Operations And Supply Chain Management 9th Edition By Roberta Russell – Test Bank

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Operations And Supply Chain Management 9th Edition By Roberta Russell – Test Bank

 

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Sample Questions

 

Chapter 4:
Product Design

 

 

True/False

 

 

  1. Product design has a tremendous impact on the quality of a manufactured good or service.

 

Ans: True

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 1

Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

 

  1. Dismantling and inspecting a competitor’s product to identify design features that might be used to improve your own product is known as reverse engineering.

 

Ans: True

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 1

Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

 

  1. An effective design process matches product characteristics with customer requirements.

 

Ans: True

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 1

Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

 

  1. Comparing a product or process against the best-in-class is known as reverse engineering.

 

Ans: False

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 1

Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

 

 

 

  1. Creating preliminary design models that are quickly tested and either discarded or further refined is known as rapid prototyping.

 

Ans: True

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 1

Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

 

  1. Form design refers to the physical appearance of a product.

 

Ans: True

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 1

Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

 

  1. A product’s reliability is a function of the reliabilities of its component parts, but not a function of how those parts are arranged.

 

Ans: False

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 1

Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

 

  1. To increase system reliability redundant parts can be built in to back up a failure.

 

Ans: True

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 1

Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

 

  1. Products assembled in modules can be easier to repair and maintain.

 

Ans: True

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 1

Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

 

  1. One quantitative measure of maintainability is mean time to repair (MTTR).

 

Ans: True

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 1

Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

 

  1. Modular design is one way to gain the benefits of standardization without losing the advantage of variety and uniqueness.

 

Ans: True

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 1

Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

 

  1. Modular design combines standardized building blocks, or modules, to create unique finished products.

 

Ans: True

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 1

Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

 

  1. Employing a systematic approach to analyzing the causes and effects of product failures is known as design for manufacture (DFM).

 

Ans: False

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 1

Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

 

  1. The final design consists of detailed drawings and specifications for the new product.

 

Ans: True

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 1

Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

 

  1. Using a cross-functional team to design new products is known as concurrent design.

 

Ans: True

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 1

Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

 

  1. Establishing multifunctional design teams can help reduce the time-to-market.

 

Ans: True

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 1

Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

 

  1. Concurrent design may involve simultaneously designing products and their production processes.

 

Ans: True

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 1

Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

 

  1. Concurrent design is often aided by the use of technology.

 

Ans: True

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: LO 1

Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

 

  1. One of the factors supporting the increase in new products has been advances in the technology available for designing products.

 

Ans: True

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 2

Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

 

  1. Product life cycle (PLC) systems maintain design data from product conception to retirement excluding minor design updates.

 

Ans: False

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 2

Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

 

  1. Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) has replaced computer-aided design (CAD) in the product design process.

 

Ans: False

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 2

Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

 

  1. Collaborative product design (CPD) software provides interconnectivity among members of a product’s supply chain.

 

Ans: True

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 2

Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

 

  1. Design review involves identifying possible defects and the value added by each part or component.

 

Ans: True

Difficulty:  Easy

Learning Objective: LO 3

Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

 

  1. Computer-aided design (CAD) produces better products but always increases the time to design them.

 

Ans: False

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 2

Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

 

  1. Value analysis is often utilized by a multifunctional product design team as part of design review.

 

Ans: True

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 3

Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

 

  1. Worldwide, extended producer responsibility (EPR) is becoming an important factor influencing product design for personal computers and some household appliances.

 

Ans: True

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 4

Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

 

  1. Extended producer responsibility (EPR) is a concept that holds consumers responsible for their products following the products’ useful lives.

 

Ans: False

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 4

Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

 

  1. Quality function deployment (QFD) consists of a series of matrix diagrams that define product design changes and the ramifications of implementing those changes.

 

Ans: True

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 5

Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

 

  1. The house of quality, the most popular quality function deployment (QFD) matrix, converts product design specifications into customer requirements.

 

Ans: False

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 5

Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

 

  1. Incorporating the voice of the customer into technical product design requirements is known as quality function deployment (QFD).

 

Ans: True

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 5

Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

 

  1. Quality Function Deployment (QFD) translates the voice of the customer into technical design requirements.

 

Ans: True

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 5

Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

 

  1. Products designed to withstand variations in operating conditions are said to be robust.

 

Ans: True

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 6

Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

 

  1. The allowable range of the variation in a part’s design specification is called the signal-to-noise ratio.

 

Ans: False

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 6

Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

 

  1. Reliability is the probability that a given part or product will perform its intended function for a specified length of time under adverse operating conditions.

 

Ans: False

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 6

Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

 

Multiple Choice

 

 

  1. Design can provide a competitive edge by
    1. bringing products to market quickly.
    2. doing an even better job of satisfying customers.
    3. being easier to manufacture, use and repair.
    4. All these answer choices are correct.

 

Ans: D

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 1

Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

 

  1. Which of the following is not a characteristic of an effective product design process?
  1. matches product characteristics with customer requirements
  2. maximizes the revisions necessary to make a design workable
  3. ensures that customer requirements are met in the least costly and simplest manner
  4. reduces the time required to design a new product or service

 

Ans: B

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: LO 1

Bloom’s: Application

 

 

  1. All of the following are characteristics of an effective design process except
  1. increasing the design time for new products and services.
  2. meeting customer requirements in the least costly manner.
  3. matching product or service characteristics with customer requirements.
  4. minimizing the number of revisions needed to make the design workable.

 

Ans: A

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: LO 1

Bloom’s: Application

 

 

  1. Product design begins with
  1. a feasibility study.
  2. a form design.
  3. understanding the customer and identifying customer needs.
  4. pilot runs and final tests.

 

Ans: C

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 1

Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

 

  1. If a firm’s design process is too lengthy
    1. a competitor may capture market share by being first to market.
    2. a competitor may lose market share by being first to market.
    3. a competitor may decide not to enter the market.
    4. None of these answers is correct.

 

Ans: A

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: LO 1

Bloom’s: Application

 

 

  1. Carefully dismantling and inspecting a competitor’s product to look for design features that can be incorporated into your own product is known as
  1. concurrent design.
  2. design for manufacturability.
  3. benchmarking.
  4. reverse engineering.

 

Ans: D

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 1

Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

 

  1. A feasibility study consists of all the following except
    1. a market analysis.
    2. an economic analysis.
    3. a technical and strategic analysis.
    4. a concurrent analysis.

 

Ans: D

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 1

Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

 

  1. ____________________ describe(s) what the product should do to satisfy customer needs.
    1. Performance specifications
    2. Benchmarks
    3. Perceptual maps
    4. Reverse engineering

 

Ans: A

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 1

Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

 

  1. Creating a preliminary design that can be quickly tested and then either discarded or further refined is referred to as
  1. Benchmarking.
  2. rapid prototyping.
  3. concurrent design.
  4. perceptual mapping.

 

Ans: B

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 1

Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

 

  1. The probability that a product will perform its intended function for a specified length of time under normal conditions is called
  1. benchmarking.
  2. perceptual mapping.
  3. Maintainability.
  4. Reliability.

 

Ans: D

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 1

Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

 

  1. Which of the following is a quantitative measure of reliability?
  1. reliability bar
  2. maintainability
  3. mean time between failures (MTBF)
  4. mean time to repair (MTTR)

 

Ans: C

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: LO 1

Bloom’s: Application

 

 

  1. All of the following can improve a product’s reliability except
  1. simplifying product design.
  2. improving individual component reliability.
  3. changing the product warranty.
  4. adding redundant components..

 

Ans: C

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: LO 1

Bloom’s: Analysis

 

 

  1. Combining standardized building blocks in different ways to create unique finished products is known as
  1. rapid prototyping.
  2. robust design.
  3. modular design.
  4. concurrent design.

 

Ans: C

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 1

Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

 

  1. A company produces a product consisting of two components arranged as follows:
0.95
0.93

 

 

 

 

 

If both components must function for the product to function, then the product’s overall reliability is

  1. 0.950
  2. 0.940
  3. 0.930
  4. 0.884

 

Ans: D

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: LO 1

Bloom’s: Application

 

 

  1. A company produces a product consisting of two components arranged as follows:
0.97
0.90

 

 

 

 

Both components must function for the product to function.  To achieve an overall reliability of at least 0.95 without changing the reliability of the first component, the reliability of the second component would need to be

  1. at least 0.925 .
  2. at least 0.95.
  3. at least 0.97.
  4. at least 0.98.

 

Ans: D

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: LO 1

Bloom’s: Application

 

 

  1. A company produces a product consisting of two components arranged as follows:
R1
R2

 

 

 

 

 

If both components must function for the product to function, then the two components would need individual reliabilities of _______ to achieve an overall reliability of 0.90.

  1. R1 = 0.90 and R2 = 0.90
  2. R1 = 0.95 and R2 = 0.95
  3. R1 = 0.80 and R2 = 0.80
  4. R1 = 0.85 and R2 = 0.85

 

Ans: B

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: LO 1

Bloom’s: Application

 

 

  1. A product consists of three components arranged as follows:
R1 = 0.95
R2 = 0.90
R3 = 0.95

 

 

 

 

 

 

If all three components must function for the product to function, then the product’s overall reliability is approximately

  1. 0.812.
  2. 0.90.
  3. 0.933.
  4. 0.95.

 

Ans: A

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: LO 1

Bloom’s: Application

 

 

  1. The overall reliability of the following system is

 

0.90

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. greater than 1.00.
  2. 0.95.
  3. 0.90.
  4. 0.898.

 

Ans: D

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective: LO 1

Bloom’s: Evaluation

 

 

  1. For the overall reliability of the following system to be 0.975 or greater the reliability of the backup component, Rb, must be

 

Rb =?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. at least 1.00.
  2. at least 0.896.
  3. at least 0.736.
  4. at least 0.534.

 

Ans: B

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective: LO 1

Bloom’s: Synthesis

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The overall reliability of the following system is

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. 0.787.
  2. 0.85.
  3. 0.89.
  4. 0.919.

 

Ans: D

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective: LO 1

Bloom’s: Evaluation

 

 

  1. A product consists of three components arranged as follows:
R1 =

?

R2 = 0.94
R3 = 0.98

 

 

 

 

 

 

If all three components must function for the product to function, and the product’s overall reliability must be at least 0.92, then the reliability of the first component, R1, must be

  1. at least 0.999.
  2. at least 0.84.
  3. at least 0.96.
  4. at least 0.972.

 

Ans: A

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective: LO 1

Bloom’s: Synthesis

 

 

  1. If a product fails 10 times in 500 hours of operation, then its mean time between failures (MTBF) is
  1. 0.02 hour.
  2. 0.10 hour.
  3. 20 hours.
  4. 50 hours.

 

Ans: D

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: LO 1

Bloom’s: Application

 

 

  1. If a piece of equipment has a mean time between failures (MTBF) of 500 hours with a mean time to repair (MTTR) of 10 hours, then its uptime or average availability would be
  1. 0.020 or 2.00%
  2. 0.980 or 98.00%
  3. 0.500 or 50.00%
  4. 1.000 or 100.00%

 

Ans: B

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: LO 1

Bloom’s: Analysis

 

 

  1. The system availability for a system with a mean time between failures (MTBF) of 1000 hours and a mean time to repair (MTTR) of 50 hours would be
  1. 100.00%
  2. 97.50%
  3. 95.24%
  4. 4.76%

 

Ans: C

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: LO 1

Bloom’s: Analysis

 

 

  1. Which of the following will not improve design for manufacture and assembly?
  1. minimizing the number of parts and subassemblies
  2. using standard parts when possible
  3. designing parts for limited, unique uses
  4. designing parts for many, varied uses

 

Ans: C

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 1

Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

 

  1. _____________________ involves taking into account the capabilities at each level of the supply chain when designing a product.
    1. Design for supplier
    2. Design for manufacturer
    3. Design for supply chain
    4. Design for competitor

 

Ans: C

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 1

Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

 

  1. Functional design includes all the following except
  2. form design.

 

Ans: C

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 1

Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

 

  1. Simultaneously designing new products and the processes to produce them is known as
  1. concurrent design.
  2. functional design.
  3. modular design.
  4. standard design.

 

Ans: A

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 1

Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

 

  1. ____________________ is a software system that facilitates collaborative design and development among trading partners.
    1. Computer aided design
    2. Collaborative product design
    3. Computer aided engineering
    4. None of these answer choices is correct.

 

Ans: B

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 2
Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

 

  1. ____________________ is a software system that assists in the creation, modification and analysis of design.
    1. Computer aided design
    2. Collaborative product design
    3. Computer aided engineering
    4. None of these answer choices is correct.

 

Ans: A

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 2

Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

 

  1. ____________________ is a software system that retrieves the description and geometry of a design from a database, and tests and analyzes that design on a computer screen.
    1. Computer aided design
    2. Collaborative product design
    3. Computer aided engineering
    4. None of these answer choices is correct.

 

Ans: C

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 2

Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

 

  1. ____________________ is a software system that stores, retrieves and updates design data through the lifecycle of a product.
    1. Computer aided design
    2. Collaborative product design
    3. Computer aided engineering
    4. None of these answer choices is correct.

