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Network Security Essentials Applications and Standards 5th Edition By Willaim Stallings – Test Bank
Chapter 6: Transport-Level Security
TRUE OR FALSE
T F 1. ISSl/TLS includes protocol mechanisms to enable two TCP users to
determine the security mechanisms and services they will use.
T F 2. Unlike traditional publishing environments, the Internet is three-
way and vulnerable to attacks on the Web servers.
T F 3. Sessions are used to avoid the expensive negotiation of new
security parameters for each connection that shares security
T F 4. Microsoft Explorer originated SSL.
T F 5. The World Wide Web is fundamentally a client/server application
running over the Internet and TCP/IP intranets.
T F 6. One way to classify Web security threats is in terms of the location
of the threat: Web server, Web browser, and network traffic
between browser and server.
T F 7. The encryption of the compressed message plus the MAC must
increase the content length by more than 1024 bytes.
T F 8. The Change Cipher Spec Protocol is one of the three SSL-specific
protocols that use the SSL Record Protocol.
T F 9. The SSL Record Protocol is used before any application data is
T F 10. The first element of the CipherSuite parameter is the key exchange
T F 11. The certificate message is required for any agreed on key
exchange method except fixed Diffie-Hellman.
T F 12. Phase 3 completes the setting up of a secure connection of the
T F 13. The shared master secret is a one-time 48-byte value generated
for a session by means of secure key exchange.
T F 14. The TLS Record Format is the same as that of the SSL Record
T F 15. Server authentication occurs at the transport layer, based on the
server possessing a public/private key pair.
- The The SSL Internet standard version is called _________ .
- A) SSH B) HTTP
- C) SLP D) TLS
- The most complex part of SSL is the __________ .
- A) SSL Record Protocol B) Handshake Protocol
- C) Change Cipher Spec Protocol D) Alert Protocol
- _________ attacks include impersonating another user, altering messages in transit
between client and server and altering information on a Web site.
- A) Active B) Passive
- C) Shell D) Psuedo
- The symmetric encryption key for data encrypted by the client and decrypted by
the server is a _________ .
- A) server write key B) client write key
- C) sequence key D) master key
- _________ provides secure, remote logon and other secure client/server facilities.
- A) SLP B) HTTPS
- C) TLS D) SSH
- An SSL session is an association between a client and a server and is created by
the ___________ .
- A) Handshake Protocol B) user
- C) Spec Protocol D) administrator
- An arbitrary byte sequence chosen by the server to identify an active or
resumable session state is a _________ .
- A) peer certificate B) session identifier
- C) compression D) cipher spec
- The _________ is used to convey SSL-related alerts to the peer entity.
- A) Change Cipher Spec Protocol B) Alert Protocol
- C) SSL Record Protocol D) Handshake Protocol
- With each element of the list defining both a key exchange algorithm and a
CipherSpec, the list that contains the combination of cryptographic algorithms
supported by the client in decreasing order of preference is the __________ .
- A) CipherSuite B) Random
- C) Session ID D) Version
- Phase _________ of the Handshake Protocol establishes security capabilities.
- A) 4 B) 1
- C) 2 D) 3
- The __________ approach is vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attacks.
- A) Anonymous Diffie-Hellman B) Fixed Diffie-Hellman
- C) Fortezza D) Ephemeral Diffie-Hellman
- The final message in phase 2, and one that is always required, is the ___________
message, which is sent by the server to indicate the end of the server hello and
- A) server_done B) no_certificate
- C) goodbye D) finished
- Defined as a Proposed Internet Standard in RFC 2246, _________ is an IETF
standardization initiative whose goal is to produce an Internet standard version
- A) SSH B) CCSP
- C) TLS D) SHA-1
- A Pseudorandom Function takes as input:
- A) a secret value B) an identifying label
- C) a seed value D) all of the above
- _________ is organized as three protocols that typically run on top of TCP for
secure network communications and are designed to be relatively simple and
inexpensive to implement.
- A) SSL B) SSH
- C) TLS D) SSI
- __________ provides security services between Transport Layer Protocol and
applications that use TCP.
- The _________ Protocol allows the server and client to authenticate each other and to negotiate an encryption and MAC algorithm along with cryptographic keys to be used to protect data sent in an SSL Record.
- _________ attacks include eavesdropping on network traffic between browser and server and gaining access to information on a Web site that is supposed to be restricted.
- __________ provides confidentiality using symmetric encryption and message integrity using a message authentication code.
