Nursing Research In Canada 4th Edition by Geri LoBiondo – Test Bank

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Nursing Research In Canada 4th Edition by Geri LoBiondo – Test Bank

 

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Sample Questions 

 

Chapter 02: Theoretical Framework

LoBiondo-Wood: Nursing Research in Canada, 4th Edition

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Which of the following definitions of paradigm is correct?
a. A way of linking the naturalistic world to empirical thought
b. Philosophical beliefs that influence the way people in a society think about the world
c. A model that captures the interaction of specific variables within a known concept
d. A concept that encompasses the integration of “wholeness,” spirituality, and personal worth into scientific thought

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  Feedback
A Paradigms vary for naturalistic and empirical worlds.
B Philosophical beliefs that influence the way people in a society think about the world defines the term paradigm.
C A model that captures the interaction of specific variables within a known concept describes positivist approaches to research.
D A concept that encompasses the integration of “wholeness,” spirituality, and personal worth into scientific thought is not a definition of the term paradigm; it describes a specific paradigm.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension

MSC:  NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. Which of the following is the correct definition of theory?
a. The assumptions and beliefs of the “worldview” of the researcher
b. A set of interrelated concepts that provides a systematic view of a phenomenon
c. The specific and measurable premise or assumption based on which the rationale for research direction is established
d. A researcher’s “best guess” of the expected direction of the relationship between independent and dependent variables

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  Feedback
A The worldview of a researcher does not define theory.
B Theory is defined as a set of interrelated concepts that provides a systematic view of a phenomenon.
C Measurable assumptions could be considered propositions that are associated with a theory.
D The researcher’s best guess as to the direction of a relationship is called a hypothesis.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge

MSC:  NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. During a class examination, the course instructor notes that a student who usually does poorly in class tests has shaking hands, knocks over a bottle of water, breaks the points of two pencils, makes many erasures, and wrinkles her computer score sheet. The instructor concludes that the student has test anxiety. What type of reasoning is demonstrated by the instructor?
a. Inductive reasoning
b. Deductive reasoning
c. Theoretical reasoning
d. Faulty reasoning

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  Feedback
A Inductive reasoning involves using the details of an experience to create a general picture.
B Deductive reasoning takes theory and moves to more specific details.
C Theoretical reasoning is not a type of logical reasoning.
D The instructor did not use faulty reasoning.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis

MSC:  NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. What is the major difference between inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning?
a. Inductive reasoning is theory driven, and deductive reasoning is independent of theory.
b. Deductive reasoning forms the basis for qualitative research, and inductive reasoning forms the basis for quantitative research.
c. Deductive reasoning is an unconscious approach in which intuition, rather than logical, is the key feature, whereas inductive reasoning encompasses a more logical and systematic approach to problem identification.
d. Inductive reasoning starts with observed details that lead to a general structure or picture, whereas deductive reasoning begins with a structure or picture that guides the search for associated details.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  Feedback
A Inductive reasoning can develop theory. Deductive reasoning tests theory.
B Deductive reasoning is used in quantitative research, and inductive reasoning is used in qualitative research.
C Deductive research uses a logical, systemic approach to problem identification.
D Inductive reasoning moves from specific to general, while deductive reasoning moves from general to specific.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension

MSC:  NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. How are theory and practice interrelated?
a. Practice is the operational definition of theory.
b. Practice provides the opportunity to test theory.
c. Theory provides the evidence on which practice is based.
d. Theory generates questions that are used to refine practice.

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  Feedback
A Theory is abstract and not defined as practice.
B Practice environments provide settings to test theory.
C Theory is a guide for research, and research provides evidence for practice.
D Research helps refine questions related to practice.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension

MSC:  NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. Which of the following research questions reflects an inductive approach to scientific inquiry?
a. Is there a difference in infection rates among patients with neutropenia who eat from dishes cleaned with automatic dishwashers as compared with patients with neutropenia who eat from dishes that are hand washed?
b. Do older adults residing in assisted-living settings have more social interaction than do older adults residing in their own homes?
c. What is the relationship between self-esteem and loneliness in recently widowed women over 60?
d. What is the experience of parents when their child is born more than 10 weeks preterm?