 

Ans: D

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 2

Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

 

  1. Product lifecycle management is a software system that
    1. facilitates collaborative design and development among trading partners.
    2. stores, retrieves and updates design data through the lifecycle of a product.
    3. retrieves the description and geometry of a design from a database, and tests and analyzes that design on a computer screen.
    4. assists in the creation, modification and analysis of design.

 

Ans: B

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 2

Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

 

  1. Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is
  1. a software systems that uses computer graphics to assist in designing products.
  2. a systematic approach to analyzing the causes and effects of product failures.
  3. a visual method for analyzing the interrelationships among failures.
  4. a structured process that translates the voice of the customer into technical design requirements.

 

Ans: B

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 3

Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

 

  1. Fault tree analysis (FTA) is
  1. a software systems that uses computer graphics to assist in designing products.
  2. a systematic approach to analyzing the causes and effects of product failures.
  3. a visual method for analyzing the interrelationships among failures.
  4. a structured process that translates the voice of the customer into technical design requirements.

 

Ans: C

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 3

Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

 

  1. __________________________ is a procedure, used by multifunction design teams, to eliminate unnecessary features and functions from a product design.
    1. Failure mode and effects analysis
    2. Value analysis
    3. Fault tree analysis
    4. All of these answer choices are correct.

 

Ans: B

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 3

Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

 

  1. Which of the following techniques would most likely be used to systematically analyze product failures?
  1. concurrent design
  2. quality function deployment
  3. failure mode and effects analysis
  4. value analysis

 

Ans: C

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 3

Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

 

  1. The ability to meet present needs without compromising those of future generations is a concept in product design known as
  2. reusability.
  3. maintainability.
  4. reliability.
  5. sustainability.

 

Ans: D

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 4

Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

 

  1. All of the following are principles of green product design except
  1. use new materials.
  2. use less materials.
  3. involve the entire supply chain.
  4. change the paradigm of design.

 

Ans: A

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: LO 4

Bloom’s: Application

 

 

  1. ___________________ is a concept where companies are held responsible for their product even after its useful life.
  1. Design for disposal or reuse
  2. Sustainability
  3. Extended producer responsibility
  4. Environmentally safe people

 

Ans. C

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 4

Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

 

  1. With ___________________, consumers are encouraged to use the product efficiently, repair it when possible and dispose of it responsibly.
  1. green sourcing
  2. green manufacture
  3. recycling and reuse
  4. green consumption

 

Ans: D

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 4

Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

 

  1. With ___________________, suppliers are encouraged to suggest more environmentally friendly materials, methods and processes.
  1. green sourcing
  2. green manufacture
  3. recycling and reuse
  4. green consumption

 

Ans: A

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 4

Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

 

  1. Design for the environment includes all the following concepts except
  1. design for disposal or reuse.
  2. sustainability.
  3. extended producer responsibility.
  4. environmentally safe people.

 

Ans. D

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: LO 4

Bloom’s: Analysis

 

 

  1. Quality function deployment (QFD) is
  1. a software systems that uses computer graphics to assist in designing products.
  2. a systematic approach to analyzing the causes and effects of product failures.
  3. a visual method for analyzing the interrelationships among failures.
  4. a structured process that translates the voice of the customer into technical design requirements.

 

Ans: D

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 5

Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

 

  1. A structured process that translates the voice of the customer into technical design requirements is known as
    1. quality function deployment (QFD).
    2. failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA).
    3. concurrent design.
    4. robust product design.

 

Ans: A

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 5

Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

 

  1. Which of the following is a quantitative measure of maintainability?
  1. design for manufacture (DFM)
  2. mean time to repair (MTTR)
  3. mean time between failures (MTBF)
  4. quality function deployment (QFD)

 

Ans: B

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 6

Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

 

  1. When a product is designed to withstand variations in environmental and operating conditions, it is known as
  1. robust design.
  2. design for change.
  3. design for modification.
  4. design for tolerance.

 

Ans: A

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: LO 6

Bloom’s: Application

 

 

  1. The Taguchi Quality Loss Function implies that a
  1. customer’s dissatisfaction increases geometrically as the actual value deviates from the target value.
  2. customer’s satisfaction increases geometrically as the actual value deviates from the target value.
  3. customer’s dissatisfaction decreases geometrically as the actual value deviates from the target value.
  4. customer’s preferences are strongly oriented towards conforming to specifications.

 

Ans: A

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: LO 6

Bloom’s: Application

 

 

  1. As a part of design for robustness, Taguchi believes that
  1. consistent errors can be more easily corrected than random errors.
  2. parts within tolerance limits may produce assemblies that are not within limits.
  3. consumers have a strong preference for product characteristics near their ideal value.
  4. All of these answer choices are correct.

 

Ans: D

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 6

Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

 

Essay

 

 

  1. Briefly discuss the characteristics of an effective design process.

 

Ans: An effective design process (1) matches product or service characteristics with customer requirements; (2) ensures that customer requirements are met in the simplest and least costly manner; (3) reduces the time required to design a new product or service; and (4) minimizes the revisions necessary to make a design workable.

Level of Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 1

Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

 

  1. What does a feasibility study consist of and how is it related to the design process?

 

Ans: Once marketing has taken the ideas that are generated and the customer needs that are identified from the first stage of the design process and formulated alternative product and service concepts, the promising concepts undergo a feasibility study that includes several types of analyses beginning with a market analysis. Market researchers use customer surveys, interviews, focus groups, and market tests to determine whether there is enough demand for the proposed product to justify further investment in it.  If the demand potential exists, then there is an economic analysis that looks at estimates of production and development costs and compares them to estimated sales volume.  A price range for the product that is compatible with the market segment and image of the new product is discussed. Quantitative techniques may be used to evaluate the profit potential of the project.  Finally, there are technical and strategic analysis that answer such questions as: “does the new product require new technology?”; “does the company have the capability to support the new product?”; “is the new product compatible with the core business of the firm?”

Learning Objective: LO 1

Level of Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s: Analysis

 

 

  1. Briefly discuss three performance characteristics considered during the functional design phase of a product.

 

Ans: Functional design is concerned with how the product performs. Three performance characteristics considered during the functional design phase are reliability, maintainability, and usability.  Reliability is the probability that a given part or product will perform its intended function for a specified length of time under normal conditions of use.  Maintainability, also called serviceability, refers to the ease and/or cost with which a product or service is maintained or repaired. Usability is what makes a product or service easy to use and a good fit for its targeted customer.

