Nutrition for Health and Healthcare 6th Edition By DeBruyne Pinna – Test Bank

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Nutrition for Health and Healthcare 6th Edition By DeBruyne Pinna – Test Bank

chapter 2

True / False

 

1. ​Segmentation begins when a bolus enters the esophagus.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   2.1 Anatomy of the Digestive System
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.1 – Describe the path that food takes during digestion and the muscular actions of digestion.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

2. Bacteria in the colon protect people from some infections.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

3. The idea of “food-combining diets,” or avoiding certain combinations of food, is valid- the digestive system cannot handle more than one task at a time.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   2.3 The Absorptive System
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.3 – Describe the anatomical details of the GI tract and the features and activities of intestinal cells that facilitate nutrient absorption.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

4. Low-density lipoproteins, or LDL, are often referred to as “good” cholesterol.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   2.4 Transport of Nutrients
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.4 – Explain the process of nutrient delivery from the GI tract to body cells by the vascular system and the three types of lipoproteins.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

5. ​Hands should be washed with soap and water often during food preparation in order to reduce the risk of foodborne illness.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   2.5 Nutrition in Practice: Food Safety
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.5 – Explain the causes and effects of foodborne illnesses in humans and the methods of ensuring food safety.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

Multiple Choice

 

6. ​Another name for the digestive tract is the:

  a. ​urinary tract.
  b. exocrine system.
  c. gastrointestinal tract.​
  d. ​muscular system.
  e. gastroesophageal system.​

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   2.1 Anatomy of the Digestive Tract
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.1 – Describe the path that food takes during digestion and the muscular actions of digestion.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

7. Identify the correct order of the digestive tract from beginning to end.

  a. stomach, mouth, large intestine
  b. pharynx, rectum, stomach
  c. lower esophageal sphincter, esophagus, rectum
  d. mouth, stomach, anus
  e. pharynx, large intestine, pyloric sphincter

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   2.1 Anatomy of the Digestive Tract
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.1 – Describe the path that food takes during digestion and the muscular actions of digestion.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

8. A bolus is a(n):

  a. sphincter muscle separating the stomach from the small intestine.
  b. portion of food swallowed at one time.
  c. enzyme that hydrolyzes starch.
  d. portion of partially digested food expelled by the stomach into the duodenum.
  e. blockage that closes off the trachea to prevent choking.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   2.1 Anatomy of the Digestive Tract
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.1 – Describe the path that food takes during digestion and the muscular actions of digestion.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

9. Which of the following is formed in the mouth?

  a. bile
  b. stomach acid
  c. chyme
  d. villus
  e. bolus

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   2.1 Anatomy of the Digestive Tract
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.1 – Describe the path that food takes during digestion and the muscular actions of digestion.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

10. During swallowing of food, which of the following prevents food from entering the lungs?

  a. lower esophageal sphincter
  b. pharynx
  c. ileocecal valve
  d. epiglottis
  e. appendix

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   2.1 Anatomy of the Digestive Tract
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.1 – Describe the path that food takes during digestion and the muscular actions of digestion.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

11. The stomach empties into the:

  a. ileum.
  b. cecum.
  c. jejunum.
  d. duodenum.
  e. colon.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   2.1 Anatomy of the Digestive Tract
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.1 – Describe the path that food takes during digestion and the muscular actions of digestion.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

12. Chyme is:

  a. a semiliquid mass of partially digested food.
  b. a portion of food swallowed at one time.
  c. an enzyme in the stomach needed for the digestion of protein.
  d. an esophageal secretion.
  e. successive waves of involuntary muscular contractions passing along the wall of the GI tract.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   2.1 Anatomy of the Digestive Tract
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.1 – Describe the path that food takes during digestion and the muscular actions of digestion.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

13. Which two organs secrete digestive juices into the small intestine?

  a. gallbladder and pancreas
  b. pancreas and liver
  c. gallbladder and liver
  d. duodenum and pancreas
  e. liver and stomach

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   2.1 Anatomy of the Digestive Tract
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.1 – Describe the path that food takes during digestion and the muscular actions of digestion.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

14. The movement of chyme from the stomach into the small intestine is regulated by the:

  a. pancreas.
  b. lower esophageal sphincter.
  c. ileocecal valve.
  d. duodenum.
  e. pyloric sphincter.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   2.1 Anatomy of the Digestive Tract
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.1 – Describe the path that food takes during digestion and the muscular actions of digestion.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

15. Immediately before passing into the large intestine, the food mass must pass though the:

  a. pyloric sphincter.
  b. lower esophageal sphincter.
  c. ileocecal valve.
  d. bolus.
  e. colon.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   2.1 Anatomy of the Digestive Tract
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.1 – Describe the path that food takes during digestion and the muscular actions of digestion.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

16. Peristalsis is a term that refers to the:

  a. circulation of blood in the blood vessels.
  b. absorption of nutrients in the intestines.
  c. mixing and moving of food through the lymphatic system.
  d. last phase of digestion.
  e. action of the involuntary muscles of the digestive tract.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   2.1 Anatomy of the Digestive Tract
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.1 – Describe the path that food takes during digestion and the muscular actions of digestion.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

17. Involuntary muscle contractions move food through the intestinal tract. The movement that forces the contents back a few inches before pushing it forward again is called:

  a. segmentation.
  b. rotation.
  c. peristalsis.
  d. liquefaction.
  e. kneading.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   2.1 Anatomy of the Digestive Tract
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.1 – Describe the path that food takes during digestion and the muscular actions of digestion.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

18. ​Enzymes:

  a. ​facilitate chemical reactions.
  b. ​draw water into the small intestine.
  c. ​are present in all parts of the GI tract.
  d. ​encourage bacterial growth.
  e. ​are changed during digestion.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

19. Which enzyme breaks down starch in the mouth?

  a. lingual protease
  b. lipase
  c. salivary amylase
  d. gastric protease
  e. secretin

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

20. Saliva contains an enzyme that digests:

  a. proteins.
  b. minerals.
  c. starches.
  d. vitamins.
  e. fiber.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

21. What is gastric juice composed of?

  a. water, enzymes, and hydrochloric acid
  b. enzymes, water, and pancreatic acid
  c. chylomicrons, water, and bile
  d. hydrochloric acid, bile, and enzymes
  e. hydrochloric acid, insulin, and bile

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

22. The normal pH of the stomach is:

  a. very acidic.
  b. slightly acidic.
  c. neutral.
  d. slightly alkaline.
  e. strongly alkaline.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

23. Which organ does not contribute juices during digestion?

  a. salivary glands
  b. small intestine
  c. pancreas
  d. esophagus
  e. stomach

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

24. Mucus in the stomach serves to:

  a. neutralize stomach acid.
  b. activate pepsinogen to pepsin.
  c. coat and protect stomach cells from gastric juices.
  d. emulsify fats.
  e. collect bacteria.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

25. The major digestive work in the stomach is the initial breakdown of:

  a. starch.
  b. proteins.
  c. fat.
  d. vitamins.
  e. mucus.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

26. In addition to hydrochloric acid, the stomach cells also secrete:

  a. mucus.
  b. bile.
  c. amylase.
  d. lipoproteins.
  e. cholesterol.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

27. Which nutrients are digested in the small intestine?

  a. carbohydrate, fat, and protein
  b. fat, water, and fiber
  c. protein, vitamins, and fiber
  d. water, fiber, and minerals
  e. carbohydrate, fat, and water

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

28. Where does the digestion of proteins begin and end?

  a. begins in stomach; ends in pancreas
  b. begins in pancreas; ends in small intestine
  c. begins in stomach; ends in small intestine
  d. begins in small intestine; ends in liver
  e. begins in small intestine; ends in stomach

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

29. The major digestive enzyme secreted by the stomach is:

  a. amylase.
  b. lipase.
  c. bile.
  d. disaccharidase.
  e. pepsin

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

30. A patient has lost the ability to digest the majority of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats due to a loss of enzymes. Which organ is most likely failing her?

  a. pancreas
  b. gallbladder
  c. stomach
  d. liver
  e. intestine

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

31. After the pancreatic juices have mixed with chyme in the intestine, the resulting mixture is:

  a. very acidic.
  b. slightly acidic.
  c. strongly alkaline.
  d. slightly alkaline.
  e. none of the above.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

32. The liver:

  a. reabsorbs water and salts.
  b. secretes bile.
  c. churns food to chyme.
  d. performs enzymatic digestion.
  e. stores bile.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

33. The main function of bile is to:

  a. stimulate vitamin-producing bacteria.
  b. stimulate the activity of protein digestive enzymes.
  c. neutralize the intestinal contents.
  d. decrease the acidity of the contents of the stomach.
  e. emulsify fats.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

34. Gallbladder disease, such as cancer, can compromise the digestion of:

  a. fat
  b. protein
  c. carbohydrate
  d. fiber
  e. minerals

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

35. The gallbladder:

  a. reabsorbs water and salts.
  b. churns food to chyme.
  c. performs enzymatic digestion.
  d. stores bile.
  e. contains bacteria that produce Vitamin K.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

36. The emulsification of fat requires:

  a. biotin.
  b. enzymes.
  c. prostaglandins.
  d. intestinal flora.
  e. bile.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

37. Which of the following contains no digestive enzymes?

  a. saliva
  b. gastric juice
  c. intestinal juice
  d. bile
  e. pancreatic juice

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

38. Which of the following does not secrete digestive juices?

  a. stomach
  b. pancreas
  c. salivary glands
  d. liver (via the gall bladder)
  e. large intestine

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

39. Which of the following nutrients takes longest to digest?

  a. fat
  b. sugar
  c. vitamin C
  d. fruit sugar
  e. glucose

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

40. Fats present in the GI tract:

  a. slow down the process of digestion and absorption.
  b. cause difficulty in digestion.
  c. stimulate and hasten digestion and absorption.
  d. are carriers of thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin.
  e. cause GI inflammation.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

41. Which of the following foods would take the most time to digest?

  a. a piece of toast with strawberry jam
  b. a grilled steak
  c. a green salad with low-fat salad dressing
  d. a cup of green beans
  e. a piece of cake with frosting

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

42. Which of these foods would be digested most quickly?

  a. sugar cookies
  b. peanut butter sandwich and milk
  c. stew and cornbread
  d. hamburger, French fries, and milkshake
  e. steak and baked potato

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

43. Which of the following foods would be digested most rapidly?

  a. a scoop of lemon sherbet
  b. an apple
  c. a baked potato with sour cream
  d. a piece of cheese on a cracker
  e. a hamburger

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

44. Which nutrients must be broken down in order to be absorbed?

  a. vitamins, minerals, and water
  b. carbohydrate, vitamins, and minerals
  c. fat, protein, and minerals
  d. carbohydrate, protein, and fat
  e. carbohydrate, fat, water

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

45. Bacteria in the GI tract perform all of the following functions except:

  a. producing biotin.
  b. protecting people from infection.
  c. producing vitamin K.
  d. breaking down fiber.
  e. producing bile.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

46. Fiber functions to:

  a. aid in the absorption of vitamins.
  b. produce GI bacteria.
  c. stimulate the GI tract muscles.
  d. stimulate the absorption of nutrients.
  e. increase water absorption by the digestive tract.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

47. A benefit of fiber is that it:

  a. promotes mineral absorption.
  b. aids in keeping stools soft.
  c. prevents diarrhea.
  d. keeps individual foods from getting mixed together.
  e. promotes fat absorption.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

48. Once the digestive process is complete, the colon retrieves materials that the body must recycle. These materials are:

  a. water and dissolved salts.
  b. iron and water.
  c. protein and sodium.
  d. water and fiber.
  e. fat and fiber.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

49. One of the functions of the colon is to absorb:

  a. salts.
  b. vitamins.
  c. sugars.
  d. fiber.
  e. fats.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

50. ​The primary site of nutrient absorption is the:

  a. stomach.​
  b. ​pancreas.
  c. ​small intestine.
  d. ​large intestine.
  e. ​mouth.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   2.3 The Absorptive System
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.3 – Describe the anatomical details of the GI tract and the features and activities of intestinal cells that facilitate nutrient absorption.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

51.  Villi are part of the structure of the​

  a. ​esophagus.
  b. ​stomach.
  c. ​colon.
  d. ​large intestine.
  e. ​small intestine.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   2.3 The Absorptive System
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.3 – Describe the anatomical details of the GI tract and the features and activities of intestinal cells that facilitate nutrient absorption.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