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  Feedback
A Examining differences in infection rates is deductive.
B Comparing social interactions in older adults is deductive.
C Examining the specific relationship between self-esteem and loneliness is deductive.
D Preterm delivery is a specific clinical situation. The study seeks to broaden the picture of that phenomenon by exploring parental experience in preterm delivery.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis

MSC:  NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. In an article reporting the results of a qualitative study that used inductive reasoning methods, where is the conceptual framework usually presented?
a. Introduction
b. Methods
c. Statistical Analysis
d. Discussion

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  Feedback
A A conceptual model would not be found in the Introduction section.
B The Methods section details the conduct of the study. A conceptual model would not be found in the Methods section.
C Qualitative studies do not have a Statistical Analysis section because qualitative studies do not use statistical data.
D The conceptual model may be implicit in a qualitative study. The discussion of the findings may reveal that study participants experienced a phenomenon that is reflected within a particular conceptual model.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge | Cognitive Level: Comprehension

MSC:  NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. In an article reporting the results of a quantitative study that used deductive reasoning methods, where is the conceptual framework usually presented?
a. Introduction
b. Methods
c. Statistical Analysis
d. Discussion

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  Feedback
A Deductive reasoning involves moving from the broader theory to more specific details. The conceptual framework would be found in the Introduction, as it serves as a guide for the research study.
B The Methods section refers to the scientific conduct of the study.
C The Statistical Analysis section presents interpretation of data.
D The Discussion section explores the significance of the findings and their implications for nursing practice.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge | Cognitive Level: Comprehension

MSC:  NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. Which of the following sequences represents movement from a greater level of abstraction to a more concrete relationship between concepts?
a. Concepts, theory, hypothesis
b. Theory, hypothesis, concepts
c. Hypothesis, concepts, theory
d. Hypothesis, theory, concepts

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  Feedback
A Abstractions begin with an abstract idea that is symbolized.
B The answers are improperly sequenced as related to level of abstraction.
C The answers are improperly sequenced as related to level of abstraction.
D The answers are improperly sequenced as related to level of abstraction.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis

MSC:  NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. How is a model related to a concept or concepts?
a. A model tests conceptual theories.
b. A concept defines the purpose of a model.
c. A model demonstrates the relationships among or between concepts.
d. Concepts generate the theoretical basis for knowledge depicted in a model.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  Feedback
A A model does not test theory.
B A concept is not a definition of a model.
C A model demonstrates relationships among concepts.
D Concepts do not generate theory.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension

MSC:  NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. What is the purpose of a conceptual model?
a. To move concepts from a concrete frame of reference to a more abstract one
b. To move concepts from an abstract frame of reference to a more concrete one
c. To reduce the abstraction of an operational definition
d. To allow testing of grand theories

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  Feedback
A Concepts are the abstract ideas that make up a theory: a model helps present these abstract ideas in a concrete way.
B A conceptual model presents the abstract concept in a visual, interrelated way.
C Operational definitions are a way to define concepts but are not the focus of a conceptual model.
D Conceptual models are used with all levels of theory, from microrange theory to grand theory.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension

MSC:  NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. A theory would be described as
a. prediction of the outcomes of a study.
b. an image that represents an abstract idea.
c. set of interrelated concepts that can explain a phenomenon.
d. a general framework to identify factors related to a phenomenon.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  Feedback
A A prediction of the outcome of a study is often referred to as hypothesis.
B An image that represents an abstract idea describes a concept.
C A theory is described as a “set of interrelated concepts that serves the purpose of explaining or predicting phenomena”.
D A theoretical framework identifies factors related to a phenomenon.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension

MSC:  NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. When critiquing a research article, what is the most important issue the reader should consider about the concepts of the study?
a. The theoretical interrelatedness of the concepts
b. Whether the study is qualitative or quantitative in nature
c. The specific meanings the researcher has ascribed to the study concepts
d. An in-depth understanding of the grand theory that underpins the study concepts

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  Feedback
A Theoretical interrelatedness of the concepts is desirable but not the most important issue to consider.
B The type of study influences how concepts are examined, but it is not the most important issue.
C The reader wants to see a logical fit between operational and conceptual definitions. It is important to understand the meaning that the researcher ascribes to concepts, as meanings of concepts can vary from person to person.
D A reader needs to have a basic understanding of the theory being used in the study.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension

MSC:  NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. What is commonly referred to as scientific knowledge?
a. Ethical
b. Personal
c. Aesthetic
d. Empirical

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  Feedback
A “Ethical” refers to the sense of knowing what is right and what is wrong.
B “Personal” refers to the knowledge we have of ourselves and what we have seen/experienced.
C “Aesthetic” is the art of knowing; it takes the other ways of knowing and creates a new understanding.
D Gain empirical knowledge from research and is often referred to as scientific knowledge.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge

MSC:  NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. How are theoretical and conceptual frameworks different?
a. Conceptual frameworks are more appropriate for qualitative studies, and theoretical frameworks are more appropriate for quantitative studies.
b. Theoretical frameworks are individually developed by researchers, and conceptual frameworks already exist.
c. Conceptual frameworks are individually developed by researchers, and theoretical frameworks already exist.
d. Theoretical frameworks generate theory, whereas conceptual frameworks test theory.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  Feedback
A Conceptual or theoretical frameworks may be used for quantitative research.
B Theoretical frameworks are not individually developed by researchers.
C Conceptual frameworks are developed by researchers, whereas theoretical frameworks that are based on the research and theory development of other researchers and theorists already exist.
D Conceptual frameworks are not used to generate theory in qualitative research. Theoretical frameworks allow for theory testing.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension

MSC:  NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. When reading an article reporting the results of nursing research, you find that the framework has been drawn from a discipline other than nursing. What should you consider when critiquing this aspect of the article?
a. Has the author clearly indicated the meaning of the framework to the study and linked the framework to nursing?
b. Does the author have special expertise or education in the discipline from which the framework has been derived?
c. Does the research have implications across disciplines?
d. Is the author a recognized leader in nursing?

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  Feedback
A A framework does not have to come from nursing, but it should be possible to link it to the practice of nursing.
B The author should have an understanding of the framework but does not need to have expertise in the field from which the framework has been derived.
C The research should have cited the implications of the research for nursing practice.
D The author of a research article does not need to be a leader in the discipline of nursing.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Evaluation

MSC:  NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. Which of the following is a good method for improving your research skill in evaluating frameworks?
a. Reading the abstract closely and skimming the rest of the article.
b. Performing a literature search of all concepts related to the framework.
c. Conducting a scholarly analysis of the theoretical frameworks created by known nursing leaders.
d. Engaging in repeated critiques and discussing the critiques with others who have critiqued the same article.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  Feedback
A Skimming does not allow for an in-depth understanding of an article.
B Conducting a literature search on all concepts related to the framework is unnecessary and cumbersome.
C A scholarly analysis of known theories is not necessary to learn how to evaluate theoretical frameworks.
D Novice readers can develop critiquing skills by engaging in repeated critiques and discussing critiques with others.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application

MSC:  NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. How is the Critical Thinking Decision Path helpful in the research decision process of selecting a quantitative or qualitative study design?
a. It reflects the researcher’s beliefs and subsequent research questions and activities.
b. It reflects the method of research study dissemination activities.
c. It reflects research results related to studies focused on critical thinking.
d. It distinguishes between the inductive and deductive reasoning processes.