Learning Objective: LO 1

Level of Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

 

  1. What role does simplification play in the design process?

 

Ans: Production design is concerned with how the product will be made.  Designs that are difficult to make often result in poor-quality products.  Engineers tend to overdesign products, with too many features, options, and parts. Design simplification attempts to reduce the number of parts, subassemblies, and options in a product. It also means avoiding tools, separate fasteners, and adjustments. By employing simplification, designers hope to make it easier to build and assemble higher quality products faster and less costly than they otherwise could.

Learning Objective: LO 1

Level of Difficulty: medium

Bloom’s: Application

 

 

  1. List at least four design for manufacture guidelines that promote good design practice.

 

Ans: Design for manufacture guidelines that promote good design practice include: (1) minimizing the number of parts and subassemblies; (2) avoiding tools, separate fasteners, and adjustments; (3) using standard parts; (4) designing parts for many uses; (5) designing for ease of assembly and minimal handling; and (6) allowing for efficient and adequate testing and replacement of parts.

Learning Objective: LO 1

Level of Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s: Application

 

 

  1. List five ways that design quality can be improved.

 

Ans: Design quality can be improved by (1) reviewing designs to prevent failures and ensure value; (2) designing for the environment; (3) measuring design quality; (4) using quality function deployment (QFD); and (5) designing for robustness.

Learning Objective: LO 1

Level of Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s: Application

 

 

  1. What are some of the questions/inquiries one would ask regarding every material, every part, and every operation in value analysis?

 

Ans: The writer should address the question “can we live without it?”  Does it do more than is required?  Does it cost more than it is worth?  Can something else do a better job? Can it be made by a less costly method?  Can it be made cheaper, better, faster by someone else?

Learning Objective: LO 1

Level of Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s: Analysis

 

 

Multiple Choice

 

 

  1. In a regional swimming meet, the 4 × 100–meter relay is about to begin. One of the teams of four swimmers went out for dinner last night and unknowingly ate some food that occasionally causes cramps. If a swimmer gets cramps, she can’t continue swimming. Suppose that the likelihood of each swimmer getting cramps is 10%. Then the probability that the team will be able to complete the 4 × 100–meter relay is ________.
  1. 0.90
  2. 0.81
  3. 0.66
  4. 0.50

 

Ans. C

Difficulty: Medium

AACSB: Reflective thinking

Bloom’s level: Application

Learning Objective: LO2

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements is false about the reliability of a system?
    1. The product of the mean time between failures (MTBF) and the failure rate is 1
    2. Redundancy decreases reliability.
    3. Increased complexity in the product design decreases reliability.
    4. The reliability of a system with 2 components in parallel with individual reliabilities R1 and R2 is: R1 + R2 – R1 × R2

 

Ans. B

Difficulty: Hard

AACSB: Reflective thinking

Bloom’s level: Evaluation

Learning Objective: LO2

 

 

  1. You are evaluating the service availability for two providers. Unfortunately, you don’t know their mean times between failures, MTBF1 and MTBF2, or their mean times to repair, MTTR1 and MTTR2, but you do know the ratios: MTTR1/MTBF1 = 0.05 and MTTTR2/MTBF2 = 0.04. Then ________.
  1. you would choose provider 1, even though you cannot compare the two service availabilities.
  2. you would choose provider 2, even though you cannot compare the two service availabilities.
  3. you would choose provider 1 because its service availability is 95.24%, which is higher than that of provider 2.
  4. you would choose provider 2 because its service availability is 96.15%, which is higher than that of provider 1.

 

Ans. d

Difficulty: Hard

AACSB: Analytic

Bloom’s level: Evaluation

Learning Objective: LO2

 

 

  1. You need to evaluate 3 service providers, A, B, and C. Their mean times between failures are 65, 75, and 80 hours respectively. Their mean times to repair are 3, 2, and 1 hours respectively. However, you receive a report that the mean time to repair for provider C is actually larger than 1 hour. What is the maximum value of the mean time to repair of provider C that would make you choose provider C?
  2. 1155
  3. 1355
  4. 1455
  5. 1555

 

Ans: b

Difficulty: Hard

AACSB: Analytic

Bloom’s level: Evaluation

Learning Objective: LO2

 

 

  1. There are two alternative designs for a system, shown below.

 

First design:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Second design:

 

R1 =

0.99

R2 = 0.932
R3 = 0.975

 

 

 

 

 

What is the minimum reliability of component x that would make you prefer the first design over the second?

  1. 703
  2. 723
  3. 743
  4. 763

 

Ans. D

Difficulty: Hard

AACSB: Analytic

Bloom’s level: Synthesis

Learning Objective: LO2

 

  1. If a product on average fails 0.5 times in 250 hours of operation, then its mean time between failures (MTBF) is ________.
  1. 0.5 hours
  2. 125 hours
  3. 250 hours
  4. 500 hours

 

Ans: d

Difficulty: Medium

AACSB: Reflective thinking

Bloom’s level: Application

Learning Objective: LO 2

 

 

  1. To evaluate the profit potential of a new product, which of the following quantitative techniques is not used?
  1. Cost/benefit analysis
  2. Internal rate of return
  3. Decision theory
  4. Perceptual maps

 

Ans: d

Difficulty: Medium

AACSB: Reflective thinking

Bloom’s level: Application

Learning Objective: LO 4

 

 

  1. Functional design involves ______.
  2. reliability, maintainability, and usability
  3. perceptual maps
  4. reverse engineering
  5. a feasibility study

 

Ans: A

Difficulty: Medium

AACSB: Reflective thinking

Bloom’s level: Application

Learning Objective: LO 4

 

 

  1. Production design involves ______.
  2. reliability, maintainability, and usability
  3. perceptual maps
  4. reverse engineering
  5. simplification, standardization, modularity, and design for supply chain

 

Ans: D

Difficulty: Medium

AACSB: Reflective thinking

Bloom’s level: Application

Learning Objective: LO 4

 

 

  1. Modular design involves ______.
    1. reverse engineering
    2. designing a product so that it can be produced easily and economically
    3. minimizing the number of parts and subassemblies
    4. combining standardized building blocks in a variety of ways

 

Ans: d

Difficulty: Medium

AACSB: Reflective thinking

Bloom’s level: Application

Learning Objective: LO 4

 

Chapter 7:

Capacity and Facilities

 

 

True/False

 

 

  1. Capacity can be increased in one large step or incrementally.

Ans: True

Difficulty: Easy

 

Learning Objective: LO 1

 

 

  1. For a given facility, the best operating level equals the percent of capacity utilization that minimizes unit cost.

Ans: True

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 1

 

 

  1. The capacity cushion for a facility equals one minus utilization.

Ans: True

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: LO 1

 

 

 

  1. Product layouts are sometimes referred to as functional layouts because they group similar activities together.

Ans: False

Difficulty: Easy

 

Learning Objective: LO 2

 

 

  1. The major layout concern for a process layout is where to locate departments or functional areas relative to each other.

Ans: True

Difficulty: Moderate

 

Learning Objective: LO 2

 

 

  1. The major advantage of a process layout over a product layout is efficiency.

Ans: False

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: LO 2

 

 

  1. Line balancing strives to minimize bottlenecks in a process layout.

Ans: False

Difficulty: Moderate

Feedback: Basic Layouts

 

 

  1. Facility layout refers to the arrangement of machines, processes, departments, and other areas within a facility.

Ans: True

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 2

 

 

  1. The basic objective of the facility layout decision is to ensure a smooth flow of inventory through the system.

Ans: True

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 2

 

 

  1. A process layout arranges activities sequentially.

Ans: False

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: LO 2

 

 

  1. A process layout groups similar activities together according to the functions they perform.

Ans: True

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: LO 2

 

 

  1. General as opposed to specific purpose equipment is typically found in a process layout.

Ans: True

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 2

 

 

  1. An important advantage of a process layout over a product layout is efficiency.

Ans: False

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 2

 

 

  1. Material storage and movement are directly affected by facility layout decisions.

Ans: True

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 2

 

 

  1. Product layouts have a higher degree of flexibility than process layouts.

Ans: False

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 2

 

 

  1. Fixed-position layouts are used for projects when the product cannot be easily moved.

Ans: True

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 2

 

 

  1. Shipbuilding is an example of production system requiring a process layout.

Ans: False

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 2

 

 

  1. Equipment utilization is typically very high in processes with a fixed-position layout.

Ans: False

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 2

 

 

  1. Minimizing material handling cost is an important objective for a process layout.

Ans: True

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: LO 2

 

 

  1. A relationship diagram provides a standard format for displaying manager preferences for department locations.

Ans: True

Difficulty: Moderate

 

Learning Objective: LO 3

 

 

  1. A schematic diagram using weighted lines to denote location preference is called a relationship diagram.

Ans: True

Difficulty: Moderate

 

Learning Objective: LO 3

 

  1. Block diagramming is a design tool for process layouts that takes into account the number of adjacent and non-adjacent moves.

Ans: True

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: LO 3

 

 

  1. Most service facilities utilize fixed-position layouts.

 

Ans: False

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 3

 

 

  1. The majority of service facilities utilize process layouts.

Ans: True

Difficulty: Easy

 

Learning Objective: LO 3

 

 

  1. With a product layout the purpose of line balancing is to equalize the amount of work at each workstation.

Ans: True

Difficulty: Moderate

 

Learning Objective: LO 3

 

 

  1. Line balancing is constrained by precedence requirements and cycle time restrictions.

Ans: True

Difficulty: Hard

 

Learning Objective: LO 3

 

 

  1. Line balancing is a procedure that requires cycle time to be the same as flow time.

Ans: False

Difficulty: Easy

 

Learning Objective: LO 3

 

 

  1. Precedence requirements reflect physical restrictions on the order in which operations are performed in a product layout.

Ans: True

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: LO 3

 

 

  1. The maximum amount of time a product spends at any workstation is known as the bottleneck time.

Ans: False

Difficulty: Moderate

 

Learning Objective: LO 3

 

  1. The desired cycle time refers to the maximum amount of time a product is allowed to spend at each workstation.

Ans: True

Difficulty: Moderate

 

Learning Objective: LO 3

 

 

  1. The balance delay is calculated by subtracting efficiency in percent from one hundred.

Ans: True

Difficulty: Moderate

 

Learning Objective: LO 3

 

 

  1. The line balancing procedure uses heuristics to specify which work elements are allocated to each workstation.

Ans: True

Difficulty: Moderate

 

Learning Objective: LO 3

 

 

  1. Cellular layouts combine the flexibility of process layouts with the efficiency of product layouts.

Ans: True

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: LO 4

 

 

  1. Cellular layouts reduce transit time and increase set-up.

Ans: False

Difficulty: Moderate

 

Learning Objective: LO 4

 

 

  1. A flexible manufacturing system (FMS) combines flexibility with higher efficiency.

 

Ans: True

Difficulty: Easy

 

Learning Objective: LO 4

 

 

  1. The efficiency of a flexible manufacturing system (FMS) comes from reductions in setup and waiting times.

Ans: True

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective: LO 4

 

 

  1. Single model and mixed model assembly lines are similar in layout and operation.

Ans: False

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: LO 4

 

 

  1. A mixed-model assembly line processes each model in large batch sizes.

Ans: False

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 4

 

 

  1. The time to complete a task in a mixed-model assembly line can vary from model to model.

Ans: True

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 4

 

 

 

 

 

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is not a capacity expansion strategy?
  2. Capacity lead strategy
  3. Capacity lag strategy
  4. Capacity stability strategy
  5. Average capacity

Ans: C

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 1

  1. Capacity is defined as the
    minimum capability to produce.
  2. maximum capability to produce.
    c. average capability to produce.
    d. None of these answer choices is correct.
    Ans: B
    Difficulty: EasyLearning Objective: LO 1

 

  1. The two critical decisions concerning capacity include
    When to increase and how much to increase.
    b. When to increase and where to locate.
    c. How much to increase and where to locate.
    d. None of these answer choices is correct.
    Ans: B
    Difficulty: EasyLearning Objective: LO 1

 

 

  1. The ______________________ for a facility is the percent of capacity utilization that minimizes cost.
    best operating level
    b. capacity cushion
    c. diseconomies of scale
    d. economies of scale
    Ans: A
    Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 1

 

 

  1. When higher levels of output cost less per unit to produce, the facility realizes
    best operating level.
    b. capacity cushion.
    c. diseconomies of scale.
    d. economies of scale.
    Ans: D
    Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 1

 

 

  1. When higher levels of output cost more per unit to produce, the facility realizes
    best operating level.
    b. capacity cushion.
    c. diseconomies of scale.
    d. economies of scale.
    Ans: C
    Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 1

 

  1. The ______________________ is the percent of demand held in reserve for unexpected occurrences.
    best operating level
    b. capacity cushion
    c. diseconomies of scale
    d. economies of scale
    Ans: B
    Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 1

 

  1. Facility design has an impact on
    quality.
    b. productivity.
    c. both quality and productivity.
    d. None of these answer choices is correct.
    Ans: C
    Difficulty: EasyLearning Objective: LO 1
  2. Which of the following is not an objective of facility layout?
    Minimize material handling costs
    b. Utilize space efficiently
    c. Utilize labor efficiently
    d. Maximize bottlenecks
    Ans: D
    Difficulty: EasyLearning Objective: LO 1
  3. Which one of the following is not an example of a basic facility layout?
  4. Fixed-position
  5. Mixed-model
  6. Product
  7. Process

Ans: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Feedback: Basic Layout

Learning Objective: LO 2

 

  1. Which of the following is not an objective of effective layouts?
  2. reduce material handling costs
  3. increase the number of bottlenecks
  4. eliminate waste and redundant activities
  5. improve communication and interaction among workstations

Ans: B

Difficulty: Easy

 

Learning Objective: LO 2

  1. Which of the following statements is true?
  2. product layouts are flexible; process layouts are efficient
  3. product layouts are efficient; process layouts are flexible
  4. product and process layouts are equally flexible; neither are efficient
  5. product and process layout are equally efficient; neither are flexible

Ans: B

Difficulty: Easy

 

Learning Objective: LO 2

 

 

  1. Similar activities are grouped together in departments or work centers according to the function with a __________ layout.
  2. process
  3. fixed-position
  4. hybrid
  5. traditional

Ans: A

Difficulty: Easy

 

Learning Objective: LO 2

 

 

  1. Which of the following describes a process layout?
  2. Equipment is general purpose and the workers are unskilled.
  3. Equipment is specialized and the workers are highly skilled.
  4. Equipment is general purpose and the workers are highly skilled.
  5. Equipment is specialized and the workers are unskilled.

Ans: C

Difficulty: Moderate

 

Learning Objective: LO 2

 

 

  1. The material storage space required for in-process inventory is typically larger in a
  2. cellular manufacturing layout.
  3. product layout.
  4. fixed-position layout.
  5. process layout.

Ans: D

Difficulty: Easy

 

Learning Objective: LO 2

  1. Material handling equipment that can follow multiple paths, move in any direction, and carry large loads of in-process inventory is most likely to be associated with a _________ layout
  2. process
  3. product
  4. fixed-position
  5. None of these answer choices is correct.

Ans: A

Difficulty: Easy

 

Learning Objective: LO 2

  1. With a ___________ layout, activities are arranged in a line according to the sequence of operations.
  2. product
  3. process
  4. fixed-position
  5. cellular

Ans: A

Difficulty: Easy

 

Learning Objective: LO 2

 

  1. A ____________ provides historical data on the movement of parts and materials between departments.
  2. manufacturing chart
  3. block diagram
  4. relationship diagram
  5. load summary chart

Ans: D

Difficulty: Easy

 

Learning Objective: LO 3

 

  1. Two techniques used to design process layouts are
  2. block diagramming and assembly line balancing.
  3. relationship diagramming and assembling line balancing.
  4. relationship diagramming and assembly line balancing.
  5. block diagramming and relationship diagramming.

Ans: D

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: LO 3

 

 

  1. A format for displaying manager preferences for departmental locations is known as
  2. relationship diagram.
  3. process diagram.
  4. block diagram.
  5. hybrid diagram.

Ans: A

Difficulty: Moderate

 

Learning Objective: LO 3

 

  1. One of the best known computerized packages available for designing process layouts is CRAFT. CRAFT stands for
  2. computerized relationship activity and flow technique.
  3. computerized relative allocation of facilities technique.
  4. computerized relative assembly and flow technology.
  5. computerized relationship assembly flow time.

Ans: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: LO 3

 

  1. A company produces shovels in five departments. The average number of loads transported between the five departments per month is given in the load summary chart.(Insert 2 x 3 grid – see page 268)

    Load Summary Chart
    from/to                                    Department
    Department                 1          2          3          4          5
    1                                  –           –           30        –           –
    2                                  –           –           30        25        –
    3                                  30        –           –           –           20
    4                                  –           40        –           –           20
    5                                  –           30        –           –           –

    Determine the number nonadjacent loads.
    25
    b. 30
    c. 50
    d. 60
    Ans: D
    Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective: LO 3

Solution: 1-3 and 3-1 are nonadjacent; 30+30=60 loads

  1. A company produces shovels in five departments. The average number of loads transported between the five departments per month is given in the load summary chart.(Insert 2 x 3 grid – see page 268)

    Load Summary Chart
    from/to                                    Department
    Department                 1          2          3          4          5
    1                                  –           10        –           –           –
    2                                  –           –           30        25        –
    3                                  30        –           –           –           –
    4                                  –           40        –           –           20
    5                                  –           15        –           –           –

    Determine the number nonadjacent loads.
    25
    b. 30
    c. 50
    d. 60
    Ans: D
    Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective: LO 3

Solution: 1-3 and 3-1 are nonadjacent; 30+30=60 loads

 

 

  1. A schematic diagram that uses weighted lines to denote location preference is known as a
  2. block grid.
  3. block diagram.
  4. a relationship grid.
  5. a relationship diagram.

Ans: D

Difficulty: Moderate

 

Learning Objective: LO 3

 

  1. Most service organizations use
  1. product layouts.
  2. fixed-position layouts.
  3. process layouts.
  4. cellular layouts.

Ans: C

Difficulty: Easy

 

Learning Objective: LO 3

 

  1. A type of service layout designed to encourage browsing and increase impulse purchasing is known as a
  1. freeflow layout.
  2. grid layout.
  3. loop layout.
  4. spine layout.

Ans: A

Difficulty: Moderate

 

Learning Objective: LO 3

 

  1. A company hopes to achieve a daily output of 200 units during 6 hours of production time. Assuming there is no lost time during the 6 hours of production, the desired cycle time to achieve the targeted level of output is
  2. 0 minutes
  3. 8 minutes
  4. 5 minutes
  5. 03 minutes

Ans: B

Difficulty: Moderate

 

Learning Objective: LO 3

Solution: Cd = 6 × 60/200 = 1.8 minutes

 

 

 

  1. A ________layout encourages customer familiarity, has low costs, and is easy to clean.
  2. freeflow layout
  3. grid layout
  4. spine layout
  5. loop layout

Ans: B

Difficulty: Easy

 

Learning Objective: LO 3

 

 

  1. The process of equalizing the amount of work at each workstation in a product layout is known as
  2. block diagramming.
  3. precedence requirements.
  4. line balancing.
  5. cycle time analysis.

Ans: C

Difficulty: Easy

 

Learning Objective: LO 3

 

 

  1. With line balancing the maximum amount of time the product is allowed to spend at each workstation is known as the
  1. cycle time.
  2. flow time.
  3. efficiency of the line.
  4. balance delay.

Ans: A

Difficulty: Easy

 

Learning Objective: LO 3

 

 

  1. To maximize an assembly line’s efficiency the
  2. line’s balance delay must be minimized.
  3. line’s balance delay must be maximized.
  4. cycle time must be less than the flow time.
  5. flow time must be less than the cycle time.