52. The microscopic hairs that cover the surface of each cell lining the small intestine are called:​

  a. ​intestinal folds.
  b. ​villi.
  c. ​microvilli.
  d. ​lymphatics.
  e. ​chylomicrons.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   2.3 The Absorptive System
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.3 – Describe the anatomical details of the GI tract and the features and activities of intestinal cells that facilitate nutrient absorption.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

53.  Which of the following nutrients is/are absorbed into the lymphatic system?​

  a. ​fat-soluble vitamins
  b. ​water
  c. ​amino acids
  d. ​glucose
  e. ​minerals

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   2.3 The Absorptive System
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.3 – Describe the anatomical details of the GI tract and the features and activities of intestinal cells that facilitate nutrient absorption.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

54. After absorption, the water-soluble nutrients are released directly into the:​

  a. ​bloodstream.
  b. ​kidneys.
  c. ​liver.
  d. ​lymph.
  e. ​villi.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   2.3 The Absorptive System
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.3 – Describe the anatomical details of the GI tract and the features and activities of intestinal cells that facilitate nutrient absorption.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

55. ​After absorption, the larger fats and fat-soluble vitamins are first released into which transport system?

  a. ​excretory
  b. ​mesentery
  c. ​vascular
  d. ​lymphatic
  e. ​cardiovascular

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   2.3 The Absorptive System
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.3 – Describe the anatomical details of the GI tract and the features and activities of intestinal cells that facilitate nutrient absorption.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

56. After digestion, lipids are packaged for transport as lipoproteins known as:​

  a. ​HDL.
  b. ​VLDL.
  c. ​LDL.
  d. ​chylomicrons.
  e. ​triglycerides.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   2.3 The Absorptive System
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.3 – Describe the anatomical details of the GI tract and the features and activities of intestinal cells that facilitate nutrient absorption.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

57. Chylomicrons are composed of:​

  a. ​phospholipid, cholesterol, and lymph
  b. ​proteins, triglyceride, and water-soluble vitamins
  c. ​triglyceride, phospholipid, and proteins
  d. ​water-soluble vitamins, phospholipid, and cholesterol
  e. ​fat-soluble vitamins, water-soluble vitamins, and proteins

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   2.3 The Absorptive System
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.3 – Describe the anatomical details of the GI tract and the features and activities of intestinal cells that facilitate nutrient absorption.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

58. The lymphatic system:​

  a. ​contains fluid with the same composition as blood.
  b. ​eventually drains into the blood circulatory system.
  c. ​carries chylomicrons to the intestines.
  d. ​is where metabolism of nutrients takes place.
  e. ​conveys the products of digestion toward the brain.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   2.4 Transport of Nutrients
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.4 – Explain the process of nutrient delivery from the GI tract to body cells by the vascular system and the three types of lipoproteins.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

59. When nutrients enter the blood vessels from the small intestine, they are first transported to the:​

  a. ​kidney.
  b. ​liver.
  c. ​cells throughout the body.
  d. ​thoracic duct.
  e. ​gallbladder.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   2.4 Transport of Nutrients
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.4 – Explain the process of nutrient delivery from the GI tract to body cells by the vascular system and the three types of lipoproteins.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

60. ​Which of the following is the body’s major metabolic organ?

  a. ​pancreas
  b. ​small intestine
  c. ​gallbladder
  d. ​heart
  e. ​liver

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   2.4 Transport of Nutrients
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.4 – Explain the process of nutrient delivery from the GI tract to body cells by the vascular system and the three types of lipoproteins.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

61. ​Elevated LDL concentrations are associated with a high risk of heart disease because they:

  a. ​transport cholesterol and triglycerides from the liver to the tissues.
  b. ​carry excessive amounts of fat that is deposited around the heart.
  c. ​encourage high levels of iron in the blood.
  d. ​take excess cholesterol back to the liver, which increases the production of cholesterol.
  e. ​are a different, less complex, type of cholesterol.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   2.4 Transport of Nutrients
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.4 – Explain the process of nutrient delivery from the GI tract to body cells by the vascular system and the three types of lipoproteins.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

62. ​Elevated HDL concentrations are associated with a low risk of heart disease because they:

  a. ​transport newly absorbed lipids from intestinal cells to the rest of the body.
  b. ​carry cholesterol and triglycerides from the liver to the rest of the body.
  c. ​carry lipids around in the blood more often than LDL.
  d. ​scavenge excess cholesterol and phospholipids from the tissues and return them to the liver.
  e. ​are a more complex type of cholesterol.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   2.4 Transport of Nutrients
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.4 – Explain the process of nutrient delivery from the GI tract to body cells by the vascular system and the three types of lipoproteins.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

63. ​Chylomicrons contain the greatest proportion of:

  a. ​protein.
  b. ​cholesterol.
  c. ​phospholipid.
  d. ​water.
  e. ​ triglyceride.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   2.4 Transport of Nutrients
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.4 – Explain the process of nutrient delivery from the GI tract to body cells by the vascular system and the three types of lipoproteins.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

64. Health and performance of the digestive system can be positively affected by:​

  a. ​adequate sleep
  b. ​enzyme supplements
  c. ​colon cleansing treatments
  d. ​a high-fat diet
  e. ​foodborne illness

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   2.4 Transport of Nutrients
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.4 – Explain the process of nutrient delivery from the GI tract to body cells by the vascular system and the three types of lipoproteins.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

65. Which of the following will cause a foodborne intoxication?​

  a. Listeria
  b. Clostridium perfringens
  c. Campylobacter jejuni
  d. Staphylococcus aureus
  e. ​Norovirus

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   2.5 Nutrition in Practice : Food Safety
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.5 – Explain the causes and effects of foodborne illnesses in humans and the methods of ensuring food safety.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

66. To prevent bacterial growth when holding cooked foods, they should be kept at what temperature until served?​

  a. ​40 or under
  b. ​140 or over
  c. ​165
  d. ​above 200

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   2.5 Nutrition in Practice : Food Safety
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.5 – Explain the causes and effects of foodborne illnesses in humans and the methods of ensuring food safety.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

67. ​What is a good recommendation to prevent foodborne illnesses?

  a. ​Fresh produce should be washed before it is eaten.
  b. ​Only new sponges and towels should be used in the kitchen.
  c. ​Leftovers can safely be covered and left at room temperature until the next meal.
  d. ​Meats should be marinated at room temperature.
  e. ​All meat should be washed before cooking.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   2.5 Nutrition in Practice: Food Safety
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.5 – Explain the causes and effects of foodborne illnesses in humans and the methods of ensuring food safety.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

68. Cold food should be stored at:​

  a. ​40°F or colder
  b. ​55°F or colder
  c. ​80°F or colder
  d. ​140°F or colder
  e. ​40oF or warmer

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   2.5 Nutrition in Practice: Food Safety
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.5 – Explain the causes and effects of foodborne illnesses in humans and the methods of ensuring food safety.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

69. Leftovers should be used within how many days?​

  a. ​5-7
  b. ​3-4
  c. ​2-3
  d. ​1-2
  e. ​10-12

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   2.5 Nutrition in Practice: Food Safety
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.5 – Explain the causes and effects of foodborne illnesses in humans and the methods of ensuring food safety.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

Matching

 

Matching​

a. ​the oral cavity containing the tongue and teeth.
b. ​the passageway leading from the nose and mouth to the larynx and esophagus, respectively.
c. ​a cartilage structure in the throat that prevents fluid or food from entering the trachea when a person swallows.
d. ​the passageway from the mouth and nose to the lungs.
e. ​the conduit from the mouth to the stomach.
f. ​the sphincter muscle at the junction between the esophagus and the stomach.
g. ​the sphincter muscle separating the stomach from the small intestine.
h. ​the organ that stores and concentrates bile.
i. ​a gland that secretes enzymes and digestive juices into the duodenum.
j. a 10-foot length of small-diameter (1-inch) intestine that is the major site of digestion of food and absorption of nutrients.
k. ​the top portion of the small intestine.
l. ​the first two-fifths of the small intestine beyond the duodenum.
m. ​the last segment of the small intestine.
n. ​the sphincter muscle separating the small and large intestines.
o. ​the last portion of the intestine, which absorbs water.
p. ​a narrow blind sac extending from the beginning of the large intestine; stores lymphocytes.
q. ​the muscular terminal part of the GI tract extending from the sigmoid colon to the anus.
r. ​the terminal sphincter muscle of the GI tract.

 

REFERENCES:   2.1 Anatomy of the Digestive Tract
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.1 – Describe the path that food takes during digestion and the muscular actions of digestion.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

70. ​anal sphincter

ANSWER:   r

 

71.  appendix ​

ANSWER:   p

 

72. duodenum ​

ANSWER:   k

 

73. epiglottis ​

ANSWER:   c

 

74. esophagus ​

ANSWER:   e

 

75. gallbladder ​

ANSWER:   h

 

76. ileocecal valve ​

ANSWER:   n

 

77. ileum ​

ANSWER:   m

 

78. ​jejunum

ANSWER:   l

 

79. large intestine ​

ANSWER:   o

 

80. lower esophageal sphincter ​

ANSWER:   f

 

81. mouth ​

ANSWER:   a

 

82. pancreas ​

ANSWER:   i

 

83. pharynx ​

ANSWER:   b

 

84. pyloric sphincter ​

ANSWER:   g

 

85. rectum ​

ANSWER:   q

 

86. small intestine ​

ANSWER:   j

 

87. trachea ​

ANSWER:   d

 

Essay

 

88. ​Outline and trace the path food follows through the digestive tract from one end to the other.

ANSWER:   Mouth (chewing and moving food around with the tongue) àpharynx (shared by digestive and respiratory system) àesophagus àstomach (food becomes chyme) àsmall intestine (gallbladder and pancreas secrete fluids into small intestine) àlarge intestine (colon) àrectum​
REFERENCES:   2.1 Anatomy of the Digestive Tract
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.1 – Describe the path that food takes during digestion and the muscular actions of digestion.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

89. Describe the role of the stomach in the process of digestion.​

ANSWER:   The stomach is a muscular, elastic, saclike portion of the digestive tract that grinds and churns swallowed food, mixing it with acid and enzymes to form chyme. The major digestive event that occurs in the stomach is the initial breakdown of proteins. The highly acidic environment (hydrochloric acid) in the stomach serves to denature proteins so that enzymes, such as pepsin, can further break them down. While the majority of digestion in the stomach is protein, there is some fat digestion by gastric lipase, a small amount of sucrose digestion by stomach acid, and the attachment of a protein carrier to vitamin B12.​
REFERENCES:   2.3 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.3 – Describe the anatomical details of the GI tract and the features and activities of intestinal cells that facilitate nutrient absorption.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

90. Should antacids be taken to decrease the strong acidity of the stomach? Explain your answer.​

ANSWER:   The highly acidic environment of the stomach is required for proper protein breakdown. When protein enters the stomach, it has had no breakdown other than being crushed and mixed with saliva in the mouth. In the stomach, the acid helps to uncoil the proteins so that stomach enzymes can attack and break the bonds. Antacids reduce the acidity of the stomach, thereby preventing protein breakdown. Antacid use should be carefully considered, especially for those on a high-protein diet.​
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

91.  Explain what determines the rate of digestion of the energy nutrients.​

ANSWER:   The rate of digestion of carbohydrate, fat, and protein depends on the contents of the meal.  If the meal is high in simple sugars (bread, cookies, crackers), digestion proceeds fairly rapidly. A meal that is high in fat will slow digestion.​
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

92. Explain the benefits of intestinal microflora to health.​

ANSWER:   The intestines contain beneficial bacteria that produce vitamins, such as biotin and vitamin K, as well as protect the body from infectious organisms. As long as the normal intestinal flora are present, infectious bacteria have a difficult time establishing and attacking the digestive system.​
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

93. Describe the difference between low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL). What is the relationship between blood levels of these lipoproteins and risk of heart disease?​

ANSWER:   LDL are cholesterol-rich lipoproteins (the more lipids in the molecule, the lower the density) and HDL contain cholesterol that is returning to the liver for metabolism or excretion from other parts of the body. Both LDL and HDL carry lipids in the blood, but LDL are larger, lighter, and filled with more lipid; HDL are smaller, denser, and packaged with more protein. LDL deliver cholesterol and triglycerides from the liver to the tissues and contribute negatively to heart disease. HDL scavenge excess cholesterol from the tissues and dispose of it and can have a positive impact on heart health.
REFERENCES:   2.4 Transport of Nutrients
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.4 – Explain the process of nutrient delivery from the GI tract to body cells by the vascular system and the three types of lipoproteins.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

chapter 12

True / False

 

1. Despite adopting healthy lifestyle habits, people cannot slow the aging process because of the natural limits set by heredity.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   12.1 Nutrition and Longevity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.1 – Describe the roles nutrition, physical activity, and other lifestyle choices play in longevity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

2. Older adults can safely participate in aerobic activity and resistance training until age 85, when the risk of injury from activity is greater than its benefits. ​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   12.1 Nutrition and Longevity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.1 – Describe the roles nutrition, physical activity, and other lifestyle choices play in longevity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

3. Appropriate energy intake among older adults helps prevent obesity, diabetes, and related cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and hypertension and may influence the development of some forms of cancer.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   12.1 Nutrition and Longevity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.1 – Describe the roles nutrition, physical activity, and other lifestyle choices play in longevity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

4. Studies suggest that a diet providing ample carotenoids, vitamin C, and vitamin E may help to prevent the early onset of cataracts.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   12.2 Nutrition-Related Concerns during Late Adulthood
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.2 – Identify how nutrition might contribute to, or prevent, the development of age-related problems associated with vision, arthritis, and the brain.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

5. Overweight people with osteoarthritis should avoid weight-bearing physical activities, such as jogging, as these types of activities place too much pressure on inflamed joints.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   12.2 Nutrition-Related Concerns during Late Adulthood
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.2 – Identify how nutrition might contribute to, or prevent, the development of age-related problems associated with vision, arthritis, and the brain.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

6. Increasing evidence suggests that overweight and obesity in middle age are associated with Alzheimer’s disease.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   12.2 Nutrition-Related Concerns during Late Adulthood
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.2 – Identify how nutrition might contribute to, or prevent, the development of age-related problems associated with vision, arthritis, and the brain.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

7. As a general rule, adult energy needs decline an estimated 15 percent every decade.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   12.3 Energy and Nutrient Needs during Late Adulthood
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.3 – Explain why the needs for some nutrients increase or decrease as people age and describe healthful eating patterns for older adults
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

8. The protein needs of older adults appear to be about the same as those of younger people.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   12.3 Energy and Nutrient Needs during Late Adulthood
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.3 – Explain why the needs for some nutrients increase or decrease as people age and describe healthful eating patterns for older adults
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

9. Many older adults fail to obtain the recommended daily 25 or more grams of fiber.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   12.3 Energy and Nutrient Needs during Late Adulthood
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.3 – Explain why the needs for some nutrients increase or decrease as people age and describe healthful eating patterns for older adults
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

10. Because total body water decreases as people age, mild stresses such as hot weather can precipitate hypertension in older adults.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   12.3 Energy and Nutrient Needs during Late Adulthood
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.3 – Explain why the needs for some nutrients increase or decrease as people age and describe healthful eating patterns for older adults
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

11. Zinc intake is commonly low in older adults.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   12.3 Energy and Nutrient Needs during Late Adulthood
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.3 – Explain why the needs for some nutrients increase or decrease as people age and describe healthful eating patterns for older adults
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

12. The elderly are more likely to have medical conditions or to take medications that may compromise folate status.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   12.3 Energy and Nutrient Needs during Late Adulthood
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.3 – Explain why the needs for some nutrients increase or decrease as people age and describe healthful eating patterns for older adults
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

13. ​As people grow older, the use of medicines becomes commonplace, thus increasing the potential for diet-medication interactions.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   12.3 Energy and Nutrient Needs during Late Adulthood
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.3 – Explain why the needs for some nutrients increase or decrease as people age and describe healthful eating patterns for older adults
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

14. Older adults spend more money per person on foods to eat at home than other age groups.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   12.4 Food Choices and Eating Habits of Older Adults
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.4 – Discuss factors that influence adults’ food choices and instruct an adult on how to seek food assistance if needed, shop for groceries, and prepare healthy meals for one person on a limited budget.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

15. ​People living in poverty are typically unable to buy sufficient amounts of nourishing foods, unless they are skilled in food shopping and can make good choices.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   12.5 Nutrition in Practice: Hunger and Community Nutrition
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.5 – Identify some reasons why hunger is present in a country as wealthy as the United States and describe the resources available to those in need.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

Multiple Choice

 

16. The fastest growing age group in the U.S. population is people over _____.​

  a. ​50
  b. ​65
  c. ​75
  d. ​85
  e. ​100

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   Introduction
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.1 – Describe the roles nutrition, physical activity, and other lifestyle choices play in longevity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

17. Life expectancy in the U.S. is currently _____ years.​

  a. ​68
  b. ​72
  c. ​75
  d. ​79
  e. ​84

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   Introduction
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.1 – Describe the roles nutrition, physical activity, and other lifestyle choices play in longevity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

18. ​Lifestyle habits that can have a profound influence on health and on physiological age include _____.

  a. ​following a meat-based eating pattern
  b. ​engaging in physical activity weekly
  c. ​avoiding all forms of alcohol
  d. ​getting at least six hours of sleep each night
  e. ​having a sense of purpose

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   12.1 Nutrition and Longevity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.1 – Describe the roles nutrition, physical activity, and other lifestyle choices play in longevity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

19. Resistance training in adults older than age 85 has been shown to _____.​

  a. ​increase energy expenditure
  b. ​prevent falls
  c. ​decrease energy intake
  d. ​reduce hypertension
  e. ​prevent dehydration

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   12.1 Nutrition and Longevity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.1 – Describe the roles nutrition, physical activity, and other lifestyle choices play in longevity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

20. How often should older adults participate in strength training exercises?​

  a. ​At least five days per week
  b. ​At least two days per week
  c. ​At least one day per week
  d. ​Every other (nonconsecutive) week
  e. ​As often as they are able

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   12.1 Nutrition and Longevity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.1 – Describe the roles nutrition, physical activity, and other lifestyle choices play in longevity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

21.  Food restriction may extend the life span by preventing _____. ​

  a. ​lipid oxidation
  b. ​gene expression
  c. ​protein accumulation
  d. ​insulin reduction
  e. ​hormone synthesis

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   12.1 Nutrition and Longevity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.1 – Describe the roles nutrition, physical activity, and other lifestyle choices play in longevity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

22. ​Intake of what substance has been shown to reduce the risk of progression of macular degeneration among those who already have the disease?

  a. ​Vitamin D
  b. ​Calcium
  c. ​Vitamin E
  d. ​Zinc
  e. ​Iron

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   12.2 Nutrition-Related Concerns during Late Adulthood
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.2 – Identify how nutrition might contribute to, or prevent, the development of age-related problems associated with vision, arthritis, and the brain.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

23. Supplements such as glucosamine and _____ may help to alleviate the pain of osteoarthritis, although additional research is needed.​

  a. ​watercress
  b. ​inositol
  c. ​dimethyl sulfoxide
  d. ​burdock root
  e. ​chondroitin

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   12.2 Nutrition-Related Concerns during Late Adulthood
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.2 – Identify how nutrition might contribute to, or prevent, the development of age-related problems associated with vision, arthritis, and the brain.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

24. What describes a typical age-related change that is not a sign of Alzheimer’s disease? ​

  a. ​Becoming suspicious of unfamiliar people
  b. ​Needing help recording a television program
  c. ​Being unable to retrace steps
  d. ​Withdrawing from social activities
  e. ​Forgetting where common items should normally be located

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   12.2 Nutrition-Related Concerns during Late Adulthood
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.2 – Identify how nutrition might contribute to, or prevent, the development of age-related problems associated with vision, arthritis, and the brain.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

25. The most important nutrition concern for the person with Alzheimer’s disease is _____.​

  a. ​being allowed to choose his own foods
  b. ​following a strict eating schedule
  c. ​maintaining an appropriate body weight
  d. ​keeping a regimen of dietary supplements
  e. ​knowing when the next meal will be

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   12.2 Nutrition-Related Concerns during Late Adulthood
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.2 – Identify how nutrition might contribute to, or prevent, the development of age-related problems associated with vision, arthritis, and the brain.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

26. Sarcopenia refers to _____.​

  a. ​loss of muscle mass
  b. ​a vitamin deficiency
  c. ​bone loss
  d. ​malnutrition associated with aging
  e. ​gradual loss of memory and reasoning ability

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   12.3 Energy and Nutrient Needs during Late Adulthood
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.3 – Explain why the needs for some nutrients increase or decrease as people age and describe healthful eating patterns for older adults
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

27. ​The estimated energy requirements for adults decrease steadily after age _____.

  a. ​19
  b. ​30
  c. ​40
  d. ​51
  e. ​65

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   12.3 Energy and Nutrient Needs during Late Adulthood
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.3 – Explain why the needs for some nutrients increase or decrease as people age and describe healthful eating patterns for older adults
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

28. A malnourished older adult would most likely benefit from which source of protein?​

  a. ​Lean meat
  b. ​A milkshake
  c. ​Boiled eggs
  d. ​Whole-grain bread
  e. ​Cooked legumes

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   12.3 Energy and Nutrient Needs during Late Adulthood
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.3 – Explain why the needs for some nutrients increase or decrease as people age and describe healthful eating patterns for older adults
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

29. The best choice for older adults with small energy allowances is to _____.​

  a. ​take vitamin-mineral supplements
  b. ​select nutrient-dense foods
  c. ​consume less food
  d. ​control alcohol consumption
  e. ​increase fluid intake

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   12.3 Energy and Nutrient Needs during Late Adulthood
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.3 – Explain why the needs for some nutrients increase or decrease as people age and describe healthful eating patterns for older adults
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

30. Protein is especially important for older adults to _____.​

  a. ​increase muscle mass
  b. ​rebuild aging bones
  c. ​support a healthy immune system
  d. ​prevent macular degeneration
  e. ​improve hormone secretion

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   12.3 Energy and Nutrient Needs during Late Adulthood
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.3 – Explain why the needs for some nutrients increase or decrease as people age and describe healthful eating patterns for older adults
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

31. Factors such as _____ often limit older adults’ abilities to obtain enough daily fiber in their diets.​

  a. ​busy schedules
  b. ​frequent muscle and joint pain
  c. ​poor access to clean water
  d. ​cognitive impairments
  e. ​limited cooking facilities

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   12.3 Energy and Nutrient Needs during Late Adulthood
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.3 – Explain why the needs for some nutrients increase or decrease as people age and describe healthful eating patterns for older adults
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

32. Severe fat restriction among older adults may lead to _____.​

  a. ​nutrient deficiencies
  b. ​weight gain
  c. ​greater risk of cancer
  d. ​dehydration
  e. ​muscle injuries

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   12.3 Energy and Nutrient Needs during Late Adulthood
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.3 – Explain why the needs for some nutrients increase or decrease as people age and describe healthful eating patterns for older adults
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

33. Fat intakes should be moderate in the diets of most older adults because _____. ​

  a. ​cutting fat helps alleviate constipation
  b. ​cutting fat helps to slow the development of atherosclerosis
  c. ​cutting fat helps reduce the risk of osteoporosis
  d. ​cutting fat helps increase lean body mass
  e. ​cutting fat helps to improve physical activity

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   12.3 Energy and Nutrient Needs during Late Adulthood
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.3 – Explain why the needs for some nutrients increase or decrease as people age and describe healthful eating patterns for older adults
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

34. Older women should take in a total of _____ cups of beverages per day to prevent dehydration.​

  a. ​4
  b. ​6
  c. ​9
  d. ​13
  e. ​15

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   12.3 Energy and Nutrient Needs during Late Adulthood
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.3 – Explain why the needs for some nutrients increase or decrease as people age and describe healthful eating patterns for older adults
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

35. Older adults face a greater risk of vitamin D deficiency than young people due to _____.​

  a. ​poor consumption of meat
  b. ​low intake of vegetables
  c. ​limited exposure to sunlight
  d. ​low intake of fiber
  e. ​decreased fluid intake

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   12.3 Energy and Nutrient Needs during Late Adulthood
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.3 – Explain why the needs for some nutrients increase or decrease as people age and describe healthful eating patterns for older adults
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

36. Adults age 51 to 70 need _____ micrograms of vitamin D daily to prevent bone loss.​

  a. ​8
  b. ​12
  c. ​15
  d. ​18
  e. ​22

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   12.3 Energy and Nutrient Needs during Late Adulthood
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.3 – Explain why the needs for some nutrients increase or decrease as people age and describe healthful eating patterns for older adults
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

37. An estimated _____% of adults 51 years and older lose the ability to absorb vitamin B12 due to atrophic gastritis.​

  a. ​5 to 10
  b. ​10 to 30
  c. ​15 to 35
  d. ​20 to 35
  e. ​40 to 50

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   12.3 Energy and Nutrient Needs during Late Adulthood
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.3 – Explain why the needs for some nutrients increase or decrease as people age and describe healthful eating patterns for older adults
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

38. An example of a factor that may lead to iron deficiency among older adults is _____. ​

  a. ​decreased vitamin A intake
  b. ​poor cognition
  c. ​lead toxicity
  d. ​reduced secretion of stomach acid
  e. ​poor intake of dairy products

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   12.3 Energy and Nutrient Needs during Late Adulthood
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.3 – Explain why the needs for some nutrients increase or decrease as people age and describe healthful eating patterns for older adults
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

39. Zinc deficiency leads to what type of physical symptom in older adults?​

  a. ​A blunted sense of taste
  b. ​Increased gastrointestinal motility and diarrhea
  c. ​Ringing in the ears
  d. ​Pinpoint rash on the face and neck
  e. ​Numbness and tingling in the hands and fingers

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   12.3 Energy and Nutrient Needs during Late Adulthood
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.3 – Explain why the needs for some nutrients increase or decrease as people age and describe healthful eating patterns for older adults
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

40. An adequate calcium intake throughout life helps protect against _____.​

  a. ​liver cancer
  b. ​osteoporosis
  c. ​diabetes
  d. ​cardiovascular disease
  e. ​dementia

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   12.3 Energy and Nutrient Needs during Late Adulthood
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.3 – Explain why the needs for some nutrients increase or decrease as people age and describe healthful eating patterns for older adults
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

41. Few older adults consume the recommend amount of _____ due to complaints about stomach discomfort.​

  a. ​meat
  b. ​fruit
  c. ​milk
  d. ​bread
  e. ​vegetables

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   12.3 Energy and Nutrient Needs during Late Adulthood
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.3 – Explain why the needs for some nutrients increase or decrease as people age and describe healthful eating patterns for older adults
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

42. Martin is a 71-year-old patient who has asked about how he can stay healthy as he gets older. An effective strategy to suggest to Martin might be to _____.​

  a. ​drink 4 to 6 glasses of water a day
  b. ​avoid extremes in temperature changes
  c. ​utilize herbal preparations to control symptoms of aging
  d. ​avoid caffeine intake through foods and beverages
  e. ​maintain appropriate body weight

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   12.3 Energy and Nutrient Needs during Late Adulthood
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.3 – Explain why the needs for some nutrients increase or decrease as people age and describe healthful eating patterns for older adults
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

43. The most common drug that can affect nutrition in older people is _____.​

  a. ​alcohol
  b. ​laxatives
  c. ​antacids
  d. ​aspirin
  e. ​nicotine

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   12.3 Energy and Nutrient Needs during Late Adulthood
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.3 – Explain why the needs for some nutrients increase or decrease as people age and describe healthful eating patterns for older adults
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

44. Iron status in women generally improves _____.​

  a. ​after menopause
  b. ​with daily exercise
  c. ​as muscle mass decreases
  d. ​during perimenopause
  e. ​with enough zinc intake

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   12.3 Energy and Nutrient Needs during Late Adulthood
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.3 – Explain why the needs for some nutrients increase or decrease as people age and describe healthful eating patterns for older adults
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

45. Characteristics of foods preferred by many older adults include _____.

  a. ​easy-to-open packages
  b. ​multiple-serving packages
  c. ​comprehensive labeling
  d. ​bright packages with many pictures
  e. ​sweet or salty tasting items

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   12.4 Food Choices and Eating Habits of Older Adults
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.4 – Discuss factors that influence adults’ food choices and instruct an adult on how to seek food assistance if needed, shop for groceries, and prepare healthy meals for one person on a limited budget.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

46. Older adults who live alone are at greater risk of malnourishment because they _____.​

  a. ​make poor food choices
  b. ​are more likely to be depressed
  c. ​consume too little food
  d. ​do not have enough money
  e. ​cannot prepare food

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   12.4 Food Choices and Eating Habits of Older Adults
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.4 – Discuss factors that influence adults’ food choices and instruct an adult on how to seek food assistance if needed, shop for groceries, and prepare healthy meals for one person on a limited budget.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

47. Which group of older adults is most likely to be poorly nourished?​

  a. ​women living with their children in federally-funded housing
  b. ​men with limited education
  c. ​those who have recently experienced lifestyle changes
  d. ​men who live alone
  e. ​women who often care for their grandchildren

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   12.4 Food Choices and Eating Habits of Older Adults
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.4 – Discuss factors that influence adults’ food choices and instruct an adult on how to seek food assistance if needed, shop for groceries, and prepare healthy meals for one person on a limited budget.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

48. What describes a common risk factor for malnutrition in older adults?​

  a. ​persistent diarrhea
  b. ​eating disorders
  c. ​economic hardship
  d. ​residence at an assisted-living community
  e. ​care of pets

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   12.4 Food Choices and Eating Habits of Older Adults
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.4 – Discuss factors that influence adults’ food choices and instruct an adult on how to seek food assistance if needed, shop for groceries, and prepare healthy meals for one person on a limited budget.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

49. Which food assistance program would most likely improve the intake of fruits and vegetables among low-income older adults?​

  a. ​OAA Nutrition Program
  b. ​Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)
  c. ​Meals on Wheals
  d. ​Senior Farmers Market Nutrition Program
  e. ​Able-Bodied Adults without Dependents (ABAWDs)

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   12.4 Food Choices and Eating Habits of Older Adults
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.4 – Discuss factors that influence adults’ food choices and instruct an adult on how to seek food assistance if needed, shop for groceries, and prepare healthy meals for one person on a limited budget.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

50. In order to save money and use food wisely, a single older adult can purchase food items in bulk that have plenty of nutrients and that have a long shelf-life, such as _____.​

  a. ​dried apricots
  b. ​pretzels
  c. ​dried beans
  d. ​whole-grain bread
  e. ​eggs

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   12.4 Food Choices and Eating Habits of Older Adults
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.4 – Discuss factors that influence adults’ food choices and instruct an adult on how to seek food assistance if needed, shop for groceries, and prepare healthy meals for one person on a limited budget.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

51. An older adult who lives alone but who only has access to larger packages of food can best use food wisely and avoid waste by _____.​

  a. ​eating larger quantities of food at each sitting
  b. ​inviting a friend for a meal
  c. ​shopping at convenience stores
  d. ​giving the leftover food to a pet
  e. ​decreasing overall food intake

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   12.4 Food Choices and Eating Habits of Older Adults
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.4 – Discuss factors that influence adults’ food choices and instruct an adult on how to seek food assistance if needed, shop for groceries, and prepare healthy meals for one person on a limited budget.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

52. The primary cause of hunger in developed countries is _____.​

  a. ​poverty
  b. ​war
  c. ​mental illness
  d. ​politics
  e. ​food waste

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   12.5 Nutrition in Practice: Hunger and Community Nutrition
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.5 – Identify some reasons why hunger is present in a country as wealthy as the United States and describe the resources available to those in need.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

53. The largest federal food assistance program is _____. ​

  a. ​WIC
  b. ​SNAP
  c. ​WHO
  d. ​OAA
  e. Meals on Wheels​

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   12.5 Nutrition in Practice: Hunger and Community Nutrition
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.5 – Identify some reasons why hunger is present in a country as wealthy as the United States and describe the resources available to those in need.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remembe

 

54. Which activity is associated with the work of a food recovery program?​

  a. ​Collecting unused WIC vouchers
  b. ​Picking berries in an already harvested field
  c. ​Providing debit cards for participants to purchase healthy food
  d. ​Serving balanced meals to large groups in the community
  e. ​Planning community gardens for low-income families

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   12.5 Nutrition in Practice: Hunger and Community Nutrition
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.5 – Identify some reasons why hunger is present in a country as wealthy as the United States and describe the resources available to those in need.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

55. Approximately _____ households in the United States currently experience marginal food security.​

  a. ​2 million
  b. ​6 million
  c. ​11 million
  d. ​15 million
  e. ​24 million

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   12.5 Nutrition in Practice: Hunger and Community Nutrition
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.5 – Identify some reasons why hunger is present in a country as wealthy as the United States and describe the resources available to those in need.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

Mrs. Wylie is a 78-year-old Caucasian woman who lives alone in a small, one-story home she and her husband purchased several years ago before he died. She lives on social security income and her deceased husband’s corporate pension, and is financially secure. Though she is in relatively good health, she has been having increasing difficulty walking for the past several years, which has been attributed to peripheral vascular disease. She complains of weakness and pain in her legs, and a loss of feeling in her fingers and feet. She also suffers from occasional constipation. She is happiest just doing her activities of daily living, such as preparing breakfast, lunch, and a late-afternoon snack, then relaxing in her living room until it is time for bed. She has a good relationship with her adult children, who have been discussing with her the possibility of hiring a visiting nurse as her mobility declines. Her children take turns visiting on Sundays, when they help with her shopping, laundry, and other tasks, but none live close enough to visit daily, and Mrs. Wylie sometimes goes a week without seeing another person. Lately, Mrs. Wylie has been cutting back on drinking water (or any beverages) to save trips to the bathroom. When mild dehydration was noted at a recent visit to the doctor, Mrs. Wylie told her doctor she would try to drink more often, but she is rarely thirsty. She takes seven different prescription and/or over-the-counter medications daily, including a proton pump inhibitor drug for long-standing GERD, and a calcium supplement with vitamin D.

 

56. Given the information provided, what describes the greatest risk factor for Mrs. Wylie?​

  a. ​ Vitamin D deficiency
  b. ​Depression
  c. ​Injury
  d. ​High blood pressure

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   12.3 Energy and Nutrient Needs during Late Adulthood
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.3 – Explain why the needs for some nutrients increase or decrease as people age and describe healthful eating patterns for older adults
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

57. Older adults at risk nutritionally, such as Mrs. Wylie, should have their diets assessed at medical appointments for _____. ​

  a. ​magnesium and folate
  b. ​calcium, iron, and zinc
  c. ​vitamins A, E, and C
  d. ​sodium and protein
  e. ​potassium and chloride

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   12.3 Energy and Nutrient Needs during Late Adulthood
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.3 – Explain why the needs for some nutrients increase or decrease as people age and describe healthful eating patterns for older adults
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

58. The doctor addresses the importance of hydration with Mrs. Wylie. Dehydration can lead to which complication for Mrs. Wylie?​

  a. ​Compromised mental status
  b. ​Gastric ulcers
  c. ​Peripheral edema
  d. ​Diarrhea
  e. ​Gum disease

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   12.3 Energy and Nutrient Needs during Late Adulthood
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.3 – Explain why the needs for some nutrients increase or decrease as people age and describe healthful eating patterns for older adults
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

59. Which statement made by Mrs. Wylie indicates that she will take measures to maintain hydration status?​

  a. ​“I will start drinking two cups of coffee in the morning.”
  b. ​“I will try to drink a measured amount of water, juice, or milk each day.”
  c. ​“I will have my hydration status monitored at each medical appointment.”
  d. ​“I will drink water, juice, or milk each time I am thirsty.”
  e. ​“I will stop taking my ‘water pill’ so I don’t have to use the bathroom as often.”

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   12.3 Energy and Nutrient Needs during Late Adulthood
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.3 – Explain why the needs for some nutrients increase or decrease as people age and describe healthful eating patterns for older adults
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

60. The DRI committee recommends that adults aged 51 years and older obtain 2.4 micrograms of vitamin B12 daily and that vitamin B12–fortified foods (such as fortified cereals) or supplements be used to meet much of the DRI recommended intake. Mrs. Wylie should be placed on a vitamin B12 supplement because _____. ​

  a. ​she is at risk of depression
  b. ​she has not been drinking enough water
  c. ​she is socially isolated
  d. ​she has neurologic symptoms consistent with vitamin B12 deficiency
  e. ​she has mobility problems

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   12.3 Energy and Nutrient Needs during Late Adulthood
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.3 – Explain why the needs for some nutrients increase or decrease as people age and describe healthful eating patterns for older adults
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

Matching

 

​Matching

a. ​ a person’s age in years from his or her date of birth
b. ​a progressive, degenerative disease that attacks the brain and impairs thinking, behavior, and memory
c. ​urban and rural low-income areas with limited access to affordable and nutritious foods
d. ​limited or uncertain access to foods of sufficient quality or quantity to sustain a healthy and active life
e. ​inflammation of a joint, usually accompanied by pain, swelling, and structural changes
f. ​clumps of the protein fragment beta-amyloid on the nerve cells
g. ​clouding of the eye lenses that impairs vision and can lead to blindness
h. ​the loss of brain function beyond the normal loss of physical adeptness and memory that occurs with aging
i. ​facilities that collect and distribute food donations to authorized organizations feeding the hungry
j. ​the average number of years lived by people in a given society.
k. the outer surface of the cerebrum, which is the largest part of the brain​
l. ​snarls of the threadlike strands that extend from the nerve cells, commonly found in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s dementia
m. ​ a person’s perceived physical and mental well-being
n. ​living environments for people with chronic conditions or need for supervision or assistance
o. ​programs that provide meals to be eaten on-site; often called soup kitchens
p. ​the collection of wholesome food for distribution to low-income people who are hungry
q. ​the maximum number of years of life attainable by a member of a species
r. ​a painful, chronic disease of the joints that occurs when the cushioning cartilage in a joint breaks down
s. ​chronic inflammation of the stomach accompanied by a diminished size and functioning of the mucosa and glands
t. ​the structural and functional units of the nervous system

 

REFERENCES:   Introduction
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.1 – Describe the roles nutrition, physical activity, and other lifestyle choices play in longevity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

61. ​life span

ANSWER:   q

 

62. ​ life expectancy

ANSWER:   j

 

​Matching

a. ​ a person’s age in years from his or her date of birth
b. ​a progressive, degenerative disease that attacks the brain and impairs thinking, behavior, and memory
c. ​urban and rural low-income areas with limited access to affordable and nutritious foods
d. ​limited or uncertain access to foods of sufficient quality or quantity to sustain a healthy and active life
e. ​inflammation of a joint, usually accompanied by pain, swelling, and structural changes
f. ​clumps of the protein fragment beta-amyloid on the nerve cells
g. ​clouding of the eye lenses that impairs vision and can lead to blindness
h. ​the loss of brain function beyond the normal loss of physical adeptness and memory that occurs with aging
i. ​facilities that collect and distribute food donations to authorized organizations feeding the hungry
j. ​the average number of years lived by people in a given society.
k. the outer surface of the cerebrum, which is the largest part of the brain​
l. ​snarls of the threadlike strands that extend from the nerve cells, commonly found in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s dementia
m. ​ a person’s perceived physical and mental well-being
n. ​living environments for people with chronic conditions or need for supervision or assistance
o. ​programs that provide meals to be eaten on-site; often called soup kitchens
p. ​the collection of wholesome food for distribution to low-income people who are hungry
q. ​the maximum number of years of life attainable by a member of a species
r. ​a painful, chronic disease of the joints that occurs when the cushioning cartilage in a joint breaks down
s. ​chronic inflammation of the stomach accompanied by a diminished size and functioning of the mucosa and glands
t. ​the structural and functional units of the nervous system

 

REFERENCES:   12.1 Nutrition and Longevity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.1 – Describe the roles nutrition, physical activity, and other lifestyle choices play in longevity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

63. ​quality of life

ANSWER:   m

 

64. ​ chronological age

ANSWER:   a

 

​Matching

a. ​ a person’s age in years from his or her date of birth
b. ​a progressive, degenerative disease that attacks the brain and impairs thinking, behavior, and memory
c. ​urban and rural low-income areas with limited access to affordable and nutritious foods
d. ​limited or uncertain access to foods of sufficient quality or quantity to sustain a healthy and active life
e. ​inflammation of a joint, usually accompanied by pain, swelling, and structural changes
f. ​clumps of the protein fragment beta-amyloid on the nerve cells
g. ​clouding of the eye lenses that impairs vision and can lead to blindness
h. ​the loss of brain function beyond the normal loss of physical adeptness and memory that occurs with aging
i. ​facilities that collect and distribute food donations to authorized organizations feeding the hungry
j. ​the average number of years lived by people in a given society.
k. the outer surface of the cerebrum, which is the largest part of the brain​
l. ​snarls of the threadlike strands that extend from the nerve cells, commonly found in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s dementia
m. ​ a person’s perceived physical and mental well-being
n. ​living environments for people with chronic conditions or need for supervision or assistance
o. ​programs that provide meals to be eaten on-site; often called soup kitchens
p. ​the collection of wholesome food for distribution to low-income people who are hungry
q. ​the maximum number of years of life attainable by a member of a species
r. ​a painful, chronic disease of the joints that occurs when the cushioning cartilage in a joint breaks down
s. ​chronic inflammation of the stomach accompanied by a diminished size and functioning of the mucosa and glands
t. ​the structural and functional units of the nervous system

 

REFERENCES:   12.2 Nutrition-Related Concerns during Late Adulthood
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.2 – Identify how nutrition might contribute to, or prevent, the development of age-related problems associated with vision, arthritis, and the brain.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

65. ​ cataracts

ANSWER:   g

 

66. ​ arthritis

ANSWER:   e

 

67. ​neurons

ANSWER:   t

 

68. senile dementia​

ANSWER:   h

 

69. Alzheimer’s disease​

ANSWER:   b

 

70. ​ senile plaques

ANSWER:   f

 

71. ​neurofibrillary tangles

ANSWER:   l

 

72. ​ cerebral cortex

ANSWER:   k

 

73. ​osteoarthritis

ANSWER:   r

 

​Matching

a. ​ a person’s age in years from his or her date of birth
b. ​a progressive, degenerative disease that attacks the brain and impairs thinking, behavior, and memory
c. ​urban and rural low-income areas with limited access to affordable and nutritious foods
d. ​limited or uncertain access to foods of sufficient quality or quantity to sustain a healthy and active life
e. ​inflammation of a joint, usually accompanied by pain, swelling, and structural changes
f. ​clumps of the protein fragment beta-amyloid on the nerve cells
g. ​clouding of the eye lenses that impairs vision and can lead to blindness
h. ​the loss of brain function beyond the normal loss of physical adeptness and memory that occurs with aging
i. ​facilities that collect and distribute food donations to authorized organizations feeding the hungry
j. ​the average number of years lived by people in a given society.
k. the outer surface of the cerebrum, which is the largest part of the brain​
l. ​snarls of the threadlike strands that extend from the nerve cells, commonly found in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s dementia
m. ​ a person’s perceived physical and mental well-being
n. ​living environments for people with chronic conditions or need for supervision or assistance
o. ​programs that provide meals to be eaten on-site; often called soup kitchens
p. ​the collection of wholesome food for distribution to low-income people who are hungry
q. ​the maximum number of years of life attainable by a member of a species
r. ​a painful, chronic disease of the joints that occurs when the cushioning cartilage in a joint breaks down
s. ​chronic inflammation of the stomach accompanied by a diminished size and functioning of the mucosa and glands
t. ​the structural and functional units of the nervous system

 

REFERENCES:   12.3 Energy and Nutrient Needs during Late Adulthood
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.3 – Explain why the needs for some nutrients increase or decrease as people age and describe healthful eating patterns for older adults
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

74. ​health care communities

ANSWER:   n

 

75. ​atrophic gastritis

ANSWER:   s

 

​Matching

a. ​ a person’s age in years from his or her date of birth
b. ​a progressive, degenerative disease that attacks the brain and impairs thinking, behavior, and memory
c. ​urban and rural low-income areas with limited access to affordable and nutritious foods
d. ​limited or uncertain access to foods of sufficient quality or quantity to sustain a healthy and active life
e. ​inflammation of a joint, usually accompanied by pain, swelling, and structural changes
f. ​clumps of the protein fragment beta-amyloid on the nerve cells
g. ​clouding of the eye lenses that impairs vision and can lead to blindness
h. ​the loss of brain function beyond the normal loss of physical adeptness and memory that occurs with aging
i. ​facilities that collect and distribute food donations to authorized organizations feeding the hungry
j. ​the average number of years lived by people in a given society.
k. the outer surface of the cerebrum, which is the largest part of the brain​
l. ​snarls of the threadlike strands that extend from the nerve cells, commonly found in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s dementia
m. ​ a person’s perceived physical and mental well-being
n. ​living environments for people with chronic conditions or need for supervision or assistance
o. ​programs that provide meals to be eaten on-site; often called soup kitchens
p. ​the collection of wholesome food for distribution to low-income people who are hungry
q. ​the maximum number of years of life attainable by a member of a species
r. ​a painful, chronic disease of the joints that occurs when the cushioning cartilage in a joint breaks down
s. ​chronic inflammation of the stomach accompanied by a diminished size and functioning of the mucosa and glands
t. ​the structural and functional units of the nervous system

 

REFERENCES:   12.5 Nutrition in Practice: Hunger and Community Nutrition
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.5 – Identify some reasons why hunger is present in a country as wealthy as the United States and describe the resources available to those in need.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

76. ​ emergency kitchens

ANSWER:   o

 

77. food banks

ANSWER:   i

 

78. ​food deserts

ANSWER:   c

 

79. ​food insecurity

ANSWER:   d

 

​Matching

a. ​ a person’s age in years from his or her date of birth
b. ​a progressive, degenerative disease that attacks the brain and impairs thinking, behavior, and memory
c. ​urban and rural low-income areas with limited access to affordable and nutritious foods
d. ​limited or uncertain access to foods of sufficient quality or quantity to sustain a healthy and active life
e. ​inflammation of a joint, usually accompanied by pain, swelling, and structural changes
f. ​clumps of the protein fragment beta-amyloid on the nerve cells
g. ​clouding of the eye lenses that impairs vision and can lead to blindness
h. ​the loss of brain function beyond the normal loss of physical adeptness and memory that occurs with aging
i. ​facilities that collect and distribute food donations to authorized organizations feeding the hungry
j. ​the average number of years lived by people in a given society.
k. the outer surface of the cerebrum, which is the largest part of the brain​
l. ​snarls of the threadlike strands that extend from the nerve cells, commonly found in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s dementia
m. ​ a person’s perceived physical and mental well-being
n. ​living environments for people with chronic conditions or need for supervision or assistance
o. ​programs that provide meals to be eaten on-site; often called soup kitchens
p. ​the collection of wholesome food for distribution to low-income people who are hungry
q. ​the maximum number of years of life attainable by a member of a species
r. ​a painful, chronic disease of the joints that occurs when the cushioning cartilage in a joint breaks down
s. ​chronic inflammation of the stomach accompanied by a diminished size and functioning of the mucosa and glands
t. ​the structural and functional units of the nervous system

 

REFERENCES:   12.5 Nutrition in Practice: Hunger and Community Nutrition
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.2 – Identify how nutrition might contribute to, or prevent, the development of age-related problems associated with vision, arthritis, and the brain.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

80. ​ food recovery

ANSWER:   p

 

Essay

 

81. ​Describe possible relationships between cataracts and nutrition.

ANSWER:   Cataracts are age-related thickenings in the lenses of the eye that impair vision. If not surgically removed, they may lead to blindness. Oxidative stress appears to play a significant role in the development of cataracts, but supplements of antioxidant nutrients such as vitamin C, vitamin E, and carotenoids do not seem to prevent or slow the progression. Alternatively, a healthy diet that includes plenty of fruits and vegetables does seem to slow the progression or reduce the risk of developing cataracts. Further, people who follow the Dietary Guidelines for Americans are reported to have fewer cataracts overall. ​
REFERENCES:   12.2 Nutrition-Related Concerns during Late Adulthood
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.2 – Identify how nutrition might contribute to, or prevent, the development of age-related problems associated with vision, arthritis, and the brain.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

82. Discuss the possible roles of nutrition in the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease.​

ANSWER:   In Alzheimer’s disease, the most prevalent form of dementia, brain cell death occurs in the areas of the brain that coordinate memory and cognition. Although the primary risk factor is age, there are a number of factors involved in its development. Some research suggests that the antioxidant nutrients can limit free-radical damage and delay or prevent Alzheimer’s disease. Additionally, there is increasing evidence that overweight and obesity in middle age are associated with dementia and with Alzheimer’s disease. Efforts to prevent and treat obesity may then help to also prevent Alzheimer’s disease.
REFERENCES:   12.2 Nutrition-Related Concerns during Late Adulthood
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.2 – Identify how nutrition might contribute to, or prevent, the development of age-related problems associated with vision, arthritis, and the brain.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

83. Why is dehydration a risk for older adults?​

ANSWER:   Many older adults are at higher risk of dehydration because of age-related changes in their bodies; their dietary habits may also not support enough fluid intake and they may suffer excess fluid loss or decreased fluid intake in general. Older adults may not notice their thirst mechanisms and may fail to drink enough fluids. Alternatively, there are some older adults who choose to limit their fluid intake because of physical factors, such as difficulties with getting to the bathroom on time or nocturnal enuresis. They may be less likely to notice dry mouth or other signs of dehydration. Finally, many older adults take multiple medications, some of which can cause excess fluid loss from the body or may alter electrolyte levels, further contributing to dehydration.​
REFERENCES:   12.3 Energy and Nutrient Needs during Late Adulthood
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.3 – Explain why the needs for some nutrients increase or decrease as people age and describe healthful eating patterns for older adults
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

84. Why are some elderly people at risk of developing vitamin D deficiency?​

ANSWER:   Older adults are at greater risk of vitamin D deficiency when compared to younger people. Vitamin D-fortified milk is a common source of the nutrient, but many older adults do not drink enough milk. Many older adults do not spend enough time outside and therefore are exposed to less sunlight, which is used by the body to convert inactive vitamin D2 to active vitamin D3. This is especially true for people in assisted-living communities who may go outdoors infrequently and may not get enough sun. In order to have enough vitamin D to support bone health in older adults, supplements may be needed.
REFERENCES:   12.3 Energy and Nutrient Needs during Late Adulthood
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.3 – Explain why the needs for some nutrients increase or decrease as people age and describe healthful eating patterns for older adults
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

85. ​Discuss ways that older adults can stretch their food dollars.

ANSWER:   Many older persons are on limited budgets and are at risk of nutritional deficiencies if they make poor food choices to save money. Older adults can stretch their food dollars and support good nutrition in a variety of ways. Some elements of saving money on a grocery budget include shopping at grocery stores or warehouse supermarkets, which are generally cheaper than convenience stores, and using a grocery list to stick to buying only necessary items. Older adults may also buy larger packages of foods and break them into smaller portions for storage, or they may buy items in bulk that are shelf stable and can be stored for longer periods. These practices reduce the frequency of grocery shopping and can help some adults to save more money.​
REFERENCES:   12.4 Food Choices and Eating Habits of Older Adults
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.12.4 – Discuss factors that influence adults’ food choices and instruct an adult on how to seek food assistance if needed, shop for groceries, and prepare healthy meals for one person on a limited budget.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

chapter 22

True / False

 

1. The kidneys secrete the hormone erythropoietin, which helps to regulate blood pressure.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   22.0 Introduction
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.1 – Identify the potential causes and consequences of nephrotic syndrome and describe the medical and nutrition therapies used in treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

2. The medical nutrition therapy for nephrotic syndrome helps to prevent protein-energy malnutrition and alleviate edema.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   22.1 Nephrotic Syndrome
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.1 – Identify the potential causes and consequences of nephrotic syndrome and describe the medical and nutrition therapies used in treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

3. The nephrotic syndrome is associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and a sharply increased risk of heart disease and stroke.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   22.1 Nephrotic Syndrome
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.1 – Identify the potential causes and consequences of nephrotic syndrome and describe the medical and nutrition therapies used in treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

4. Recovery from kidney injury may begin with a period of diuresis and a patient’s fluid status should be monitored closely.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   22.2 Acute Kidney Injury
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.2 – Discuss the potential causes and effects of acute kidney injury and describe the approaches to treatment for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

5. Prostate cancer is an intrarenal factor that can cause acute kidney injury.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   22.2 Acute Kidney Injury
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.2 – Discuss the potential causes and effects of acute kidney injury and describe the approaches to treatment for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

6. A glomerular filtration rate < 29 indicates kidney failure and the need for dialysis.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

7. Adults with chronic kidney disease frequently develop wasting and PEM.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

8. Individuals on peritoneal dialysis have lower protein needs than those on hemodialysis.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

9. Prior to the need for dialysis, most renal patients are unable to handle normal intakes of potassium.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

10. ​Supplementation of all fat-soluble vitamins is necessary in clients with chronic kidney disease.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

11. Although renal patients are often encouraged to consume high-fat foods to improve their energy intakes, the foods they select should provide mostly unsaturated fats.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

12. Given the choice, many patients with end-stage renal disease would prefer kidney transplants, but the demand for suitable kidneys far exceeds the supply.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

13. Solutes are less likely to crystallize and form kidney stones in concentrated urine.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   22.4 Kidney Stones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHNHHE.DEBR.17.22.5 – Explain how dialysis removes fluids and wastes from the blood and compare the different types of dialysis procedures
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

14. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is a procedure that involves surgically removing a kidney stone while the patient is under general anesthesia.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   22.4 Kidney Stones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHNHHE.DEBR.17.22.5 – Explain how dialysis removes fluids and wastes from the blood and compare the different types of dialysis procedures
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

15. Dialysis removes excess fluids and wastes from the blood by employing the principles of diffusion, osmosis, and ultrafiltration.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   22.5 Nutrition in Practice: Dialysis
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.5 – Explain how dialysis removes fluids and wastes from the blood and compare the different types of dialysis procedures.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

Multiple Choice

 

16. One primary function of the kidneys is to ____.​

  a. ​produce albumin
  b. ​aid in the digestion of fats
  c. ​maintain acid-base balance
  d. ​convert vitamin K to its active form
  e. ​produce enzymes that protect the body from viral infections

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   22.0 Introduction
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.1 – Identify the potential causes and consequences of nephrotic syndrome and describe the medical and nutrition therapies used in treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

17. ​The part of the kidney that acts like a sieve to filter wastes is the _____.

  a. ​nephron
  b. ​glomerulus
  c. ​tubule
  d. ​lobe
  e. ​loop of Henle

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   22.0 Introduction
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.1 – Identify the potential causes and consequences of nephrotic syndrome and describe the medical and nutrition therapies used in treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

18. Nephrotic syndrome develops as a result of _____.​

  a. ​damage to the glomeruli
  b. ​damage to the tubules
  c. ​excessive protein intake
  d. ​excessive fat intake
  e. ​increased sodium losses

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   22.1 Nephrotic Syndrome
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.1 – Identify the potential causes and consequences of nephrotic syndrome and describe the medical and nutrition therapies used in treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

19. Manifestations of the nephrotic syndrome include _____.​

  a. ​infection
  b. ​uremia
  c. ​low blood lipids
  d. ​dehydration
  e. ​poor peripheral pulses

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   22.1 Nephrotic Syndrome
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.1 – Identify the potential causes and consequences of nephrotic syndrome and describe the medical and nutrition therapies used in treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

20. One of the effects of nephrotic syndrome is a loss of vitamin D. This can result in _____ in children.​

  a. ​growth failure
  b. ​poor appetite
  c. ​rickets
  d. ​anemia
  e. ​scurvy

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   22.1 Nephrotic Syndrome
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.1 – Identify the potential causes and consequences of nephrotic syndrome and describe the medical and nutrition therapies used in treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

21. What dietary components are restricted in patients who have nephrotic syndrome?​

  a. ​Vitamins A and D
  b. ​Fluids and sodium
  c. ​Carbohydrate and fat
  d. ​Calcium and phosphorus
  e. ​Sodium and protein

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   22.1 Nephrotic Syndrome
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.1 – Identify the potential causes and consequences of nephrotic syndrome and describe the medical and nutrition therapies used in treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

22. ​What condition that leads to acute kidney injury is considered a prerenal factor?

  a. ​Urinary obstruction
  b. ​Drug exposure
  c. ​Heart failure
  d. ​Trauma
  e. ​Exposure to toxins

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   22.2 Acute Kidney Injury
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.2 – Discuss the potential causes and effects of acute kidney injury and describe the approaches to treatment for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

23. In patients with acute kidney injury, oliguria leads to _____.​

  a. ​sodium retention and elevated levels of potassium
  b. ​edema due to increased urine production
  c. ​an increase in blood potassium levels due to excessive excretion of parathyroid hormone
  d. ​production of at least 800 mL of urine per day
  e. ​hypophosphatemia and overgrowth of bone tissue

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   22.2 Acute Kidney Injury
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.2 – Discuss the potential causes and effects of acute kidney injury and describe the approaches to treatment for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

24. Laboratory findings associated with acute kidney injury include abnormal levels of serum electrolytes and _____.​

  a. ​elevated WBC count
  b. ​glycosuria
  c. ​elevated BUN
  d. ​positive bacterial culture
  e. ​elevated GFR

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   22.2 Acute Kidney Injury
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.2 – Discuss the potential causes and effects of acute kidney injury and describe the approaches to treatment for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

25. Furosemide (Lasix) is a drug used to _____.​

  a. ​mobilize fluids
  b. ​lower cholesterol
  c. ​prevent PEM
  d. ​activate vitamin D
  e. ​stimulate appetite

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   22.2 Acute Kidney Injury
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.2 – Discuss the potential causes and effects of acute kidney injury and describe the approaches to treatment for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

26. In oliguric patients, recovery from kidney injury sometimes begins with a period of _____, in which large amounts of fluid (up to 3 liters daily) are excreted.​

  a. ​hemodialysis
  b. ​proteinuria
  c. ​anuria
  d. ​diuresis
  e. ​peritoneal dialysis

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   22.2 Acute Kidney Injury
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.2 – Discuss the potential causes and effects of acute kidney injury and describe the approaches to treatment for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

27. Total parenteral nutrition may be necessary for a patient with acute kidney injury when _____.​

  a. ​the patient has severe dysphagia
  b. ​the patient cannot tolerate tube feedings
  c. ​the patient has urine output of less than 400 mL per day
  d. ​the patient has hyponatremia
  e. ​the patient will need dialysis

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   22.2 Acute Kidney Injury
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.2 – Discuss the potential causes and effects of acute kidney injury and describe the approaches to treatment for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

28. The most common cause of chronic kidney disease is _____​

  a. ​diabetes
  b. ​infection
  c. ​a genetic disorder
  d. ​inflammation
  e. ​peripheral vascular disease

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

29. A glomerular filtration rate <15 mL/min per 1.73 m2 indicates which stage of chronic kidney disease?​

  a. ​Stage 2: Mildly decreased
  b. ​Stage 3a: Mild to moderately decreased
  c. ​Stage 3b: Moderate to severely decreased
  d. ​Stage 4: Severely decreased
  e. ​Stage 5: Kidney failure

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

30. Kidney disease is classified according to _____.​

  a. ​glomerular filtration rate
  b. ​the ratio of albumin to creatinine in a urine sample
  c. ​BUN levels
  d. ​the degree of proteinuria
  e. ​the amount of urine output in a 24-hour period

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

31. ​Secondary complications of chronic kidney disease include _____.

  a. ​ type 1 diabetes
  b. ​dementia
  c. ​stroke
  d. ​hypotension
  e. ​bone disease

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

32. ​Which clinical effect is most commonly seen with uremic syndrome associated with chronic kidney disease?

  a. ​Hypokalemia
  b. ​Hearing loss
  c. ​Hypothyroidism
  d. ​Hypertension
  e. ​Mouth sores

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

33. During the later stages of chronic kidney disease, the recommended protein intake is _____ grams per kilogram of body weight per day.​

  a. ​0.2 to 0.4
  b. ​0.6 to 0.75
  c. ​0.8 to 1.0
  d. ​1.0 to 1.2
  e. ​1.2 to 1.55

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

34. If a client is on peritoneal dialysis, his diet should contain less _____ than other renal diets.​

  a. ​fat
  b. ​protein
  c. ​vitamin D
  d. ​carbohydrate
  e. ​potassium

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

35. Weight gain can become a problem when peritoneal dialysis continues for an extended period of time. This is likely due to _____.​

  a. ​the kcalories contributed by the dialysate
  b. ​a less restrictive diet
  c. ​food cravings experienced by the patient
  d. ​the body’s adaptation to dialysis
  e. ​fluid retention in the peritoneal cavity

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

36. A patient in the later stage of chronic kidney disease has been advised to increase his intake of potassium-rich foods. What food is an example of an item that is high in potassium?​

  a. ​Strawberries
  b. ​Cabbage
  c. ​Potatoes
  d. ​Watermelon
  e. ​Carrots

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

37. Supplemental _____ among patients with chronic kidney disease should be limited to 70 mg per day because excessive intakes can contribute to kidney stone formation in those at risk.​

  a. ​vitamin D
  b. ​phosphorus
  c. ​potassium
  d. ​vitamin C
  e. ​iron

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

38. ​Low-protein diets for patients with chronic kidney disease supply less _____ than high-protein diets.

  a. ​sodium
  b. ​phosphorous
  c. ​potassium
  d. ​vitamin B6
  e. ​magnesium

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

39. ​What food is a good source of phosphorus?

  a. ​Chicken
  b. ​Peanut butter
  c. ​Peas
  d. ​Broccoli
  e. ​Cantaloupe

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

40. Patients with kidney disease who take calcium and vitamin D supplements are at risk of _____ because of the use of phosphate binders.​

  a. ​hypophosphatemia
  b. ​vitamin K deficiency
  c. ​hyperphosphatemia
  d. ​hypercalcemia
  e. ​iron deficiency anemia

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

41. The most effective way to improve the iron status of patients undergoing dialysis is _____.​

  a. ​oral iron supplements
  b. ​IV iron administration
  c. ​IV iron administration in conjunction with erythropoietin therapy
  d. ​increasing intake of iron-rich foods
  e. ​intramuscular iron injections

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

42. The potassium content of vegetables can be reduced through which process?​

  a. ​Steaming
  b. ​Sautéing
  c. ​Leaching
  d. ​Boiling
  e. ​Spraying

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

43. Which immunosuppressant drug would most likely be administered to a patient following a kidney transplant?​

  a. ​Sevelamer
  b. ​Potassium citrate
  c. ​Calcium acetate
  d. ​Tacrolimus
  e. ​Sodium polystyrene sulfonate

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

44. Approximately _____ percent of patients with end-stage renal disease receive a kidney transplant.​

  a. ​5
  b. ​15
  c. ​24
  d. ​30
  e. ​42

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

45. Calcium oxalate stones are most often accompanied by what metabolic condition?​

  a. ​Hypercalciuria
  b. ​Hyperkalemia
  c. ​Hyperphosphatemia
  d. ​Hypercholesterolemia
  e. ​Hypernatremia

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   22.4 Kidney Stones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHNHHE.DEBR.17.22.5 – Explain how dialysis removes fluids and wastes from the blood and compare the different types of dialysis procedures
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

46. An example of a food that is high in oxalate is _____.​

  a. ​grapes
  b. ​milk
  c. ​carrots
  d. ​apples
  e. ​spinach

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   22.4 Kidney Stones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHNHHE.DEBR.17.22.5 – Explain how dialysis removes fluids and wastes from the blood and compare the different types of dialysis procedures
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

47. The best way to prevent the formation of kidney stones is to _____.​

  a. ​minimize calcium intake
  b. ​eat less meat
  c. ​eat fewer oxalate-containing vegetables
  d. ​drink 12 to 16 cups of fluids per day
  e. ​add iron supplements to the diet

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   22.4 Kidney Stones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHNHHE.DEBR.17.22.5 – Explain how dialysis removes fluids and wastes from the blood and compare the different types of dialysis procedures
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

Dennis Wilson is a 57-year-old chemical engineer who has had type 1 diabetes since he was 12 years old. He spent 34 years working in oil refineries, and he is a smoker. He is 5’11” tall and weighs 160 pounds. Over the past several years, he has experienced a gradual decline in kidney function. His GFR has declined to 27 mL/min per 1.73 m2.

 

48. ​The primary goal(s) of medical nutrition therapy for Mr. Wilson at this time should be to _____.

  a. ​lower his blood cholesterol levels
  b. ​prevent PEM and weight loss
  c. ​treat him for iron-deficiency anemia
  d. ​prevent osteoporosis
  e. ​eliminate excess potassium from his diet

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

49. Mr. Wilson’s estimated energy needs are _____.​

  a. ​1818 kcal per day
  b. ​2182 kcal per day
  c. ​2545 kcal per day
  d. ​2710 kcal per day
  e. ​2983 kcal per day

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

50. Protein intake for Mr. Wilson should _____.​

  a. ​be restricted due to slow disease progression
  b. ​be increased due to PEM
  c. ​be limited to plant protein foods
  d. ​be limited to animal protein foods
  e. ​remain the same until he begins to lose weight

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

51. Mr. Wilson’s laboratory reports indicate hyperkalemia. His intake of _____ should be restricted.​

  a. ​protein
  b. ​sodium
  c. ​phosphorus
  d. ​potassium
  e. ​vitamin D

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

52. The likely cause of Mr. Wilson’s chronic kidney disease is _____.​

  a. ​his history of type 1 diabetes
  b. ​exposure to chemicals in the workplace
  c. ​his history of smoking
  d. ​male gender and age
  e. ​unknown

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

Mr. Bradley is a 70-year-old man with a long medical history including uncontrolled diabetes mellitus since age 45 who presents to the West Smithtown Dialysis Center with new-onset end-stage kidney disease. Mr. Bradley lives in an assisted living facility where he receives full-time nursing care. As a dialysis nurse, your role is to review the nutrition guidelines with Mr. Bradley, who has diabetic retinopathy and loss of vision. He is a non-ambulatory war veteran, former smoker, and former alcohol abuser whose BMI is normal, though he has lost 3% of his body weight since being diagnosed with kidney failure one month ago. A food frequency questionnaire shows that Mr. Bradley generally meets his recommended intakes of all food groups, but his fiber intake is low, and his dairy foods consumption exceeds the recommendation by double due to his love of milk, ice cream, cheese, and other dairy products.

 

53. You explain to Mr. Bradley that the diet for end-stage renal disease _____.​

  a. ​has little influence on disease progression
  b. ​will not prevent the development of complications
  c. ​contributes to elevated serum levels of nitrogenous wastes
  d. ​can help to control electrolytes and avoid a life-threatening imbalance
  e. ​will prevent him from developing further vision loss

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

54. Since this is Mr. Bradley’s first visit to the center, his primary care nurse spends hours speaking to him while his dialysis progresses. The nurse explains that within the next week he will be seen by _____, who will counsel him about his nutrition therapy.​

  a. ​a dietitian who specializes in chronic kidney disease
  b. ​a physician who oversees all aspects of clients’ medical care
  c. ​another client who has been following the diet for years
  d. ​a pharmacist who will address the nutrients administered via the dialysate
  e. ​a phlebotomy nurse who draws blood for and interprets laboratory values

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

55. Mr. Bradley’s comprehension of the need for a lower-phosphorus diet is reflected by which statement?​

  a. ​“I will need to eat fewer fatty meats.”
  b. ​“I will need to avoid legumes.”
  c. ​“I will need to limit dairy products.”
  d. ​“I can eat all the bread I want.”
  e. ​“Becoming a vegetarian would best meet my protein needs.”

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

56. The nurse allays Mr. Bradley’s fears that his new diet will lack variety and flavor by assuring him that the diet _____.​

  a. ​excludes meat and dairy but includes everything else
  b. ​promotes flavor with salt and other seasonings
  c. ​encourages unsaturated fats, such as oil-based salad dressings
  d. ​allows unlimited amounts of sweets
  e. ​does not need to be a permanent change

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

57. What principle regarding fluid is correctly conveyed to Mr. Bradley?​

  a. ​“Gelatin, soups, fruit ices, and frozen fruit juice bars contribute to your fluid intake.”
  b. ​“Water losses from the skin and lungs are deducted from your fluid allowance.”
  c. ​“Solid foods do not contribute to your fluid intake.”
  d. ​“Your average fluid gain between dialysis treatments should ideally be 10 pounds.”
  e. ​“Most of your fluid intake should come when you take your medications.”

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

58. Which factor may predispose an individual to kidney stone formation?

  a. ​Increased volume of urine output
  b. ​Intake of foods that contain tyrosine
  c. ​Recent gastrointestinal infection
  d. ​Changes in urinary acidity
  e. ​Decreased tissue perfusion

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   22.4 Kidney Stones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHNHHE.DEBR.17.22.5 – Explain how dialysis removes fluids and wastes from the blood and compare the different types of dialysis procedures
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

59. Uric acid kidney stones are most commonly associated with what condition?​

  a. ​Hypercalcemia
  b. ​Diabetes
  c. ​Gout
  d. ​Atherosclerosis
  e. ​Diarrhea

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   22.4 Kidney Stones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHNHHE.DEBR.17.22.5 – Explain how dialysis removes fluids and wastes from the blood and compare the different types of dialysis procedures
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

60. One potential complication of hemodialysis is _____.​

  a. ​blood clots
  b. ​insomnia
  c. ​edema
  d. ​hemochromatosis
  e. ​hypertension

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   22.5 Nutrition in Practice: Dialysis
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.5 – Explain how dialysis removes fluids and wastes from the blood and compare the different types of dialysis procedures.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

61. What describes an advantage of peritoneal dialysis over hemodialysis?​

  a. ​It is less likely to cause blood clots.
  b. ​Its dialyzer is typically more effective.
  c. ​It is less likely to cause infection.
  d. ​It requires fewer dietary restrictions.
  e. ​It can be used for longer periods.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   22.5 Nutrition in Practice: Dialysis
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.5 – Explain how dialysis removes fluids and wastes from the blood and compare the different types of dialysis procedures.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

Nursing Exam Review Multiple Choice

 

62. A client is admitted to the emergency room and is found to have proteinuria, a low serum albumin, edema, and elevated blood lipids. The nurse recognizes these symptoms as those associated with _____.​

  a. ​rejection of a kidney transplant
  b. ​acute kidney injury
  c. ​nephrotic syndrome
  d. ​kidney stones
  e. ​renal colic

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   22.1 Nephrotic Syndrome
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.1 – Identify the potential causes and consequences of nephrotic syndrome and describe the medical and nutrition therapies used in treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

63. A patient’s lab results reveal hypoalbuminemia. The nurse realizes that this is likely to cause _____ in the patient.​

  a. ​edema
  b. ​infection
  c. ​rickets
  d. ​altered blood lipids
  e. ​hypertension

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   22.1 Nephrotic Syndrome
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.1 – Identify the potential causes and consequences of nephrotic syndrome and describe the medical and nutrition therapies used in treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

64. A patient presents with elevated BUN, creatinine, and blood pressure. He complains of fatigue, confusion, easy bruising, and pruritus. The nurse recognizes these as symptoms of _____.​

  a. ​cystinuria
  b. ​diuresis
  c. ​renal osteodystrophy
  d. ​gout
  e. ​uremia

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   22.2 Acute Kidney Injury
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.2 – Discuss the potential causes and effects of acute kidney injury and describe the approaches to treatment for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

65. A 52-year-old male patient recently required surgery for the removal of a large calcium oxalate stone. To prevent further stone formation, the nurse instructs him to consume plenty of fluids, but advises against drinking _____.​

  a. ​apple juice
  b. ​coffee
  c. ​tea
  d. ​draft beer
  e. ​orange juice

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   22.4 Kidney Stones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHNHHE.DEBR.17.22.5 – Explain how dialysis removes fluids and wastes from the blood and compare the different types of dialysis procedures
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

66. The nurse in the dialysis unit understands that patients may experience various complications during hemodialysis. What describes a common complication during hemodialysis?​

  a. ​Profuse sweating
  b. ​Hypertension
  c. ​Leg cramps
  d. ​Severe pain
  e. ​Confusion

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   22.5 Nutrition in Practice: Dialysis
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.5 – Explain how dialysis removes fluids and wastes from the blood and compare the different types of dialysis procedures.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

67. The nurse understands that patients on peritoneal dialysis may most likely experience what side effect?​

  a. ​Weight loss
  b. ​Hypoglycemia
  c. ​Lactose intolerance
  d. ​Hypertriglyceridemia
  e. ​Uremia

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   22.5 Nutrition in Practice: Dialysis
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.5 – Explain how dialysis removes fluids and wastes from the blood and compare the different types of dialysis procedures.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

Matching

 

Matching​

a. ​the rate at which filtrate is formed within the kidneys
b. a steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that promotes sodium retention and potassium excretion​
c. ​the substances that pass through the glomerulus and travel through the nephron’s tubules, eventually forming urine
d. ​the waste product of creatine, a nitrogen-containing compound in muscle cells that supplies energy for muscle contraction
e. ​a syndrome caused by significant urinary protein losses (more than 3 to 31⁄2 grams daily), as a result of severe glomerular damage
f. ​increased urine production
g. ​defined as a urine output that is less than about 50 to 75 mL/day
h. ​low plasma albumin concentrations
i. ​crystals of magnesium ammonium phosphate
j. ​an advanced stage of chronic kidney disease in which dialysis or a kidney transplant is necessary to sustain life
k. ​a cuplike component of the nephron that surrounds the glomerulus and collects the filtrate that is passed to the tubules
l. ​removal of fluids and solutes from the blood by using pressure to transfer the blood across a semipermeable membrane
m. ​a genetic disorder characterized by the elevated urinary excretion of several amino acids, including cystine
n. ​the rapid decline of kidney function over a period of hours or days
o. ​a machine used in hemodialysis to filter the blood
p. ​accumulation of nitrogenous and various other waste products in the blood
q. ​the infusion of nutrients during hemodialysis, often providing amino acids, dextrose, lipids, and some trace minerals
r. ​a high number of kcalories per unit weight of food

 

REFERENCES:   22.1 Nephrotic Syndrome
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.1 – Identify the potential causes and consequences of nephrotic syndrome and describe the medical and nutrition therapies used in treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

68. ​filtrate

ANSWER:   c

 

69. ​Bowman’s capsule

ANSWER:   k

 

70. creatinine​

ANSWER:   d

 

71. hypoalbuminuria​

ANSWER:   h

 

72. nephrotic syndrome​

ANSWER:   e

 

Matching​

a. ​the rate at which filtrate is formed within the kidneys
b. a steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that promotes sodium retention and potassium excretion​
c. ​the substances that pass through the glomerulus and travel through the nephron’s tubules, eventually forming urine
d. ​the waste product of creatine, a nitrogen-containing compound in muscle cells that supplies energy for muscle contraction
e. ​a syndrome caused by significant urinary protein losses (more than 3 to 31⁄2 grams daily), as a result of severe glomerular damage
f. ​increased urine production
g. ​defined as a urine output that is less than about 50 to 75 mL/day
h. ​low plasma albumin concentrations
i. ​crystals of magnesium ammonium phosphate
j. ​an advanced stage of chronic kidney disease in which dialysis or a kidney transplant is necessary to sustain life
k. ​a cuplike component of the nephron that surrounds the glomerulus and collects the filtrate that is passed to the tubules
l. ​removal of fluids and solutes from the blood by using pressure to transfer the blood across a semipermeable membrane
m. ​a genetic disorder characterized by the elevated urinary excretion of several amino acids, including cystine
n. ​the rapid decline of kidney function over a period of hours or days
o. ​a machine used in hemodialysis to filter the blood
p. ​accumulation of nitrogenous and various other waste products in the blood
q. ​the infusion of nutrients during hemodialysis, often providing amino acids, dextrose, lipids, and some trace minerals
r. ​a high number of kcalories per unit weight of food

 

REFERENCES:   22.2 Acute Kidney Injury
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.2 – Discuss the potential causes and effects of acute kidney injury and describe the approaches to treatment for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

73. acute kidney injury

ANSWER:   n

 

74. anuria

ANSWER:   g

 

75. uremia

ANSWER:   p

 

76. diuresis

ANSWER:   f

 

Matching​

a. ​the rate at which filtrate is formed within the kidneys
b. a steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that promotes sodium retention and potassium excretion​
c. ​the substances that pass through the glomerulus and travel through the nephron’s tubules, eventually forming urine
d. ​the waste product of creatine, a nitrogen-containing compound in muscle cells that supplies energy for muscle contraction
e. ​a syndrome caused by significant urinary protein losses (more than 3 to 31⁄2 grams daily), as a result of severe glomerular damage
f. ​increased urine production
g. ​defined as a urine output that is less than about 50 to 75 mL/day
h. ​low plasma albumin concentrations
i. ​crystals of magnesium ammonium phosphate
j. ​an advanced stage of chronic kidney disease in which dialysis or a kidney transplant is necessary to sustain life
k. ​a cuplike component of the nephron that surrounds the glomerulus and collects the filtrate that is passed to the tubules
l. ​removal of fluids and solutes from the blood by using pressure to transfer the blood across a semipermeable membrane
m. ​a genetic disorder characterized by the elevated urinary excretion of several amino acids, including cystine
n. ​the rapid decline of kidney function over a period of hours or days
o. ​a machine used in hemodialysis to filter the blood
p. ​accumulation of nitrogenous and various other waste products in the blood
q. ​the infusion of nutrients during hemodialysis, often providing amino acids, dextrose, lipids, and some trace minerals
r. ​a high number of kcalories per unit weight of food

 

REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

77. glomerular filtration rate

ANSWER:   a

 

78. end-stage renal disease

ANSWER:   j

 

79. aldosterone

ANSWER:   b

 

80. dialyzer

ANSWER:   o

 

81. ​high energy density

ANSWER:   r

 

82. ​intradialytic parenteral nutrition

ANSWER:   q

 

Matching​

a. ​the rate at which filtrate is formed within the kidneys
b. a steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that promotes sodium retention and potassium excretion​
c. ​the substances that pass through the glomerulus and travel through the nephron’s tubules, eventually forming urine
d. ​the waste product of creatine, a nitrogen-containing compound in muscle cells that supplies energy for muscle contraction
e. ​a syndrome caused by significant urinary protein losses (more than 3 to 31⁄2 grams daily), as a result of severe glomerular damage
f. ​increased urine production
g. ​defined as a urine output that is less than about 50 to 75 mL/day
h. ​low plasma albumin concentrations
i. ​crystals of magnesium ammonium phosphate
j. ​an advanced stage of chronic kidney disease in which dialysis or a kidney transplant is necessary to sustain life
k. ​a cuplike component of the nephron that surrounds the glomerulus and collects the filtrate that is passed to the tubules
l. ​removal of fluids and solutes from the blood by using pressure to transfer the blood across a semipermeable membrane
m. ​a genetic disorder characterized by the elevated urinary excretion of several amino acids, including cystine
n. ​the rapid decline of kidney function over a period of hours or days
o. ​a machine used in hemodialysis to filter the blood
p. ​accumulation of nitrogenous and various other waste products in the blood
q. ​the infusion of nutrients during hemodialysis, often providing amino acids, dextrose, lipids, and some trace minerals
r. ​a high number of kcalories per unit weight of food

 

REFERENCES:   22.4 Kidney Stones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.4 – Compare the different types of kidney stones and explain how kidney stones can be prevented or treated
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

83. struvite

ANSWER:   i

 

84. ystinuria

ANSWER:   m

 

Matching​

a. ​the rate at which filtrate is formed within the kidneys
b. a steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that promotes sodium retention and potassium excretion​
c. ​the substances that pass through the glomerulus and travel through the nephron’s tubules, eventually forming urine
d. ​the waste product of creatine, a nitrogen-containing compound in muscle cells that supplies energy for muscle contraction
e. ​a syndrome caused by significant urinary protein losses (more than 3 to 31⁄2 grams daily), as a result of severe glomerular damage
f. ​increased urine production
g. ​defined as a urine output that is less than about 50 to 75 mL/day
h. ​low plasma albumin concentrations
i. ​crystals of magnesium ammonium phosphate
j. ​an advanced stage of chronic kidney disease in which dialysis or a kidney transplant is necessary to sustain life
k. ​a cuplike component of the nephron that surrounds the glomerulus and collects the filtrate that is passed to the tubules
l. ​removal of fluids and solutes from the blood by using pressure to transfer the blood across a semipermeable membrane
m. ​a genetic disorder characterized by the elevated urinary excretion of several amino acids, including cystine
n. ​the rapid decline of kidney function over a period of hours or days
o. ​a machine used in hemodialysis to filter the blood
p. ​accumulation of nitrogenous and various other waste products in the blood
q. ​the infusion of nutrients during hemodialysis, often providing amino acids, dextrose, lipids, and some trace minerals
r. ​a high number of kcalories per unit weight of food

 

REFERENCES:   22.5 Nutrition in Practice: Dialysis
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHNHHE.DEBR.17.22.5 – Explain how dialysis removes fluids and wastes from the blood and compare the different types of dialysis procedures
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

85. ultrafiltration

ANSWER:   l

 

Essay

 

86. Describe the potential consequences that can develop with nephrotic syndrome.​

ANSWER:   Patients with nephrotic syndrome may suffer from a number of complications. Albumin is the most abundant plasma protein, and it is the protein with the most significant urinary losses as well. The hypoalbuminemia characteristic of the nephrotic syndrome contributes to a fluid shift from blood plasma to the interstitial spaces and, thus, edema. Individuals with nephrotic syndrome frequently have elevated LDLs, VLDLs, and the more atherogenic LDL variant known as lipoprotein(a). Furthermore, blood-clotting risk is increased due to urinary losses of proteins that inhibit blood clotting and elevated levels of plasma proteins that favor clotting. The blood clotting abnormalities increase the risk of deep vein thrombosis and similar disorders. The nephrotic syndrome is associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and a sharply increased risk of heart disease and stroke. The proteins lost in urine include immunoglobulins and vitamin D-binding protein. Depletion of immunoglobulins increases susceptibility to infection. Loss of vitamin D-binding protein results in lower vitamin D and calcium levels and increases the risk of rickets in children. If proteinuria continues, PEM and muscle wasting may develop.​
REFERENCES:   22.1 Nephrotic Syndrome
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.1 – Identify the potential causes and consequences of nephrotic syndrome and describe the medical and nutrition therapies used in treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

87. ​Explain the differences between prerenal, intrarenal, and postrenal factors in the development of acute kidney disease.

ANSWER:   Many disorders can lead to acute kidney injury, and it often develops as a consequence of critical illness, sepsis, or major surgery. To aid in diagnosis and treatment, its causes are classified as prerenal, intrarenal, or postrenal. Prerenal factors are conditions that cause a severe reduction in blood flow to the kidneys, such as heart failure, shock, or substantial blood loss. Factors that damage kidney tissue, such as infections, toxicants, drugs, or direct trauma, are classified as intrarenal causes of acute kidney injury. Postrenal factors are those that prevent urine excretion due to urinary tract obstructions.​
REFERENCES:   22.2 Acute Kidney Injury
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.2 – Discuss the potential causes and effects of acute kidney injury and describe the approaches to treatment for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

88. Explain energy needs when providing nutrition care of clients with chronic kidney disease.​

ANSWER:   Because malnutrition is a common complication of chronic kidney disease, patients are advised to consume enough energy to maintain a healthy body weight. Individuals at risk of PEM and wasting should consume foods with high energy density; some malnourished patients may require oral supplements or tube feedings to maintain an appropriate weight. Wasting is more prevalent during maintenance dialysis than in earlier stages of illness. Note that obesity has been associated with disease progression, and therefore obese patients may benefit from weight loss. The dialysate used in peritoneal dialysis contains glucose in order to draw fluid from the blood to the peritoneal cavity by osmosis; about 40 to 60 percent of this glucose is absorbed. The kcalories from glucose (as many as 800 kcalories daily) must be included in estimates of energy intake. Weight gain is sometimes a problem when peritoneal dialysis continues for a long period.​
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

89. Describe special dietary considerations for a patient who has had a kidney transplant.

ANSWER:   After patients recover from transplant surgery, most nutrients can be consumed at levels recommended for the general population. Patients should attempt to maintain a healthy body weight and consume a diet that reduces their risk for cardiovascular diseases. For most transplant patients, the side effects of drugs are the primary reason that dietary adjustments may be required. Although sodium, potassium, phosphorus, and fluid intakes are usually liberalized following a transplant, serum electrolyte levels must be monitored because some drug therapies can cause electrolyte imbalances or fluid retention. If corticosteroids are used as immunosuppressants, calcium supplementation is recommended because the medication increases urinary calcium losses. If drug treatment leads to hyperglycemia, patients should limit intakes of refined carbohydrates and concentrated sweets; for some individuals, oral medications or insulin therapy may be necessary. Patients should continue to follow food safety guidelines to avoid foodborne illness.​
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

90. Describe the appropriate dietary treatment for different types of kidney stones, including calcium oxalate, uric acid, and cystine stones.​

ANSWER:   The most common abnormality in people with calcium oxalate stones is hypercalciuria, which can result from excessive calcium absorption, impaired calcium reabsorption in kidney tubules, or elevated serum levels of parathyroid hormone or vitamin D. Elevated urinary oxalate levels, or hyperoxaluria, also promote the formation of calcium oxalate crystals. Fat malabsorption can increase oxalate absorption: the malabsorbed fatty acids bind to minerals that would otherwise bind to oxalates and inhibit their absorption. Uric acid stones develop when the urine is abnormally acidic, contains excessive uric acid, or both. These stones are frequently associated with gout. A diet rich in purines also contributes to high uric acid levels; purines are abundant in animal proteins and degrade to uric acid in the body. Cystine stones can form in people with the inherited disorder cystinuria, in which the renal tubules are unable to reabsorb the amino acid cystine. High fluid intakes may prevent the formation of cystine stones.​
REFERENCES:   22.4 Kidney Stones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.4 – Compare the different types of kidney stones and explain how kidney stones can be prevented or treated
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

 

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