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  Feedback
A The researcher’s beliefs and subsequent questions lead to selecting a quantitative or qualitative design.
B The Path provides details about the research study plan and the final dissemination of the study results.
C The Path is intended to guide researchers in the decision process for research design and to exemplify the critical thinking used to plan a research study.
D The Path is intended to guide researchers in the decision process for research design by articulating the researcher’s beliefs, questions, and activities.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension

MSC:  NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. “The fundamental epistemological stance that all knowledge is personal and based on the interests, experiences, and perceptions of the researcher and the research participant” best describes which of the following?
a. Post-positivist
b. Critical
c. Constructivist
d. Critical and constructivist

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  Feedback
A Incorrect
B Incorrect
C Incorrect
D Both the critical and constructivist paradigms share the ontological stance that reality is constructed and based on our perceptions.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension | Cognitive Level: Application

MSC:  NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. “The methodological stance that the researcher should remain a distant observer in the research process” best describes which of the following?
a. Post-positivist
b. Social critical thought
c. Constructivist
d. Naturalist

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  Feedback
A Only the post-positivist makes attempts to exclude researcher bias.
B Incorrect
C Incorrect
D Incorrect

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension | Cognitive Level: Application

MSC:  NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. “The goal of inquiry is understanding how ‘participants’ perceive the world by analyzing their use of language and their social interactions” best describes which of the following?
a. Post-positivist
b. Critical
c. Constructivist
d. Critical and constructivist

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  Feedback
A Incorrect
B Incorrect
C Hermeneutics encompasses everything in the interpretative process including verbal and nonverbal forms of communication—language. Constructivist methods require dialogue between the investigator and research participant. There is a focus on interpretation of written and verbalized communication that brings to the forefront the varying ways in which people construct their understanding of their social world.
D Incorrect

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension | Cognitive Level: Application

MSC:  NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. “The philosophical quests to use research to balance the distribution of power in modern society” best describes which of the following?
a. Post-positivist
b. Critical socialist
c. Constructivist
d. Interpretivist

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  Feedback
A Incorrect
B Aim of inquiry for the social critical paradigm is (1) critique, (2) change, (3) reconstruction of reality, and (4) emancipation.
C Incorrect
D Incorrect

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension | Cognitive Level: Application

MSC:  NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. “The ontological view that human responses to health and illness can be measured” best describes which of the following?
a. Post-positivist
b. Critical
c. Constructivist
d. Critical and constructivist

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  Feedback
A The post-positivist believes that the senses provide us with an imperfect understanding of the external/material world and thus attempts to measure it.
B Incorrect
C Incorrect
D Incorrect

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension | Cognitive Level: Application

MSC:  NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

Chapter 04: Developing Research Questions, Hypotheses, and Clinical Questions

LoBiondo-Wood: Nursing Research in Canada, 4th Edition

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. What is the difference between a hypothesis and a research problem?
a. There is no difference between a research problem and a hypothesis.
b. A hypothesis is theory based, and a research question is practice based.
c. A hypothesis attempts to answer the question posed by the research problem.
d. A research problem defines clinical research, and a hypothesis defines bench research.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  Feedback
A Hypotheses test research questions by connecting them to statistical analysis and flow from research questions.
B A hypothesis is sometimes theory based, and sometimes it is not. Research questions are not always practice based; sometimes they originate in educational theory that connects to nursing education research, and sometimes they originate in basic research rather than in applied research.
C A hypothesis attempts to answer the research question.
D Research problems are present in all types of research; a hypothesis may be present in basic or applied research.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension

MSC:  NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. How is a hypothesis related to a theory?
a. A hypothesis can determine the validity of a theory.
b. A hypothesis can be used to evaluate the merit of a theory.
c. A theory can determine the validity of a hypothesis.
d. A theory can be used to evaluate the merit of a hypothesis.

