Nutrition For Health And Healthcare 6th Edition By DeBruyne Pinna – Test Bank

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Nutrition For Health And Healthcare 6th Edition By DeBruyne Pinna – Test Bank

c5Protein

True / False

 

1. The DRI committee that reviewed the safety of amino acid supplements was unable to set Tolerable Upper Intake Levels for safe supplement use.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   5.5 Protein and Health
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.5 – Describe the health effects of protein deficiency and excess, some of the people who may be harmed by taking amino acid supplements, and the assumptions underlying the protein RDA.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

2. Vegans must carefully combine their plant protein foods in order to obtain the full array of essential amino acids.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   5.7 Nutrition in Practice: Vegetarian Diets
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.7 – Develop a well-balanced vegetarian eating pattern.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

3. Research supports the idea that vegetarians may actually be healthier than meat eaters.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   5.7 Nutrition in Practice: Vegetarian Diets
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.7 – Develop a well-balanced vegetarian eating pattern.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

Multiple Choice

 

4. Proteins differ from the other energy nutrients because they contain:​

  a. ​glycerol.
  b. ​carbon.
  c. ​fatty acids.
  d. ​nitrogen.
  e. ​hydrogen.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   5.1 The Chemist’s View of Proteins
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.1 – Describe the chemical structure of proteins and the difference between nonessential and essential amino acids.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

5. Protein is:​

  a. ​unique in that it is the only dietary component that contains oxygen.
  b. ​important primarily because it builds strong bones and teeth.
  c. ​made up of 20 different amino acids.
  d. made up of branches of amino acids combined with branches of glucose.
  e. made up of a triglyceride backbone.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   5.1 The Chemist’s View of Proteins
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.1 – Describe the chemical structure of proteins and the difference between nonessential and essential amino acids.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

6. The basic building blocks of proteins are:

  a. ​monosaccharides.
  b. ​fatty acids.
  c. ​ketones.
  d. ​enzymes.
  e. ​amino acids.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   5.1 The Chemist’s View of Proteins
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.1 – Describe the chemical structure of proteins and the difference between nonessential and essential amino acids.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

7. The component that distinguishes one amino acid from another is its:

  a. ​side group.
  b. ​backbone.
  c. ​amino group.
  d. ​acid group.
  e. ​coils.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   5.1 The Chemist’s View of Proteins
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.1 – Describe the chemical structure of proteins and the difference between nonessential and essential amino acids.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

8. Changing the shape of a protein causes which of the following to change in the protein?

  a. ​function
  b. ​size
  c. ​electrical charge
  d. ​nutritional value
  e. ​nitrogen balance

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   5.1 The Chemist’s View of Proteins
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.1 – Describe the chemical structure of proteins and the difference between nonessential and essential amino acids.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

9. An essential amino acid:

  a. ​is not necessary to the diet.
  b. ​must be supplied by the diet.
  c. ​can be made from glucose in the body.
  d. ​can be made from fat in the body.
  e. ​includes alanine.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   5.1 The Chemist’s View of Proteins
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.1 – Describe the chemical structure of proteins and the difference between nonessential and essential amino acids.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

10. The term “non-essential,” as it applies to amino acids, means that:​

  a. ​the body does not require them.
  b. ​they differ in their capacity to support growth.
  c. ​the body can produce those it lacks.
  d. ​they are not used to synthesize tissue.
  e. they must be consumed as part of the diet.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   5.1 The Chemist’s View of Proteins
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.1 – Describe the chemical structure of proteins and the difference between nonessential and essential amino acids.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

11. ​Not all amino acids have to be supplied by food. This is true because:

  a. ​not all necessary amino acids are found in food.
  b. ​hormones furnish the missing amino acids.
  c. ​the liver is able to manufacture some amino acids from others.
  d. ​the liver is able to manufacture some amino acids from fatty acids.
  e. ​the human body does not require all amino acids.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   5.1 The Chemist’s View of Proteins
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.1 – Describe the chemical structure of proteins and the difference between nonessential and essential amino acids.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

12. How many essential amino acids are required by the adult?

  a. ​9
  b. ​16
  c. ​10
  d. ​22
  e. ​25

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   5.1 The Chemist’s View of Proteins
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.1 – Describe the chemical structure of proteins and the difference between nonessential and essential amino acids.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

13. Essential amino acids:​

  a. ​are found mostly in plant foods.
  b. ​cannot be synthesized by the body.
  c. ​cannot be supplied by the diet.
  d. ​are the best source of energy for the body.
  e. ​are also referred to as dispensable amino acids.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   5.1 The Chemist’s View of Proteins
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.1 – Describe the chemical structure of proteins and the difference between nonessential and essential amino acids.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

14. ​An example of a conditionally essential amino acid is:

  a. ​valine.
  b. ​leucine.
  c. ​lysine.
  d. ​tyrosine.
  e. ​methionine

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   5.1 The Chemist’s View of Proteins
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.1 – Describe the chemical structure of proteins and the difference between nonessential and essential amino acids.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

15. Which of the following is one of the essential amino acids?​

  a. ​carnitine
  b. ​alanine
  c. ​tyrosine
  d. ​hemoglobin
  e. ​phenylalanine

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   5.1 The Chemist’s View of Proteins
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.1 – Describe the chemical structure of proteins and the difference between nonessential and essential amino acids.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

16. ​The process of protein breakdown, recovery, and synthesis is called:

  a. ​protein recovery.
  b. ​the protein cycle.
  c. ​protein turnover.
  d. ​protein rotation.
  e. ​protein digestion.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   5.3 Protein Turnover and Nitrogen Balance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.3 – Explain the process of protein turnover and describe nitrogen balance.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

17. Bill is a normal, healthy adult who consumes twice as much protein as he requires; his nitrogen output will:​

  a. ​equal his nitrogen intake.
  b. ​exceed his nitrogen intake.
  c. ​depend on his genetics.
  d. ​be less than his nitrogen intake.
  e. ​depend on his activity level.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   5.3 Protein Turnover and Nitrogen Balance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.3 – Explain the process of protein turnover and describe nitrogen balance.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

18. A person is in positive nitrogen balance during:​

  a. ​growth.
  b. ​old age.
  c. ​exercise.
  d. ​adulthood.
  e. ​an infection.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   5.3 Protein Turnover and Nitrogen Balance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.3 – Explain the process of protein turnover and describe nitrogen balance.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

19. Which of the following would likely be in positive nitrogen balance?​

  a. ​burn victims
  b. ​a starving child
  c. ​pregnant women
  d. ​a man who was recently in a severe car accident
  e. ​someone with a high fever

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   5.3 Protein Turnover and Nitrogen Balance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.3 – Explain the process of protein turnover and describe nitrogen balance.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

20. Enzymes:​

  a. ​are made up of carbohydrate.
  b. ​are essential to all life processes.
  c. ​are altered by the chemical reactions they facilitate.
  d. ​are essential nutrients.
  e. ​must be taken in through the diet.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   5.4 Roles of Body Proteins
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.4 – Identify some of the roles of body proteins.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

21. Which of the following statements is true?​

  a. ​Enzymes are essential to all life processes.
  b. ​Enzymes are made up of either proteins or carbohydrates.
  c. ​Enzymes are involved in synthesis reactions only.
  d. ​Only a few enzymes are catalysts.
  e. ​Enzymes are incapable of disassembling lipids.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   5.4 Roles of Body Proteins
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.4 – Identify some of the roles of body proteins.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

22. ​One reason why proteins in fluids can help determine the fluids’ distribution in living systems is that proteins are:

  a. ​large.
  b. ​resistant to heat.
  c. ​attracted to water.
  d. ​small.
  e. ​hydrophobic.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   5.4 Roles of Body Proteins
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.4 – Identify some of the roles of body proteins.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

23. An important buffer in the maintenance of the acid-base balance of the blood is:​

  a. ​fatty acids.
  b. ​lactic acid.
  c. ​heme.
  d. ​carbohydrate.
  e. ​protein.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   5.4 Roles of Body Proteins
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.4 – Identify some of the roles of body proteins.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

24. One of the reasons why acid-base balance is so important for the body is that:​

  a. ​highly acidic conditions cause vital proteins to denature.
  b. ​highly acidic conditions cause the destruction of certain fatty acids.
  c. ​acid-base imbalances contribute to the destruction of hormones.
  d. ​acid-base imbalances compromise growth in children.
  e. ​highly alkaline conditions cause excess iron loss.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   5.4 Roles of Body Proteins
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.4 – Identify some of the roles of body proteins.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

25. Resistance to disease is dependent largely on the body’s:​

  a. ​carbohydrates.
  b. ​lipids.
  c. ​proteins.
  d. ​vitamins.
  e. ​minerals.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   5.4 Roles of Body Proteins
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.4 – Identify some of the roles of body proteins.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

26. ​Which of the following proteins helps the body maintain its resistance to disease?

  a. ​antibodies
  b. ​collagen
  c. ​hormones
  d. ​hemoglobin
  e. ​albumin

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   5.4 Roles of Body Proteins
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.4 – Identify some of the roles of body proteins.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

27. An antibody is a type of protein that:​

  a. ​regulates pH balance in the body.
  b. ​transports lipids throughout the body.
  c. ​protects the body from viruses, bacteria, and other disease agents.
  d. ​regulates fluid balance in the body.
  e. ​carries messenger molecules.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   5.4 Roles of Body Proteins
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.4 – Identify some of the roles of body proteins.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

28. Amino acids are a secondary source of energy. Their primary function is to:​

  a. ​build proteins needed by the body.
  b. ​provide essential water-soluble vitamins.
  c. ​produce thyroxin and insulin.
  d. ​supply most of the kcalories in the average U.S. diet.
  e. ​insulate the body against temperature extremes.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   5.4 Roles of Body Proteins
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.4 – Identify some of the roles of body proteins.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

29. When glucose is unavailable, the functioning of which two parts of the body becomes compromised?​

  a. ​lungs and circulatory system
  b. ​kidneys and liver
  c. ​brain and nervous system
  d. ​bones and muscles
  e. ​liver and muscles

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   5.4 Roles of Body Proteins
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.4 – Identify some of the roles of body proteins.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

30. The body uses amino acids for energy when:​

  a. ​protein stores run low.
  b. ​there is inadequate glucose or fatty acids.
  c. ​an athlete performs strength training exercises.
  d. ​the body becomes dehydrated.
  e. ​a person is very sedentary.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   5.4 Roles of Body Proteins
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.4 – Identify some of the roles of body proteins.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

31. Marasmus may be described as a form of malnutrition caused by:​

  a. ​a chronic, severe deprivation of food.
  b. ​deficiency of energy.
  c. ​a chronic, severe deprivation of protein.
  d. ​deficiency of protein and vitamins.
  e. ​excessive exercise.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   5.5 Protein and Health
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.5 – Describe the health effects of protein deficiency and excess, some of the people who may be harmed by taking amino acid supplements, and the assumptions underlying the protein RDA.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

32. During a medical mission trip to Africa, you encounter a child with severe malnutrition due to marasmus. The condition:​

  a. ​results in increased resistance to disease.
  b. ​causes increased body temperature.
  c. ​is found only in children.
  d. ​affects physical development but leaves the brain unaffected.
  e. ​results in low resistance to disease.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   5.5 Protein and Health
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.5 – Describe the health effects of protein deficiency and excess, some of the people who may be harmed by taking amino acid supplements, and the assumptions underlying the protein RDA.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

33. The child with marasmus differs from the child with kwashiorkor in that the:​

  a. ​marasmic child has a swollen belly.
  b. ​marasmic child experiences edema.
  c. ​marasmic child appears extremely thin.
  d. ​marasmic child develops a fatty liver.
  e. ​kwashiorkor child appears extremely thin.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   5.5 Protein and Health
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.5 – Describe the health effects of protein deficiency and excess, some of the people who may be harmed by taking amino acid supplements, and the assumptions underlying the protein RDA.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

34. Kwashiorkor most frequently develops among:​

  a. ​older adults.
  b. ​newborns.
  c. ​newly weaned children.
  d. ​adolescents.
  e. ​women.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   5.5 Protein and Health
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.5 – Describe the health effects of protein deficiency and excess, some of the people who may be harmed by taking amino acid supplements, and the assumptions underlying the protein RDA.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

35. What is the primary cause of the edema that accompanies kwashiorkor?​

  a. ​Albumin concentrations fall and fluid leaks into interstitial spaces.
  b. ​Lipoprotein synthesis is diminished, causing fat to accumulate.
  c. ​Protein is lost from the heart muscle, resulting in a weak heartbeat.
  d. ​Synthesis of enzymes is reduced.
  e. ​Deterioration of the digestive tract lining.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   5.5 Protein and Health
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.5 – Describe the health effects of protein deficiency and excess, some of the people who may be harmed by taking amino acid supplements, and the assumptions underlying the protein RDA.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

36. ​Food proteins:

  a. ​are absorbed as amino acids.
  b. ​are incorporated into body proteins.
  c. ​remain intact until they reach the small intestine, where they are digested.
  d. ​are denatured by body heat.
  e. ​require a highly alkaline environment to break down.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   5.2 Protein Digestion and Absorption
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.2 – Summarize protein digestion and absorption.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

37. Rick overconsumes animal-derived protein food sources. Which of the following is least likely to happen to him as a result?​

  a. ​an increased risk of heart disease.
  b. ​the worsening of existing kidney disease.
  c. ​inadequate intake of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
  d. ​an increased risk of developing liver disease.
  e. ​increased risk of obesity.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   5.5 Protein and Health
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.5 – Describe the health effects of protein deficiency and excess, some of the people who may be harmed by taking amino acid supplements, and the assumptions underlying the protein RDA.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

38. The end products of protein metabolism are excreted by the:​

  a. ​stomach.
  b. ​liver.
  c. ​colon.
  d. ​gallbladder.
  e. ​kidneys.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   5.4 Roles of Body Proteins
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.4 – Identify some of the roles of body proteins.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

39. What is the protein RDA for adults in gram(s) per kilogram of body weight?​

  a. ​0.4
  b. ​0.5
  c. ​0.8
  d. ​1.0
  e. ​2.0

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   5.6 Protein in Foods
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.6 – Explain the differences between high-quality and low-quality proteins, including notable food sources of each.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

40. ​You are estimating your client’s protein requirements. What information must you know in order to do this?

  a. ​age
  b. ​whether or not they smoke
  c. ​weight
  d. ​gender
  e. ​current protein intake

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   5.5 Protein and Health
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.5 – Describe the health effects of protein deficiency and excess, some of the people who may be harmed by taking amino acid supplements, and the assumptions underlying the protein RDA.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

41. ​A 25-year-old man weighs 154 pounds and consumes 2,700 kcalories with 45 grams of protein a day. If two-thirds of the protein comes from animal sources, it may be concluded that he:

  a. ​ingested his recommended allowance of protein.
  b. ​needs 8 grams more protein to meet the recommended allowance.
  c. ​needs 11 grams more protein to meet the recommended allowance.
  d. ​has exceeded his recommended allowance of protein.
  e. ​needs 5 more grams of plant-based protein to meet the recommended allowance.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   5.5 Protein and Health
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.5 – Describe the health effects of protein deficiency and excess, some of the people who may be harmed by taking amino acid supplements, and the assumptions underlying the protein RDA.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

42. ​What is the RDA for protein for a 121-pound woman in grams per day?

  a. ​44
  b. ​60
  c. ​75
  d. ​100
  e. ​225

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   5.5 Protein and Health
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.5 – Describe the health effects of protein deficiency and excess, some of the people who may be harmed by taking amino acid supplements, and the assumptions underlying the protein RDA.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

43. The protein requirement of a child as compared to an adult is:​

  a. ​approximately the same.
  b. ​higher.
  c. ​much lower.
  d. ​dependent on the activity level of the child.
  e. ​not known.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   5.5 Protein and Health
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.5 – Describe the health effects of protein deficiency and excess, some of the people who may be harmed by taking amino acid supplements, and the assumptions underlying the protein RDA.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

44. ​In setting the RDA for protein, the committee assumed that:

  a. ​protein will be of low quality.
  b. ​protein will be the main source of energy intake
  c. other nutrients in the diet will be inadequate.​
  d. ​the RDA will be applied to individuals with unusual metabolic needs.
  e. ​protein will be consumed together with adequate energy and other nutrients.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   5.5 Protein and Health
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.5 – Describe the health effects of protein deficiency and excess, some of the people who may be harmed by taking amino acid supplements, and the assumptions underlying the protein RDA.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

45. The recommended intake of protein represents what percentage of daily energy intake?​

  a. ​15-20%
  b. ​10-20%
  c. ​15-35%
  d. ​10-35%
  e. ​55-65%

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   5.5 Protein and Health
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.5 – Describe the health effects of protein deficiency and excess, some of the people who may be harmed by taking amino acid supplements, and the assumptions underlying the protein RDA.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

46. Mary consumes approximately 1800 kcalories per day. If she wants to consume 15% of her kcalories from protein, how many grams would that be?​

  a. ​28 g/day
  b. ​48 g/day
  c. ​58 g/day
  d. ​68 g/day
  e. ​75 g/day

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   5.5 Protein and Health
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.5 – Describe the health effects of protein deficiency and excess, some of the people who may be harmed by taking amino acid supplements, and the assumptions underlying the protein RDA.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

47. A measure of the amount of amino acids absorbed from a given protein intake is called:​

  a. ​protein quality.
  b. ​net protein utilization.
  c. ​protein coefficient.
  d. ​protein efficiency ratio.
  e. ​protein digestibility.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   5.6 Protein in Foods
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.6 – Explain the differences between high-quality and low-quality proteins, including notable food sources of each.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

48. ​The plant food with the highest protein digestibility is:

  a. ​corn.
  b. ​sweet potato.
  c. ​asparagus.
  d. ​soybeans.
  e. ​peanuts.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   5.6 Protein in Foods
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.6 – Explain the differences between high-quality and low-quality proteins, including notable food sources of each.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

49. An essential amino acid found in the shortest supply relative to the amounts needed for protein synthesis in the body is which type of amino acid?​

  a. ​indigestible
  b. ​non-essential
  c. ​reduced
  d. ​limiting
  e. ​non-kcalorie

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   5.6 Protein in Foods
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.6 – Explain the differences between high-quality and low-quality proteins, including notable food sources of each.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

50. What happens when the diet lacks an essential amino acid?​

  a. ​Proteins will be made but they will be limited in that particular amino acid.
  b. ​The body will synthesize it.
  c. ​A person’s health will not be affected as long as carbohydrate and fat intakes are adequate.
  d. ​Protein synthesis will be limited.
  e. ​Fatty acids will be substituted for the missing amino acid.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   5.6 Protein in Foods
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.6 – Explain the differences between high-quality and low-quality proteins, including notable food sources of each.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

51. Which of the following provides the highest-quality protein?​

  a. ​ citrus fruits
  b. ​cereal
  c. ​legumes
  d. ​bread
  e. ​greens

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   5.6 Protein in Foods
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.6 – Explain the differences between high-quality and low-quality proteins, including notable food sources of each.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

52. The best choice for a dessert that will provide high-quality protein is:​

  a. ​milk pudding.
  b. ​fruit gelatin.
  c. ​sherbet.
  d. ​apple pie.
  e. ​peanut butter cookie.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   5.6 Protein in Foods
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.6 – Explain the differences between high-quality and low-quality proteins, including notable food sources of each.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

53. ​Your client, Alice, is trying to incorporate more high-quality protein sources into her diet. Which of the following would provide her with the least high-quality protein?

  a. ​fish
  b. ​eggs
  c. ​milk
  d. ​gelatin
  e. ​tofu

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   5.6 Protein in Foods
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.6 – Explain the differences between high-quality and low-quality proteins, including notable food sources of each.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

54. ​Which of the following foods contains low-quality protein?

  a. ​corn
  b. ​soy
  c. ​legumes
  d. ​beef
  e. ​yogurt

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   5.6 Protein in Foods
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.6 – Explain the differences between high-quality and low-quality proteins, including notable food sources of each.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

55. Which of the following food groups in the USDA Food Patterns contains only tiny amounts of protein?​

  a. ​fruit
  b. ​vegetables
  c. ​grains
  d. ​milk
  e. ​nuts

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   5.6 Protein in Foods
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.6 – Explain the differences between high-quality and low-quality proteins, including notable food sources of each.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

56. How many grams of protein are in a 6-ounce serving of rib eye steak?​

  a. ​18
  b. ​24
  c. ​42
  d. ​60
  e. ​100

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   5.6 Protein in Foods
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.6 – Explain the differences between high-quality and low-quality proteins, including notable food sources of each.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

57. ​Which of the following provides the largest amount of protein?

  a. ​1/2 cup cooked broccoli
  b. ​2 tablespoons peanut butter
  c. ​1 cup milk
  d. ​1 slice of bread
  e. ​1 cup tofu

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   5.6 Protein in Foods
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.6 – Explain the differences between high-quality and low-quality proteins, including notable food sources of each.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

58. ​Which of the following provides less than seven grams of protein?

  a. ​1/2 cup of legumes.
  b. ​1 ounce chicken.
  c. ​1 egg.
  d. ​1 slice of bread.
  e. ​2 tablespoons of peanut butter

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   5.6 Protein in Foods
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.6 – Explain the differences between high-quality and low-quality proteins, including notable food sources of each.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

59. What is the best strategy for consuming adequate amino acids?​

  a. ​Eat high-quality proteins or foods containing complementary proteins.
  b. ​Avoid protein supplements in favor of single amino acid supplements.
  c. ​Take the Tolerable Upper Intake Level for supplemental amino acids.
  d. ​Consume the perfect ratio of carbohydrate to protein.
  e. ​Avoid fat and carbohydrates in the diet.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   5.6 Protein in Foods
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.6 – Explain the differences between high-quality and low-quality proteins, including notable food sources of each.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

60. Complementary proteins:​

  a. ​enhance the taste of food.
  b. ​increase the quality of the protein.
  c. ​combine proteins from different foods to provide all essential amino acids.
  d. ​decrease the loss of nitrogen from the body.
  e. ​must be consumed with fat in order to be used.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   5.6 Protein in Foods
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.6 – Explain the differences between high-quality and low-quality proteins, including notable food sources of each.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

61. Dietary protein will not be used efficiently and will not support growth if _____ are inadequate.​

  a. ​vegetables
  b. ​essential fatty acids
  c. ​kcalories
  d. ​dairy foods
  e. ​plant-based protein

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   5.6 Protein in Foods
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.6 – Explain the differences between high-quality and low-quality proteins, including notable food sources of each.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

62. ​Which of the following non-meat mixtures provides the least high-quality protein?

  a. ​black beans and rice.
  b. ​pasta with broccoli, peppers, and sesame seeds.
  c. ​peanut butter and whole-wheat bread sandwich.
  d. ​stir-fried cabbage, squash, and green peppers.
  e. ​pad thai with tofu and eggs

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   5.6 Protein in Foods
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.6 – Explain the differences between high-quality and low-quality proteins, including notable food sources of each.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

63. A major reason why people must have sufficient carbohydrate and fat in the diet is to:​

  a. ​stimulate the breakdown of body protein for energy.
  b. ​prevent the loss of essential fatty acids.
  c. ​prevent the breakdown of body protein for energy.
  d. ​stimulate the synthesis of essential amino acids.
  e. ​supply the brain with its preferred energy source.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   5.6 Protein in Foods
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.6 – Explain the differences between high-quality and low-quality proteins, including notable food sources of each.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

64. Mary excludes meat from her diet but occasionally consumes poultry, fish, and shellfish. She would be described as:​

  a. ​lacto-ovo vegetarian.
  b. ​partial vegetarian.
  c. ​ovo-vegetarian.
  d. ​temporary vegetarian.
  e. ​undecided vegetarian.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   5.7 Nutrition in Practice: Vegetarian Diets
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.7 – Develop a well-balanced vegetarian eating pattern.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

65. The task of acquiring enough vitamin B12 may pose a problem to vegans because:​

  a. ​fibers in vegetables inhibit its absorption.
  b. ​they lack the intrinsic factor.
  c. ​it is found naturally only in animal-derived products.
  d. ​deficiency may occur from excess intake of soy products.
  e. ​they are unable to recycle their vitamin B12.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   5.7 Nutrition in Practice: Vegetarian Diets
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.7 – Develop a well-balanced vegetarian eating pattern.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

66. A vegetarian must be careful about intakes of:​

  a. ​vitamin C and vitamin A; they may be too high.
  b. ​iron and zinc; they may be too low.
  c. ​iron and zinc; they may be too high.
  d. ​vitamin C and vitamin A; they may be too low.
  e. ​vitamin B12 and iron; they may be too high.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   5.7 Nutrition in Practice: Vegetarian Diets
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.7 – Develop a well-balanced vegetarian eating pattern.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

67. ​You encourage your vegetarian clients to eat iron-rich foods and foods that are rich in which of the following to increase iron absorption?

  a. ​vitamin C
  b. ​calcium
  c. ​phytic acid
  d. ​fiber
  e. ​phosphorous

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   5.7 Nutrition in Practice: Vegetarian Diets
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.7 – Develop a well-balanced vegetarian eating pattern.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

68. Which minerals are most likely to be lacking in the diets of vegans?​

  a. ​sodium , potassium, and chloride
  b. ​zinc, magnesium, and fluoride
  c. ​iron, manganese, and calcium
  d. ​iron, zinc, and calcium
  e. ​sodium, phosphorous, and magnesium

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   5.7 Nutrition in Practice: Vegetarian Diets
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.7 – Develop a well-balanced vegetarian eating pattern.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

69. Which of the following would you be least likely to recommend to your vegan client who is trying to increase his calcium intake?​

  a. ​dark green, leafy vegetables.
  b. ​fortified soy milk.
  c. ​legumes.
  d. ​fortified breakfast cereal
  e. ​deep orange and yellow fruits and vegetables

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   5.7 Nutrition in Practice: Vegetarian Diets
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.7 – Develop a well-balanced vegetarian eating pattern.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

Matching

 

Matching

a. ​maintenance of the necessary amounts and types of fluid and minerals in each compartment of the body fluids.
b. ​the swelling of body tissue caused by leakage of fluid from the blood vessels and accumulation of the fluid in the interstitial spaces.
c. ​compounds that release hydrogen ions in a solution.
d. ​compounds that accept hydrogen ions in a solution.
e. ​the balance maintained between acid and base concentrations in the blood and body fluids.
f. ​the concentration of hydrogen ions.
g. ​too much acid in the blood and body fluids.
h. ​too much base in the blood and body fluids.
i. ​compounds that can reversibly combine with hydrogen ions to help keep a solution’s acidity or alkalinity constant.
j. ​large proteins of the blood and body fluids, produced in response to invasion of the body by unfamiliar molecules called antigens.
k. ​chemical messengers.

 

REFERENCES:   5.4 Roles of Body Proteins
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.4 – Identify some of the roles of body proteins.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

70. ​acid-base balance

ANSWER:   e

 

71. ​ acidosis

ANSWER:   g

 

72. ​acids

ANSWER:   c

 

73. ​alkalosis

ANSWER:   h

 

74. ​antibodies

ANSWER:   j

 

75. bases ​

ANSWER:   d

 

76. buffers​

ANSWER:   i

 

77. edema  ​

ANSWER:   b

 

78. ​fluid and electrolyte balance

ANSWER:   a

 

79. hormones  ​

ANSWER:   k

 

80. ​pH

ANSWER:   f

 

Essay

 

81. Explain the difference between an essential and a nonessential amino acid.​

ANSWER:   An essential amino acid is one that the body cannot synthesize in amount sufficient to meet the needs of the body. Nonessential amino acids can be synthesized by the body.​
REFERENCES:   5.1 The Chemist’s View of Proteins
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.1 – Describe the chemical structure of proteins and the difference between nonessential and essential amino acids.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

82. Describe the role of protein in maintaining the body’s acid-base balance.​

ANSWER:   Proteins, such as albumin, help to prevent acid-base imbalances, by accepting and releasing hydrogen ions (acting as buffers).​
REFERENCES:   5.4 Roles of Body Proteins
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.4 – Identify some of the roles of body proteins.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

83. Differentiate between severe acute malnutrition and chronic malnutrition.​

ANSWER:   Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is caused by recent severe food restriction. In children, this is characterized by being underweight for height (wasting). Chronic malnutrition is caused by long-term food deprivation. This is characterized by children who are short for their height (stunting).​\
REFERENCES:   5.5 Protein and Health
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.5 – Describe the health effects of protein deficiency and excess, some of the people who may be harmed by taking amino acid supplements, and the assumptions underlying the protein RDA.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

84. What are the possible risks associated with over-consumption of protein?​

ANSWER:   For people with established kidney problems, excess protein may accelerate the decline of the kidneys. Excess animal-derived proteins may lead to heart disease, obesity, and high cholesterol.​
REFERENCES:   5.5 Protein and Health
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.5 – Describe the health effects of protein deficiency and excess, some of the people who may be harmed by taking amino acid supplements, and the assumptions underlying the protein RDA.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

85. Discuss potential problems with the use of amino acid supplements. ​

ANSWER:   Amino acid supplements can cause digestive disturbances because the concentrated supplements cause excess water to flow into the digestive tract, resulting in diarrhea.​
REFERENCES:   5.5 Protein and Health
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.5 – Describe the health effects of protein deficiency and excess, some of the people who may be harmed by taking amino acid supplements, and the assumptions underlying the protein RDA.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

86. Discuss the factors that determine protein quality. What makes a protein “high quality”?​

ANSWER:   Protein quality is determined by its digestibility and its amino acid composition. High-quality protein provide enough of the essential amino acids needed to support the body’s work.​
REFERENCES:   5.6 Protein in Foods
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.6 – Explain the differences between high-quality and low-quality proteins, including notable food sources of each.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

87. ​Under what conditions will dietary protein not be used efficiently by the body, regardless of the quality? Why does this occur?

ANSWER:   Dietary protein will not be used efficiently and will not support growth when energy from carbohydrate and fat is lacking. Carbohydrate and fat allow amino acids to be used to build body proteins. Without carbohydrate and fat, the body will break down protein to meet its energy needs (protein wasting).​
REFERENCES:   5.6 Protein in Foods
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.6 – Explain the differences between high-quality and low-quality proteins, including notable food sources of each.

 

88. What nutrition education would you offer a healthy vegan client?​

ANSWER:   A mixture of proteins from whole grains, legumes, seeds, nuts, and vegetables can provide adequate amounts of high-quality protein and energy. Iron and zinc deficiency can be a problem for vegans but can be overcome by intake of legumes, dark green leafy vegetables, iron-fortified cereals, and whole-grain breads.​
REFERENCES:   5.7 Nutrition in Practice: Vegetarian Diets
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.5.7 – Develop a well-balanced vegetarian eating pattern.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

 

c13Nutrition_Care_and_Assessment

True / False

 

1. Depending on the patient population, estimates of malnutrition in hospital patients range from 15 to 60 percent.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   13.1 Nutrition in Health Care
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.1 – Describe the interrelationships between illness and malnutrition and explain how health professionals identify and treat patients at risk for nutrition problems.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

2. In some cases, the patient’s nutrition care is incorporated into the medical care plan developed by the entire health care team in particular types of plans called nursing diagnoses.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   13.1 Nutrition in Health Care
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.1 – Describe the interrelationships between illness and malnutrition and explain how health professionals identify and treat patients at risk for nutrition problems.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

3. The four steps of the nutrition care process include nutrition assessment, nutrition diagnosis, nutrition intervention, and nutrition monitoring and evaluation.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   13.1 Nutrition in Health Care
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.1 – Describe the interrelationships between illness and malnutrition and explain how health professionals identify and treat patients at risk for nutrition problems.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

4. The medical history helps the clinician identify health problems or medical treatments that may interfere with food intake or require dietary changes.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

5. The 24-hour recall provides accurate and complete data for assessing an individual’s diet.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.

 

6. ​A written account of foods and beverages consumed by a client over several days is called a nutrition diagnosis.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

7. Height and weight are the most common anthropometric measurements and are used to evaluate growth in children and nutrition status in adults.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

8. Head circumference values can track vitamin D deficiency in premature and small-for-gestational-age infants.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

9. Fluid retention can cause lab values to be deceptively high, whereas dehydration may cause the values to be deceptively low.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

10. Along with environmental factors, genetic variation also determines susceptibilities to disease.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   13.3 Nutrition in Practice: Nutritional Genomics
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.3 – Explain how nutritional genomics research may improve our understanding of the relationship between illness and nutrition care.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

Multiple Choice

 

11. ​ What is an example of a symptom or effect of an illness that would likely lead to impaired digestion and absorption?

  a. ​chemotherapy
  b. ​insufficient secretion of bile salts
  c. ​use of diuretics
  d. ​restrictive diets
  e. ​depression

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   13.1 Nutrition in Health Care
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.1 – Describe the interrelationships between illness and malnutrition and explain how health professionals identify and treat patients at risk for nutrition problems.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

12. ​What best describes a task of the registered dietitian?

  a. making referrals for dietary counseling
  b. ​administering total parenteral nutrition
  c. ​conducting nutrition assessments
  d. administering formula through feeding tubes​
  e. ​prescribing diet orders

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   13.1 Nutrition in Health Care
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.1 – Describe the interrelationships between illness and malnutrition and explain how health professionals identify and treat patients at risk for nutrition problems.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

13. ​A patient’s diet order is most often prescribed by the _____.

  a. ​registered dietitian
  b. ​physician
  c. ​registered nurse
  d. ​ registered dietetic technician
  e. ​occupational therapist

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   13.1 Nutrition in Health Care
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.1 – Describe the interrelationships between illness and malnutrition and explain how health professionals identify and treat patients at risk for nutrition problems.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

14. ​A coordinated program of treatment that merges the care plans of different health practitioners is a _____.

  a. ​critical pathway
  b. ​care map
  c. ​clinical pathway
  d. ​care plan
  e. ​nutrition screening

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   13.1 Nutrition in Health Care
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.1 – Describe the interrelationships between illness and malnutrition and explain how health professionals identify and treat patients at risk for nutrition problems.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

15. ​When performing a nutrition screening, the registered dietitian asks the patient about his health history. What information should be included in this section to determine if the patient is at risk of malnutrition?

  a. ​height, weight, and BMI
  b. ​current medical diagnosis
  c. ​food allergies and intolerances
  d. ​loss of subcutaneous fat
  e. ​low handgrip strength

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   13.1 Nutrition in Health Care
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.1 – Describe the interrelationships between illness and malnutrition and explain how health professionals identify and treat patients at risk for nutrition problems.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

16. ​When assessing for criteria that signify malnutrition risk, which element would most likely be included as part of the functional assessment data?

  a. ​severity of illness
  b. ​history of diabetes
  c. generalized weakness
  d. ​presence of pressure sores
  e. ​localized edema

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   13.1 Nutrition in Health Care
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.1 – Describe the interrelationships between illness and malnutrition and explain how health professionals identify and treat patients at risk for nutrition problems.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

17. ​Which type of assessment evaluates a person’s risk of malnutrition by ranking key variables from the medical history and physical examination?

  a. ​Subjective Global Assessment
  b. ​Integrated assessment
  c. ​Functional assessment
  d. ​Nutrition care plan
  e. ​Katz Index

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   13.1 Nutrition in Health Care
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.1 – Describe the interrelationships between illness and malnutrition and explain how health professionals identify and treat patients at risk for nutrition problems.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

18. ​Which nursing diagnosis has nutritional implications?

  a. ​hyperthermia
  b. ​self-esteem disturbance
  c. ​impaired dentition
  d. ​sleep pattern disturbance
  e. ​disruption of gas exchange

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   13.1 Nutrition in Health Care
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.1 – Describe the interrelationships between illness and malnutrition and explain how health professionals identify and treat patients at risk for nutrition problems.

 

19. ​What information would most likely be included in the “S” portion of a PES statement?

  a. ​long-term use of corticosteroids
  b. ​poor control of blood glucose levels
  c. ​decreased intake of vitamin C
  d. ​high risk of accidental injury
  e. ​weight gain of 10 percent over the past six months

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   13.1 Nutrition in Health Care
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.1 – Describe the interrelationships between illness and malnutrition and explain how health professionals identify and treat patients at risk for nutrition problems.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

20. What element would most likely be included as part of the nutrition intervention step of the nutrition care process?

  a. ​assessing the success of the patient’s nutritional care goals
  b. ​adjusting the types of treatments offered to the patient
  c. ​formulating a statement that correctly describes the patient’s condition
  d. ​reviewing the patient’s laboratory results
  e. reading the patient’s chart to gain an accurate medical history​

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   13.1 Nutrition in Health Care
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.1 – Describe the interrelationships between illness and malnutrition and explain how health professionals identify and treat patients at risk for nutrition problems.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

21. ​Which medical problem is not generally associated with malnutrition?

  a. ​Celiac disease
  b. ​dementia
  c. ​pressure sores
  d. ​incontinence
  e. major surgery​

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

22. ​When performing a nutrition assessment, the practitioner should include what information as part of the patient’s food and nutrition history?

  a. ​dietary restrictions
  b. ​religious beliefs
  c. ​prescription drugs
  d. ​surgical history
  e. past medical problems​

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

23. ​A patient is completing a food frequency questionnaire that is designed to evaluate calcium intake. This questionnaire would most likely include which foods?

  a. ​raspberries and kiwi
  b. ​summer squash
  c. ​yogurt and cheese
  d. ​ham and bacon
  e. ​lima or kidney beans

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

24. ​ A disadvantage to using a food frequency questionnaire is _____.

  a. ​it is expensive to administer
  b. ​it is not effective for monitoring short-term changes in food intake
  c. ​it is affected by seasonal changes in the diet
  d. ​it influences the food choices of the consumer
  e. ​it takes too long to obtain the results

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

25. ​When utilizing the multiple pass technique of the 24-hour dietary recall method, the first pass is completed when _____.

  a. ​the patient writes down all of the food he has consumed in the past 24 hours
  b. ​the patient includes extra foods to his intake list, such as condiments
  c. ​the patient measures the amount of liquid consumed during the last 24 hours
  d. ​the patient provides a quick list of foods consumed without prompts
  e. ​the patient describes how all of his foods have been prepared

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

26. ​A disadvantage of using a food record is _____.

  a. ​it is too time consuming for the patient
  b. ​it only offers limited food lists for the consumer
  c. ​it does not rely on the patient’s memory for accuracy
  d. ​it may provide more information than is needed
  e. ​it is affected by seasonal changes in the diet

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

27. ​Which method of collecting a dietary history is the most time-consuming and requires the highest degree of motivation to complete?

  a. ​24-hour recall
  b. ​food frequency questionnaire
  c. ​food record
  d. ​direct observation
  e. ​nutrition data assessment

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

28. ​What food intake method is most often used to monitor a client’s response to and compliance with medical nutrition therapy?

  a. ​food record
  b. food frequency checklist​
  c. ​24-hour recall
  d. ​usual intake record
  e. ​nutrition data assessment

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

29. ​When direct observations are used to generate an estimate of a client’s current food intake, the procedure is called a _____.

  a. ​kcalorie count
  b. ​food diary
  c. ​24-hour recall
  d. ​food record
  e. ​nutrient surveillance record

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.

 

30. ​A child’s height is measured in the standing position once she or he reaches the age of _____.

  a. ​12 months
  b. 18 months​
  c. ​2 years
  d. ​3 years
  e. ​5 years

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

31. ​For an adult’s height to be accurately measured, the person should _____.

  a. ​stand with the feet together
  b. ​stand erect with shoes
  c. ​stand with the feet slightly apart
  d. ​stand 2” away from the wall
  e. ​stand erect without shoes

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

32. ​The height of a person who is unable to stand is estimated from equations that use _____.

  a. ​elbow breadth or wrist circumference
  b. ​knee height or full arm span
  c. ​the distance between the wrist and the shoulder
  d. ​head circumference or wrist circumference
  e. ​the distance between the knee and the hip

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

33. ​Growth charts with BMI-for-age percentiles can be used to assess risk of underweight and overweight in children over two years of age: the _____ percentile is used as a cutoff to identify children who may be malnourished.

  a. ​1st
  b. ​5th
  c. ​8th
  d. ​10th
  e. ​15th

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

34. ​What technique would most likely be used to assess brain development in an infant?

  a. ​measure of abdominal girth
  b. ​skinfold measurement
  c. ​head circumference
  d. ​height and weight
  e. ​BMI

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

35. ​Among people who are ill, significant weight loss may be masked by _____.

  a. ​fluid retention
  b. ​dehydration
  c. ​a large tumor
  d. ​drug therapy
  e. ​hypotension

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

36. ​Joe, a 69-year-old widower, has lost 27 pounds since his wife’s death a year ago. He is 5’11” and his usual body weight is 173 pounds. What is his %UBW?

  a. ​15%
  b. ​69%
  c. ​84%
  d. ​91%
  e. ​101%

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

37. ​What laboratory test would most likely aid in the diagnosis of anemia?

  a. ​red blood cell count
  b. ​​total protein
  c. ​C-reactive protein
  d. ​blood urea nitrogen
  e. ​white blood cell count

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

38. ​When checking laboratory values for electrolyte levels, the normal range for serum sodium should be between _____.

  a. ​3.5 to 5.1 mEq/L
  b. ​7 to 35 mEq/L
  c. ​98 to 106 mEq/L
  d. ​136 to 146 mEq/L
  e. ​158 to 178 mEq/L

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

39. ​Transthyretin is also known as _____.

  a. ​C-reactive protein
  b. ​retinol-binding protein
  c. ​transferrin
  d. ​albumin
  e. ​prealbumin

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

40. ​Elevated blood levels of _____ may indicate a heart attack, brain tissue damage, or skeletal muscle injury.

  a. ​red blood cells
  b. ​chloride
  c. ​C-reactive protein
  d. ​creatine kinase
  e. ​hematocrit

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

41. ​Which laboratory test would most likely be used to evaluate liver function?

  a. ​Creatine kinase
  b. ​Mean corpuscular hemoglobin
  c. ​Creatinine
  d. ​BUN
  e. ​Alkaline phosphatase

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

42. ​The normal half-life of albumin is _____.

  a. ​12-16 hours
  b. ​2-3 days
  c. ​8-10 days
  d. ​14-20 days
  e. ​26-30 days

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

43. ​What lab value responds to both PEM and iron status?

  a. ​albumin
  b. ​prealbumin
  c. ​retinol-binding protein
  d. ​transferrin
  e. ​C-reactive protein

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

44. ​What clinical sign is an indicator of good nutritional status?

  a. ​shiny hair
  b. ​smooth tongue
  c. ​lack of fat under the skin
  d. rough skin​
  e. ​spoon-shaped nails

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

45. ​Muscle weakness due to wasting would most likely be evaluated by which test?

  a. ​recall of food intake
  b. ​red blood cell levels
  c. ​handgrip strength
  d. ​skinfold thickness
  e. ​serum sodium

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

46. ​ In a child with kwashiorkor, physical signs of malnutrition may include _____.

  a. ​bleeding gums
  b. ​magenta tongue
  c. ​bruising under the skin
  d. ​sparse, brittle hair
  e. ​ridged fingernails

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

John Wilson is a 74-year-old retired schoolteacher. He is 5’8” tall and weighs 136 pounds. His wife died nine months ago. During a routine visit to the doctor, it was noted that his weight had decreased 21 pounds since his visit a year ago. Mr. Wilson does not have any medical problems, though he does report feeling depressed and lonely. The physician ordered a panel of lab tests including hemoglobin, hematocrit, and albumin, which all were low.

 

47. ​What is Mr. Wilson’s ideal body weight?

  a. ​125 pounds
  b. ​144 pounds
  c. ​155 pounds
  d. ​161 pounds
  e. ​170 pounds

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

48. ​What is Mr. Wilson’s percent usual body weight?

  a. ​86.6%
  b. ​88.3%
  c. ​99.1%
  d. ​113.2%
  e. ​115.4%

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

49. ​The most likely cause of Mr. Wilson’s weight loss is _____.

  a. ​depression due to loss of his spouse
  b. ​inadequate income to purchase food
  c. ​ lack of knowledge about nutrition
  d. ​a high level of physical activity
  e. ​a low hemoglobin level

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   13.1 Nutrition in Health Care
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.1 – Describe the interrelationships between illness and malnutrition and explain how health professionals identify and treat patients at risk for nutrition problems.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

50. ​What nursing diagnosis would be most appropriate for Mr. Wilson?

  a. ​impaired physical mobility
  b. ​feeding self-care deficit
  c. ​disturbed body image
  d. ​mpaired dentition
  e. ​imbalanced nutrition: less than body requirements

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   13.1 Nutrition in Health Care
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.1 – Describe the interrelationships between illness and malnutrition and explain how health professionals identify and treat patients at risk for nutrition problems.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

51. Mr. Wilson’s low hemoglobin and hematocrit may be indicative of a deficiency of dietary _____.​

  a. ​potassium
  b. ​calcium
  c. ​sodium
  d. iron​
  e. magnesium

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

52. ​Mr. Wilson’s low albumin level may indicate a depletion of _____.

  a. ​body fat
  b. ​body proteins
  c. ​vitamin D
  d. iron
  e. ​calcium

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

53. ​The study of the effects of diet on gene expression is called _____.

  a. ​gene representation
  b. ​nutritional genomics
  c. ​nutritional science
  d. ​gene therapy
  e. ​epigenetics

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   13.3 Nutrition in Practice: Nutritional Genomics
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.3 – Explain how nutritional genomics research may improve our understanding of the relationship between illness and nutrition care.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

54. The human body contains _____ chromosomes.

  a. ​23
  b. ​37
  c. ​46
  d. ​52
  e. ​56

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   13.3 Nutrition in Practice: Nutritional Genomics
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.3 – Explain how nutritional genomics research may improve our understanding of the relationship between illness and nutrition care.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

55. Genetic information is encoded in _____ within the nuclei of almost all of the cells in the body.

  a. ​DNA molecules
  b. c​hromosomes
  c. ​amino acid sequences
  d. ​nucleotides
  e. ​protein molecules

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   13.3 Nutrition in Practice: Nutritional Genomics
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.3 – Explain how nutritional genomics research may improve our understanding of the relationship between illness and nutrition care.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

56. ​The field of _____ investigates processes that cause heritable changes in gene expression that are separate from the underlying DNA nucleotide sequence.

  a. ​microarray technology
  b. ​nutritional genomics
  c. ​DNA methylation
  d. ​epigenetics
  e. ​RNA transcription

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   13.3 Nutrition in Practice: Nutritional Genomics
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.3 – Explain how nutritional genomics research may improve our understanding of the relationship between illness and nutrition care.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

57. ​One example of a single-gene disorder would be _____.

  a. ​diabetes
  b. ​hypertension
  c. ​hemochromatosis
  d. ​hyperlipidemia
  e. ​obesity

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   13.3 Nutrition in Practice: Nutritional Genomics
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.3 – Explain how nutritional genomics research may improve our understanding of the relationship between illness and nutrition care.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

58. ​Segments of a DNA strand that can be translated into proteins are called _____.

  a. ​chromosomes
  b. ​noncoding sequences
  c. ​genomics
  d. ​genes
  e. ​nucleotides

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   13.3 Nutrition in Practice: Nutritional Genomics
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.3 – Explain how nutritional genomics research may improve our understanding of the relationship between illness and nutrition care.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

59. ​A drawback to obtaining detailed genetic information about one’s disease risk is _____.

  a. ​the potential for revealing private information
  b. ​people may take better care of themselves and seek medical care less often
  c. ​there are less effective treatments for some diseases
  d. ​physicians may stop ordering less expensive lab tests
  e. ​medical science and treatments may not be able to keep up with genetic risk information

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   13.3 Nutrition in Practice: Nutritional Genomics
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.3 – Explain how nutritional genomics research may improve our understanding of the relationship between illness and nutrition care.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

Nursing Exam Review Multiple Choice​

 

60. T​he nurse realizes that malnutrition is a common problem among people who are hospitalized and that it is associated with _____.

  a. ​a weakened immune system
  b. ​lower mortality rates
  c. ​reduced health care costs
  d. ​fewer complications
  e. ​high blood pressure

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   13.1 Nutrition in Health Care
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.1 – Describe the interrelationships between illness and malnutrition and explain how health professionals identify and treat patients at risk for nutrition problems.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

61. ​Though a dietitian or dietetic technician may perform a patient’s nutrition screening, it should occur within _____ hours of admission.

  a. ​12
  b. ​24
  c. ​36
  d. ​48
  e. ​72

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   13.1 Nutrition in Health Care
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.1 – Describe the interrelationships between illness and malnutrition and explain how health professionals identify and treat patients at risk for nutrition problems.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

62. ​An elderly male is admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of malnutrition three months after his wife died. This situation describes which criteria that identify malnutrition risk?

  a. ​depression or social isolation
  b. ​recent unintentional weight change
  c. ​history of chronic illness
  d. ​age
  e. ​impaired mobility

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   13.1 Nutrition in Health Care
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.1 – Describe the interrelationships between illness and malnutrition and explain how health professionals identify and treat patients at risk for nutrition problems.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

63. ​A nurse is examining a 3-week old infant. What step should be performed to correctly measure the length of an infant?

  a. ​Use a moveable headboard and fixed footboard.
  b. ​Place the infant in the prone position.
  c. ​Use a flexible tape measure.
  d. ​Record the measurement to the nearest ¼”.
  e. ​Undress the infant completely.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

64. ​What steps should the nurse include in order to successfully measure a patient’s weight?

  a. ​Ask the patient his weight before measuring it.
  b. ​Avoid using electronic or beam balance scales.
  c. ​Measure infants and children up to age 15 sitting on a scale.
  d. ​Avoid using built-in scales found in some hospital beds.
  e. ​Only use a scale that has been maintained and calibrated.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

65. Weight gain due to fluid retention in a patient with liver cirrhosis can mask symptoms of _____.

  a. ​liver failure
  b. ​PEM
  c. ​obesity
  d. ​gallbladder disease
  e. ​heart failure

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HNHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

Matching

 

​Matching

a. ​clinical judgments about actual or potential health problems that provide the basis for selecting appropriate nursing interventions
b. ​health care professionals responsible for the provision of nutrients by tube feeding or intravenous infusion
c. ​the distance from the top of the head to the soles of the feet while a person is recumbent
d. ​a state of malnutrition characterized by depletion of tissue proteins and energy stores
e. ​structures within the nucleus of a cell that contain the cell’s DNA and associated proteins
f. ​medical conditions resulting from genetic defects
g. ​loss of appetite
h. ​a record of foods consumed during the previous day or in the past 24 hours
i. ​the subunits of DNA and RNA molecules
j. ​estimates of food energy consumed by patients for one or more days
k. ​regions of skin and tissue that are damaged due to prolonged pressure on the affected area by an external object
l. ​regions of DNA that do not code for proteins
m. ​a detailed log of food eaten during a specified time period
n. ​the length of time that it takes for half the amount of a substance circulating in the plasma to degrade
o. ​the gradual atrophy of body tissues; associated with protein- energy malnutrition or chronic illness
p. ​specific instructions regarding dietary management
q. ​the full complement of genetic material in the chromosomes of a cell
r. ​variations in DNA sequences of a particular gene
s. ​a systematic approach used by dietetics professionals to evaluate and treat nutrition-related problems
t. ​related to physical measurements of the human body, such as height, weight, body circumferences, and percentage of body fat

 

REFERENCES:   13.1 Nutrition in Health Care
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.1 – Describe the interrelationships between illness and malnutrition and explain how health professionals identify and treat patients at risk for nutrition problems.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

66. ​anorexia

ANSWER:   g

 

67. ​diet orders

ANSWER:   p

 

68. ​nutrition support teams

ANSWER:   b

 

69. ​pressure sores

ANSWER:   k

 

70. ​protein energy malnutrition

ANSWER:   d

 

71. nursing diagnoses

ANSWER:   a

 

72. ​nutrition care process

ANSWER:   s

 

​Matching

a. ​clinical judgments about actual or potential health problems that provide the basis for selecting appropriate nursing interventions
b. ​health care professionals responsible for the provision of nutrients by tube feeding or intravenous infusion
c. ​the distance from the top of the head to the soles of the feet while a person is recumbent
d. ​a state of malnutrition characterized by depletion of tissue proteins and energy stores
e. ​structures within the nucleus of a cell that contain the cell’s DNA and associated proteins
f. ​medical conditions resulting from genetic defects
g. ​loss of appetite
h. ​a record of foods consumed during the previous day or in the past 24 hours
i. ​the subunits of DNA and RNA molecules
j. ​estimates of food energy consumed by patients for one or more days
k. ​regions of skin and tissue that are damaged due to prolonged pressure on the affected area by an external object
l. ​regions of DNA that do not code for proteins
m. ​a detailed log of food eaten during a specified time period
n. ​the length of time that it takes for half the amount of a substance circulating in the plasma to degrade
o. ​the gradual atrophy of body tissues; associated with protein- energy malnutrition or chronic illness
p. ​specific instructions regarding dietary management
q. ​the full complement of genetic material in the chromosomes of a cell
r. ​variations in DNA sequences of a particular gene
s. ​a systematic approach used by dietetics professionals to evaluate and treat nutrition-related problems
t. ​related to physical measurements of the human body, such as height, weight, body circumferences, and percentage of body fat

 

REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

73. 24-hour recall

ANSWER:   h

 

74. ​food record

ANSWER:   m

 

75. ​kcalorie counts

ANSWER:   j

 

76. ​anthropometric

ANSWER:   t

 

77. ​length

ANSWER:   c

 

78. ​half-life

ANSWER:   n

 

79. ​wasting

ANSWER:   o

 

​Matching

a. ​clinical judgments about actual or potential health problems that provide the basis for selecting appropriate nursing interventions
b. ​health care professionals responsible for the provision of nutrients by tube feeding or intravenous infusion
c. ​the distance from the top of the head to the soles of the feet while a person is recumbent
d. ​a state of malnutrition characterized by depletion of tissue proteins and energy stores
e. ​structures within the nucleus of a cell that contain the cell’s DNA and associated proteins
f. ​medical conditions resulting from genetic defects
g. ​loss of appetite
h. ​a record of foods consumed during the previous day or in the past 24 hours
i. ​the subunits of DNA and RNA molecules
j. ​estimates of food energy consumed by patients for one or more days
k. ​regions of skin and tissue that are damaged due to prolonged pressure on the affected area by an external object
l. ​regions of DNA that do not code for proteins
m. ​a detailed log of food eaten during a specified time period
n. ​the length of time that it takes for half the amount of a substance circulating in the plasma to degrade
o. ​the gradual atrophy of body tissues; associated with protein- energy malnutrition or chronic illness
p. ​specific instructions regarding dietary management
q. ​the full complement of genetic material in the chromosomes of a cell
r. ​variations in DNA sequences of a particular gene
s. ​a systematic approach used by dietetics professionals to evaluate and treat nutrition-related problems
t. ​related to physical measurements of the human body, such as height, weight, body circumferences, and percentage of body fat

 

REFERENCES:   13.3 Nutrition in Practice: Nutritional Genomics
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.3 – Explain how nutritional genomics research may improve our understanding of the relationship between illness and nutrition care.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

80. chromosomes

ANSWER:   e

 

81. ​genome

ANSWER:   q

 

82. ​inherited disorders

ANSWER:   f

 

83. ​noncoding sequence

ANSWER:   l

 

84. ​nucleotides

ANSWER:   i

 

85. ​polymorphisms

ANSWER:   r

 

Essay

 

86. Describe how illness can compromise nutrition status.​

ANSWER:   Illnesses and their treatments may lead to malnutrition by causing a reduction in food intake, interfering with digestion and absorption, or altering nutrient metabolism and excretion. Illness can directly impact nutrition when a patient’s condition, his symptoms, or the treatments for his illness affect how he is able to eat and digest food. Nutrition status is further affected when illness causes changes in the gastrointestinal or urinary symptoms, thereby impacting how the body metabolizes or excretes nutrients. The patient may develop electrolyte imbalances, vitamin or mineral deficiencies, or dehydration because of the alterations in how the body manages nutrients during a time of illness.​
REFERENCES:   13.1 Nutrition in Health Care
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.1 – Describe the interrelationships between illness and malnutrition and explain how health professionals identify and treat patients at risk for nutrition problems.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

87. Explain the purpose of a nutrition screening and describe the types of information collected during the process.​

ANSWER:   To identify patients who are malnourished or at risk for malnutrition, a nutrition screening is conducted within 24 hours of a patient’s admission to a hospital or other extended-care facility. A screening may also be included in certain types of outpatient services and community health programs. The information collected in a nutrition screening varies according to the patient population, the type of care offered by the health care facility, and the patient’s medical problem. Often included are the admitting diagnosis, physical measurements and laboratory test results obtained during the admission process, relevant symptoms, and information about diet and health status provided by the patient or caregiver. Several screening tools that use different combinations of these variables are available for use. The screening should be sensitive enough to identify patients who require nutrition care but simple enough to be completed within 10 to 15 minutes.​
REFERENCES:   13.1 Nutrition in Health Care
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.1 – Describe the interrelationships between illness and malnutrition and explain how health professionals identify and treat patients at risk for nutrition problems.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

88. List and describe the steps in the nutrition care process.

ANSWER:   ​The four steps of the nutrition care process are nutrition assessment, nutrition diagnosis, nutrition intervention, and nutrition monitoring and evaluation. A nutrition assessment involves the collection and analysis of health-related data in order to identify specific nutrition problems and their underlying causes. The nutrition diagnosis identifies problems determined from the nutrition assessment and makes a diagnostic statement about each. These diagnoses are typically formatted as a PES statement, which identifies the problem, its cause, and associated signs and symptoms. After identifying nutrition problems and their associated diagnoses, the appropriate nutrition care can be planned and implemented by providing nutrition interventions. Finally, the effectiveness of the nutrition care plan must be evaluated periodically: the patient’s progress should be monitored closely, and updated assessment data or diagnoses may require adjustments in goals or outcome measures.
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

89. List three different methods for obtaining food intake data and describe the major uses, advantages, and limitations of each.​

ANSWER:   There are several methods designed to collect and monitor food intake among patients; three examples are the food frequency questionnaire, the 24-hour recall, and the food record. The food frequency questionnaire is a written survey of food consumption during a specific period of time, often a one-year period. It examines long-term intake, it does not affect the patient’s food choices, and it is inexpensive, but it relies on the patient’s memory for accuracy and is ineffective in evaluating short-term dietary changes. The 24-hour recall method is a guided interview in which the foods and beverages consumed in a 24-hour period are described in detail. It is a quick method of obtaining food information that does not affect the patient’s food choices, but it also relies on the patient’s memory and the skill of the interviewer to obtain accurate data. The food record is a written account of food consumed during a specified period, usually several consecutive days. It can be useful in controlling the patient’s food intake because foods are recorded as they are consumed. Alternatively, the food record can be time consuming and there is a high level of error when estimating portion sizes.​
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

90. Describe the major biochemical tests of protein status and briefly discuss their major advantages and disadvantages.​

ANSWER:   Biochemical data are obtained by analyzing blood and urine samples, which contain proteins, nutrients, and metabolites that reflect protein status. Serum protein levels can aid in the assessment of protein-energy status, but the levels may fluctuate. Because serum proteins are affected by so many factors, their values must be considered along with other data to evaluate health and nutrition status. Albumin is the most abundant serum protein, and its levels are routinely monitored in hospital patients to help gauge the severity of illness. Albumin levels increase slowly when malnutrition is treated, so it is not a sensitive indicator of effective treatment. Transferrin is an iron-transport protein, and its blood concentrations respond to iron status, PEM, and various illnesses. Additionally, blood concentrations of trans-thyretin and retinol-binding protein decrease rapidly during PEM and respond quickly to improved protein intakes. Thus, these proteins are more sensitive than albumin to short-term changes in protein status. C-reactive protein (CRP) levels rise rapidly in response to inflammation or infection and are often elevated in individuals with critical illness, heart disease, and certain cancers. Elevated CRP values may help to identify individuals at risk for malnutrition, as well as aid in the interpretation of other serum protein tests.​
REFERENCES:   13.2 Nutrition Assessment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.13.2 – Discuss the various types of data used for evaluating an individual’s nutrition and health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

 

c23 Nutrition_Cancer_and_HIV_Infection

True / False

 

1. Most often, cancer is caused by interactions between a person’s genes and environmental agents.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   23.1 Cancer
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.1 – Describe cancer development, the factors that influence cancer risk, the effects of cancer on nutrition status, and the main approaches to cancer treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

2. Nutrition-related factors may increase or decrease the risk of developing cancer.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   23.1 Cancer
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.1 – Describe cancer development, the factors that influence cancer risk, the effects of cancer on nutrition status, and the main approaches to cancer treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

3. Research indicates that high-fat diets often correlate with cancer rates; thus, low-fat diets can reduce the risk of developing cancer.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   23.1 Cancer
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.1 – Describe cancer development, the factors that influence cancer risk, the effects of cancer on nutrition status, and the main approaches to cancer treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

4. Cancer cachexia affects almost all cancer patients.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   23.1 Cancer
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.1 – Describe cancer development, the factors that influence cancer risk, the effects of cancer on nutrition status, and the main approaches to cancer treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

5. Inflammation of the mouth that is caused by exposure to radiation is called radiation enteritis.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   23.1 Cancer
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.1 – Describe cancer development, the factors that influence cancer risk, the effects of cancer on nutrition status, and the main approaches to cancer treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

6. Most cancer patients abandon conventional treatments and use alternative therapies in the place of conventional therapies.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   23.1 Cancer
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.1 – Describe cancer development, the factors that influence cancer risk, the effects of cancer on nutrition status, and the main approaches to cancer treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

7. Recurrent bacterial pneumonia is classified as an AIDS-defining illness.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   23.2 HIV Infection
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.2 – Discuss the potential consequences of HIV infection, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

8. Herpes simplex is a fungal infection of the mouth and throat that often occurs in patients with HIV.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   23.2 HIV Infection
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.2 – Discuss the potential consequences of HIV infection, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

9. Untreated HIV infection can increase a person’s susceptibility to opportunistic infections such as Kaposi’s sarcoma.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   23.2 HIV Infection
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.2 – Discuss the potential consequences of HIV infection, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

10. The medication megestrol acetate can improve appetite and increase weight in HIV patients.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   23.2 HIV Infection
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.2 – Discuss the potential consequences of HIV infection, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

11. Patients have a right to refuse medical treatment—including nourishment and hydration—even if refusing the treatment could result in death.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   23.3 Nutrition in Practice: Ethical Issues
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.3 – Summarize the ethical principles that guide treatment decisions and the responsibilities of physicians and patients in determining the appropriate care during medical emergencies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

12. A copy of any advance directive should be part of a client’s medical record.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   23.3 Nutrition in Practice: Ethical Issues
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.3 – Summarize the ethical principles that guide treatment decisions and the responsibilities of physicians and patients in determining the appropriate care during medical emergencies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

13. A durable power of attorney indicates one’s preference for medical treatment in the event of incapacitation.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   23.3 Nutrition in Practice: Ethical Issues
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.3 – Summarize the ethical principles that guide treatment decisions and the responsibilities of physicians and patients in determining the appropriate care during medical emergencies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

14. Laws regarding advance directives are standardized from state to state.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   23.3 Nutrition in Practice: Ethical Issues
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.3 – Summarize the ethical principles that guide treatment decisions and the responsibilities of physicians and patients in determining the appropriate care during medical emergencies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

15. Because of the availability of advance directives, over 80 percent of people in the United States have completed one.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   23.3 Nutrition in Practice: Ethical Issues
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.3 – Summarize the ethical principles that guide treatment decisions and the responsibilities of physicians and patients in determining the appropriate care during medical emergencies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

Multiple Choice

 

16. ​A cancer that arises from muscle or bone is referred to as a(n) _____.

  a. sarcoma​
  b. ​adenoma
  c. ​carcinoma
  d. ​melanoma
  e. ​adenocarcinoma

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   23.1 Cancer
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.1 – Describe cancer development, the factors that influence cancer risk, the effects of cancer on nutrition status, and the main approaches to cancer treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

17. Obese women have a higher risk of breast cancer than lean women because _____.​

  a. ​excess adipose tissue raises levels of estrogen in the body
  b. ​obese women eat high-fat diets
  c. ​lean women exercise more
  d. ​obese women often go through menopause earlier than lean women
  e. ​lean women have higher estrogen levels after menopause

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   23.1 Cancer
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.1 – Describe cancer development, the factors that influence cancer risk, the effects of cancer on nutrition status, and the main approaches to cancer treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

18. What factor has been associated with a high incidence of stomach cancer?​

  a. ​Alcohol
  b. ​Abdominal fat
  c. ​Intake of salt-preserved foods
  d. ​Increased calcium intake
  e. ​Red meat intake

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   23.1 Cancer
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.1 – Describe cancer development, the factors that influence cancer risk, the effects of cancer on nutrition status, and the main approaches to cancer treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

19. Increased intake of processed meats has been associated with which type of cancer?​

  a. ​Stomach
  b. ​Liver
  c. ​Prostate
  d. ​Gall bladder
  e. ​Rectum

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   23.1 Cancer
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.1 – Describe cancer development, the factors that influence cancer risk, the effects of cancer on nutrition status, and the main approaches to cancer treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

20. Consumption of _____ may actually decrease the risk of prostate cancer.​

  a. ​milk and dairy products
  b. ​tomato products
  c. ​citrus fruits
  d. ​whole grains
  e. ​folate-containing foods

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   23.1 Cancer
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.1 – Describe cancer development, the factors that influence cancer risk, the effects of cancer on nutrition status, and the main approaches to cancer treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

21. Leukemia is a type of cancer affecting the _____, where the abnormal cells do not form a tumor; they accumulate in the blood and other tissues.​

  a. ​plasma
  b. ​lymph nodes
  c. ​white blood cells
  d. ​platelets
  e. ​red blood cells

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   23.1 Cancer
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.1 – Describe cancer development, the factors that influence cancer risk, the effects of cancer on nutrition status, and the main approaches to cancer treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

22. What food preparation method is most likely to produce carcinogens that could cause cancer?​

  a. ​Using a microwave
  b. ​Boiling vegetables
  c. ​Canning fruits
  d. ​Frying fish
  e. ​Sautéing vegetables

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   23.1 Cancer
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.1 – Describe cancer development, the factors that influence cancer risk, the effects of cancer on nutrition status, and the main approaches to cancer treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

23. Cancer cachexia is characterized by _____.​

  a. ​anorexia
  b. ​weight gain
  c. ​slowed metabolism
  d. ​increased appetite
  e. ​elevated muscle activity

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   23.1 Cancer
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.1 – Describe cancer development, the factors that influence cancer risk, the effects of cancer on nutrition status, and the main approaches to cancer treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

24. What metabolic abnormality is most often associated with cancer?​

  a. ​Decreased protein turnover
  b. ​Decreased carbon fixation
  c. ​Elevated protein synthesis
  d. ​Increased build up of triglycerides
  e. ​Increased insulin resistance

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   23.1 Cancer
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.1 – Describe cancer development, the factors that influence cancer risk, the effects of cancer on nutrition status, and the main approaches to cancer treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

25. What side effect is most often associated with gastric resection surgery for cancer treatment?​

  a. ​Reduced swallowing ability
  b. ​Dumping syndrome
  c. ​Bile insufficiency
  d. ​Acid reflux
  e. ​General malabsorption

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   23.1 Cancer
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.1 – Describe cancer development, the factors that influence cancer risk, the effects of cancer on nutrition status, and the main approaches to cancer treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

26. The structure of methotrexate, a drug used to treat cancer, resembles that of _____.​

  a. ​vitamin C
  b. ​vitamin E
  c. ​folate
  d. ​pyridoxine
  e. ​thiamin

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   23.1 Cancer
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.1 – Describe cancer development, the factors that influence cancer risk, the effects of cancer on nutrition status, and the main approaches to cancer treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

27. The drug dronabinol is sometimes used with cancer patients to _____.​

  a. ​prevent constipation
  b. ​shrink tumors
  c. ​stimulate appetite
  d. ​combat diarrhea
  e. ​increase lean body mass

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   23.1 Cancer
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.1 – Describe cancer development, the factors that influence cancer risk, the effects of cancer on nutrition status, and the main approaches to cancer treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

28. Which type of drug would most likely be co-administered with chemotherapy?​

  a. ​Appetite stimulants
  b. ​Antivirals
  c. ​Antiemetics
  d. ​Anabolic steroids
  e. ​Antibiotics

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   23.1 Cancer
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.1 – Describe cancer development, the factors that influence cancer risk, the effects of cancer on nutrition status, and the main approaches to cancer treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

29. Weight gain most often occurs in patients with cancer of the _____.​

  a. ​colon
  b. ​breast
  c. ​stomach
  d. ​pancreas
  e. ​liver

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   23.1 Cancer
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.1 – Describe cancer development, the factors that influence cancer risk, the effects of cancer on nutrition status, and the main approaches to cancer treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

30. In order to increase caloric intake, an individual with cancer could substitute _____ for the milk normally used in recipes.​

  a. ​Lactaid milk
  b. ​Chicken broth
  c. ​Fat-free evaporated milk
  d. ​Half-and-half
  e. ​Powdered milk

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   23.1 Cancer
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.1 – Describe cancer development, the factors that influence cancer risk, the effects of cancer on nutrition status, and the main approaches to cancer treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

31. To improve energy intake and compensate for weight loss during cancer treatment, clients should be encouraged to _____.​

  a. ​use fats liberally
  b. ​eat extra food immediately after treatment
  c. ​avoid sugar substitutes
  d. ​eat more vegetables and fruits
  e. ​chew food slowly before swallowing

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   23.1 Cancer
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.1 – Describe cancer development, the factors that influence cancer risk, the effects of cancer on nutrition status, and the main approaches to cancer treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

32. A cancer patient complains that foods just don’t taste right. An appropriate recommendation to help the patient handle this problem is to _____.​

  a. ​consume smaller meals
  b. ​cut foods into smaller pieces
  c. ​brush the teeth or use mouthwash before eating
  d. ​include appetite-enhancing medications
  e. ​take small bites and chew foods thoroughly

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   23.1 Cancer
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.1 – Describe cancer development, the factors that influence cancer risk, the effects of cancer on nutrition status, and the main approaches to cancer treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

33. What type of cancer would most likely produce complications that would require tube feeding as a corrective dietary measure?

  a. ​Breast cancer
  b. ​Head and neck cancer
  c. ​Bone cancer
  d. ​Skin cancer
  e. ​Liver cancer

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   23.1 Cancer
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.1 – Describe cancer development, the factors that influence cancer risk, the effects of cancer on nutrition status, and the main approaches to cancer treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

34. One of the most frequently used CAM therapies among cancer patients is _____.​

  a. ​massage therapy
  b. ​acupuncture
  c. ​reflexology
  d. ​aromatherapy
  e. ​herbal supplements

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   23.1 Cancer
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.1 – Describe cancer development, the factors that influence cancer risk, the effects of cancer on nutrition status, and the main approaches to cancer treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

35. What action can a cancer patient include to add protein to a meal?​

  a. ​Choose high-fat meat instead of lean meat.
  b. ​Include chopped vegetables in salads and casseroles.
  c. ​Melt cheese over eggs, vegetable dishes, and meatloaf.
  d. ​Add diced fruit to baked goods.
  e. ​Include mayonnaise or salad dressing with side dishes.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   23.1 Cancer
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.1 – Describe cancer development, the factors that influence cancer risk, the effects of cancer on nutrition status, and the main approaches to cancer treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

36. A patient who is undergoing chemotherapy has developed sores in his mouth, which makes it difficult for him to eat. What suggestion would most likely help this patient handle this problem?​

  a. ​Serve food steaming hot and drink hot liquids.
  b. ​Take larger bites of foods and chew thoroughly.
  c. ​Avoid irritating foods such as citrus fruits or tomato juice.
  d. ​Drink liquids directly from a cup and avoid a straw.
  e. ​Eat a piece of peppermint candy before consuming a meal.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   23.1 Cancer
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.1 – Describe cancer development, the factors that influence cancer risk, the effects of cancer on nutrition status, and the main approaches to cancer treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

37. The progression of HIV can be evaluated by monitoring _____.​

  a. ​the viral load
  b. ​serum albumin levels
  c. ​weight
  d. ​body composition
  e. ​red blood cell counts

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   23.2 HIV Infection
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.2 – Discuss the potential consequences of HIV infection, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

38. The reason for the development of lipodystrophy in HIV treatment is _____.​

  a. ​malnutrition
  b. ​overeating
  c. ​hormone imbalances
  d. ​hypertriglyceridemia
  e. ​unknown

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   23.2 HIV Infection
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.2 – Discuss the potential consequences of HIV infection, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

39. Common oral infections associated with HIV infection that may cause discomfort and interfere with food consumption include candidiasis and _____.​

  a. ​herpes simplex virus infection
  b. ​tooth abscesses
  c. ​canker sores
  d. ​gingivostomatitis
  e. Porphyromonas gingivalis infection

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   23.2 HIV Infection
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.2 – Discuss the potential consequences of HIV infection, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

40. In HIV patients, thrush typically causes what symptoms?​

  a. ​Diarrhea
  b. ​Mouth pain
  c. ​Lesions around the lips
  d. ​Acid reflux
  e. ​Increased mucus secretions

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   23.2 HIV Infection
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.2 – Discuss the potential consequences of HIV infection, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

41. ​A rare type of cancer frequently associated with HIV infection is _____.

  a. ​Kaposi’s sarcoma
  b. ​Merkel cell carcinoma
  c. ​chronic myelomonocytic leukemia
  d. ​gastrinoma
  e. ​insulinoma

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   23.2 HIV Infection
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.2 – Discuss the potential consequences of HIV infection, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

42. Clinical features of neurological complications associated with HIV infection include mild to severe dementia and ____.​

  a. ​seizures
  b. ​facial twitching
  c. ​gait disturbances
  d. ​headaches
  e. ​loss of sense of smell

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   23.2 HIV Infection
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.2 – Discuss the potential consequences of HIV infection, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

43. The standard treatment for suppressing HIV infection _____.​

  a. ​consists of a combination of at least 3 antiretroviral drugs
  b. ​usually involves surgical procedures
  c. ​has few adverse effects
  d. ​can be completed over the course of several months
  e. ​is not available for most people with HIV in the United States

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   23.2 HIV Infection
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.2 – Discuss the potential consequences of HIV infection, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

44. What drug is an example of a protease inhibitor used in the management of HIV infection?​

  a. ​Enfuvirtide
  b. ​Ritonavir
  c. ​Efavirenz
  d. ​Lamivudine
  e. ​Didanosine

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   23.2 HIV Infection
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.2 – Discuss the potential consequences of HIV infection, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

45. What drug, when combined with resistance training, has positive effects on lean tissue mass in HIV patients?​

  a. ​Megestrol acetate
  b. ​Dronabinol
  c. ​Testosterone
  d. ​Maraviroc
  e. ​Cortisol

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   23.2 HIV Infection
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.2 – Discuss the potential consequences of HIV infection, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

Hannah Arther is a 53-year-old marketing executive who was recently diagnosed with uterine cancer. She had a complete hysterectomy and is currently undergoing radiation therapy. She is experiencing nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea as well as anorexia.

 

46. The symptoms that Ms. Arther is experiencing are consistent with _____.​

  a. ​radiation enteritis
  b. ​tissue rejection
  c. ​steatorrhea
  d. ​lipodystrophy
  e. ​negative nitrogen balance

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   23.1 Cancer
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.1 – Describe cancer development, the factors that influence cancer risk, the effects of cancer on nutrition status, and the main approaches to cancer treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

47. ​Because of her symptoms, Ms. Arther is at risk for what complication?

  a. ​A fistula
  b. ​Fluid and electrolyte imbalances
  c. ​Intestinal obstruction
  d. ​Dysphagia
  e. ​Hemorrhage

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   23.1 Cancer
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.1 – Describe cancer development, the factors that influence cancer risk, the effects of cancer on nutrition status, and the main approaches to cancer treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

48. ​Ms. Arther complains that she is too tired to fix meals and eat. What would be an appropriate recommendation for her?

  a. ​Engage in regular physical activity.
  b. ​Use mouthwash before eating.
  c. ​Obtain foods that are easy to prepare and easy to eat.
  d. ​Consume liquids throughout the day instead.
  e. ​Experiment with seasonings to improve the flavor of food.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   23.1 Cancer
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.1 – Describe cancer development, the factors that influence cancer risk, the effects of cancer on nutrition status, and the main approaches to cancer treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

49. Ms. Arther enjoys pudding and is able to tolerate it pretty well. To increase her caloric intake, she should use _____ while preparing her pudding.​

  a. ​half-and-half
  b. ​sour cream
  c. ​2% milk
  d. ​powdered milk
  e. ​vitamin D milk

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   23.1 Cancer
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.1 – Describe cancer development, the factors that influence cancer risk, the effects of cancer on nutrition status, and the main approaches to cancer treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

50. In order to increase Ms. Arther’s energy intake, she should include _____ freely in her diet.​

  a. ​cut-up fruits
  b. ​mayonnaise
  c. ​steamed vegetables
  d. ​salt
  e. ​low-fat dairy

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   23.1 Cancer
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.1 – Describe cancer development, the factors that influence cancer risk, the effects of cancer on nutrition status, and the main approaches to cancer treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

51. ​The primary focus of nutrition care for Ms. Arther is _____.

  a. ​educating her on ways to prevent the recurrence of cancer
  b. ​understanding how to administer tube feedings
  c. ​ensuring that she uses herbal supplements
  d. ​preventing iron-deficiency anemia
  e. ​ensuring appropriate intakes of calories and protein

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   23.1 Cancer
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.1 – Describe cancer development, the factors that influence cancer risk, the effects of cancer on nutrition status, and the main approaches to cancer treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

52. A patient’s right to make decisions concerning his or her own well-being is called _____.​

  a. ​patient autonomy
  b. ​informed consent
  c. ​beneficence
  d. ​distributive justice
  e. ​maleficence

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   23.3 Nutrition in Practice: Ethical Issues
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.3 – Summarize the ethical principles that guide treatment decisions and the responsibilities of physicians and patients in determining the appropriate care during medical emergencies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

53. ​Disclosure refers to _____.

  a. ​the act of performing beneficial services rather than harmful ones
  b. ​a comparison of the potential benefits and harm of any treatment
  c. ​a patient’s right to life-sustaining treatments
  d. ​the ability to understand pertinent information and make appropriate decisions
  e. ​a patient’s right to be fully informed of a treatment’s benefits and risks in a fair and honest manner

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   23.3 Nutrition in Practice: Ethical Issues
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.3 – Summarize the ethical principles that guide treatment decisions and the responsibilities of physicians and patients in determining the appropriate care during medical emergencies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

54. What legal document allows a competent adult to clearly express directions regarding medical treatment in the event that the person is unable to make the necessary decisions at that time?​

  a. ​Living trust
  b. ​Power of attorney
  c. ​Living will
  d. ​Durable medical record
  e. ​Care plan

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   23.3 Nutrition in Practice: Ethical Issues
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.3 – Summarize the ethical principles that guide treatment decisions and the responsibilities of physicians and patients in determining the appropriate care during medical emergencies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

55. An individual who does not wish to receive CPR if she has a heart attack in the hospital should request a(n) _____.​

  a. ​DNR order
  b. ​living will
  c. ​power of attorney
  d. ​disclosure document
  e. ​informed consent

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   23.3 Nutrition in Practice: Ethical Issues
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.3 – Summarize the ethical principles that guide treatment decisions and the responsibilities of physicians and patients in determining the appropriate care during medical emergencies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

56. A durable power of attorney is used to _____.​

  a. ​state the patient’s wishes about treatments he does or does not want at the end of life
  b. ​appoint a health care agent for the patient
  c. ​withhold CPR in the event of cardiopulmonary arrest
  d. ​allow a physician to write a DNR order
  e. ​determine the decision-making capacity of the patient

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   23.3 Nutrition in Practice: Ethical Issues
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.3 – Summarize the ethical principles that guide treatment decisions and the responsibilities of physicians and patients in determining the appropriate care during medical emergencies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

Nursing Exam Review Multiple Choice​

 

57. ​Mrs. Watson is a 55-year-old female with a family history of breast cancer. To reduce Mrs. Watson’s risk of breast cancer, the nurse advises her to _____.

  a. ​avoid alcohol and maintain a healthy weight
  b. ​take a calcium supplement daily
  c. ​eat less red meat
  d. ​drink a glass of red wine with dinner
  e. ​increase her intake of vegetables and dairy

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   23.1 Cancer
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.1 – Describe cancer development, the factors that influence cancer risk, the effects of cancer on nutrition status, and the main approaches to cancer treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

58. ​The nurse is working with a client admitted to the hospital with complaints of loss of appetite and weight loss. An assessment of the client also reveals depletion of lean body mass and serum protein. The nurse accurately recognizes these as characteristics of ______.

  a. ​tissue rejection
  b. ​human immunodeficiency virus
  c. ​thrush
  d. ​cancer cachexia
  e. ​bile insufficiency

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   23.1 Cancer
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.1 – Describe cancer development, the factors that influence cancer risk, the effects of cancer on nutrition status, and the main approaches to cancer treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

59. Cancer patients exhibit an increased rate of protein turnover. The nurse understands that this means patients _____.​

  a. ​may have a difficult time maintaining a healthy body weight
  b. ​require less protein in their dietsc
  c. ​should increase their intake of fats
  d. ​may experience early satiety
  e. ​often suffer from constipation

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   23.1 Cancer
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.1 – Describe cancer development, the factors that influence cancer risk, the effects of cancer on nutrition status, and the main approaches to cancer treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

60. ​The nurse understands that methotrexate is a chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of cancer and that it can cause a patient to become deficient in _____.

  a. ​essential fatty acids
  b. ​folate
  c. ​vitamin B12
  d. ​calcium
  e. ​sodium

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   23.1 Cancer
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.1 – Describe cancer development, the factors that influence cancer risk, the effects of cancer on nutrition status, and the main approaches to cancer treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

61. Mrs. Dwyer is a 48-year-old patient who is undergoing radiation therapy for uterine cancer. She complains of nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, and has experienced significant weight loss. The nurse recognizes that the likely cause of Mrs. Dwyer’s symptoms is _____.​

  a. ​tissue rejection
  b. ​radiation enteritis
  c. ​steatorrhea
  d. ​mental stress
  e. ​inadequate gastric secretions

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   23.1 Cancer
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.1 – Describe cancer development, the factors that influence cancer risk, the effects of cancer on nutrition status, and the main approaches to cancer treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

62. What nutrition intervention is most appropriate for a patient who complains that food doesn’t taste right?​

  a. ​“Try microwaving foods instead of cooking on the stove.”
  b. ​“Let family members prepare food for you.”
  c. ​“Avoid foods with strong odors.”
  d. ​“Talk a walk before you eat.“
  e. ​“Consume foods chilled or at room temperature.”

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   23.1 Cancer
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.1 – Describe cancer development, the factors that influence cancer risk, the effects of cancer on nutrition status, and the main approaches to cancer treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

63. ​For a patient with chronic radiation enteritis, the nurse recognizes that the best form of nutrition support is _____.

  a. ​an oral liquid supplement
  b. ​enteral nutrition
  c. ​parenteral nutrition
  d. ​a pureed diet
  e. ​vitamin supplements

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   23.1 Cancer
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.1 – Describe cancer development, the factors that influence cancer risk, the effects of cancer on nutrition status, and the main approaches to cancer treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

64. To minimize the risk of foodborne bacterial infections in a cancer client who has received a hematopoietic stem cell transplant, the nurse would tell the client to _____.​

  a. ​cook all meats, poultry, and eggs until they are well done
  b. ​consume adequate amounts of fruits and vegetables
  c. ​increase consumption of dishes that use ground meats
  d. ​consume lactose-free, low-residue, low-fat liquids
  e. ​include foods that are low in fat and low in fiber

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   23.1 Cancer
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.1 – Describe cancer development, the factors that influence cancer risk, the effects of cancer on nutrition status, and the main approaches to cancer treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

65. A patient with HIV is admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of dehydration. The patient complains of chronic diarrhea. The nurse notes a 15-pound weight loss over a 4-week period. The most likely explanation for the patient’s condition is _____.​

  a. ​AIDS enteropathy
  b. ​candidiasis
  c. ​herpes simplex virus
  d. ​insulin resistance

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   23.2 HIV Infection
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.2 – Discuss the potential consequences of HIV infection, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

66. Bobby is a 25-year-old client with HIV infection who is experiencing weight loss and a loss of lean body mass. He currently weighs 160 pounds. The nurse suggests that his diet includes at least _____ grams of protein per day.​

  a. ​37
  b. ​58
  c. ​87
  d. ​112
  e. ​165

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   23.2 HIV Infection
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.2 – Discuss the potential consequences of HIV infection, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

67. An HIV patient develops metabolic complications resulting in insulin resistance and an abnormal lipid profile. The nurse recommends which nutrition intervention?​

  a. ​“Avoid fatty fish.”
  b. ​“Replace whole milk dairy products with low- or nonfat dairy products.”
  c. ​“Drink three glasses of grapefruit juice per day.”
  d. ​“Use margarine instead of butter.”
  e. ​“Substitute water or fruit juice instead of dairy products in your diet.”

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   23.2 HIV Infection
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.2 – Discuss the potential consequences of HIV infection, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

Matching

 

Matching​

a. ​infections caused by microorganisms that normally do not cause disease in healthy people but are damaging to persons with compromised immune function
b. ​the accumulation of fatty tissue at the base of the neck
c. ​lymphocytes that have a specific protein called CD4 on their surfaces
d. ​signaling proteins produced by the body’s cells
e. ​a condition in which the immune cells in transplanted tissue attack recipient cells, leading to widespread tissue damage
f. ​a type of cancer arising from plasma cells in the bone marrow
g. ​destruction of donor tissue by the recipient’s immune system, which recognizes the donor cells as foreign
h. ​a fungal infection on the mucous membranes of the oral cavity and elsewhere
i. ​to spread from one part of the body to another; refers to cancer cells
j. ​a person given legal authority to make medical decisions for another in the event of incapacitation
k. ​describes a cancerous cell or tumor, which can injure healthy tissue and spread cancer to other regions of the body
l. ​the act of performing beneficial services rather than harmful ones
m. ​the continuous degradation and synthesis of the body’s proteins
n. ​in accordance with accepted principles of right and wrong
o. ​a type of cancer that arises from epithelial tissues
p. ​benign tumors composed of fatty tissue
q. ​the use of X-rays, gamma rays, or atomic particles to destroy cancer cells
r. ​an abnormal tissue mass that has no physiological function

 

REFERENCES:   23.1 Cancer
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.1 – Describe cancer development, the factors that influence cancer risk, the effects of cancer on nutrition status, and the main approaches to cancer treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

68. ​myeloma

ANSWER:   f

 

69. carcinoma​

ANSWER:   o

 

70. malignant​

ANSWER:   k

 

71. metastasize​

ANSWER:   i

 

72. tumor​

ANSWER:   r

 

73. cytokines​

ANSWER:   d

 

74. protein turnover​

ANSWER:   m

 

75. radiation therapy​

ANSWER:   q

 

76. ​graft-versus-host disease

ANSWER:   e

 

77. graft rejection​

ANSWER:   g

 

Matching​

a. ​infections caused by microorganisms that normally do not cause disease in healthy people but are damaging to persons with compromised immune function
b. ​the accumulation of fatty tissue at the base of the neck
c. ​lymphocytes that have a specific protein called CD4 on their surfaces
d. ​signaling proteins produced by the body’s cells
e. ​a condition in which the immune cells in transplanted tissue attack recipient cells, leading to widespread tissue damage
f. ​a type of cancer arising from plasma cells in the bone marrow
g. ​destruction of donor tissue by the recipient’s immune system, which recognizes the donor cells as foreign
h. ​a fungal infection on the mucous membranes of the oral cavity and elsewhere
i. ​to spread from one part of the body to another; refers to cancer cells
j. ​a person given legal authority to make medical decisions for another in the event of incapacitation
k. ​describes a cancerous cell or tumor, which can injure healthy tissue and spread cancer to other regions of the body
l. ​the act of performing beneficial services rather than harmful ones
m. ​the continuous degradation and synthesis of the body’s proteins
n. ​in accordance with accepted principles of right and wrong
o. ​a type of cancer that arises from epithelial tissues
p. ​benign tumors composed of fatty tissue
q. ​the use of X-rays, gamma rays, or atomic particles to destroy cancer cells
r. ​an abnormal tissue mass that has no physiological function

 

REFERENCES:   23.2 HIV Infection
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.2 – Discuss the potential consequences of HIV infection, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

78. ​helper T cells

ANSWER:   c

 

79. opportunistic infections

ANSWER:   a

 

80. candidiasis

ANSWER:   h

 

81. buffalo hump

ANSWER:   b

 

82. lipomas

ANSWER:   p

 

Matching​

a. ​infections caused by microorganisms that normally do not cause disease in healthy people but are damaging to persons with compromised immune function
b. ​the accumulation of fatty tissue at the base of the neck
c. ​lymphocytes that have a specific protein called CD4 on their surfaces
d. ​signaling proteins produced by the body’s cells
e. ​a condition in which the immune cells in transplanted tissue attack recipient cells, leading to widespread tissue damage
f. ​a type of cancer arising from plasma cells in the bone marrow
g. ​destruction of donor tissue by the recipient’s immune system, which recognizes the donor cells as foreign
h. ​a fungal infection on the mucous membranes of the oral cavity and elsewhere
i. ​to spread from one part of the body to another; refers to cancer cells
j. ​a person given legal authority to make medical decisions for another in the event of incapacitation
k. ​describes a cancerous cell or tumor, which can injure healthy tissue and spread cancer to other regions of the body
l. ​the act of performing beneficial services rather than harmful ones
m. ​the continuous degradation and synthesis of the body’s proteins
n. ​in accordance with accepted principles of right and wrong
o. ​a type of cancer that arises from epithelial tissues
p. ​benign tumors composed of fatty tissue
q. ​the use of X-rays, gamma rays, or atomic particles to destroy cancer cells
r. ​an abnormal tissue mass that has no physiological function

 

REFERENCES:   23.3 Nutrition in Practice: Ethical Issues
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.3 – Summarize the ethical principles that guide treatment decisions and the responsibilities of physicians and patients in determining the appropriate care during medical emergencies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

83. ​beneficence

ANSWER:   l

 

84. health care agent

ANSWER:   j

 

85. ethical

ANSWER:   n

 

Essay

 

86. What factors contribute to the development of cancer cachexia?​

ANSWER:   Cancer cachexia is a condition characterized by anorexia, weight loss, muscle wasting, anemia, and fatigue. It develops in up to 50 percent of cancer patients and is responsible for as many as 20 percent of cancer deaths. The combined effects of a poor appetite, accelerated and abnormal metabolism, and the diversion of nutrients to support tumor growth result in a lower supply of energy and nutrients at a time when demands are high. Cachexia may be indicated by an involuntary weight loss of more than 5 percent of body weight; care must be taken not to overlook unintentional weight loss in patients who are overweight or obese. Unlike in starvation, nutrition intervention alone is unable to reverse cachexia.​
REFERENCES:   23.1 Cancer
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.1 – Describe cancer development, the factors that influence cancer risk, the effects of cancer on nutrition status, and the main approaches to cancer treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

87. ​What suggestions would you give a cancer patient concerning ways to control nausea and vomiting?

ANSWER:   Nausea and vomiting are common side effects that occur as a result of cancer treatments such as chemotherapy. To help a patient who is suffering from frequent nausea and vomiting, the clinician can suggest consuming liquids throughout the day to replace fluids and consuming the largest meal at a time when the patient is least likely to feel nauseous. If the patient becomes nauseated from chemotherapy treatments, he should avoid eating for at least two hours before treatments. He may also try consuming smaller meals, and eating slowly, experimenting with foods to see if some foods cause nausea more than others; and avoiding foods and meals that have strong odors or are fatty, greasy, or gas forming.​
REFERENCES:   23.1 Cancer
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.1 – Describe cancer development, the factors that influence cancer risk, the effects of cancer on nutrition status, and the main approaches to cancer treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

88. Discuss the use of enteral and parenteral nutrition in cancer patients.​

ANSWER:   Tube feedings (enteral nutrition) or parenteral nutrition may be necessary for patients who develop complications that interfere with food intake or have long-term or permanent GI impairment. For example, many patients who undergo radiation therapy for head and neck cancers develop dysphagia or oral mucositis and may benefit from tube feeding. Parenteral nutrition is reserved for patients who have inadequate GI function, such as those with severe radiation enteritis. Whenever possible, enteral nutrition is strongly preferred over parenteral nutrition, to preserve GI function and avoid infection.​
REFERENCES:   23.1 Cancer
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.1 – Describe cancer development, the factors that influence cancer risk, the effects of cancer on nutrition status, and the main approaches to cancer treatment.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

89. ​Explain how GI tract complications can contribute to malnutrition in HIV patients.

ANSWER:   GI complications in HIV-infected patients may result from opportunistic infections, medications, or the HIV infection itself. In addition to oral infections, infections may develop in the esophagus, stomach, and intestines. The medications that treat some of these infections may promote bacterial overgrowth. In addition, many patients develop nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea from the medications used to suppress HIV. As a result of these multiple problems, HIV-infected patients using standard treatments face an extremely high risk of malnutrition due to the combination of GI discomfort, bacterial overgrowth, malabsorption, and nutrient losses from vomiting, steatorrhea, and diarrhea. Patients in the advanced stages of HIV infection may develop pathological changes in the small intestine, referred to as AIDS enteropathy. The condition is characterized by villus atrophy and blunting, intestinal cell losses, and inflammation. The result is a substantial reduction in the intestinal absorptive area, causing malabsorption, diarrhea, and weight loss.​
REFERENCES:   23.2 HIV Infection
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.2 – Discuss the potential consequences of HIV infection, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

90. Why should AIDS patients be concerned about foodborne illnesses?​

ANSWER:   The depressed immunity of people with HIV infections places them at extremely high risk of developing foodborne infections. Health practitioners should caution patients about their high susceptibility to foodborne illness and provide detailed instructions about the safe handling and preparation of foods. Water can also be a source of foodborne illness and is a common cause of cryptosporidiosis in HIV-infected individuals. In places where water quality is questionable, patients should consult their local health departments to determine whether the tap water is safe to drink. If not, or to take additional safety measures, water used for drinking and making ice cubes should be boiled for one minute.​
REFERENCES:   23.2 HIV Infection
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.23.2 – Discuss the potential consequences of HIV infection, its medical treatment, and nutrition therapy for this condition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

 

 

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