Ans: A

Difficulty: Moderate

 

Learning Objective: LO 3

 

 

  1. A company has a target output rate of 40 units every five hours when its line is fully operational. To achieve this target the firm must have a desired cycle time of
  2. more than 12.50 minutes.
  3. more than 10.00 minutes.
  4. 5 minutes or less.
  5. 8 minutes or less.

Ans: C

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: LO 3Solution: Cd = 5 × 60/40 = 7.5 minutes

 

 

  1. A company wants to produce 150 units during a 7-hour day. The desired cycle time needed to achieve this level of output is
  2. 5 minutes.
  3. 25 minutes.
  4. 00 minutes.
  5. 8 minutes.

Ans: D

Difficulty: Moderate

 

Learning Objective: LO 3

Solution: Cd = 7 × 60/150 = 2.8 minutes

 

 

  1. In a product layout, the process of assigning tasks to work stations is referred to as _________ balancing.
  2. station
  3. product
  4. line
  5. work

Ans: C

Difficulty: Easy

 

Learning Objective: LO 3

 

 

 

  1. Cycle time refers to the
  2. time required for a product to go through a process layout.
  3. time between finished units coming off an assembly line.
  4. time needed to complete the tasks at a workstation.
  5. difference between task time and workstation time.

Ans: B

Difficulty: Moderate

 

Learning Objective: LO 3

 

 

  1. An assembly line consists of three workstations (WS) with each station’s activity time as shown.

 

The flow time for items on this line would be

  1. 5 minutes.
  2. 3 minutes.
  3. 4 minutes.
  4. 12 minutes.

Ans: D

Difficulty: Moderate

 

Learning Objective: LO 3

Solution: FT = 5 + 3 + 4 = 12 minutes

 

 

 

  1. An assembly line consists of three workstations (WS) with each station’s activity time as shown.

 

The cycle time for this line is

  1. 5 minutes.
  2. 3 minutes.
  3. 4 minutes.
  4. 12 minutes.

Ans: A

Difficulty: Moderate

 

Learning Objective: LO 3

Solution: Cycle time = Max{5,3,4} = 5 minutes

 

 

  1. An assembly line consists of three workstations (WS) with each station’s activity time as shown.

 

When fully operational this line could assemble _______ completed items every 60 minutes.

  1. 20
  2. 15
  3. 12
  4. 5

Ans: C

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: LO 3

 

Solution: Cycle time = Max{5,3,4} = 5 minutes; 60/5 = 12 items every 60 minutes

 

 

 

  1. An assembly line consists of three workstations (WS) with each station’s activity time as shown.

 

When fully operational the maximum output for this line in 8 hours of production time would be

  1. 40 units
  2. 96 units
  3. 120 units
  4. 160 units

Ans: b

Difficulty: Hard

 

Learning Objective: LO 3

Solution: Cycle time = Max{5,3,4} = 5 minutes; Output = 480 minutes/5 = 96 items

 

 

 

 

  1. If the line currently assembles 10 units every hour when fully functional, then the line’s balance delay at this rate of output is
  1. 67 %
  2. 33%
  3. 00%
  4. 00%

Ans: D

Difficulty: Hard

 

Learning Objective: LO 3

Solution: Balance delay=1 − (12/15) = 0.20 or 20%

 

 

  1. Which of the following is not an area of advantage of cellular layouts?
  2. material handling
  3. setup time
  4. capital investment
  5. control

Ans: C

Difficulty: Moderate

 

Learning Objective: LO 4

 

 

  1. Which of the following is not an area of disadvantage of cellular layouts?
  2. cell balance
  3. work-in-process inventory
  4. capital investment
  5. training and scheduling

Ans: C

Difficulty: Moderate

 

Learning Objective: LO 4

 

 

  1. Which one of the following factors is not important to the design and operation of a mixed-model assembly line?
  2. model sequencing
  3. line balancing
  4. u-shaped lines
  5. All of these answer choices is correct.

Ans: D

Difficulty: Moderate

 

Learning Objective: LO 4

 

  1. is a group technology technique that reorders part routing matrices to identify families of parts with similar processing requirements.
  2. Process flow analysis
  3. Production flow analysis
  4. Cycle analysis
  5. Group analysis

Ans: B

Difficulty: Moderate

 

Learning Objective: LO 4

 

 

  1. Which of the following is not an advantage of cellular layouts?
  2. easier to automate
  3. easier to control
  4. increased work-in-process inventory
  5. reduced setup time

Ans: C

Difficulty: Moderate

 

Learning Objective: LO 4

 

  1. Which one of the following is not an example of a hybrid facility layout?
  2. Fixed-position
  3. Mixed-model
  4. Cellular
  5. Flexible manufacturing

Ans: A

Difficulty: Moderate

 

Learning Objective: LO 4

 

 

 

 

 

Short Answer Questions

 

 

 

  1. Briefly describe facility layout and the different objectives involved with facility layout decision.

 

Ans: Facility layout refers to the arrangement of machines, processes, departments, workstations, storage areas, aisles, and common areas within an existing or proposed facility. The basic objective of the layout decision is to ensure a smooth flow of work, material, people, and information through the system.  Effective layouts also: minimize material handling costs, utilize space and labor efficiently, eliminate bottlenecks, facilitate communication, eliminate waste, incorporate safety and security measures, promote product and service quality, encourage proper maintenance, provide for visual control, provide for greater flexibility, and increase capacity.

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective: LO 3

 

 

  1. Briefly compare the storage and movement of material in a process layout and in a product layout.

 

Ans: Storage space in a process layout is large to accommodate the large amount of in-process inventory. In-process inventory is high because material moves from work center to workcenter in batches waiting to be processed. Finished goods inventory, however, is low because the goods are being made for a particular customer and are shipped out to that customer on completion.  A product layout needs material moved in one direction along the assembly line and always in the same pattern. Conveyors are the most common material handling equipment for product layouts. Storage space is quite small along the assembly line because in-process inventory is consumed in the assembly of the product as it moves down the assembly line. However, finished goods inventory may require a separate warehouse for storage before they are shipped to dealers or stores to be sold.

Difficulty: Hard

 

Learning Objective: LO 3

 

 

  1. Briefly describe a cellular layout and its objectives.

 

Ans: Cellular layouts are based on the concept of group technology whereby dissimilar machines or activities are grouped into work centers called cells to process families of parts or customers with similar requirements. The cells are arranged in relation to each other so that material movement is minimized. Large machines that cannot be split between cells are located near to the cells that use them. The layout of machines within each cell resembles a small assembly line. The objective of cellular layouts is to combine the flexibility of a process layout with the efficiency of a product layout.

Difficulty: Moderate

 

Learning Objective: LO 3

 

 

  1. What type of layout is commonly used in services? What are some of the objectives associated with service layouts?

 

Ans: Most service organizations use process layouts because of the variability in customer requests for service. While service layouts are designed in much the same way as process layouts in manufacturing firms, the objectives are often different.  For example, instead of minimizing the flow of materials through the system, services may seek to minimize the flow of paperwork, or maximize customer exposure to as many goods as possible. Service layouts are also concerned with the circulation of customer traffic through the facility, the allocation of space to departments, the location of special displays, the efficiency of checkout procedures, and protection from pilferage.

Difficulty: Moderate

 

Learning Objective: LO 3

 

 

 

  1. What are the advantages of a cellular layout?

 

Ans: Among the advantages of a cellular layout are: (1) reduced material handling and transit time; (2) reduced setup times; (3) reduced work-in-process inventories; (4) better use of human resources; (5) easier to control; and (6) easier to automate.

Difficulty: Moderate

 

Learning Objective: LO 4

 

  1. Briefly list the disadvantages of a cellular layout.

Among the disadvantages of cellular layouts are: (1) inadequate part families; (2) poorly balanced cells; (3) expanded training and scheduling of workers; and (4) increased capital investment.

Difficulty: Moderate

 

Learning Objective: LO 4

 

 

  1. Briefly describe the two constraints under which assembly line balancing must operate.

 

Ans: Assembly line balancing operates under two constraints: precedence requirements and cycle time restrictions. Precedence requirements are physical restrictions on the order in which operations are performed on the assembly line.  Cycle time refers to the maximum amount of time the product is allowed to spend at each workstation if the targeted production rate is to be reached. Cycle time can also be viewed as the time between completed items coming off the assembly line.

Difficulty: Hard

 

Learning Objective: LO 4

 

  1. Describe a flexible manufacturing system (FMS).

A flexible manufacturing system (FMS) consists of numerous programmable machine tools connected by an automated material handling system and controlled by a common computer network. It is different from traditional automation which is fixed for a specific task. An FMS combines flexibility with efficiency. The flexibility comes from the ability to change tools automatically while the efficiency is derived from reductions in setup and queue times.

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: 7

 

 

  1. Capacity decisions affect __________.
  2. a) development of new products
  3. b) vertical integration
  4. c) economies of scale
  5. d) horizontal integration

 

Ans: C, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Medium, AACSB: Reflective thinking

 

 

  1. The best operating level for a facility is the percent of capacity utilization that __________.
  2. a) is as close to 100% of capacity as possible
  3. b) maximizes profits
  4. c) minimizes fixed cost
  5. d) minimizes average unit cost

 

Ans: D, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Medium, AACSB: Reflective thinking

 

 

  1. The average cost per chip placement for printed circuit-board assembly is 32 cents in factories with a volume of 25 million placements, 15 cents in factories with 200 million placements, and 10 cents in factories with 800 million placements. This is an example of __________.
  2. a) vertical integration
  3. b) a capacity cushion
  4. c) economies of scale
  5. d) Moore’s law

 

Ans: C, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Medium, AACSB: Reflective thinking

 

 

  1. Which of the following does not explain economies of scale?
  2. a) operating efficiency increases as workers gain experience
  3. b) the company controls or owns its main suppliers
  4. c) operating costs increase less than proportional to the outputs level
  5. d) quantity discounts for material purchases

 

Ans: B, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Medium, AACSB: Reflective thinking

 

 

  1. Capacity cushions __________.
  2. a) are higher in capital intensive industries with less flexibility and higher costs
  3. b) are usually 20% or 10% and sometimes zero but never negative
  4. c) are the percent of capacity not utilized
  5. d) are the maximum expansion that could be carried out before diseconomies of scale begin

 

Ans: C, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Medium, AACSB: Reflective thinking

 

 

  1. A block diagram is a __________.
  2. a) type of schematic layout diagram that includes space requirements
  3. b) format for displaying manager preferences for department locations
  4. c) schematic diagram that uses weighted lines to denote location preferences
  5. d) a graphical representation of a load summary chart

 

Ans: A, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Medium, AACSB: Reflective thinking

 

 

  1. The basic objective of the layout decision is to __________.
  2. a) arrange activities in a line according to the sequence of operations needed
  3. b) minimize the number of nonadjacent loads
  4. c) ensure a smooth flow of work, material, people, and information through the system
  5. d) conform to manager preferences

 

Ans: C, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Medium, AACSB: Reflective thinking

 

 

 

  1. 101. A production facility consists of five units, arranged as shown in the diagram below.

 

 

Assume that the forklift used is very flexible and allows diagonal movements (e.g., units 1 and 4 are adjacent).

The table below shows the load summary:

 

 

The total number of nonadjacent loads is __________.

  1. a) 50
  2. b) 75
  3. c) 175
  4. d) 225

 

Ans: D, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Hard, AACSB: Reflective thinking

 

 

  1. 102. A production facility consists of five units, arranged as shown in the diagram below.

 

 

Assume that the forklift used is very flexible and allows diagonal movements (e.g., units 1 and 4 are adjacent).

The table below shows the load summary:

 

 

If units 5 and 4 switch places, the total number of nonadjacent would be __________.

  1. a) 50
  2. b) 75
  3. c) 175
  4. d) 225

 

Ans: C, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Hard, AACSB: Reflective thinking

 

 

  1. 103. A production facility consists of five units, arranged as shown in the diagram below.

 

 

Assume that the forklift used is very flexible and allows diagonal movements (e.g., units 1 and 4 are adjacent).

The table below shows the load summary:

 

 

If units 5 and 4 switch places, the total number of nonadjacent would be __________.

  1. a) 25, and that is the minimum possible total nonadjacent loads
  2. b) 175, and that is the total possible total nonadjacent loads
  3. c) 25, but the total nonadjacent loads can be lower
  4. d) 175, but the total nonadjacent loads can be lower

 

Ans: C, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Hard, AACSB: Reflective thinking

 

 

  1. 104. A production facility consists of five units, arranged as shown in the diagram below.

 

 

Assume that the forklift used is very flexible and allows diagonal movements (e.g., units 1 and 4 are adjacent).

The table below shows the load summary:

 

 

By relocating the production units, the minimum possible number of nonadjacent loads is __________.

  1. a) 0
  2. b) 25
  3. c) 65
  4. d) 85

 

Ans: C, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Hard, AACSB: Analysis

 

 

 

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