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  Feedback
A A hypothesis bridges theory to the real world and empirical testing.
B The merits of a theory are evaluated through a hypothesis.
C A hypothesis tests the validity of a theory’s assumptions.
D A theory being used to evaluate the merit of a hypothesis is the reverse of the correct answer.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge

MSC:  NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. Which of the following statements represents a potential area of research?
a. “Most of our admissions occur at night.”
b. “It is difficult to find personnel willing to work the night shift.”
c. “It seems that most of the patient falls on our unit occur during the night shift.”
d. “The night shift personnel are not attending promptly to the needs of our patient.”

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  Feedback
A The significance of this statement is doubtful regarding its potential contribution to the scientific body of nursing knowledge.
B The significance of this statement is doubtful regarding its potential contribution to the scientific body of nursing knowledge.
C A specific patient problem has been identified, and the potential contribution of its study to the scientific body of nursing knowledge is promising. The problem is relevant to patients’ state of health.
D The significance of this statement is doubtful regarding its potential contribution to the scientific body of nursing knowledge; it is a subjective observation.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application

MSC:  NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. When an idea or a clinical situation has emerged as a potential research problem, what is the next appropriate step?
a. Identifying the variables
b. Formulating a hypothesis
c. Performing a literature review
d. Validating that the problem really exists

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  Feedback
A It is too soon to identify the variables; the variables will be confirmed by literature review, which will provide a critical analysis of the factors in the potential research question or problem.
B The study may not be a hypothesis-testing study; literature review will provide direction by revealing the gaps in the literature.
C Literature review helps identify the relationships among potential variables and further define the research question, points to a gap in the literature, and extends the knowledge base related to potential variables.
D The potential of the problem is revealed during a thorough review of the literature.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge

MSC:  NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. In a research study, what are the properties of interest that take on different values and are different from each other?
a. Variables
b. Concepts
c. Hypotheses
d. Assumptions

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  Feedback
A Variables are the properties of interest that take on different values and are different from each other.
B A concept is an abstraction that names an object or phenomenon.
C A hypothesis is a prediction that helps answer a research question.
D Assumptions are statements that are accepted as true.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge

MSC:  NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. Which of the following identified research problems has enough significance to warrant further development?
a. Children between 8 and 12 years do not eat the broccoli in their school lunches.
b. Women above 100 years old are at moderate risk for development of breast cancer.
c. Obese adults are at risk for development of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
d. The rate of sunscreen use among middle aged people is greater than 80%.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  Feedback
A This research problem holds little potential to contribute to the scientific body of nursing knowledge.
B This research problem holds little potential to contribute to the scientific body of nursing knowledge.
C Nursing can make a great contribution to behaviour change in relation to obesity, and so nursing studies on obesity and diabetes mellitus hold significance for the scientific body of nursing knowledge.
D This research problem holds little potential to contribute to the scientific body of nursing knowledge.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis

MSC:  NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. The initial review of the literature helps the investigator:
a. organize the summary.
b. identify statistical tests.
c. identify the need to extend knowledge base.
d. determine the scope of the study.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  Feedback
A Often subsequent reviews of the literature end with a summary.
B Statistical tests may not be discovered in the initial literature review.
C This might be discovered in the initial review of the literature.
D The scope of the study is better determined in subsequent literature reviews.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension

MSC:  NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. Which of the following factors or considerations constitutes the feasibility of a research study?
a. Availability of the participants
b. Direction of the hypotheses
c. Gaps in the literature
d. Design of the study

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  Feedback
A A study’s feasibility is determined by practical considerations. Availability of participants is crucial.
B The direction of the hypothesis is irrelevant to a study’s feasibility.
C Gaps in the literature provide support for the research problem, but they do not determine its feasibility.
D The design of the study is shaped by the research question, not by the study’s feasibility.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge

MSC:  NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. What is the key difference between independent and dependent variables?
a. The dependent variable should change in response to manipulation of the independent variable.
b. The independent variable should change in response to manipulation of the dependent variable.
c. Although both the dependent and independent variables are manipulated, only the dependent variable is considered an intervention.
d. The dependent variable relies on personal or demographic variables for strength, whereas the independent variable is strong enough to stand alone.

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  Feedback
A Dependent variables change in response to manipulation of independent variables in experimental research.
B The reverse is correct; dependent variables change in response to manipulation of independent variables in experimental research.
C The independent variable alone is considered a manipulation; the dependent variable is the consequence or presumed effect.
D Demographic variables are sometimes independent variables, such as in nonexperimental research when they may have occurred naturally; strength has nothing to do with their characteristics.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension

MSC:  NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. Which of the following statements about independent and dependent variables is true?
a. All research problem statements must contain a dependent variable and an independent variable.
b. There should only be one dependent variable associated with a single independent variable.
c. The relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable for any study must be causal.
d. A given characteristic or situation may be a dependent variable in one study and an independent variable in another.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  Feedback
A Some descriptive studies have only one variable; qualitative studies do not include independent and dependent variables.
B Many studies include more than one independent variable and more than one dependent variable.
C Causal relationships are not necessarily implied by independent and dependent variables; evidence is provided by association-type research questions.
D Causal or associative direction determines the classification of variables as independent or dependent.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge

MSC:  NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. Which part of the following research question is the independent variable?

“To what degree will body weight change individually in a group of Aboriginal women over 50 years of age who participate in a program of walking?”

a. “Women over 50”
b. “Body weight change”
c. “Aboriginal women”
d. “Participate in a program”

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  Feedback
A “Women over 50” is a description of the sample group being studied.
B In this study, “body weight change” would be the dependent variable.
C “Aboriginal women” is another description of the sample group being studied.
D The phrase “participate in a program” indicates that the researcher is asking how participation in a walking program will impact on the women’s body weight.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis

MSC:  NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. Review the abstract information provided below and identify the dependent variable for this study.

“Across time, increases in social support and marriage were associated with increased psychological well-being, whereas longer periods of unemployment were connected with higher depression and lower self-esteem.”

a. “Social support”
b. “Marriage”
c. “Psychological well-being”
d. “Unemployment”

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  Feedback
A “Social support” is the independent variable. Social support causes a change in psychological well-being (dependent variable).
B “Marriage” or marital status is the independent variable. Marriage causes or effects change in psychological well-being (dependent variable).
C A change in “psychological well-being” (dependent variable) is affected by social support, marriage, and self-esteem.
D “Unemployment” or employment status is the independent variable. Unemployment causes or effects change in psychological well-being (dependent variable).

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis

MSC:  NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. Which type of format is demonstrated by the following research question?

“Is there a relationship between self-esteem and body weight among postmenopausal women?”

a. Correlational
b. Comparative nonexperimental
c. Quantitative experimental
d. Phenomenological

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  Feedback
A Self-esteem and body weight are variables that are related in an associative way. The word “relationship” strongly suggests correlational design studies.
B Self-esteem and body weight are included in a comparative nonexperimental study.
C This research question does not include a causal research question.
D This research question does not suggest a phenomenological design study; human experience is not mentioned in the question.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application

MSC:  NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. What type of format is demonstrated by the following research question?

“What is the lived experience of late-stage pregnancy loss among women over 35?”

a. Correlational
b. Comparative nonexperimental
c. Quantitative experimental
d. Phenomenological

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  Feedback
A This research question does not demonstrate a correlational study; the phrase “lived experience” suggests a phenomenological study.
B This research question is not a comparative nonexperimental study.
C This research question is not a quantitative experimental study; an independent variable and a dependent variable are not in evidence.
D The phrase “lived experience” suggests a phenomenological study.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis

MSC:  NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. Which of the following research problems is testable as written?
a. Should mothers addicted to crack cocaine be permitted to raise their children?
b. Is the classroom an appropriate place to teach sex education to 10-year-old children?
c. Are older adults residing in assisted-living facilities satisfied with their level of social interaction?
d. Is an HIV infection or AIDS status sufficient rationale for barring the person from employment as an elementary school teacher?