- The _________ takes an application message to be transmitted, fragments the data into manageable blocks, optionally compresses the data, applies a MAC, encrypts, adds a header, and transmits the resulting unit in a TCP segment.
- __________ refers to the combination of HTTP and SSL to implement secure communication between a Web browser and a Web server.
- Two important SSL concepts are the SSL session and the SSL _________ .
- Three standardized schemes that are becoming increasingly important as part of Web commerce and that focus on security at the transport layer are: SSL/TLS, HTTPS, and _________.
- Three higher-layer protocols defined as part of SSL and used in the management of SSL exchanges are: The Handshake Protocol, The Change Cipher Spec Protocol, and the __________ .
- _________ would appear to be the most secure of the three Diffie-Hellman options because it results in a temporary, authenticated key.
- A signature is created by taking the hash of a message and encrypting it with the sender’s _________ .
- The handshake is complete and the client and server may begin to exchange application layer data after the server sends its finished message in phase _________ of the Handshake Protocol.
- _________ require a client write MAC secret, a server write MAC secret, a client write key, a server write key, a client write IV, and a server write IV, which are generated from the master secret in that order.
- TLS makes use of a pseudorandom function referred to as __________ to expand secrets into blocks of data for purposes of key generation or validation.
- __________ allows the client to set up a “hijacker” process that will intercept selected application-level traffic and redirect it from an unsecured TCP connection to a secure SSH tunnel.
Chapter 7: Wireless Network Security
TRUE OR FALSE
T F 1. IEEE 802.11 is a standard for wireless LANs.
T F 2. Wireless networks, and the wireless devices that use them,
introduce a host of security problems over and above those found
in wired networks.
T F 3. Sensors and robots, are not vulnerable to physical attacks.
T F 4. The integration service enables transfer of data between a station
on an IEEE 802.11 LAN and a station on an integrated IEEE 802.x
T F 5. MAC spoofing occurs when an attacker is able to eavesdrop on
network traffic and identify the MAC address of a computer with
T F 6. The DS can be a switch, a wired network, or a wireless network.
T F 7. The pairwise master key is derived from the group key.
T F 8. IEEE 802.11 defines seven services that need to be provided by the
wireless LAN to achieve functionality equivalent to that which is
inherent to wired LANs.
T F 9. Handheld PDAs pose a security risk in terms of both eavesdropping
T F 10. The actual method of key generation depends on the details of the
authentication protocol used.
T F 11. The use of 802.1X cannot prevent rogue access points and other
unauthorized devices from becoming insecure backdoors.
T F 12. The principal threats to wireless transmission are eavesdropping,
altering or inserting messages, and disruption.
T F 13. The use of encryption and authentication protocols is the
standard method of countering attempts to alter or insert
T F 14. You should allow only specific computers to access your wireless
T F 15. Security policies for mobile devices should assume that any
mobile device will not be stolen or accessed by a malicious party.
- The term used for certified 802.11b products is ___________ .
- WAP B. Wi-Fi
- WEP D. WPA
- The layer of the IEEE 802 reference model that includes such functions as encoding/decoding of signals and bit transmission/reception is the _________ .
- physical layer B. control layer
- logical link layer D. media access layer
- In a(n) __________ situation, a wireless device is configured to appear
to be a legitimate access point, enabling the operator to steal passwords
from legitimate users and then penetrate a wired network through a legitimate wireless access point.
- malicious association B. identiy theft
- network injection D. ad hoc network
- ___________ and links, such as personal network Bluetooth devices, barcode readers, and handheld PDAs, pose a security risk in terms of both eavesdropping and spoofing.
- DoS B. Accidental association
- Nontraditional networks D. Ad hoc networks
- The function of the __________ is to on transmission assemble data into a frame, on reception disassemble frame and perform address recognition and error detection, and govern access to the LAN transmission medium.
- transmission layer B. logical layer
- media access control layer D. physical layer
- The master session key is also known as the __________ key.
- AAA B. GTK
- MIC D. STA
- The __________ is the information that is delivered as a unit between MAC users.
- MSDU B. DS
- MPDU D. BSS
- The __________ layer keeps track of which frames have been successfully received and retransmits unsuccessful frames.
- transmission B. media access control
- logical link control D. physical layer
- The purpose of the discovery phase in the ___________ is for a STA and an AP to recognize each other, agree on a set of security capabilities, and establish an association for future communication using those security capabilities.
