Nutrition for Health and Healthcare 6th Edition By DeBruyne Pinna – Test Bank

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Nutrition for Health and Healthcare 6th Edition By DeBruyne Pinna – Test Bank

c2 Digestion_and_Absorption

 

 

True / False

 

1. ​Segmentation begins when a bolus enters the esophagus.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   2.1 Anatomy of the Digestive System
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.1 – Describe the path that food takes during digestion and the muscular actions of digestion.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

2. Bacteria in the colon protect people from some infections.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

3. The idea of “food-combining diets,” or avoiding certain combinations of food, is valid- the digestive system cannot handle more than one task at a time.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   2.3 The Absorptive System
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.3 – Describe the anatomical details of the GI tract and the features and activities of intestinal cells that facilitate nutrient absorption.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

4. Low-density lipoproteins, or LDL, are often referred to as “good” cholesterol.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   2.4 Transport of Nutrients
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.4 – Explain the process of nutrient delivery from the GI tract to body cells by the vascular system and the three types of lipoproteins.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

5. ​Hands should be washed with soap and water often during food preparation in order to reduce the risk of foodborne illness.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   2.5 Nutrition in Practice: Food Safety
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.5 – Explain the causes and effects of foodborne illnesses in humans and the methods of ensuring food safety.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

Multiple Choice

 

6. ​Another name for the digestive tract is the:

  a. ​urinary tract.
  b. exocrine system.
  c. gastrointestinal tract.​
  d. ​muscular system.
  e. gastroesophageal system.​

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   2.1 Anatomy of the Digestive Tract
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.1 – Describe the path that food takes during digestion and the muscular actions of digestion.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

7. Identify the correct order of the digestive tract from beginning to end.

  a. stomach, mouth, large intestine
  b. pharynx, rectum, stomach
  c. lower esophageal sphincter, esophagus, rectum
  d. mouth, stomach, anus
  e. pharynx, large intestine, pyloric sphincter

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   2.1 Anatomy of the Digestive Tract
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.1 – Describe the path that food takes during digestion and the muscular actions of digestion.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

8. A bolus is a(n):

  a. sphincter muscle separating the stomach from the small intestine.
  b. portion of food swallowed at one time.
  c. enzyme that hydrolyzes starch.
  d. portion of partially digested food expelled by the stomach into the duodenum.
  e. blockage that closes off the trachea to prevent choking.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   2.1 Anatomy of the Digestive Tract
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.1 – Describe the path that food takes during digestion and the muscular actions of digestion.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

9. Which of the following is formed in the mouth?

  a. bile
  b. stomach acid
  c. chyme
  d. villus
  e. bolus

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   2.1 Anatomy of the Digestive Tract
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.1 – Describe the path that food takes during digestion and the muscular actions of digestion.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

10. During swallowing of food, which of the following prevents food from entering the lungs?

  a. lower esophageal sphincter
  b. pharynx
  c. ileocecal valve
  d. epiglottis
  e. appendix

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   2.1 Anatomy of the Digestive Tract
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.1 – Describe the path that food takes during digestion and the muscular actions of digestion.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

11. The stomach empties into the:

  a. ileum.
  b. cecum.
  c. jejunum.
  d. duodenum.
  e. colon.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   2.1 Anatomy of the Digestive Tract
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.1 – Describe the path that food takes during digestion and the muscular actions of digestion.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

12. Chyme is:

  a. a semiliquid mass of partially digested food.
  b. a portion of food swallowed at one time.
  c. an enzyme in the stomach needed for the digestion of protein.
  d. an esophageal secretion.
  e. successive waves of involuntary muscular contractions passing along the wall of the GI tract.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   2.1 Anatomy of the Digestive Tract
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.1 – Describe the path that food takes during digestion and the muscular actions of digestion.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

13. Which two organs secrete digestive juices into the small intestine?

  a. gallbladder and pancreas
  b. pancreas and liver
  c. gallbladder and liver
  d. duodenum and pancreas
  e. liver and stomach

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   2.1 Anatomy of the Digestive Tract
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.1 – Describe the path that food takes during digestion and the muscular actions of digestion.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

14. The movement of chyme from the stomach into the small intestine is regulated by the:

  a. pancreas.
  b. lower esophageal sphincter.
  c. ileocecal valve.
  d. duodenum.
  e. pyloric sphincter.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   2.1 Anatomy of the Digestive Tract
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.1 – Describe the path that food takes during digestion and the muscular actions of digestion.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

15. Immediately before passing into the large intestine, the food mass must pass though the:

  a. pyloric sphincter.
  b. lower esophageal sphincter.
  c. ileocecal valve.
  d. bolus.
  e. colon.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   2.1 Anatomy of the Digestive Tract
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.1 – Describe the path that food takes during digestion and the muscular actions of digestion.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

16. Peristalsis is a term that refers to the:

  a. circulation of blood in the blood vessels.
  b. absorption of nutrients in the intestines.
  c. mixing and moving of food through the lymphatic system.
  d. last phase of digestion.
  e. action of the involuntary muscles of the digestive tract.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   2.1 Anatomy of the Digestive Tract
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.1 – Describe the path that food takes during digestion and the muscular actions of digestion.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

17. Involuntary muscle contractions move food through the intestinal tract. The movement that forces the contents back a few inches before pushing it forward again is called:

  a. segmentation.
  b. rotation.
  c. peristalsis.
  d. liquefaction.
  e. kneading.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   2.1 Anatomy of the Digestive Tract
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.1 – Describe the path that food takes during digestion and the muscular actions of digestion.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

18. ​Enzymes:

  a. ​facilitate chemical reactions.
  b. ​draw water into the small intestine.
  c. ​are present in all parts of the GI tract.
  d. ​encourage bacterial growth.
  e. ​are changed during digestion.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

19. Which enzyme breaks down starch in the mouth?

  a. lingual protease
  b. lipase
  c. salivary amylase
  d. gastric protease
  e. secretin

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

20. Saliva contains an enzyme that digests:

  a. proteins.
  b. minerals.
  c. starches.
  d. vitamins.
  e. fiber.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

21. What is gastric juice composed of?

  a. water, enzymes, and hydrochloric acid
  b. enzymes, water, and pancreatic acid
  c. chylomicrons, water, and bile
  d. hydrochloric acid, bile, and enzymes
  e. hydrochloric acid, insulin, and bile

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

22. The normal pH of the stomach is:

  a. very acidic.
  b. slightly acidic.
  c. neutral.
  d. slightly alkaline.
  e. strongly alkaline.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

23. Which organ does not contribute juices during digestion?

  a. salivary glands
  b. small intestine
  c. pancreas
  d. esophagus
  e. stomach

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

24. Mucus in the stomach serves to:

  a. neutralize stomach acid.
  b. activate pepsinogen to pepsin.
  c. coat and protect stomach cells from gastric juices.
  d. emulsify fats.
  e. collect bacteria.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

25. The major digestive work in the stomach is the initial breakdown of:

  a. starch.
  b. proteins.
  c. fat.
  d. vitamins.
  e. mucus.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

26. In addition to hydrochloric acid, the stomach cells also secrete:

  a. mucus.
  b. bile.
  c. amylase.
  d. lipoproteins.
  e. cholesterol.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

27. Which nutrients are digested in the small intestine?

  a. carbohydrate, fat, and protein
  b. fat, water, and fiber
  c. protein, vitamins, and fiber
  d. water, fiber, and minerals
  e. carbohydrate, fat, and water

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

28. Where does the digestion of proteins begin and end?

  a. begins in stomach; ends in pancreas
  b. begins in pancreas; ends in small intestine
  c. begins in stomach; ends in small intestine
  d. begins in small intestine; ends in liver
  e. begins in small intestine; ends in stomach

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

29. The major digestive enzyme secreted by the stomach is:

  a. amylase.
  b. lipase.
  c. bile.
  d. disaccharidase.
  e. pepsin

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

30. A patient has lost the ability to digest the majority of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats due to a loss of enzymes. Which organ is most likely failing her?

  a. pancreas
  b. gallbladder
  c. stomach
  d. liver
  e. intestine

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

31. After the pancreatic juices have mixed with chyme in the intestine, the resulting mixture is:

  a. very acidic.
  b. slightly acidic.
  c. strongly alkaline.
  d. slightly alkaline.
  e. none of the above.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

32. The liver:

  a. reabsorbs water and salts.
  b. secretes bile.
  c. churns food to chyme.
  d. performs enzymatic digestion.
  e. stores bile.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

33. The main function of bile is to:

  a. stimulate vitamin-producing bacteria.
  b. stimulate the activity of protein digestive enzymes.
  c. neutralize the intestinal contents.
  d. decrease the acidity of the contents of the stomach.
  e. emulsify fats.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

34. Gallbladder disease, such as cancer, can compromise the digestion of:

  a. fat
  b. protein
  c. carbohydrate
  d. fiber
  e. minerals

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

35. The gallbladder:

  a. reabsorbs water and salts.
  b. churns food to chyme.
  c. performs enzymatic digestion.
  d. stores bile.
  e. contains bacteria that produce Vitamin K.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

36. The emulsification of fat requires:

  a. biotin.
  b. enzymes.
  c. prostaglandins.
  d. intestinal flora.
  e. bile.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

37. Which of the following contains no digestive enzymes?

  a. saliva
  b. gastric juice
  c. intestinal juice
  d. bile
  e. pancreatic juice

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

38. Which of the following does not secrete digestive juices?

  a. stomach
  b. pancreas
  c. salivary glands
  d. liver (via the gall bladder)
  e. large intestine

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

39. Which of the following nutrients takes longest to digest?

  a. fat
  b. sugar
  c. vitamin C
  d. fruit sugar
  e. glucose

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

40. Fats present in the GI tract:

  a. slow down the process of digestion and absorption.
  b. cause difficulty in digestion.
  c. stimulate and hasten digestion and absorption.
  d. are carriers of thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin.
  e. cause GI inflammation.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

41. Which of the following foods would take the most time to digest?

  a. a piece of toast with strawberry jam
  b. a grilled steak
  c. a green salad with low-fat salad dressing
  d. a cup of green beans
  e. a piece of cake with frosting

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

42. Which of these foods would be digested most quickly?

  a. sugar cookies
  b. peanut butter sandwich and milk
  c. stew and cornbread
  d. hamburger, French fries, and milkshake
  e. steak and baked potato

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

43. Which of the following foods would be digested most rapidly?

  a. a scoop of lemon sherbet
  b. an apple
  c. a baked potato with sour cream
  d. a piece of cheese on a cracker
  e. a hamburger

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

44. Which nutrients must be broken down in order to be absorbed?

  a. vitamins, minerals, and water
  b. carbohydrate, vitamins, and minerals
  c. fat, protein, and minerals
  d. carbohydrate, protein, and fat
  e. carbohydrate, fat, water

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

45. Bacteria in the GI tract perform all of the following functions except:

  a. producing biotin.
  b. protecting people from infection.
  c. producing vitamin K.
  d. breaking down fiber.
  e. producing bile.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

46. Fiber functions to:

  a. aid in the absorption of vitamins.
  b. produce GI bacteria.
  c. stimulate the GI tract muscles.
  d. stimulate the absorption of nutrients.
  e. increase water absorption by the digestive tract.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

47. A benefit of fiber is that it:

  a. promotes mineral absorption.
  b. aids in keeping stools soft.
  c. prevents diarrhea.
  d. keeps individual foods from getting mixed together.
  e. promotes fat absorption.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

48. Once the digestive process is complete, the colon retrieves materials that the body must recycle. These materials are:

  a. water and dissolved salts.
  b. iron and water.
  c. protein and sodium.
  d. water and fiber.
  e. fat and fiber.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

49. One of the functions of the colon is to absorb:

  a. salts.
  b. vitamins.
  c. sugars.
  d. fiber.
  e. fats.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

50. ​The primary site of nutrient absorption is the:

  a. stomach.​
  b. ​pancreas.
  c. ​small intestine.
  d. ​large intestine.
  e. ​mouth.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   2.3 The Absorptive System
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.3 – Describe the anatomical details of the GI tract and the features and activities of intestinal cells that facilitate nutrient absorption.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

51.  Villi are part of the structure of the​

  a. ​esophagus.
  b. ​stomach.
  c. ​colon.
  d. ​large intestine.
  e. ​small intestine.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   2.3 The Absorptive System
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.3 – Describe the anatomical details of the GI tract and the features and activities of intestinal cells that facilitate nutrient absorption.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

52. The microscopic hairs that cover the surface of each cell lining the small intestine are called:​

  a. ​intestinal folds.
  b. ​villi.
  c. ​microvilli.
  d. ​lymphatics.
  e. ​chylomicrons.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   2.3 The Absorptive System
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.3 – Describe the anatomical details of the GI tract and the features and activities of intestinal cells that facilitate nutrient absorption.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

53.  Which of the following nutrients is/are absorbed into the lymphatic system?​

  a. ​fat-soluble vitamins
  b. ​water
  c. ​amino acids
  d. ​glucose
  e. ​minerals

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   2.3 The Absorptive System
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.3 – Describe the anatomical details of the GI tract and the features and activities of intestinal cells that facilitate nutrient absorption.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

54. After absorption, the water-soluble nutrients are released directly into the:​

  a. ​bloodstream.
  b. ​kidneys.
  c. ​liver.
  d. ​lymph.
  e. ​villi.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   2.3 The Absorptive System
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.3 – Describe the anatomical details of the GI tract and the features and activities of intestinal cells that facilitate nutrient absorption.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

55. ​After absorption, the larger fats and fat-soluble vitamins are first released into which transport system?

  a. ​excretory
  b. ​mesentery
  c. ​vascular
  d. ​lymphatic
  e. ​cardiovascular

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   2.3 The Absorptive System
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.3 – Describe the anatomical details of the GI tract and the features and activities of intestinal cells that facilitate nutrient absorption.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

56. After digestion, lipids are packaged for transport as lipoproteins known as:​

  a. ​HDL.
  b. ​VLDL.
  c. ​LDL.
  d. ​chylomicrons.
  e. ​triglycerides.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   2.3 The Absorptive System
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.3 – Describe the anatomical details of the GI tract and the features and activities of intestinal cells that facilitate nutrient absorption.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

57. Chylomicrons are composed of:​

  a. ​phospholipid, cholesterol, and lymph
  b. ​proteins, triglyceride, and water-soluble vitamins
  c. ​triglyceride, phospholipid, and proteins
  d. ​water-soluble vitamins, phospholipid, and cholesterol
  e. ​fat-soluble vitamins, water-soluble vitamins, and proteins

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   2.3 The Absorptive System
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.3 – Describe the anatomical details of the GI tract and the features and activities of intestinal cells that facilitate nutrient absorption.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

58. The lymphatic system:​

  a. ​contains fluid with the same composition as blood.
  b. ​eventually drains into the blood circulatory system.
  c. ​carries chylomicrons to the intestines.
  d. ​is where metabolism of nutrients takes place.
  e. ​conveys the products of digestion toward the brain.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   2.4 Transport of Nutrients
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.4 – Explain the process of nutrient delivery from the GI tract to body cells by the vascular system and the three types of lipoproteins.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

59. When nutrients enter the blood vessels from the small intestine, they are first transported to the:​

  a. ​kidney.
  b. ​liver.
  c. ​cells throughout the body.
  d. ​thoracic duct.
  e. ​gallbladder.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   2.4 Transport of Nutrients
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.4 – Explain the process of nutrient delivery from the GI tract to body cells by the vascular system and the three types of lipoproteins.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

60. ​Which of the following is the body’s major metabolic organ?

  a. ​pancreas
  b. ​small intestine
  c. ​gallbladder
  d. ​heart
  e. ​liver

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   2.4 Transport of Nutrients
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.4 – Explain the process of nutrient delivery from the GI tract to body cells by the vascular system and the three types of lipoproteins.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

61. ​Elevated LDL concentrations are associated with a high risk of heart disease because they:

  a. ​transport cholesterol and triglycerides from the liver to the tissues.
  b. ​carry excessive amounts of fat that is deposited around the heart.
  c. ​encourage high levels of iron in the blood.
  d. ​take excess cholesterol back to the liver, which increases the production of cholesterol.
  e. ​are a different, less complex, type of cholesterol.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   2.4 Transport of Nutrients
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.4 – Explain the process of nutrient delivery from the GI tract to body cells by the vascular system and the three types of lipoproteins.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

62. ​Elevated HDL concentrations are associated with a low risk of heart disease because they:

  a. ​transport newly absorbed lipids from intestinal cells to the rest of the body.
  b. ​carry cholesterol and triglycerides from the liver to the rest of the body.
  c. ​carry lipids around in the blood more often than LDL.
  d. ​scavenge excess cholesterol and phospholipids from the tissues and return them to the liver.
  e. ​are a more complex type of cholesterol.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   2.4 Transport of Nutrients
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.4 – Explain the process of nutrient delivery from the GI tract to body cells by the vascular system and the three types of lipoproteins.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

63. ​Chylomicrons contain the greatest proportion of:

  a. ​protein.
  b. ​cholesterol.
  c. ​phospholipid.
  d. ​water.
  e. ​ triglyceride.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   2.4 Transport of Nutrients
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.4 – Explain the process of nutrient delivery from the GI tract to body cells by the vascular system and the three types of lipoproteins.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

64. Health and performance of the digestive system can be positively affected by:​

  a. ​adequate sleep
  b. ​enzyme supplements
  c. ​colon cleansing treatments
  d. ​a high-fat diet
  e. ​foodborne illness

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   2.4 Transport of Nutrients
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.4 – Explain the process of nutrient delivery from the GI tract to body cells by the vascular system and the three types of lipoproteins.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

65. Which of the following will cause a foodborne intoxication?​

  a. Listeria
  b. Clostridium perfringens
  c. Campylobacter jejuni
  d. Staphylococcus aureus
  e. ​Norovirus

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   2.5 Nutrition in Practice : Food Safety
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.5 – Explain the causes and effects of foodborne illnesses in humans and the methods of ensuring food safety.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

66. To prevent bacterial growth when holding cooked foods, they should be kept at what temperature until served?​

  a. ​40 or under
  b. ​140 or over
  c. ​165
  d. ​above 200

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   2.5 Nutrition in Practice : Food Safety
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.5 – Explain the causes and effects of foodborne illnesses in humans and the methods of ensuring food safety.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

67. ​What is a good recommendation to prevent foodborne illnesses?

  a. ​Fresh produce should be washed before it is eaten.
  b. ​Only new sponges and towels should be used in the kitchen.
  c. ​Leftovers can safely be covered and left at room temperature until the next meal.
  d. ​Meats should be marinated at room temperature.
  e. ​All meat should be washed before cooking.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   2.5 Nutrition in Practice: Food Safety
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.5 – Explain the causes and effects of foodborne illnesses in humans and the methods of ensuring food safety.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

68. Cold food should be stored at:​

  a. ​40°F or colder
  b. ​55°F or colder
  c. ​80°F or colder
  d. ​140°F or colder
  e. ​40oF or warmer

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   2.5 Nutrition in Practice: Food Safety
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.5 – Explain the causes and effects of foodborne illnesses in humans and the methods of ensuring food safety.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

69. Leftovers should be used within how many days?​

  a. ​5-7
  b. ​3-4
  c. ​2-3
  d. ​1-2
  e. ​10-12

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   2.5 Nutrition in Practice: Food Safety
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.5 – Explain the causes and effects of foodborne illnesses in humans and the methods of ensuring food safety.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

Matching

 

Matching​

a. ​the oral cavity containing the tongue and teeth.
b. ​the passageway leading from the nose and mouth to the larynx and esophagus, respectively.
c. ​a cartilage structure in the throat that prevents fluid or food from entering the trachea when a person swallows.
d. ​the passageway from the mouth and nose to the lungs.
e. ​the conduit from the mouth to the stomach.
f. ​the sphincter muscle at the junction between the esophagus and the stomach.
g. ​the sphincter muscle separating the stomach from the small intestine.
h. ​the organ that stores and concentrates bile.
i. ​a gland that secretes enzymes and digestive juices into the duodenum.
j. a 10-foot length of small-diameter (1-inch) intestine that is the major site of digestion of food and absorption of nutrients.
k. ​the top portion of the small intestine.
l. ​the first two-fifths of the small intestine beyond the duodenum.
m. ​the last segment of the small intestine.
n. ​the sphincter muscle separating the small and large intestines.
o. ​the last portion of the intestine, which absorbs water.
p. ​a narrow blind sac extending from the beginning of the large intestine; stores lymphocytes.
q. ​the muscular terminal part of the GI tract extending from the sigmoid colon to the anus.
r. ​the terminal sphincter muscle of the GI tract.

 

REFERENCES:   2.1 Anatomy of the Digestive Tract
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.1 – Describe the path that food takes during digestion and the muscular actions of digestion.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

70. ​anal sphincter

ANSWER:   r

 

71.  appendix ​

ANSWER:   p

 

72. duodenum ​

ANSWER:   k

 

73. epiglottis ​

ANSWER:   c

 

74. esophagus ​

ANSWER:   e

 

75. gallbladder ​

ANSWER:   h

 

76. ileocecal valve ​

ANSWER:   n

 

77. ileum ​

ANSWER:   m

 

78. ​jejunum

ANSWER:   l

 

79. large intestine ​

ANSWER:   o

 

80. lower esophageal sphincter ​

ANSWER:   f

 

81. mouth ​

ANSWER:   a

 

82. pancreas ​

ANSWER:   i

 

83. pharynx ​

ANSWER:   b

 

84. pyloric sphincter ​

ANSWER:   g

 

85. rectum ​

ANSWER:   q

 

86. small intestine ​

ANSWER:   j

 

87. trachea ​

ANSWER:   d

 

Essay

 

88. ​Outline and trace the path food follows through the digestive tract from one end to the other.

ANSWER:   Mouth (chewing and moving food around with the tongue) àpharynx (shared by digestive and respiratory system) àesophagus àstomach (food becomes chyme) àsmall intestine (gallbladder and pancreas secrete fluids into small intestine) àlarge intestine (colon) àrectum​
REFERENCES:   2.1 Anatomy of the Digestive Tract
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.1 – Describe the path that food takes during digestion and the muscular actions of digestion.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

89. Describe the role of the stomach in the process of digestion.​

ANSWER:   The stomach is a muscular, elastic, saclike portion of the digestive tract that grinds and churns swallowed food, mixing it with acid and enzymes to form chyme. The major digestive event that occurs in the stomach is the initial breakdown of proteins. The highly acidic environment (hydrochloric acid) in the stomach serves to denature proteins so that enzymes, such as pepsin, can further break them down. While the majority of digestion in the stomach is protein, there is some fat digestion by gastric lipase, a small amount of sucrose digestion by stomach acid, and the attachment of a protein carrier to vitamin B12.​
REFERENCES:   2.3 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.3 – Describe the anatomical details of the GI tract and the features and activities of intestinal cells that facilitate nutrient absorption.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

90. Should antacids be taken to decrease the strong acidity of the stomach? Explain your answer.​

ANSWER:   The highly acidic environment of the stomach is required for proper protein breakdown. When protein enters the stomach, it has had no breakdown other than being crushed and mixed with saliva in the mouth. In the stomach, the acid helps to uncoil the proteins so that stomach enzymes can attack and break the bonds. Antacids reduce the acidity of the stomach, thereby preventing protein breakdown. Antacid use should be carefully considered, especially for those on a high-protein diet.​
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

91.  Explain what determines the rate of digestion of the energy nutrients.​

ANSWER:   The rate of digestion of carbohydrate, fat, and protein depends on the contents of the meal.  If the meal is high in simple sugars (bread, cookies, crackers), digestion proceeds fairly rapidly. A meal that is high in fat will slow digestion.​
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

92. Explain the benefits of intestinal microflora to health.​

ANSWER:   The intestines contain beneficial bacteria that produce vitamins, such as biotin and vitamin K, as well as protect the body from infectious organisms. As long as the normal intestinal flora are present, infectious bacteria have a difficult time establishing and attacking the digestive system.​
REFERENCES:   2.2 The Process of Digestion
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.2 – Describe the actions and origins of the digestive secretions.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

93. Describe the difference between low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL). What is the relationship between blood levels of these lipoproteins and risk of heart disease?​

ANSWER:   LDL are cholesterol-rich lipoproteins (the more lipids in the molecule, the lower the density) and HDL contain cholesterol that is returning to the liver for metabolism or excretion from other parts of the body. Both LDL and HDL carry lipids in the blood, but LDL are larger, lighter, and filled with more lipid; HDL are smaller, denser, and packaged with more protein. LDL deliver cholesterol and triglycerides from the liver to the tissues and contribute negatively to heart disease. HDL scavenge excess cholesterol from the tissues and dispose of it and can have a positive impact on heart health.
REFERENCES:   2.4 Transport of Nutrients
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.2.4 – Explain the process of nutrient delivery from the GI tract to body cells by the vascular system and the three types of lipoproteins.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

 

 

 

c22 Nutrition_and_Renal_Diseases

True / False

 

1. The kidneys secrete the hormone erythropoietin, which helps to regulate blood pressure.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   22.0 Introduction
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.1 – Identify the potential causes and consequences of nephrotic syndrome and describe the medical and nutrition therapies used in treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

2. The medical nutrition therapy for nephrotic syndrome helps to prevent protein-energy malnutrition and alleviate edema.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   22.1 Nephrotic Syndrome
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.1 – Identify the potential causes and consequences of nephrotic syndrome and describe the medical and nutrition therapies used in treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

3. The nephrotic syndrome is associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and a sharply increased risk of heart disease and stroke.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   22.1 Nephrotic Syndrome
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.1 – Identify the potential causes and consequences of nephrotic syndrome and describe the medical and nutrition therapies used in treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

4. Recovery from kidney injury may begin with a period of diuresis and a patient’s fluid status should be monitored closely.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   22.2 Acute Kidney Injury
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.2 – Discuss the potential causes and effects of acute kidney injury and describe the approaches to treatment for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

5. Prostate cancer is an intrarenal factor that can cause acute kidney injury.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   22.2 Acute Kidney Injury
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.2 – Discuss the potential causes and effects of acute kidney injury and describe the approaches to treatment for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

6. A glomerular filtration rate < 29 indicates kidney failure and the need for dialysis.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

7. Adults with chronic kidney disease frequently develop wasting and PEM.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

8. Individuals on peritoneal dialysis have lower protein needs than those on hemodialysis.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

9. Prior to the need for dialysis, most renal patients are unable to handle normal intakes of potassium.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

10. ​Supplementation of all fat-soluble vitamins is necessary in clients with chronic kidney disease.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

11. Although renal patients are often encouraged to consume high-fat foods to improve their energy intakes, the foods they select should provide mostly unsaturated fats.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

12. Given the choice, many patients with end-stage renal disease would prefer kidney transplants, but the demand for suitable kidneys far exceeds the supply.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

13. Solutes are less likely to crystallize and form kidney stones in concentrated urine.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   22.4 Kidney Stones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHNHHE.DEBR.17.22.5 – Explain how dialysis removes fluids and wastes from the blood and compare the different types of dialysis procedures
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

14. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is a procedure that involves surgically removing a kidney stone while the patient is under general anesthesia.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   22.4 Kidney Stones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHNHHE.DEBR.17.22.5 – Explain how dialysis removes fluids and wastes from the blood and compare the different types of dialysis procedures
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

15. Dialysis removes excess fluids and wastes from the blood by employing the principles of diffusion, osmosis, and ultrafiltration.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   22.5 Nutrition in Practice: Dialysis
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.5 – Explain how dialysis removes fluids and wastes from the blood and compare the different types of dialysis procedures.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

Multiple Choice

 

16. One primary function of the kidneys is to ____.​

  a. ​produce albumin
  b. ​aid in the digestion of fats
  c. ​maintain acid-base balance
  d. ​convert vitamin K to its active form
  e. ​produce enzymes that protect the body from viral infections

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   22.0 Introduction
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.1 – Identify the potential causes and consequences of nephrotic syndrome and describe the medical and nutrition therapies used in treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

17. ​The part of the kidney that acts like a sieve to filter wastes is the _____.

  a. ​nephron
  b. ​glomerulus
  c. ​tubule
  d. ​lobe
  e. ​loop of Henle

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   22.0 Introduction
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.1 – Identify the potential causes and consequences of nephrotic syndrome and describe the medical and nutrition therapies used in treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

18. Nephrotic syndrome develops as a result of _____.​

  a. ​damage to the glomeruli
  b. ​damage to the tubules
  c. ​excessive protein intake
  d. ​excessive fat intake
  e. ​increased sodium losses

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   22.1 Nephrotic Syndrome
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.1 – Identify the potential causes and consequences of nephrotic syndrome and describe the medical and nutrition therapies used in treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

19. Manifestations of the nephrotic syndrome include _____.​

  a. ​infection
  b. ​uremia
  c. ​low blood lipids
  d. ​dehydration
  e. ​poor peripheral pulses

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   22.1 Nephrotic Syndrome
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.1 – Identify the potential causes and consequences of nephrotic syndrome and describe the medical and nutrition therapies used in treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

20. One of the effects of nephrotic syndrome is a loss of vitamin D. This can result in _____ in children.​

  a. ​growth failure
  b. ​poor appetite
  c. ​rickets
  d. ​anemia
  e. ​scurvy

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   22.1 Nephrotic Syndrome
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.1 – Identify the potential causes and consequences of nephrotic syndrome and describe the medical and nutrition therapies used in treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

21. What dietary components are restricted in patients who have nephrotic syndrome?​

  a. ​Vitamins A and D
  b. ​Fluids and sodium
  c. ​Carbohydrate and fat
  d. ​Calcium and phosphorus
  e. ​Sodium and protein

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   22.1 Nephrotic Syndrome
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.1 – Identify the potential causes and consequences of nephrotic syndrome and describe the medical and nutrition therapies used in treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

22. ​What condition that leads to acute kidney injury is considered a prerenal factor?

  a. ​Urinary obstruction
  b. ​Drug exposure
  c. ​Heart failure
  d. ​Trauma
  e. ​Exposure to toxins

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   22.2 Acute Kidney Injury
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.2 – Discuss the potential causes and effects of acute kidney injury and describe the approaches to treatment for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

23. In patients with acute kidney injury, oliguria leads to _____.​

  a. ​sodium retention and elevated levels of potassium
  b. ​edema due to increased urine production
  c. ​an increase in blood potassium levels due to excessive excretion of parathyroid hormone
  d. ​production of at least 800 mL of urine per day
  e. ​hypophosphatemia and overgrowth of bone tissue

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   22.2 Acute Kidney Injury
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.2 – Discuss the potential causes and effects of acute kidney injury and describe the approaches to treatment for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

24. Laboratory findings associated with acute kidney injury include abnormal levels of serum electrolytes and _____.​

  a. ​elevated WBC count
  b. ​glycosuria
  c. ​elevated BUN
  d. ​positive bacterial culture
  e. ​elevated GFR

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   22.2 Acute Kidney Injury
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.2 – Discuss the potential causes and effects of acute kidney injury and describe the approaches to treatment for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

25. Furosemide (Lasix) is a drug used to _____.​

  a. ​mobilize fluids
  b. ​lower cholesterol
  c. ​prevent PEM
  d. ​activate vitamin D
  e. ​stimulate appetite

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   22.2 Acute Kidney Injury
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.2 – Discuss the potential causes and effects of acute kidney injury and describe the approaches to treatment for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

26. In oliguric patients, recovery from kidney injury sometimes begins with a period of _____, in which large amounts of fluid (up to 3 liters daily) are excreted.​

  a. ​hemodialysis
  b. ​proteinuria
  c. ​anuria
  d. ​diuresis
  e. ​peritoneal dialysis

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   22.2 Acute Kidney Injury
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.2 – Discuss the potential causes and effects of acute kidney injury and describe the approaches to treatment for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

27. Total parenteral nutrition may be necessary for a patient with acute kidney injury when _____.​

  a. ​the patient has severe dysphagia
  b. ​the patient cannot tolerate tube feedings
  c. ​the patient has urine output of less than 400 mL per day
  d. ​the patient has hyponatremia
  e. ​the patient will need dialysis

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   22.2 Acute Kidney Injury
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.2 – Discuss the potential causes and effects of acute kidney injury and describe the approaches to treatment for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

28. The most common cause of chronic kidney disease is _____​

  a. ​diabetes
  b. ​infection
  c. ​a genetic disorder
  d. ​inflammation
  e. ​peripheral vascular disease

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

29. A glomerular filtration rate <15 mL/min per 1.73 m2 indicates which stage of chronic kidney disease?​

  a. ​Stage 2: Mildly decreased
  b. ​Stage 3a: Mild to moderately decreased
  c. ​Stage 3b: Moderate to severely decreased
  d. ​Stage 4: Severely decreased
  e. ​Stage 5: Kidney failure

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

30. Kidney disease is classified according to _____.​

  a. ​glomerular filtration rate
  b. ​the ratio of albumin to creatinine in a urine sample
  c. ​BUN levels
  d. ​the degree of proteinuria
  e. ​the amount of urine output in a 24-hour period

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

31. ​Secondary complications of chronic kidney disease include _____.

  a. ​ type 1 diabetes
  b. ​dementia
  c. ​stroke
  d. ​hypotension
  e. ​bone disease

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

32. ​Which clinical effect is most commonly seen with uremic syndrome associated with chronic kidney disease?

  a. ​Hypokalemia
  b. ​Hearing loss
  c. ​Hypothyroidism
  d. ​Hypertension
  e. ​Mouth sores

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

33. During the later stages of chronic kidney disease, the recommended protein intake is _____ grams per kilogram of body weight per day.​

  a. ​0.2 to 0.4
  b. ​0.6 to 0.75
  c. ​0.8 to 1.0
  d. ​1.0 to 1.2
  e. ​1.2 to 1.55

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

34. If a client is on peritoneal dialysis, his diet should contain less _____ than other renal diets.​

  a. ​fat
  b. ​protein
  c. ​vitamin D
  d. ​carbohydrate
  e. ​potassium

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

35. Weight gain can become a problem when peritoneal dialysis continues for an extended period of time. This is likely due to _____.​

  a. ​the kcalories contributed by the dialysate
  b. ​a less restrictive diet
  c. ​food cravings experienced by the patient
  d. ​the body’s adaptation to dialysis
  e. ​fluid retention in the peritoneal cavity

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

36. A patient in the later stage of chronic kidney disease has been advised to increase his intake of potassium-rich foods. What food is an example of an item that is high in potassium?​

  a. ​Strawberries
  b. ​Cabbage
  c. ​Potatoes
  d. ​Watermelon
  e. ​Carrots

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

37. Supplemental _____ among patients with chronic kidney disease should be limited to 70 mg per day because excessive intakes can contribute to kidney stone formation in those at risk.​

  a. ​vitamin D
  b. ​phosphorus
  c. ​potassium
  d. ​vitamin C
  e. ​iron

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

38. ​Low-protein diets for patients with chronic kidney disease supply less _____ than high-protein diets.

  a. ​sodium
  b. ​phosphorous
  c. ​potassium
  d. ​vitamin B6
  e. ​magnesium

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

39. ​What food is a good source of phosphorus?

  a. ​Chicken
  b. ​Peanut butter
  c. ​Peas
  d. ​Broccoli
  e. ​Cantaloupe

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

40. Patients with kidney disease who take calcium and vitamin D supplements are at risk of _____ because of the use of phosphate binders.​

  a. ​hypophosphatemia
  b. ​vitamin K deficiency
  c. ​hyperphosphatemia
  d. ​hypercalcemia
  e. ​iron deficiency anemia

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

41. The most effective way to improve the iron status of patients undergoing dialysis is _____.​

  a. ​oral iron supplements
  b. ​IV iron administration
  c. ​IV iron administration in conjunction with erythropoietin therapy
  d. ​increasing intake of iron-rich foods
  e. ​intramuscular iron injections

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

42. The potassium content of vegetables can be reduced through which process?​

  a. ​Steaming
  b. ​Sautéing
  c. ​Leaching
  d. ​Boiling
  e. ​Spraying

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

43. Which immunosuppressant drug would most likely be administered to a patient following a kidney transplant?​

  a. ​Sevelamer
  b. ​Potassium citrate
  c. ​Calcium acetate
  d. ​Tacrolimus
  e. ​Sodium polystyrene sulfonate

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

44. Approximately _____ percent of patients with end-stage renal disease receive a kidney transplant.​

  a. ​5
  b. ​15
  c. ​24
  d. ​30
  e. ​42

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

45. Calcium oxalate stones are most often accompanied by what metabolic condition?​

  a. ​Hypercalciuria
  b. ​Hyperkalemia
  c. ​Hyperphosphatemia
  d. ​Hypercholesterolemia
  e. ​Hypernatremia

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   22.4 Kidney Stones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHNHHE.DEBR.17.22.5 – Explain how dialysis removes fluids and wastes from the blood and compare the different types of dialysis procedures
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

46. An example of a food that is high in oxalate is _____.​

  a. ​grapes
  b. ​milk
  c. ​carrots
  d. ​apples
  e. ​spinach

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   22.4 Kidney Stones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHNHHE.DEBR.17.22.5 – Explain how dialysis removes fluids and wastes from the blood and compare the different types of dialysis procedures
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

47. The best way to prevent the formation of kidney stones is to _____.​

  a. ​minimize calcium intake
  b. ​eat less meat
  c. ​eat fewer oxalate-containing vegetables
  d. ​drink 12 to 16 cups of fluids per day
  e. ​add iron supplements to the diet

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   22.4 Kidney Stones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHNHHE.DEBR.17.22.5 – Explain how dialysis removes fluids and wastes from the blood and compare the different types of dialysis procedures
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

Dennis Wilson is a 57-year-old chemical engineer who has had type 1 diabetes since he was 12 years old. He spent 34 years working in oil refineries, and he is a smoker. He is 5’11” tall and weighs 160 pounds. Over the past several years, he has experienced a gradual decline in kidney function. His GFR has declined to 27 mL/min per 1.73 m2.

 

48. ​The primary goal(s) of medical nutrition therapy for Mr. Wilson at this time should be to _____.

  a. ​lower his blood cholesterol levels
  b. ​prevent PEM and weight loss
  c. ​treat him for iron-deficiency anemia
  d. ​prevent osteoporosis
  e. ​eliminate excess potassium from his diet

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

49. Mr. Wilson’s estimated energy needs are _____.​

  a. ​1818 kcal per day
  b. ​2182 kcal per day
  c. ​2545 kcal per day
  d. ​2710 kcal per day
  e. ​2983 kcal per day

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

50. Protein intake for Mr. Wilson should _____.​

  a. ​be restricted due to slow disease progression
  b. ​be increased due to PEM
  c. ​be limited to plant protein foods
  d. ​be limited to animal protein foods
  e. ​remain the same until he begins to lose weight

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

51. Mr. Wilson’s laboratory reports indicate hyperkalemia. His intake of _____ should be restricted.​

  a. ​protein
  b. ​sodium
  c. ​phosphorus
  d. ​potassium
  e. ​vitamin D

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

52. The likely cause of Mr. Wilson’s chronic kidney disease is _____.​

  a. ​his history of type 1 diabetes
  b. ​exposure to chemicals in the workplace
  c. ​his history of smoking
  d. ​male gender and age
  e. ​unknown

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

Mr. Bradley is a 70-year-old man with a long medical history including uncontrolled diabetes mellitus since age 45 who presents to the West Smithtown Dialysis Center with new-onset end-stage kidney disease. Mr. Bradley lives in an assisted living facility where he receives full-time nursing care. As a dialysis nurse, your role is to review the nutrition guidelines with Mr. Bradley, who has diabetic retinopathy and loss of vision. He is a non-ambulatory war veteran, former smoker, and former alcohol abuser whose BMI is normal, though he has lost 3% of his body weight since being diagnosed with kidney failure one month ago. A food frequency questionnaire shows that Mr. Bradley generally meets his recommended intakes of all food groups, but his fiber intake is low, and his dairy foods consumption exceeds the recommendation by double due to his love of milk, ice cream, cheese, and other dairy products.

 

53. You explain to Mr. Bradley that the diet for end-stage renal disease _____.​

  a. ​has little influence on disease progression
  b. ​will not prevent the development of complications
  c. ​contributes to elevated serum levels of nitrogenous wastes
  d. ​can help to control electrolytes and avoid a life-threatening imbalance
  e. ​will prevent him from developing further vision loss

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

54. Since this is Mr. Bradley’s first visit to the center, his primary care nurse spends hours speaking to him while his dialysis progresses. The nurse explains that within the next week he will be seen by _____, who will counsel him about his nutrition therapy.​

  a. ​a dietitian who specializes in chronic kidney disease
  b. ​a physician who oversees all aspects of clients’ medical care
  c. ​another client who has been following the diet for years
  d. ​a pharmacist who will address the nutrients administered via the dialysate
  e. ​a phlebotomy nurse who draws blood for and interprets laboratory values

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

55. Mr. Bradley’s comprehension of the need for a lower-phosphorus diet is reflected by which statement?​

  a. ​“I will need to eat fewer fatty meats.”
  b. ​“I will need to avoid legumes.”
  c. ​“I will need to limit dairy products.”
  d. ​“I can eat all the bread I want.”
  e. ​“Becoming a vegetarian would best meet my protein needs.”

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

56. The nurse allays Mr. Bradley’s fears that his new diet will lack variety and flavor by assuring him that the diet _____.​

  a. ​excludes meat and dairy but includes everything else
  b. ​promotes flavor with salt and other seasonings
  c. ​encourages unsaturated fats, such as oil-based salad dressings
  d. ​allows unlimited amounts of sweets
  e. ​does not need to be a permanent change

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

57. What principle regarding fluid is correctly conveyed to Mr. Bradley?​

  a. ​“Gelatin, soups, fruit ices, and frozen fruit juice bars contribute to your fluid intake.”
  b. ​“Water losses from the skin and lungs are deducted from your fluid allowance.”
  c. ​“Solid foods do not contribute to your fluid intake.”
  d. ​“Your average fluid gain between dialysis treatments should ideally be 10 pounds.”
  e. ​“Most of your fluid intake should come when you take your medications.”

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

58. Which factor may predispose an individual to kidney stone formation?

  a. ​Increased volume of urine output
  b. ​Intake of foods that contain tyrosine
  c. ​Recent gastrointestinal infection
  d. ​Changes in urinary acidity
  e. ​Decreased tissue perfusion

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   22.4 Kidney Stones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHNHHE.DEBR.17.22.5 – Explain how dialysis removes fluids and wastes from the blood and compare the different types of dialysis procedures
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

59. Uric acid kidney stones are most commonly associated with what condition?​

  a. ​Hypercalcemia
  b. ​Diabetes
  c. ​Gout
  d. ​Atherosclerosis
  e. ​Diarrhea

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   22.4 Kidney Stones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHNHHE.DEBR.17.22.5 – Explain how dialysis removes fluids and wastes from the blood and compare the different types of dialysis procedures
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

60. One potential complication of hemodialysis is _____.​

  a. ​blood clots
  b. ​insomnia
  c. ​edema
  d. ​hemochromatosis
  e. ​hypertension

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   22.5 Nutrition in Practice: Dialysis
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.5 – Explain how dialysis removes fluids and wastes from the blood and compare the different types of dialysis procedures.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

61. What describes an advantage of peritoneal dialysis over hemodialysis?​

  a. ​It is less likely to cause blood clots.
  b. ​Its dialyzer is typically more effective.
  c. ​It is less likely to cause infection.
  d. ​It requires fewer dietary restrictions.
  e. ​It can be used for longer periods.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   22.5 Nutrition in Practice: Dialysis
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.5 – Explain how dialysis removes fluids and wastes from the blood and compare the different types of dialysis procedures.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

Nursing Exam Review Multiple Choice

 

62. A client is admitted to the emergency room and is found to have proteinuria, a low serum albumin, edema, and elevated blood lipids. The nurse recognizes these symptoms as those associated with _____.​

  a. ​rejection of a kidney transplant
  b. ​acute kidney injury
  c. ​nephrotic syndrome
  d. ​kidney stones
  e. ​renal colic

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   22.1 Nephrotic Syndrome
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.1 – Identify the potential causes and consequences of nephrotic syndrome and describe the medical and nutrition therapies used in treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

63. A patient’s lab results reveal hypoalbuminemia. The nurse realizes that this is likely to cause _____ in the patient.​

  a. ​edema
  b. ​infection
  c. ​rickets
  d. ​altered blood lipids
  e. ​hypertension

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   22.1 Nephrotic Syndrome
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.1 – Identify the potential causes and consequences of nephrotic syndrome and describe the medical and nutrition therapies used in treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

64. A patient presents with elevated BUN, creatinine, and blood pressure. He complains of fatigue, confusion, easy bruising, and pruritus. The nurse recognizes these as symptoms of _____.​

  a. ​cystinuria
  b. ​diuresis
  c. ​renal osteodystrophy
  d. ​gout
  e. ​uremia

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   22.2 Acute Kidney Injury
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.2 – Discuss the potential causes and effects of acute kidney injury and describe the approaches to treatment for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

65. A 52-year-old male patient recently required surgery for the removal of a large calcium oxalate stone. To prevent further stone formation, the nurse instructs him to consume plenty of fluids, but advises against drinking _____.​

  a. ​apple juice
  b. ​coffee
  c. ​tea
  d. ​draft beer
  e. ​orange juice

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   22.4 Kidney Stones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHNHHE.DEBR.17.22.5 – Explain how dialysis removes fluids and wastes from the blood and compare the different types of dialysis procedures
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

66. The nurse in the dialysis unit understands that patients may experience various complications during hemodialysis. What describes a common complication during hemodialysis?​

  a. ​Profuse sweating
  b. ​Hypertension
  c. ​Leg cramps
  d. ​Severe pain
  e. ​Confusion

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   22.5 Nutrition in Practice: Dialysis
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.5 – Explain how dialysis removes fluids and wastes from the blood and compare the different types of dialysis procedures.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

67. The nurse understands that patients on peritoneal dialysis may most likely experience what side effect?​

  a. ​Weight loss
  b. ​Hypoglycemia
  c. ​Lactose intolerance
  d. ​Hypertriglyceridemia
  e. ​Uremia

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   22.5 Nutrition in Practice: Dialysis
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.5 – Explain how dialysis removes fluids and wastes from the blood and compare the different types of dialysis procedures.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

Matching

 

Matching​

a. ​the rate at which filtrate is formed within the kidneys
b. a steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that promotes sodium retention and potassium excretion​
c. ​the substances that pass through the glomerulus and travel through the nephron’s tubules, eventually forming urine
d. ​the waste product of creatine, a nitrogen-containing compound in muscle cells that supplies energy for muscle contraction
e. ​a syndrome caused by significant urinary protein losses (more than 3 to 31⁄2 grams daily), as a result of severe glomerular damage
f. ​increased urine production
g. ​defined as a urine output that is less than about 50 to 75 mL/day
h. ​low plasma albumin concentrations
i. ​crystals of magnesium ammonium phosphate
j. ​an advanced stage of chronic kidney disease in which dialysis or a kidney transplant is necessary to sustain life
k. ​a cuplike component of the nephron that surrounds the glomerulus and collects the filtrate that is passed to the tubules
l. ​removal of fluids and solutes from the blood by using pressure to transfer the blood across a semipermeable membrane
m. ​a genetic disorder characterized by the elevated urinary excretion of several amino acids, including cystine
n. ​the rapid decline of kidney function over a period of hours or days
o. ​a machine used in hemodialysis to filter the blood
p. ​accumulation of nitrogenous and various other waste products in the blood
q. ​the infusion of nutrients during hemodialysis, often providing amino acids, dextrose, lipids, and some trace minerals
r. ​a high number of kcalories per unit weight of food

 

REFERENCES:   22.1 Nephrotic Syndrome
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.1 – Identify the potential causes and consequences of nephrotic syndrome and describe the medical and nutrition therapies used in treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

68. ​filtrate

ANSWER:   c

 

69. ​Bowman’s capsule

ANSWER:   k

 

70. creatinine​

ANSWER:   d

 

71. hypoalbuminuria​

ANSWER:   h

 

72. nephrotic syndrome​

ANSWER:   e

 

Matching​

a. ​the rate at which filtrate is formed within the kidneys
b. a steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that promotes sodium retention and potassium excretion​
c. ​the substances that pass through the glomerulus and travel through the nephron’s tubules, eventually forming urine
d. ​the waste product of creatine, a nitrogen-containing compound in muscle cells that supplies energy for muscle contraction
e. ​a syndrome caused by significant urinary protein losses (more than 3 to 31⁄2 grams daily), as a result of severe glomerular damage
f. ​increased urine production
g. ​defined as a urine output that is less than about 50 to 75 mL/day
h. ​low plasma albumin concentrations
i. ​crystals of magnesium ammonium phosphate
j. ​an advanced stage of chronic kidney disease in which dialysis or a kidney transplant is necessary to sustain life
k. ​a cuplike component of the nephron that surrounds the glomerulus and collects the filtrate that is passed to the tubules
l. ​removal of fluids and solutes from the blood by using pressure to transfer the blood across a semipermeable membrane
m. ​a genetic disorder characterized by the elevated urinary excretion of several amino acids, including cystine
n. ​the rapid decline of kidney function over a period of hours or days
o. ​a machine used in hemodialysis to filter the blood
p. ​accumulation of nitrogenous and various other waste products in the blood
q. ​the infusion of nutrients during hemodialysis, often providing amino acids, dextrose, lipids, and some trace minerals
r. ​a high number of kcalories per unit weight of food

 

REFERENCES:   22.2 Acute Kidney Injury
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.2 – Discuss the potential causes and effects of acute kidney injury and describe the approaches to treatment for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

73. acute kidney injury

ANSWER:   n

 

74. anuria

ANSWER:   g

 

75. uremia

ANSWER:   p

 

76. diuresis

ANSWER:   f

 

Matching​

a. ​the rate at which filtrate is formed within the kidneys
b. a steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that promotes sodium retention and potassium excretion​
c. ​the substances that pass through the glomerulus and travel through the nephron’s tubules, eventually forming urine
d. ​the waste product of creatine, a nitrogen-containing compound in muscle cells that supplies energy for muscle contraction
e. ​a syndrome caused by significant urinary protein losses (more than 3 to 31⁄2 grams daily), as a result of severe glomerular damage
f. ​increased urine production
g. ​defined as a urine output that is less than about 50 to 75 mL/day
h. ​low plasma albumin concentrations
i. ​crystals of magnesium ammonium phosphate
j. ​an advanced stage of chronic kidney disease in which dialysis or a kidney transplant is necessary to sustain life
k. ​a cuplike component of the nephron that surrounds the glomerulus and collects the filtrate that is passed to the tubules
l. ​removal of fluids and solutes from the blood by using pressure to transfer the blood across a semipermeable membrane
m. ​a genetic disorder characterized by the elevated urinary excretion of several amino acids, including cystine
n. ​the rapid decline of kidney function over a period of hours or days
o. ​a machine used in hemodialysis to filter the blood
p. ​accumulation of nitrogenous and various other waste products in the blood
q. ​the infusion of nutrients during hemodialysis, often providing amino acids, dextrose, lipids, and some trace minerals
r. ​a high number of kcalories per unit weight of food

 

REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

77. glomerular filtration rate

ANSWER:   a

 

78. end-stage renal disease

ANSWER:   j

 

79. aldosterone

ANSWER:   b

 

80. dialyzer

ANSWER:   o

 

81. ​high energy density

ANSWER:   r

 

82. ​intradialytic parenteral nutrition

ANSWER:   q

 

Matching​

a. ​the rate at which filtrate is formed within the kidneys
b. a steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that promotes sodium retention and potassium excretion​
c. ​the substances that pass through the glomerulus and travel through the nephron’s tubules, eventually forming urine
d. ​the waste product of creatine, a nitrogen-containing compound in muscle cells that supplies energy for muscle contraction
e. ​a syndrome caused by significant urinary protein losses (more than 3 to 31⁄2 grams daily), as a result of severe glomerular damage
f. ​increased urine production
g. ​defined as a urine output that is less than about 50 to 75 mL/day
h. ​low plasma albumin concentrations
i. ​crystals of magnesium ammonium phosphate
j. ​an advanced stage of chronic kidney disease in which dialysis or a kidney transplant is necessary to sustain life
k. ​a cuplike component of the nephron that surrounds the glomerulus and collects the filtrate that is passed to the tubules
l. ​removal of fluids and solutes from the blood by using pressure to transfer the blood across a semipermeable membrane
m. ​a genetic disorder characterized by the elevated urinary excretion of several amino acids, including cystine
n. ​the rapid decline of kidney function over a period of hours or days
o. ​a machine used in hemodialysis to filter the blood
p. ​accumulation of nitrogenous and various other waste products in the blood
q. ​the infusion of nutrients during hemodialysis, often providing amino acids, dextrose, lipids, and some trace minerals
r. ​a high number of kcalories per unit weight of food

 

REFERENCES:   22.4 Kidney Stones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.4 – Compare the different types of kidney stones and explain how kidney stones can be prevented or treated
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

83. struvite

ANSWER:   i

 

84. ystinuria

ANSWER:   m

 

Matching​

a. ​the rate at which filtrate is formed within the kidneys
b. a steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that promotes sodium retention and potassium excretion​
c. ​the substances that pass through the glomerulus and travel through the nephron’s tubules, eventually forming urine
d. ​the waste product of creatine, a nitrogen-containing compound in muscle cells that supplies energy for muscle contraction
e. ​a syndrome caused by significant urinary protein losses (more than 3 to 31⁄2 grams daily), as a result of severe glomerular damage
f. ​increased urine production
g. ​defined as a urine output that is less than about 50 to 75 mL/day
h. ​low plasma albumin concentrations
i. ​crystals of magnesium ammonium phosphate
j. ​an advanced stage of chronic kidney disease in which dialysis or a kidney transplant is necessary to sustain life
k. ​a cuplike component of the nephron that surrounds the glomerulus and collects the filtrate that is passed to the tubules
l. ​removal of fluids and solutes from the blood by using pressure to transfer the blood across a semipermeable membrane
m. ​a genetic disorder characterized by the elevated urinary excretion of several amino acids, including cystine
n. ​the rapid decline of kidney function over a period of hours or days
o. ​a machine used in hemodialysis to filter the blood
p. ​accumulation of nitrogenous and various other waste products in the blood
q. ​the infusion of nutrients during hemodialysis, often providing amino acids, dextrose, lipids, and some trace minerals
r. ​a high number of kcalories per unit weight of food

 

REFERENCES:   22.5 Nutrition in Practice: Dialysis
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHNHHE.DEBR.17.22.5 – Explain how dialysis removes fluids and wastes from the blood and compare the different types of dialysis procedures
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

85. ultrafiltration

ANSWER:   l

 

Essay

 

86. Describe the potential consequences that can develop with nephrotic syndrome.​

ANSWER:   Patients with nephrotic syndrome may suffer from a number of complications. Albumin is the most abundant plasma protein, and it is the protein with the most significant urinary losses as well. The hypoalbuminemia characteristic of the nephrotic syndrome contributes to a fluid shift from blood plasma to the interstitial spaces and, thus, edema. Individuals with nephrotic syndrome frequently have elevated LDLs, VLDLs, and the more atherogenic LDL variant known as lipoprotein(a). Furthermore, blood-clotting risk is increased due to urinary losses of proteins that inhibit blood clotting and elevated levels of plasma proteins that favor clotting. The blood clotting abnormalities increase the risk of deep vein thrombosis and similar disorders. The nephrotic syndrome is associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and a sharply increased risk of heart disease and stroke. The proteins lost in urine include immunoglobulins and vitamin D-binding protein. Depletion of immunoglobulins increases susceptibility to infection. Loss of vitamin D-binding protein results in lower vitamin D and calcium levels and increases the risk of rickets in children. If proteinuria continues, PEM and muscle wasting may develop.​
REFERENCES:   22.1 Nephrotic Syndrome
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.1 – Identify the potential causes and consequences of nephrotic syndrome and describe the medical and nutrition therapies used in treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

87. ​Explain the differences between prerenal, intrarenal, and postrenal factors in the development of acute kidney disease.

ANSWER:   Many disorders can lead to acute kidney injury, and it often develops as a consequence of critical illness, sepsis, or major surgery. To aid in diagnosis and treatment, its causes are classified as prerenal, intrarenal, or postrenal. Prerenal factors are conditions that cause a severe reduction in blood flow to the kidneys, such as heart failure, shock, or substantial blood loss. Factors that damage kidney tissue, such as infections, toxicants, drugs, or direct trauma, are classified as intrarenal causes of acute kidney injury. Postrenal factors are those that prevent urine excretion due to urinary tract obstructions.​
REFERENCES:   22.2 Acute Kidney Injury
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.2 – Discuss the potential causes and effects of acute kidney injury and describe the approaches to treatment for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

88. Explain energy needs when providing nutrition care of clients with chronic kidney disease.​

ANSWER:   Because malnutrition is a common complication of chronic kidney disease, patients are advised to consume enough energy to maintain a healthy body weight. Individuals at risk of PEM and wasting should consume foods with high energy density; some malnourished patients may require oral supplements or tube feedings to maintain an appropriate weight. Wasting is more prevalent during maintenance dialysis than in earlier stages of illness. Note that obesity has been associated with disease progression, and therefore obese patients may benefit from weight loss. The dialysate used in peritoneal dialysis contains glucose in order to draw fluid from the blood to the peritoneal cavity by osmosis; about 40 to 60 percent of this glucose is absorbed. The kcalories from glucose (as many as 800 kcalories daily) must be included in estimates of energy intake. Weight gain is sometimes a problem when peritoneal dialysis continues for a long period.​
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

89. Describe special dietary considerations for a patient who has had a kidney transplant.

ANSWER:   After patients recover from transplant surgery, most nutrients can be consumed at levels recommended for the general population. Patients should attempt to maintain a healthy body weight and consume a diet that reduces their risk for cardiovascular diseases. For most transplant patients, the side effects of drugs are the primary reason that dietary adjustments may be required. Although sodium, potassium, phosphorus, and fluid intakes are usually liberalized following a transplant, serum electrolyte levels must be monitored because some drug therapies can cause electrolyte imbalances or fluid retention. If corticosteroids are used as immunosuppressants, calcium supplementation is recommended because the medication increases urinary calcium losses. If drug treatment leads to hyperglycemia, patients should limit intakes of refined carbohydrates and concentrated sweets; for some individuals, oral medications or insulin therapy may be necessary. Patients should continue to follow food safety guidelines to avoid foodborne illness.​
REFERENCES:   22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.3 – Describe the potential causes and consequences of chronic kidney disease, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

90. Describe the appropriate dietary treatment for different types of kidney stones, including calcium oxalate, uric acid, and cystine stones.​

ANSWER:   The most common abnormality in people with calcium oxalate stones is hypercalciuria, which can result from excessive calcium absorption, impaired calcium reabsorption in kidney tubules, or elevated serum levels of parathyroid hormone or vitamin D. Elevated urinary oxalate levels, or hyperoxaluria, also promote the formation of calcium oxalate crystals. Fat malabsorption can increase oxalate absorption: the malabsorbed fatty acids bind to minerals that would otherwise bind to oxalates and inhibit their absorption. Uric acid stones develop when the urine is abnormally acidic, contains excessive uric acid, or both. These stones are frequently associated with gout. A diet rich in purines also contributes to high uric acid levels; purines are abundant in animal proteins and degrade to uric acid in the body. Cystine stones can form in people with the inherited disorder cystinuria, in which the renal tubules are unable to reabsorb the amino acid cystine. High fluid intakes may prevent the formation of cystine stones.​
REFERENCES:   22.4 Kidney Stones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.22.4 – Compare the different types of kidney stones and explain how kidney stones can be prevented or treated
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

 

 

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