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  Feedback
A This example suggests a value statement rather than a research question.
B This example suggests a value statement rather than a research question.
C This example implies variables that can be measured and suggests a comparative nonexperimental design study. The independent variable is residence: in assisted-living facilities or not in assisted-living facilities; the dependent variable is social interaction.
D This example suggests a value statement rather than a research question.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis

MSC:  NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. Which of the following is the purpose of a hypothesis for any study?
a. To identify dependent and independent variables
b. To provide direction for research by identifying the expected outcome
c. To define the appropriate measures needed to test the research question
d. To provide a means to know whether or not the study of the research problem is feasible

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  Feedback
A A hypothesis is a statement about the relationship between two or more variables that suggest an answer to the research question.
B A hypothesis posed as a declarative statement predicts an expected outcome.
C A hypothesis does not define the appropriate measures needed to test the research question; it suggests statistical testing.
D A hypothesis does not determine the feasibility of studying the research problem.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge

MSC:  NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. Which of the following hypotheses fails to meet the criteria of testability?
a. Proper hand washing prevents the spread of infection.
b. A consistent routine of low-impact aerobic exercising will increase coordination among older adults.
c. Patients who use guided imagery during MRI procedures will have reduced perceptions of emotional distress compared with patients who do not use guided imagery.
d. Postoperative patients who receive round-the-clock scheduled analgesics will have lower levels of pain compared with postoperative patients who receive analgesics on a PRN schedule.

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  Feedback
A This statement does not suggest that there is a predicted outcome as specifically as the other examples; the word “proper” is value laden.
B This hypothesis includes a predicted outcome.
C This hypothesis includes a predicted outcome.
D This hypothesis includes a predicted outcome.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis

MSC:  NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. Which of the following hypotheses is nondirectional?
a. A hospital with an infection control nurse will have fewer instances of sepsis among inpatients than will a hospital without an infection control nurse.
b. Greater weight loss will be seen among dieting patients who receive a weekly supportive telephone call from a dietitian than among dieting patients who do not receive a weekly supportive phone call.
c. A difference in the stage of prostate cancer will be seen among men who had an abnormal result from prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening compared with men who had an abnormal result from digital rectal examination (DRE) screening.
d. Children who receive weekly counselling for 1 year after the death of a parent will perform better in school than will children who do not receive weekly counselling after the death of a parent.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  Feedback
A This example includes a directional hypothesis; the expected direction is present (fewer).
B This example includes a directional hypothesis; the expected direction is present (greater).
C This example includes a nondirectional hypothesis; there is no expected direction evident.
D A directional hypothesis; the expected direction is present (better).

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis

MSC:  NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. What type of hypothesis is demonstrated by the following statement?

“There will be no difference in the number of adverse events among patients discharged 2 days after an abdominal hysterectomy compared with patients discharged 4 days after an abdominal hysterectomy.”

a. Nondirectional hypothesis
b. Directional hypothesis
c. Deductive hypothesis
d. Null hypothesis

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  Feedback
A This example is not a nondirectional hypothesis; no expected direction is present.
B This example is not a directional hypothesis.
C This example is not a deductive hypothesis.
D This is a null hypothesis, stating that there is no relationship between the independent and dependent variables.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis

MSC:  NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. Which type of research studies is expected to have research questions rather than hypotheses?
a. Experimental studies
b. Exploratory studies
c. Correlational studies
d. Predictive studies

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  Feedback
A Experimental studies must have hypotheses so that variables can be investigated.
B Exploratory studies do not investigate dependent and independent variables, which makes it necessary for them to have research questions rather than hypotheses.
C Correlational studies require hypotheses that focus on relationships among variables.
D Predictive studies require hypotheses that focus on causality.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension

MSC:  NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

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