- WPA B. RSN
- TKIP D. WAE
- The specification of a protocol along with the chosen key length is known as a __________ .
- extended service B. distribution system
- cipher suite D. RSN
- The _________ is used to ensure the confidentiality of the GTK and other key material in the 4-Way Handshake.
- MIC key B. EAPOL-KEK
- EAPOL-KCK D. TK
- The PMK is used to generate the _________ which consists of three keys to be used for communication between a STA and AP after they have been mutually authenticated.
- AAA Key B. GTK
- PTK D. PSK
- A __________ is any device that contains an IEEE 802.11 conformant MAC and physical layer.
- station B. MPU
- service data unit D. MSDU
- The first 802.11 standard to gain broad industry acceptance was _________.
- 802.11i B. 802.11a
- 802.11g D. 802.11b
- ____________ can occur when a company’s wireless LAN or wireless access points to wired LANs in close proximity and may create overlapping transmission ranges. A user intending to connect to one LAN may unintentionally lock on to a wireless access point from a neighboring network.
- Network injection B. Denial of service attacks
- Man-in-the-middle attacks D. Accidental association
- In simple terms, the wireless environment consists of three components that
provide point of attack: the endpoint, the ______________, and the access point.
- A __________ attack occurs when an attacker continually bombards a wireless access point or some other accessible wireless port with various protocol messages designed to consume system resources.
- __________ is the primary service used by stations to exchange MPDUs when the MPDUs must traverse the DS to get from a station in one BSS to a station in another BSS.
- To certify interoperability for 802.11b products an industry consortium named the __________ was formed.
- The __________ function is the logical function that determines when a station operating within a BSS is permitted to transmit and may be able to receive PDUs.
- Derived from the GMK, the _________ is used to provide confidentiality and integrity protection for multicast/broadcast user traffic.
- An __________ is a set of one or more interconnected BSSs and integrated LANs that appear as a single BSS to the LLC layer at any station associated with one of these BSSs.
- The __________ layer is responsible for detecting errors and discarding any frames that contain errors.
- The smallest building block of a wireless LAN is a __________ which consists of wireless stations executing the same MAC protocol and competing for access to the same shared wireless medium.
- In order to accelerate the introduction of strong security into WLANs, the Wi-Fi Alliance promulgated __________ as a set of security mechanisms for the Wi-Fi standard.
- The MPDU authentication phase consists of three phases. They are: connect to AS, EAP exchange and _________ .
- Forming a hierarchy beginning with a master key from which other keys are derived dynamically and used for a limited period of time, __________ are used for communication between a pair of devices typically between a STA and an AP.
- The MPDU exchange for distributing pairwise keys is known as the _________ which the STA and SP use to confirm the existence of the PMK, to verify the selection of the cipher suite, and to derive a fresh PTK for data sessions.
- The main threat involving wireless access points is unauthorized access to the network. The principal approach for preventing success is the __________ standard for port-based network access control.
- The IEEE 802.11 protocol stack consists of the logical link control layer, the medium access control layer, and the _________ layer.
Chapter 8: Electronic Mail Security
TRUE OR FALSE
T F 1. PGP incorporates tools for developing public-key certificate
management and a public-key trust model.
T F 2. PGP provides confidentiality through the use of asymmetric block
T F 3. E-mail is the most common distributed application that is widely
used across all architectures and vendor platforms.
T F 4. As a default, PGP compresses the message after applying the
signature but before encryption.
T F 5. Each PGP entity must maintain a file of its own public/private key
pairs as well as a file of private keys of correspondents.
T F 6. A means of generating predictable PGP session keys is needed.
T F 7. To enhance security an encrypted message is not accompanied by
an encrypted form of the session key that was used for message
T F 8. A message component includes the actual data to be stored or
transmitted as well as a filename and a timestamp that specifies
the time of creation.
T F 9. PGP has a very rigid public-key management scheme.
T F 10. The key legitimacy field is derived from the collection of signature
trust fields in the entry.
T F 11. Only single user IDs may be associated with a single public key on
the public-key ring.
T F 12. The MIME-Version field must have the parameter value 1.0 in
order for the message to conform to RFCs 2045 and 2046.
T F 13. For the text type of body no special software is required to get the
full meaning of the text aside from support of the indicated
T F 14. The objective of MIME Transfer Encodings is to provide reliable
delivery across the largest range of environments.
T F 15. Native form is a format, appropriate to the content type, that is
standardized for use between systems.
- __________ is an Internet standard approach to e-mail security that incorporates the same functionality as PGP.
- S/MIME B. MIME
- DKIM D. HTTPS
- PGP provides authentication through the use of _________ .
- asymmetric block encryption B. symmetric block encryption
- radix-64 D. digital signatures
- PGP provides e-mail compatibility using the __________ encoding scheme.
- radix-64 B. MIME
- digital signature D. symmetric block
- The __________ enables the recipient to determine if the correct public key was used to decrypt the message digest for authentication.
- key ID of the sender’s public key
- leading two octets of message digest
- Key IDs are critical to the operation of PGP and __________ key IDs are included in any PGP message that provides both confidentiality and authentication.
- two B. four
- six D. three
- MIME is an extension to the ________ framework that is intended to address some of the problems and limitations of the use of SMTP.
- RFC 821 B. RFC 5322
- RFC 3852 D. RFC 4871
- The ________ MIME field is a text description of the object with the body which is useful when the object is not readable as in the case of audio data.
- Content-Type B. Content-Description
- Content-ID D. Content-Transfer-Encoding
- The __________ field is used to identify MIME entities uniquely in multiple contexts.
- Content-Transfer- Encoding B. Content-ID
- Content-Description D. Content-Type
- Video content will be identified as _________ type.
- GIF B. MPEG
- BMP D. JPEG
- The __________ subtype is used when the different parts are independent but are to be transmitted together. They should be presented to the receiver in the order that they appear in the mail message.
- multipart/digest B. multipart/parallel
- multipart/mixed D. multipart/alternative
- For the __________ subtype the order of the parts is not significant.
- multipart/mixed B. multipart/digest
- multipart/alternative D. multipart/parallel
- S/MIME cryptographic algorithms use __________ to specify requirement level.
- CAN and MUST B. SHOULD and CAN
- SHOULD and MIGHT D. SHOULD and MUST
- E-banking, personal banking, e-commerce server, software validation and membership-based online services all fall into the VeriSign Digital ID _________ .
- Class 4 B. Class 3
- Class 1 D. Class 2
- The _________ accepts the message submitted by a Message User Agent and enforces the policies of the hosting domain and the requirements of Internet standards.
- Message Store B. Mail Submission Agent
- Message Transfer Agent D. Mail Delivery Agent
- Typically housed in the user’s computer, a _________ is referred to as a client e-mail program or a local network e-mail server.
- Mail Submission Agent B. Message Transfer Agent
- Message Store D. Message User Agent
- ___________ is an open-source, freely available software package for e-mail security.
- The key legitimacy field, the signature trust field and the owner trust field are each contained in a structure referred to as a ___________ .
- PGP provides compression using the __________ algorithm.
- To provide transparency for e-mail applications, an encrypted message may be converted to an ASCII string using _________ conversion.
- PGP makes use of four types of keys: public keys, private keys, one-time session keys, and ___________ symmetric keys.
- Computed by PGP, a _________ field indicates the extent to which PGP will trust that this is a valid public key for this user; the higher the level of trust, the stronger the binding of this user ID to this key.
- __________ is a security enhancement to the MIME Internet e-mail format standard based on technology from RSA Data Security.
- The __________ MIME field describes the data contained in the body with sufficient detail that the receiving user agent can pick an appropriate agent or mechanism to represent the data to the user or otherwise deal with the data in an appropriate manner.
- The _________ type refers to other kinds of data, typically either uninterpreted binary data or information to be processed by a mail-based application.
- The _________ transfer encoding is useful when the data consists largely of octets that correspond to printable ASCII characters.
- The _________ transfer encoding, also known as radix-64 encoding, is a common one for encoding arbitrary binary data in such a way as to be invulnerable to the processing by mail-transport programs.
- A _________ is formed by taking the message digest of the content to be signed and then encrypting that with the private key of the signer, which is then encoded using base64 encoding.
- S/MIME provides the following functions: enveloped data, signed data, clear signed data, and ________ .
- A specification for cryptographically signing e-mail messages permitting a signing domain to claim responsibility for a message in the mail stream, _________ allow message recipients to verify the signature by querying the signer’s domain directly to retrieve the appropriate public key and thereby confirming that the message was attested to by a party in possession of the private key for the signing domain.
- The __________ is a directory lookup service that provides a mapping between the name of a host on the Internet and its numerical address.