management principles to better cope with tensions created by job demands. A few of the best-known time-management principles are (1) making daily lists of activities to be accomplished, (2) prioritizing activities by importance and urgency, (3) scheduling activities according to the priorities set, and (4) knowing your daily cycle and handling the most demanding parts of your job when you are most alert and productive.

LO:  18.6: Identify the physiological, psychological, and behavioral symptoms of stress at work.

AACSB:  Analytical thinking

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Application

 

 

114) Which of the following statements is not true regarding organizational approaches to managing stress?

  1. A) With goal-setting in the organization, individuals perform better when they have specific and challenging goals and receive feedback on their progress toward these goals.
  2. B) Redesigning jobs to give employees more responsibility, more meaningful work, more autonomy, and increased feedback can reduce stress.
  3. C) Managers should consider decreasing employee involvement in decision making because evidence clearly shows that decreases in employee empowerment reduce psychological strain.
  4. D) Increasing formal organizational communication with employees reduces uncertainty.
  5. E) Some employees need an occasional escape from the pace of their work.

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Managers should consider increasing employee involvement in decision making because evidence clearly shows that increases in employee empowerment reduce psychological strain.

LO:  18.6: Identify the physiological, psychological, and behavioral symptoms of stress at work.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

115) Organizationally supported programs that focus on the employee’s total physical and mental condition, such as helping them quit smoking or control alcohol use, are called ________ programs.

  1. A) job redesign
  2. B) relaxation
  3. C) employee involvement
  4. D) organizational development
  5. E) wellness

Answer:  E

Explanation:  E) Organizationally supported wellness programs provide workshops to help people quit smoking, control alcohol use, lose weight, eat better, and develop a regular exercise program; they focus on the employee’s total physical and mental condition.

LO:  18.6: Identify the physiological, psychological, and behavioral symptoms of stress at work.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

 

116) Elaine is very good at what she does, but she is constantly stressed by internal deadlines assigned to co-workers, obligatory meetings, and time lost in unrelated idle cubicle chatter. Today, after a meeting with her supervisor, she has been given more responsibility for her work, is able to set her own deadlines, decline attendance to various department meetings, and telecommute two days a week. Elaine’s boss is using which of the following organizational strategies to reduce her stress?

  1. A) job redesign
  2. B) organizational communication
  3. C) employee involvement
  4. D) organizational development
  5. E) process reengineering

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Elaine’s boss is redesigning her job. Redesigning jobs to give employees more responsibility, more meaningful work, more autonomy, and increased feedback can reduce stress because these factors give employees greater control over work activities and lessen dependence on others.

LO:  18.6: Identify the physiological, psychological, and behavioral symptoms of stress at work.

AACSB:  Analytical thinking

Difficulty:  Hard

Quest. Category:  Application

117) Discuss the various individual approaches toward managing stress.

Answer:  The various individual approaches toward managing stress are:

  1. a) Time-management techniques: An understanding and utilization of basic time-management principles can help individuals better cope with tensions created by job demands. A few of the best-known time-management principles are (1) making daily lists of activities to be accomplished, (2) prioritizing activities by importance and urgency, (3) scheduling activities according to the priorities set, and (4) knowing your daily cycle and handling the most demanding parts of your job when you are most alert and productive.
  2. b) Physical exercise: Physicians have recommended noncompetitive physical exercise, such as aerobics, walking, jogging, swimming, and riding a bicycle, as a way to deal with excessive stress levels.
  3. c) Relaxation techniques: Individuals can teach themselves to reduce tension through relaxation techniques such as meditation, hypnosis, and biofeedback.
  4. d) Social support network: Expanding your social support network provides someone to hear your problems and offer a more objective perspective on the situation than your own.

LO:  18.6: Identify the physiological, psychological, and behavioral symptoms of stress at work.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

 

118) What are the various organizational approaches toward managing stress?

Answer:  Several factors that cause stress—particularly task and role demands—are controlled by management and thus can be modified or changed. The various organizational approaches toward managing stress are:

  1. a) Selection and placement: Certain jobs are more stressful than others but, as already noted, individuals differ in their response to stressful situations. We know individuals with little experience or an external locus of control tend to be more prone to stress. Selection and placement decisions should take these facts into consideration.
  2. b) Goal setting: Individuals perform better when they have specific and challenging goals and receive feedback on their progress toward these goals. Goals can reduce stress as well as provide motivation. Employees who are highly committed to their goals and see purpose in their jobs experience less stress because they are more likely to perceive stressors as challenges rather than hindrances.
  3. c) Redesigning jobs: Redesigning jobs to give employees more responsibility, more meaningful work, more autonomy, and increased feedback can reduce stress because these factors give employees greater control over work activities and lessen dependence on others.
  4. d) Increasing employee involvement: Role stress is detrimental to a large extent because employees feel uncertain about goals, expectations, how they’ll be evaluated, and the like. By giving these employees a voice in the decisions that directly affect their job performance, management can increase employee control and reduce role stress.
  5. e) Organizational communication: Increasing formal organizational communication with employees reduces uncertainty by lessening role ambiguity and role conflict. Given the importance that perceptions play in moderating the stress-response relationship, management can also use effective communications as a means to shape employee perceptions.

LO:  18.6: Identify the physiological, psychological, and behavioral symptoms of stress at work.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

Reviews

There are no reviews yet.

Be the first to review “Organizational Behavior 17th Edition by Stephen P. Robbins – Test Bank”

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *