Nutrition Concepts And Controversies 2nd Edition by Ellie Whitney Frances Sizer – Test Bank

$25.00

Category:

Description

INSTANT DOWNLOAD WITH ANSWERS
Nutrition Concepts And Controversies 2nd Edition by Ellie Whitney Frances Sizer – Test Bank

Chapter 2-Nutrition Tools—Standards and Guidelines

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Which of the following is an appropriate use for dietary reference intakes (DRI)?
a. ensuring that maximum nutrient requirements are met
b. estimating the nutrient needs of persons with medical problems
c. planning diets for population groups such as military personnel
d. estimating the inadequacy of an individual’s nutrient intake

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 30

 

  1. Which of the following standards establishes population-wide average requirements used by nutrition policymakers?
a. Daily Values (DV)
b. Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA)
c. Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA)
d. Estimated Average Requirements (EAR)

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 29

 

  1. Which of the following statements about the dietary reference intakes (DRI) is the most accurate?
a. They are for healthy individuals.
b. They are based on review of available testimonials.
c. They are published by a committee composed of dietitians.
d. They are maximum requirements, not recommendations.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 31

 

  1. For which of the following reasons would a nutrient NOT have a tolerable upper intake level (UL)?
a. No food contains toxic levels of nutrients.
b. Insufficient data exist to establish a value.
c. No caution is required when consuming supplements of that nutrient.
d. It is safe to consume in any amount.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 30

 

  1. Which of the following statements about Daily Values (DV) is the most accurate?
a. They apply to healthy people only.
b. They are the best way to compare the nutritional content of different foods.
c. They are not yet required on Canadian nutrition labels.
d. They are useful as nutrient intake goals for individuals.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 33

 

  1. Which of the following recommendations with regard to oils and fats does the most recent version of Canada’s Food Guide make?
a. Do not consume butter, lard, or shortening.
b. Include at least 3 to 4 tbs (45 to 60 mL) daily.
c. Choose soft margarines that are low in saturated fats and trans fats.
d. Use vegetable oils such as coconut, olive, and palm kernel.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 38

 

  1. Which of the following food groups is located along the innermost arc of the rainbow depiction on the cover of Canada’s Food Guide?
a. meats and alternatives
b. milk and alternatives
c. vegetables and fruits
d. grain products

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 36

 

  1. For which of the following elements of diet planning are exchange systems most useful?
a. portion control
b. adequacy
c. calorie control
d. balance

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 49

 

  1. Which of the following is a key nutrient or other food component typically found in vegetables and fruits?
a. vitamin B12
b. trans fats
c. fibre
d. proteins

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 34

 

  1. According to Canada’s Physical Activity Guide to Healthy Active Living, how long should individuals exercise each day?
a. at least 50 minutes
b. at least 40 minutes
c. at least 30 minutes
d. at least 20 minutes

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 34

 

  1. Which of the following statements about the discretionary calorie allowance is true?
a. The added fat absorbed by the batter in fried chicken contributes to discretionary calories.
b. It may be spent on foods composed primarily of water.
c. It is not affected by physical activity level.
d. It may not be spent on added sugars.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 42-43

 

  1. What percentage range of protein in the diet provides adequate energy nutrients for healthy individuals while reducing the risk of chronic diseases?
a. 10–35%
b. 6–25%
c. 15–38%
d. 4–6%

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 30

 

  1. According to Canada’s Food Guide, which of the following is one serving?
a. 1 egg
b. 15 mL peanut butter
c. 30 g cooked fish
d. 175 mL cooked legumes

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 38

 

  1. Which of the following classes of lipids must be listed on food labels?
a. monounsaturated fat
b. omega-3 fats
c. cholesterol
d. conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 54

 

  1. How many grams of fibre must a food contain for it to be considered a “very high source” of fibre?
a. 2 grams or more
b. 4 grams or more
c. 6 grams or more
d. 8 grams of more

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 55

 

  1. Dietary reference intakes (DRI) are defined in order to achieve which of the following goals?
a. restoration of health
b. repletion of nutrients in individuals with deficiencies
c. maximum margin of safety levels
d. health maintenance

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 31

 

  1. The appropriate Daily Values for fat, saturated, and trans fatty acids, carbohydrates, fibre, sodium, and potassium are based on the Institute of Medicine Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) report for a diet of how many kilocalories?
a. 1,500
b. 2,000
c. 2,200
d. 2,500

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 33

 

  1. The Canadian Reference Standard for the %DV of calcium is 1,100 mg.  One cup (250 mL) of 2% milk contains about 300 mg of calcium.  What is the %DV for this one cup of milk?
a. 20%
b. 23%
c. 25%
d. 27%

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 33

 

  1. According to the dietary reference intakes (DRI) committee, a diet should contain what percentage of its calories from carbohydrate?
a. 10–35
b. 20–35
c. 45–65
d. 50–70

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 30

 

  1. As a result of the basic assumptions made by the dietary reference intakes (DRI) committee, their DRI recommendations would apply to which of the following individuals?
a. Cindy, a 21-year-old college athlete
b. Harry, a 35-year-old businessman with Type 1 diabetes
c. Robert, a 20-year-old with cystic fibrosis
d. Joann, a 35-year-old female vegetarian who smokes

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 31

 

  1. George is a 35-year-old athlete using nutrient supplements to give him a competitive advantage. Why would you suggest that George become familiar with tolerable upper intake levels (UL)?
a. so that he does not need to use supplements
b. so that he does not risk illness from nutrient toxicity
c. so that he maximizes his athletic performance
d. so that he does not become deficient in a specific nutrient deemed important for athletes

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 29

 

  1. You are speaking to a group of consumers about ways to use food labels to choose healthy foods in the grocery store. Which of the following points would you emphasize during your presentation?
a. understanding the %DV are based on a 3,000-calorie diet
b. using the grams and numbers on the labels to calculate percentages
c. comparing the number of food additives in a product
d. understanding the descriptive terms used on food labels

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 52-56

 

  1. Which of the following recommendations for men and women over 50 does the most recent Canada’s Food Guide make?
a. They should consume 10 glasses of water every day.
b. They should take a daily Vitamin B6 supplement.
c. They should take Vitamin B12 supplements.
d. They should take a daily Vitamin D supplement of 400 IUs.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 40

 

  1. The Nutrition Facts panel on a food label lists the following information for amounts per serving: 111 calories; 23 calories from fat. What percentage of the calories are provided by fat?
a. 11%
b. 19%
c. 21%
d. 32%

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 52-56

 

  1. Which of the following is the best and safest source of phytochemicals?
a. supplements
b. herbal remedies
c. whole foods
d. organic foods

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 70

 

  1. Which of the following phytochemicals is contained in whole grains, fruits, vegetables, herbs, spices, teas, and red wine?
a. lignans
b. flavonoids
c. lutein
d. carotenoids

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 64

 

  1. Which of the following conditions do Asian people develop more often than people in the West?
a. osteoporosis
b. stomach cancer
c. symptoms related to menopause
d. heart disease

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 66

 

  1. Which of the following foods is one of the best sources of lycopene?
a. garlic
b. tomatoes
c. flaxseed
d. soy products

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 66

 

  1. What is the name given to the type of laboratory study in which a person is fed a controlled diet, and the intake and excretion of a nutrient is measured?
a. nutrient study
b. nutrition requirement study
c. balance study
d. deficiency study

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 31

 

  1. What is the name given to the type of diet planning tool that sorts foods into groups based on their nutrient content?
a. exchange system
b. food group plan
c. group system design plan
d. eating guide system

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 42

 

  1. Nutrition amounts and percentages of Daily Values for what number of core nutrients must be listed on the Nutrition Facts panel on a food label?
a. 10
b. 11
c. 12
d. 13

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 52–54

 

  1. The nutrient content of most foods is listed on the label as percentages of the Daily Values. Which of the following nutrients is expressed as a percentage of the Daily Value?
a. magnesium
b. folate
c. calories
d. iron

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 53

 

  1. What is the name for the type of fat in butter, milk, and other dairy products believed by some to have biological activity in the body?
a. omega 12 fatty acid
b. essential fatty acid
c. miso fatty acid
d. conjugated linoleic acid

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 62

 

  1. What is the name of the phytochemical contained in black-eyed peas, grapes, lentils, and wine that may inhibit carcinogen activation and cancer promotion?
a. organosulfur compounds
b. indoles
c. tannins
d. phytic acid

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 63

 

  1. What is the name of the compound contained in flaxseed that is converted into biologically active phytoestrogens by bacteria in the human intestine?
a. lignans
b. lycopene
c. genistein
d. lutein

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 66

 

  1. Which of the following is the name of a liquid yogurt beverage?
a. keratin
b. kelphate
c. kale
d. kefir

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 38

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Recommendations for vitamins and minerals, carbohydrates, fibre, liquids, proteins, and energy have been published by the dietary reference intakes (DRI) committee.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 28

 

  1. Getting 100 percent of the dietary reference intakes (DRI) for every nutrient ensures adequate intake.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 31

 

  1. The primary difference between recommendations for nutrient intakes and values set for energy intake is that the value for energy intake is not generous.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 33

 

  1. Nutrient contents of packaged foods are stated on food labels as “Daily Values.”

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 33

 

  1. Many standards published by international and national groups are similar to the dietary reference intakes (DRI).

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 34

 

  1. The absence of a tolerable upper intake level (UL) for a nutrient implies that it is safe to consume in any amount.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 30

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. Describe how the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) Committee establishes DRI values.

 

ANS:

The first step will be to find out how much of a nutrient that various healthy individuals need. Then the most valid data for use in the work is selected. Different individuals will have different requirements even though they may be of the same age or gender. To set the value, the committee must decide what intake to recommend for everybody. The final decision is to set the value high enough so that 97 to 98 percent of the population will be covered, but not so high as to be excessive.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 31–32

 

  1. Differentiate between the methods used in setting the recommended intake for nutrients versus the recommended energy intake values.

 

ANS:

Question 1 short answer responds to the DRI nutrient recommendations. As for the recommended energy intake values, or EER (Estimated Energy Requirement), they are set at the average energy intake level predicted to maintain body weight for an individual of a particular age, gender, height, weight, and physical activity level consistent with good health.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 30–34

 

  1. Describe characteristics of the Daily Values listed on food labels and how they should be used in diet planning.

 

ANS:

The percent Daily Values (%DV) reflect the needs of an “average” person – someone eating 2,000 to 2,500 calories daily. The purpose of having a %DV is to show whether the food has a “lot” or a “little” of a nutrient in a stated amount of food. The Daily Values are ideal for allowing comparisons among foods. Because the Daily Values apply to all people, they are much less useful as nutrient intake goals for individuals.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 33

 

  1. Identify the specific advantages of exchange systems.

 

ANS:

Exchange systems can be useful to careful diet planners, especially those wishing to control calories, those who must control carbohydrate intakes, and those who should control their intakes of fat and saturated fat. An exchange system may list the estimated carbohydrate, fat, saturated fat, and protein contents of food portions, as well as their calorie values. With these estimates, exchange system users can make an educated approximation of the nutrients and calories in almost any food they might encounter.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 49–50

 

  1. List the food groups in Canada’s Food Guide and give an example of a nutrient-dense food from each group.

 

ANS:

Vegetables and Fruit: broccoliGrains: whole wheat breadMilk and Alternatives: yogurtMeat and Alternatives: skinless chicken breast

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 38

 

 

  1. Explain the concept of the discretionary calorie allowance, and describe ways this allowance may be “spent.”

 

ANS:

The discretionary calorie allowance is the balance of calories remaining in a person’s energy allowance after accounting for the number of calories needed to meet nutrient intakes through consumption of nutrient-dense foods. A person with a discretionary calorie allowance to spend may choose to consume the following, within the limits of the allowance:1.  Extra servings of the same nutrient-dense foods that make up the base of the diet.2.  Fats from two sources.3.  Added sugars, such as jams, colas, and honey.4.  Alcohol, within limits.5.  Omit the discretionary calories from the diet. This is a safe strategy because discretionary calories are not essential for delivering needed nutrients to the diet.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 42–43

 

  1. Defend the statement that foods, not supplements, are the best and safest source of phytochemicals.

 

ANS:

A moderate approach to the usage of phytochemicals and functional foods is warranted. People who eat the recommended amounts of a variety of fruit and vegetables may cut their risk of many diseases by as much as half. Replacing some meat with soy foods or other legumes may also lower heart disease and cancer risks. In the context of a healthy diet, foods are time-tested for safety, posing virtually no risk of toxic levels of nutrients or phytochemicals. Beneficial constituents are widespread among foods. Don’t try to single out one phytochemical for its magical health effect. Instead, take a no-nonsense approach where your health is concerned: choose a wide variety of whole grains, legumes, fruit and vegetables in the context of an adequate, balanced, and varied diet, and receive all of the health benefits that these foods offer.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 62–70

 

Chapter 6-The Proteins and Amino Acids

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Carbohydrate, fat, and protein all offer energy, but protein also offers which of the following elements?
a. oxygen
b. hydrogen
c. nitrogen
d. carbon

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 192

 

  1. Which of the following components accounts for the differences between amino acids?
a. the side chain
b. the nitrogen chain
c. the acid group
d. the amine group

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 192

 

  1. How many amino acids are considered to be indispensable/essential amino acids?
a. 5
b. 7
c. 9
d. 13

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 193

 

  1. What is the name for the bond that is formed between the amine group end of one amino acid and the acid group end of the next amino acid in a protein?
a. sulphur
b. denatured
c. amino acid
d. peptide

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 194

 

  1. Which of the following is a protein catalyst that acts on other substances to change them chemically?
a. enzyme
b. catalyst
c. antibody
d. hormone

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 195

 

  1. What factor determines the sequences of amino acids that make up a protein molecule?
a. sex
b. the diet
c. age
d. heredity

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 196

 

  1. Which of the following can cause denaturation of proteins?
a. size of the protein chain
b. cold temperatures
c. light
d. heat

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 198

 

  1. Amino acids are broken down, then incorporated by the liver into which of the following substances?
a. bile
b. urine
c. glucose
d. urea

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 204

 

  1. What does the body do with an oversupply of amino acids?
a. It converts amino acid residues to glycogen or fat.
b. It removes them and excretes their acid groups.
c. It makes excess nitrogen.
d. It stores them until they are needed.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 205

 

  1. Which of the following protects the stomach lining from the very strong acid of the stomach?
a. saliva
b. enzymes
c. a coating of mucus
d. antibodies

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 199

 

  1. What is the name of the substance in the small intestine that splits tripeptides and dipeptides?
a. amylase
b. hydrolase
c. lipase
d. peptidase

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 200

 

  1. Which of the following does the body require to synthesize protein?
a. adequate total amount of incomplete protein
b. all essential amino acids in the proper amounts
c. adequate carbohydrate intake
d. excess amino acid supplements

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 205

 

  1. Which of the following provides the amino acids that are most easily absorbed by the body?
a. legumes
b. animal proteins
c. vegetables
d. grains

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 207

 

  1. Which of the following foods has the highest protein digestibility–corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS)?
a. soybean protein
b. chick peas
c. kidney beans
d. tuna

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 209

 

  1. The protein digestibility–corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) takes which of the following factors into account?
a. the quality of food protein
b. the length of time it takes for the protein to break down
c. how well the protein supports weight gain
d. the number of amino acids in a food

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 209

 

  1. The dietary reference intake (DRI) for protein depends on which of the following?
a. sex
b. body size
c. weight
d. height

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 209

 

  1. According to the dietary reference intakes (DRI) committee, minimum protein intake should be what percentage of total calories?
a. 5%
b. 10%
c. 15%
d. 20%

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 209

 

  1. Which of the following groups is susceptible to NEGATIVE nitrogen balance?
a. lactating women
b. surgery patients
c. growing children
d. pregnant women

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 210

 

  1. According to the dietary reference intakes (DRI) committee, a healthy adult’s intake for protein should be how many grams for each kilogram of body weight?
a. 0.5 grams per kilogram
b. 0.8 grams per kilogram
c. 1.0 grams per kilogram
d. 1.5 grams per kilogram

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 209

 

  1. In determining its recommendation for protein intake, the dietary reference intakes (DRI) committee assumed that the protein in a normal diet would typically come from which of the following sources?
a. primarily from animal sources
b. primarily from plant sources
c. entirely from animal sources
d. from a combination of animal and plant sources

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 210

 

  1. What is the name for the calorie-deficiency disease that takes the form of extreme loss of muscle and fat?
a. kwashiorkor
b. marasmus
c. protein-energy malnutrition
d. protein-calorie malnutrition

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 211–212

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a symptom of kwashiorkor?
a. enlarged, fatty liver
b. normal or impaired appetite
c. severe weight loss
d. some muscle wasting

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 213

 

  1. The body makes tyrosine from which of the following essential amino acids?
a. lysine
b. phenylalanine
c. leucine
d. threonine

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 193

 

  1. A protein-rich diet can lead to which of the following consequences?
a. a low intake of vitamin A
b. a low intake of vitamin E
c. a low intake of iron
d. a low intake of folate

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 215

 

  1. The more animal protein you consume, the higher your intake of what?
a. vitamin B12
b. vitamin A
c. folate
d. vitamin C

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 215

 

  1. What is the name for the strategy of combining two incomplete plant protein sources so that the amino acids in one food make up for those lacking in the other food?
a. complementary supplementation
b. simultaneous augmentation
c. mutual substitution
d. mutual supplementation

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 208

 

  1. Which of the following is a hereditary amino acid disorder?
a. sickle cell disease
b. hemophilia
c. kwashiorkor
d. diabetes

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 196

 

  1. Which of the following cooking methods would you use to maximize the digestibility of protein?
a. grilling
b. frying
c. stewing
d. baking

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 207

 

  1. Absorption of what nutrient can be inhibited by heavy use of soy products in place of meat?
a. calcium
b. iron
c. folate
d. vitamin C

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 215

 

  1. Which of the following symptoms would a child with marasmus exhibit?
a. dry, thin, and wrinkled skin
b. edema
c. skin rash
d. slight weight loss

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 211

 

  1. Which of the following foods/food groups provides the LEAST amount of protein?
a. vegetables
b. grains
c. soybeans
d. fruits

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 215

 

  1. Which of the following can help athletes achieve bigger muscles?
a. rigorous physical training
b. amino acid supplements
c. use of creatine
d. excess protein consumption in the form of food

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 198

 

  1. What does the term protein turnover mean?
a. maintaining electrolyte balance
b. building antibodies
c. ingesting protein-rich foods
d. replacing worn-out red blood cells

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 201

 

  1. Why should eggs be cooked rather than eaten raw?
a. Raw egg proteins bind the mineral iron.
b. Raw egg proteins bind the B vitamin folate.
c. Raw egg proteins speed up protein digestion.
d. Raw egg proteins bind the mineral calcium.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 198

 

  1. Why is milk used as a first-aid remedy for someone who has swallowed a heavy-metal poison?
a. Milk removes the metal taste of the poison.
b. Milk will cause the person to vomit and expel the poison.
c. Milk will provide calcium, which renders the poison harmless.
d. The poison acts on the protein in the milk rather than on the protein of the gastrointestinal tract.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 198

 

  1. Your friend avoids acid foods like tomatoes and orange juice because she believes they give her an acid stomach. What information would you give her in response to that?
a. Highly acidic foods do increase the acidity of the stomach.
b. You need to see your doctor about producing more mucus to line your stomach.
c. The stomach is supposed to be alkaline to do its job.
d. No food is acidic enough to make the stomach acid stronger.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 199

 

  1. Your friend is a vegetarian who consumes large quantities of soy products in the place of meat. Your friend is at risk of developing a deficiency of what nutrient?
a. folate
b. vitamin C
c. iron
d. calcium

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 215

 

  1. What is the name given to the compounds that maintain acid–base balance in the blood?
a. hormones
b. buffers
c. electrolytes
d. enzymes

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 203

 

  1. Which of the following nutrients buffers the blood against excess acidity or alkalinity?
a. lipids
b. water
c. protein
d. carbohydrate

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 203

 

  1. Cordelia has influenza. What type of protein does her immune system need to manufacture in order to fight the influenza and develop immunity?
a. antibodies
b. antigens
c. hemoglobin
d. lipoproteins

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 202

 

  1. What is the recommended dietary reference intake (DRI) for protein for a 40-year-old male who is 193 cm tall and weighs 180 pounds?
a. 34 grams
b. 49 grams
c. 65 grams
d. 144 grams

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 193

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of complementary protein combinations?
a. oatmeal with brown sugar
b. rice and black-eyed peas
c. cucumber sandwich
d. pasta with cheese sauce

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 208

 

  1. Marcia excludes animal flesh, seafood, and eggs from her diet, but she does consume dairy products, vegetables, grains, legumes, fruits, and nuts. What type of vegetarian is Marcia?
a. a vegan-vegetarian
b. a lacto-vegetarian
c. a fruitarian
d. an ovo-vegetarian

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 219

 

  1. Bobby is a partial vegetarian, but he excludes poultry from his diet. What type of vegetarian is Bobby?
a. a pollo-vegetarian
b. an ovo-vegetarian
c. a lacto-vegetarian
d. a pesco-vegetarian

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 219

 

  1. Which of the following nutrients is typically lacking in a poorly-planned vegetarian diet?
a. vitamin A
b. vitamin C
c. potassium
d. zinc

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 221–222

 

  1. Proteins attract water and hold it within the vessels, preventing it from freely flowing into the spaces between the cells. Which of the following will an individual develop should any part of this system begin to fail?
a. dehydration
b. edema
c. diabetes
d. acidosis

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 203

 

  1. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inherited disease which renders the body UNABLE to metabolize what amino acid?
a. phenylalanine
b. methiaonine
c. leucine
d. alanine

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 193

 

  1. Which body protein helps to form bones and teeth?
a. insulin
b. collagen
c. enzymes
d. hemoglobin

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 195

 

  1. Which of the following contains protein whose quality can be considered equivalent to that of meat?
a. alpha sprouts
b. soy
c. whole grains
d. bean sprouts

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 215

 

  1. Which of the following enzymes begins the process of chemical digestion of protein in the stomach?
a. ghrelin
b. hydrochloric acid
c. carboxypeptidase
d. pepsin

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 200

 

  1. What is the name for the condition in which protein and calories are severely insufficient?
a. amino acid deficiency
b. protein-energy malnutrition
c. malnourishment
d. protein malnutrition

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 211

 

  1. Purified sources of protein cause what nutrient to be spilled from the urine?
a. calcium
b. sodium
c. phosphorous
d. magnesium

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 214

 

  1. Which of the following is a characteristic symptom of marasmus?
a. Overeating results in bloating and edema.
b. The person is starving from total malnutrition.
c. The person suffers from a fatty liver.
d. The immune system is heightened, which does not allow for microbe attack.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 213

 

  1. In North America, which of the following groups has a high rate of protein-energy malnutrition?
a. school children
b. AIDS patients
c. bulimics
d. dialysis patients

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 213

 

  1. What part of the body absorbs single amino acids, dipeptides, and tripeptides?
a. large intestine
b. gallbladder
c. stomach
d. small intestine

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 199

 

  1. Which of the following amino acids is responsible for the production of the brown pigment known as melanin?
a. proline
b. cysteine
c. tyrosine
d. glutamine

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 201

 

  1. What two amino acids are approved for sale in Canada as natural health products?
a. lysine and alanine
b. cysteine and glutamine
c. arginine and histidine
d. arginine and lysine

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 206

 

  1. What is the name for the large globular protein molecule packed inside the red blood cells that carries oxygen?
a. homcysteine
b. oxydologen
c. transferritin
d. hemoglobin

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 195

 

  1. Which of the following conditions is necessary for the synthesis of needed body protein and to prevent dietary protein from being wasted?
a. All essential amino acids need to be present in the proper amounts.
b. Dietary fat must be consumed in adequate quantities.
c. Dietary protein must be accompanied by only enough energy-yielding carbohydrate to permit the dietary protein to be used.
d. There must be at least 15 percent incomplete protein.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 205

 

  1. According to the Canadian Community Health Survey, adults obtain approximately what percentage of the total calories in their diet from protein?
a. 13%
b. 15%
c. 17%
d. 19%

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 209

 

  1. Jane is a vegan who needs to increase the iron content of her diet. At breakfast, she eats cereal. What food can assist with the absorption of the iron from the cereal?
a. brown sugar
b. orange juice
c. wheat germ
d. yogurt

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 223

 

  1. Which of the following vitamins is provided by meat but is insufficient in plant-based diets?
a. vitamin B12
b. vitamin A
c. riboflavin
d. vitamin D

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 215

 

  1. What type of vegetarian diet can result in malnutrition and even death?
a. macrobiotic diet
b. fruitarian diet
c. partial vegetarian diet
d. vegan diet

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 219

 

  1. According to the Vegetarian Food Guide Rainbow, which of the following constitutes one serving of cooked beans, peas, or lentils?
a. 1/2 cup (125 mL)
b. 1 cup (250 mL)
c. 1 1/2 cups (375 mL)
d. 2 cups (500 mL)

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 224

 

  1. What is the name for an infection of the digestive tract that causes diarrhea, which further depletes minerals from the body?
a. dysentry
b. dehydration
c. diphtheria
d. dyspepsia

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 212

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Sickle-cell disease is an example of an inherited variation in the amino acid sequence.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 196

 

  1. For the majority of exercisers, adding excess protein or amino acid supplements to an adequate diet will stimulate muscle building.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 198

 

  1. When a person ingests a large dose of any single amino acid, absorption of others of its type may be limited.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 199–200

 

  1. Some foods are so high in acid that they are capable of making the acid in the stomach even stronger.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 199

 

  1. Starvation always incurs wasting of lean body tissue as well as loss of fat.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 205

 

  1. If needed, protein can help to maintain a steady blood glucose level and so serve the glucose need of the brain.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 204

 

  1. Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is the world’s most widespread form of malnutrition.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 211

 

  1. Most people in Canada would find it next to impossible NOT to meet their protein requirements.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 209

 

  1. Amino acid supplements are easy to digest and can relieve the digestive system from overworking.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 199

 

  1. Sound nutrition authorities acknowledge that well-chosen vegetarian diets are consistent with good health and can meet nutrient needs.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 219

 

  1. The growth of well-fed vegetarian children is similar to that of their meat-eating peers.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 221

 

  1. Vegetarians have significantly higher rates of certain cancers than the general population.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 220

 

  1. Predigested proteins are easier for the body to digest because they create less “digestive work.”

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 199

 

  1. Children who follow a vegan diet may have slightly higher protein requirements than the dietary reference intakes (DRI) recommendations for the general meat-eating population.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 222

 


SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. Explain how proteins help to regulate the quantity of fluids in the compartments of the body to maintain fluid and electrolyte balance.

 

ANS:

Proteins help maintain the fluid and electrolyte balance by regulating the quantity of fluids in the compartments of the body. To remain alive, cells must contain a constant amount of fluid. Too much can cause them to rupture; too little makes them unable to function. Although water can diffuse freely into and out of cells, proteins cannot, and proteins attract water. By maintaining stores of internal proteins and also of some minerals, cells retain the fluid they need. By the same mechanism, fluid is kept inside the blood vessels by proteins too large to move freely across the capillary walls. The proteins attract water and hold it within the vessels, preventing it from freely flowing into the spaces between the cells. Should any part of this system begin to fail, too much fluid will soon collect in the spaces between the cells of tissues, causing edema. Not only is the quantity of body fluids vital to life, but so also is their composition. Transport proteins in the membranes of cells maintain this composition by continuously transferring substances into and out of cells. For example, sodium is concentrated outside the cells, and potassium is concentrated inside. A disturbance of this balance can impair the action of the heart, lungs, and brain, triggering a major medical emergency. Cell proteins avert such a disaster by holding fluids and electrolytes in their proper chambers.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 202–203

 

  1. Why would you advise someone not to take amino acid supplements?

 

ANS:

Amino acid supplements are said to be “easy to digest,” and can therefore protect the digestive system from “overworking.” This is not true. The healthy digestive system is of course superbly designed to digest whole proteins with ease. In fact, it handles whole proteins better than predigested ones because it dismantles and absorbs the amino acids at rates that are optimal for the body’s use.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 199

 

  1. Describe and differentiate between the causes and symptoms of marasmus and kwashiorkor.

 

ANS:

Marasmus occurs most commonly in children from 6 to 18 months of age in overpopulated city slums. Children in impoverished nations subsist on a weak cereal drink with scant energy and protein of low quality; such food can barely sustain life, much less support growth. A starving child often looks like a wizened little old person – just skin and bones. Without adequate nutrition, muscles, including the heart muscles, waste and weaken. Brain development is stunted, and learning is impaired. Metabolism is so slow that body temperature is subnormal. There is little or no fat under the skin to insulate against cold, and hospital workers have found that children with marasmus need to be wrapped up and kept warm. They also need love because they have often been deprived of parental attention as well as food. The child faces this threat to life by engaging in as little activity as possible – not even crying for food. The body collects all of its forces to meet the crisis and so cuts down on any expenditure of protein not needed for the heart, lungs, and brain to function. Growth ceases; the child is no larger at age four than at age two. The skin loses its elasticity and moisture, so it tends to crack; when sores develop, they fail to heal. Digestive enzymes are in short supply, the digestive tract lining deteriorates, and absorption fails. The child can’t assimilate what little food is eaten. Blood proteins, including hemoglobin, are no longer produced, so the child becomes anemic and weak. If a bone breaks, healing is delayed because the protein needed to heal it is lacking. Antibodies to fight off invading bacteria are degraded to provide amino acids for other uses, leaving the child an easy target for infection. Then dysentery, an infection of the digestive tract, causes diarrhea, further depleting the body of nutrients, especially minerals. Measles, which might make a healthy child sick for a week or two kills a child within two or three days. In the marasmic child, once infection sets in, kwashiorkor often follows, and the immune response weakens further. Infections that occur with malnutrition are responsible for 2/3 of the deaths of young children in developing countries. Marasmus progresses to the point of no return when the body’s machinery for protein synthesis has been degraded. Attempts to correct the situation by giving food or protein fail to prevent death. If caught before this time, the starvation of a child can be reversed by careful nutrition therapy.Kwashiorkor occurs when each baby is weaned from breast milk as soon as the next one comes along. The older baby no longer receives breast milk, which contains high-quality protein designed perfectly to support growth, but is given a watery cereal with scant protein of low quality. Some kwashiorkor symptoms resemble those of marasmus, but often without severe wasting of body fat. Proteins and hormones that previously maintained fluid balance are now diminished, so fluid leaks out of the blood and accumulates in the belly and legs, causing edema, a distinguishing feature of kwashiorkor. The victim’s belly often bulges with a fatty liver caused by lack of the protein carriers that transport fat out of the liver. The fatty liver loses some of its ability to clear poisons from the body, prolonging their toxic effects. Without sufficient tyrosine to make melanin, the child’s hair loses its normal colour; inadequate protein synthesis leaves the skin patchy and scaly; sores fail to heal.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 211–213

 

  1. Describe what happens when amino acids are oversupplied in the diet.

 

ANS:

Research is still inconclusive as to the success of amino acid supplements. The DRI committee reviewed the available research on amino acids, but with next to no safety research in existence, the committee was unable to set Tolerable Upper Intake Levels for supplemental doses. Until research becomes available, no level of amino acid supplementation can be assumed safe for all people. Some reasons for consumption of supplemental amino acids include the following: athletes take amino acids when trying to build muscle; dieters may take them to speed up weight loss; some consumers believe amino acids will cure herpes viral infections, induce restful sleep, or relieve pain or depression. In Canada, there are two amino acids that are regulated as natural health products; however, much is still unknown. The taker of amino acid supplements cannot be certain of their safety or effectiveness.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 206

 

  1. Discuss the risks associated with overconsumption of protein.

 

ANS:

The DRI committee recommends that the diet contain no more than 35 percent of calories from protein to decrease risks of chronic diseases. Overconsumption of protein offers no benefits and may pose health risks for the heart, for weakened kidneys, and for the bones. Diets high in protein-rich foods are often associated with obesity and its many accompanying health risks. Animal protein sources, in particular, can be high in saturated fat, a known contributor to atherosclerosis and heart disease. The effect of animal protein itself on heart health is uncertain. A high-protein diet worsens existing kidney problems and may accelerate a decline in only mildly impaired kidneys. Evidence is mixed about whether high intakes of protein from animal sources, especially when accompanied by low intakes of calcium, fruit and vegetables, can accelerate adult bone loss. Purified protein causes calcium to be spilled from the urine.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 214

 

  1. Describe factors that influence the digestibility of protein.

 

ANS:

The digestibility of protein varies from food to food and bears profoundly on protein quality. The protein of oats is less digestible than that of eggs. In general, amino acids from animal proteins are most easily digested and absorbed (over 90 percent). Those from legumes are next (about 80 to 90 percent). Those from grains and other plant foods vary (from 70 to 90 percent). Cooking with moist heat improves protein digestibility, whereas dry heat methods can impair it.In measuring a protein’s quality, digestibility is important. Simple measures of the total protein in foods are not useful by themselves – even animal hair and hooves would receive a top score by those measures alone. They are made of protein but not in a form that people can use.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 214

 

  1. Describe the advantages and limitations of consuming legumes as meat alternates.

 

ANS:

The protein of some legumes is of a quality almost comparable to that of meat, an unusual trait in a fibre-rich vegetable. Soy protein quality can be considered equivalent to that of meat. Legumes are also excellent sources of many B vitamins, iron, calcium, and other minerals, making them exceptionally nutritious. Like meats, though, legumes do not offer every nutrient, and they do not make a complete meal by themselves. They contain no vitamin A, vitamin C, or vitamin B12, and their balance of amino acids can be much improved by using grains and other vegetables with them.Heavy use of soy products in place of meat, however, inhibits iron absorption. The effect can be alleviated by using small amounts of meat and/or foods rich in vitamin C in the same meal with soy products. Vegetarians sometimes use convenience foods made from textured vegetable protein formulated to look and taste like hamburgers or breakfast sausages. Many of these are intended to match the known nutrient content of animal protein foods, but they often fall short. A wise vegetarian uses such food sparingly and learns to use combinations of whole foods to supply the needed nutrients.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 215

 

  1. Why might vegetarians be expected to have lower blood pressure than nonvegetarians?

 

ANS:

Vegetarians tend to have lower blood pressure and lower rates of hypertension than nonvegetarians. Appropriate body weight helps maintain a healthy blood pressure, as does a diet low in total fat and saturated fat and high in fibre, fruit, and vegetables. Lifestyle factors also influence blood pressure: Smoking and alcohol intake raise blood pressure and physical activity lowers it.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 220

 

  1. Describe the relationship between vegetarian diets and the risk of colon cancer.

 

ANS:

Vegetarians have significantly lower rates of certain cancers than the general population. However, low rates of cancer may be associated more with the abundance of fruit and vegetables in vegetarian diets than with the exclusion of all animal products. Colon cancer appears to correlate with moderate-to-high intakes of alcohol, total food energy, fatty red meats, and processed meats (but not poultry or fish). Possible correlations with colon cancer have been found with high intakes of refined grain products, low intakes of whole grains (in the U.S.), and low intakes of vitamin D. Certain cancers appear to occur less frequently among people who eat mostly plant-based diets that are rich in vegetables, fruit, whole grains, and legumes (soybeans in particular). The protective effect may be related to the activities of phytochemicals in those foods, activities that occur whether or not the diet also contains some meat.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 221

 

Reviews

There are no reviews yet.

Be the first to review “Nutrition Concepts And Controversies 2nd Edition by Ellie Whitney Frances Sizer – Test Bank”

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *