Modern Systems Analysis And Design 6th Edition By Jeffry E.Hoofer -Test Bank

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Modern Systems Analysis And Design 6th Edition By Jeffry E.Hoofer -Test Bank

Modern Systems Analysis and Design, 6e (Hoffer, et al.)

Chapter 2  The Origins of Software

 

1) Hardware manufacturers are one source of software.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 33

 

2) The first administrative information system was General Electric’s payroll system.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 30

 

3) Internal corporate information systems departments now spend a smaller portion of their time and effort on developing systems from scratch.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 30

 

4) Third-party sourcing is the practice of turning over responsibility of some to all of an organization’s information systems applications and operations to an outside firm.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 30

 

5) Outsourcing is an alternative analysts need to be aware of.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 32

 

6) An organization may move to outsourcing for political reasons.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 31

 

7) Reducing time to market is one reason for outsourcing.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 31

 

8) Hiring a company to run your applications on your own computers is an example of outsourcing.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 31

 

9) A company may consider outsourcing if it feels that its core mission does not involve managing an information systems unit and that it might achieve more effective computing by turning over all of its operations to a more experienced, computer-oriented company.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 31

 

10) Based on 2007 total revenues, the number one global software company is Microsoft.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 33

11) Based on 2007 total revenues, the number one global software company is IBM.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 33

12) Hardware manufacturers, packaged software producers, custom software producers, enterprisewide solutions, application server providers, and in-house developers are sources of software.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 32

 

13) Sun and Hitachi are well known for their enterprisewide solutions.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 33

 

14) SAP AG, PeopleSoft, and Oracle are vendors of enterprise solution software.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 35

 

15) Software companies will test their systems in actual organizations to determine whether there are any problems or if any improvements can be made, and until this testing is complete, the system is not offered for sale to the general public.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 34

 

16) In many instances, off-the-shelf software can meet an organization’s needs over 80 percent of the time.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 34

 

17) In general, custom software producers do not use the same methodologies, techniques, and tools that companies use to develop systems in house.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 33

 

18) All off-the-shelf software systems can be modified to meet the specific, individual needs of a particular organization.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 34

 

19) Properly designed turnkey systems will perfectly match the way an organization does business.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 34

 

20) A reasonable estimate is that off-the-shelf software can at best meet 70 percent of an organization’s needs.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 34

21) A turnkey system integrates individual, traditional business functions into a series of modules so that a single transaction occurs seamlessly within a single information system rather than several separate systems.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 34

22) Referencing enterprise solutions, the difference between the modules and traditional approaches is that the modules are integrated to focus on the business functional areas, rather than on business processes.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 34

 

23) Using enterprise software solutions, a firm can integrate all parts of a business process in a unified information system.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 34

 

24) One of the primary benefits of using an enterprise software solution is the short time period required for implementation.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 35

 

25) Lack of in-house expertise is a disadvantage associated with enterprise solutions software.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 35

 

26) The benefits of the enterprise solutions approach include a single repository of data for all aspects of a business process and the flexibility of the separate systems.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 34

 

27) Another method for organizations to obtain applications is to rent them or license them from third-party providers who run the applications at remote sites.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 35

 

28) IBM captured a large share of the ERP market through its own financial systems and through the acquisition of other ERP vendors.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 35

 

29) Cloud computing refers to the provision of applications over the Internet.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 36

 

 

30) A disadvantage of cloud computing is the increased need for internal information technology staff.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 36

 

31) Advantages to cloud computing include gaining access to applications faster than via internal development, and achieving lower-cost access to corporate-quality applications.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 36-37

32) The choice to acquire software from outside sources is made at the end of the systems design phase.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 38

 

33) When choosing off-the-shelf software, cost, functionality, response time, and ease of installation are some of the common criteria that should be considered.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 38

 

34) When choosing off-the-shelf software, the two most important criteria are functionality and ease of installation.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 38

 

35) Functionality refers to the tasks the software can perform and the mandatory, essential, and desired system features.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 38

 

36) Purchasing application software is a substitute for conducting the systems analysis phase.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 38

 

37) Hybrid solutions involving some purchased and some in-house software components are not very common.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 37

 

38) Open source software is different because it is freely available, not just the final product but the source code itself.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 37

 

39) Purchasing software is part of one design strategy for acquiring the system identified during analysis.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 38

40) Functionality refers to how easy it is for you, or the vendor, to customize the software.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 38

 

41) Flexibility refers to how long it takes the software package to respond to the user’s requests in an interactive session.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 39

42) One way to get all of the information you want about a software package is to collect it from the vendor.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 39

 

43) One method for validating purchased software information is to contact current users of the software.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 40

 

44) A request for proposal is a document provided to vendors that asks them to propose hardware and system software that will meet the requirements of a new system.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 39

 

45) Baan is a software testing and abstracting service that periodically evaluates software and collects user opinions.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 40

 

46) Reuse refers to the use of previously written software resources, especially objects and components, in new applications.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 40

 

47) According to a study cited in the textbook, most organizations cannot compete economically with established commercial organizations that focus on selling components as their main line of business.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 41

 

48) Sources of software include:

  1. A) information technology services firm
  2. B) packaged software providers
  3. C) application service providers
  4. D) all of the above

Answer:  D

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 32

 

49) The first administrative information system was:

  1. A) General Motor’s order tracking system
  2. B) Ford Motor Company’s order tracking system
  3. C) General Electric’s payroll system
  4. D) Coca-Cola’s payroll system

Answer:  C

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 30

50) Which of the following is a true statement regarding in-house development?

  1. A) In-house development of information systems has increased by a factor of 3 in the last three years.
  2. B) In-house development of information systems has increased by 42 percent in the last three years.
  3. C) In-house development of information systems has progressively become a smaller piece of all the systems development work that takes place in and for organizations.
  4. D) When developing administrative systems, in-house development of information systems is still the best choice.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 30

 

51) Reasons for outsourcing include:

  1. A) freeing up internal resources
  2. B) increasing processing efficiencies
  3. C) reducing time to market
  4. D) all of the above

Answer:  D

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 31

 

52) The practice of turning over responsibility of some to all of an organization’s information systems applications and operations to an outside firm is referred to as:

  1. A) realignment
  2. B) downsizing
  3. C) outsourcing
  4. D) time sharing

Answer:  C

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 30

 

53) Hiring a company to run your applications at your site on your computers is an example of:

  1. A) a turnkey system
  2. B) outsourcing
  3. C) downsizing
  4. D) realignment

Answer:  B

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 30

 

 

54) Which of the following companies are ranked in the 2007 top global software companies?

  1. A) IBM
  2. B) Microsoft
  3. C) Capgemmi
  4. D) all of the above

Answer:  D

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 33

55) Based on 2007 total revenues, which of the following top global software companies had the highest revenues?

  1. A) Accenture
  2. B) IBM
  3. C) Microsoft
  4. D) NTT Data Corporation

Answer:  B

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 33

 

56) Based on total revenues for 2007, which of the following global software companies ranks fourth?

  1. A) Microsoft
  2. B) IBM
  3. C) Accenture
  4. D) EDS

Answer:  C

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 33

 

57) Off-the-shelf software systems that cannot be modified to meet the specific needs of a particular organization are sometimes called:

  1. A) custom software systems
  2. B) in-house developed systems
  3. C) turnkey systems
  4. D) standard systems

Answer:  C

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 34

 

58) Based on 2007 services revenue, which of the following companies is the top global software company?

  1. A) Compaq
  2. B) Microsoft
  3. C) Accenture
  4. D) IBM

Answer:  D

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 33

 

 

59) A system that integrates individual traditional business functions into a series of modules so that a single transaction occurs seamlessly within a single information system rather than several separate systems best describes:

  1. A) enterprise resource planning
  2. B) application service
  3. C) storage area network
  4. D) packaged software

Answer:  A

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 34

60) SAP AG is a(n):

  1. A) hardware manufacturer
  2. B) application service provider
  3. C) enterprise solution software provider
  4. D) custom software producer

Answer:  C

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 35

 

61) Benefits of enterprise solutions do not include:

  1. A) the flexibility of modules
  2. B) ease of implementation and less implementation time
  3. C) being an inexpensive alternative to custom development
  4. D) not requiring the company to change how it does business

Answer:  C

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 34-35

 

62) A major vendor that provides enterprise solution software is:

  1. A) Microsoft
  2. B) SAP AG
  3. C) Macromedia
  4. D) Adobe

Answer:  B

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 35

 

63) One of the top three reasons for choosing to go with cloud computing is:

  1. A) having internal IT staff run the application
  2. B) hosting the application internally
  3. C) having IT staff install and upgrade
  4. D) freeing internal IT staff

Answer:  D

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 36

 

 

64) Some of the most well-known and popular open source software names are:

  1. A) Linux
  2. B) mySQL
  3. C) Firefox
  4. D) all of the above

Answer:  D

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 37

 

65) Displays and reports may be easily redesigned if the modules are written in:

  1. A) fourth-generation language
  2. B) third-generation language
  3. C) object-oriented language
  4. D) English language

Answer:  A

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 39

66) The choice to acquire software from outside sources should be made:

  1. A) at the beginning of the analysis phase
  2. B) at the middle of the analysis phase
  3. C) at the end of the analysis phase
  4. D) at the end of the design phase

Answer:  C

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 38

 

67) Which of the following describes the internal staffing requirements when software components are acquired from packaged software producers?

  1. A) Some internal staff are necessary, but mostly consultants are needed.
  2. B) Some IS and user staff to define requirements and evaluate packages are needed.
  3. C) Internal staff may be needed, depending on the application.
  4. D) Internal staffing requirements vary.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 38

 

68) Which of the following describes the internal staffing requirements when software components are acquired from enterprise wide solutions providers?

  1. A) Some internal staff are necessary, but mostly consultants are needed.
  2. B) Some IS and user staff to define requirements and evaluate packages are needed.
  3. C) Internal staff may be needed, depending on the application.
  4. D) Internal staffing requirements vary.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 38

 

 

69) According to a study cited in the textbook, which of the following development methods can lead to a larger maintenance burden?

  1. A) in-house development
  2. B) packaged software
  3. C) outsourcing
  4. D) enterprisewide solutions

Answer:  A

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 37

 

70) Which of the following software producers is generally not a source of application software?

  1. A) custom software producers
  2. B) enterprise solution producers
  3. C) packaged software producers
  4. D) in-house developers

Answer:  A

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 32

 

71) When purchasing off-the-shelf software, you should consider:

  1. A) flexibility
  2. B) response time
  3. C) vendor viability
  4. D) all of the above

Answer:  D

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 38

72) When choosing off-the-shelf software, which of the following are the two most important criteria?

  1. A) vendor viability and vendor support
  2. B) cost and functionality
  3. C) documentation and response time
  4. D) flexibility and functionality

Answer:  A

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 39

 

73) Which of the following software criteria refers to the tasks the software can perform and the mandatory, essential, and desired system features?

  1. A) cost
  2. B) vendor viability
  3. C) functionality
  4. D) flexibility

Answer:  C

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 38

 

 

74) Which of the following software criteria determines whether the software package can perform all or just some of the software tasks your users need?

  1. A) cost
  2. B) vendor viability
  3. C) functionality
  4. D) flexibility

Answer:  C

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 38

 

75) Vendor support can take the form of:

  1. A) providing assistance to install software
  2. B) training users and system staff on the software
  3. C) providing help as problems arise after installation
  4. D) all of the above

Answer:  D

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 39

 

76) Which of the following software evaluation criteria refers to the ease with which you or the vendor can customize the software?

  1. A) cost
  2. B) vendor viability
  3. C) functionality
  4. D) flexibility

Answer:  D

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 39

77) Which of the software evaluation criteria refers to how long it takes the software package to respond to the user’s requests in an interactive session?

  1. A) functionality
  2. B) return rate
  3. C) response time
  4. D) flexibility

Answer:  C

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 39

 

78) Which of the following software evaluation criteria measures the difficulty of loading the software and making it operational?

  1. A) ease of installation
  2. B) installation viability
  3. C) functionality
  4. D) flexibility

Answer:  A

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 39

 

 

79) Which of the following are ways of validating purchased software information?

  1. A) reviewing software documentation and technical marketing literature
  2. B) sending prospective vendors a questionnaire asking specific questions about their packages
  3. C) using the software yourself and running it through a series of tests based on the criteria for selecting software
  4. D) all of the above

Answer:  D

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 39-40

 

80) The document sent to vendors asking them to propose hardware and software that will meet the requirements of your new system is called a:

  1. A) requirements statement
  2. B) request for proposal
  3. C) baseline project plan
  4. D) business case

Answer:  B

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 39

 

81) Which of the following is a true statement about reusing software?

  1. A) Reuse should increase programmer productivity.
  2. B) Reuse should decrease development time.
  3. C) Reuse should result in higher-quality software.
  4. D) All of the above.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 40

82) The reuse of object libraries can result in:

  1. A) reduced rework
  2. B) reduced defect density
  3. C) increased productivity
  4. D) all of the above

Answer:  D

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 41

 

83) When considering reuse, which of the following issues should be addressed?

  1. A) the current lack of a methodology for creating and clearly defining and labeling reusable components for placement in a library
  2. B) the lack of commitment to reuse
  3. C) lack of proper training and rewards needed to promote reuse
  4. D) all of the above

Answer:  D

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 41

 

 

84) Which of the following is the software reuse step that involves the design of a reusable piece of software, starting from existing software assets or from scratch?

  1. A) storage
  2. B) abstraction
  3. C) recontextualization
  4. D) conceptualization

Answer:  B

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 41

 

85) Which of the following is the software reuse step that involves making software assets available for others to use?

  1. A) storage
  2. B) abstraction
  3. C) recontextualization
  4. D) conceptualization

Answer:  A

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 41

 

86) Which of the following is the software reuse step that involves making the reusable asset understandable to developers who want to use it in their systems?

  1. A) storage
  2. B) abstraction
  3. C) recontextualization
  4. D) conceptualization

Answer:  C

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 41

 

87) Which of the following is not an approach that an organization can take to software reuse?

  1. A) flexible reuse
  2. B) facilitated reuse
  3. C) ad hoc reuse
  4. D) managed reuse

Answer:  A

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 42

88) The software reuse approach that allows individuals to find or develop reusable assets on their own, and has few, if any, organizational rewards for reusing assets best describes:

  1. A) flexible reuse
  2. B) facilitated reuse
  3. C) ad hoc reuse
  4. D) managed reuse

Answer:  C

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 42

 

 

89) The software reuse approach where developers are not required to practice reuse, but are encouraged to do so best describes:

  1. A) flexible reuse
  2. B) facilitated reuse
  3. C) ad hoc reuse
  4. D) managed reuse

Answer:  B

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 42

 

90) Which of the following is a software reuse approach that mandates the development, sharing, and adoption of reusable assets?

  1. A) flexible reuse
  2. B) facilitated reuse
  3. C) ad hoc reuse
  4. D) managed reuse

Answer:  D

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 42

 

91) The most expensive and extensive reuse approach is:

  1. A) designed reuse
  2. B) facilitated reuse
  3. C) ad hoc reuse
  4. D) managed reuse

Answer:  A

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 42

 

92) __________ is the practice of turning over responsibility of some to all of an organization’s information systems applications and operations to an outside firm.

Answer:  Outsourcing

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 30

 

93) __________ are off-the-shelf software systems that cannot be modified to meet the specific, individual needs of a particular organization.

Answer:  Turnkey systems

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 34

 

94) __________ integrate individual traditional business functions into a series of modules so that a single transaction occurs seamlessly within a single information system rather than several separate systems.

Answer:  Enterprise resource planning systems

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 34

95) __________ enable a firm to integrate all parts of a business process into a unified information system.

Answer:  Enterprise software solutions

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 34

 

 

96) A __________ is an organization that hosts and runs computer applications for other companies, typically on a per use or license basis.

Answer:  cloud computing application provider

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 36

 

97) When choosing off-the-shelf software, the eight most common criteria are __________, __________, __________, __________, __________, __________, __________, and __________.

Answer:  cost, functionality, vendor support, vendor viability, flexibility, documentation, response time, ease of installation

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 38

 

98) When considering off-the-shelf software, the two most important criteria are __________ and __________.

Answer:  vendor support, vendor viability

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 38

 

99) When resources and staff are available and the system must be built from scratch, a company should consider __________.

Answer:  in-house developers

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 37

 

100) Together, SAP and Oracle control about 60 percent of the __________ market.

Answer:  ERP

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 35

 

101) When a supported task is generic, a company should consider acquiring its software from a __________.

Answer:  packaged software producer

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 38

 

102) __________ is ranked in the 2007 top 10 global software companies and is in the operating systems software business sector.

Answer:  Microsoft

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 33

 

103) __________ refers to the tasks the software can perform and the mandatory, essential, and desired system features.

Answer:  Functionality

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 38

 

104) __________ includes assistance to install the software, train user and systems staff on the software, and provide help as problems arise after installation.

Answer:  Vendor support

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 39

 

105) __________ refers to how easy it is for you, or the vendor, to customize the software.

Answer:  Flexibility

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 39

 

106) __________ refers to how long it takes the software package to respond to the user’s request in an interactive session.

Answer:  Response time

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 39

 

107) __________ is a measure of the difficulty of loading the software and making it operational.

Answer:  Ease of installation

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 39

 

108) __________ periodically evaluate software and collect user opinions, thus providing a range of opinions about possible software packages.

Answer:  Independent software testing services

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 40

 

109) __________ refers to the use of previously written software resources, especially objects and components, in new applications.

Answer:  Reuse

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 40

 

110) The three basic software reuse steps are __________, __________, and __________.

Answer:  abstraction, storage, recontextualization

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 41

 

111) __________ is the software reuse step that involves the design of a reusable piece of software, starting from existing software assets or from scratch.

Answer:  Abstraction

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 41

 

112) __________ is the software reuse step that involves making software assets available for others to use.

Answer:  Storage

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 41

 

113) __________ is the software reuse step that involves making the reusable asset understandable to developers who want to use it in their systems.

Answer:  Recontextualization

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 41

 

114) __________ is the software reuse approach where developers are not required to practice reuse, but are encouraged to do so.

Answer:  Facilitated reuse

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 42

115) __________ is the software reuse approach that mandates reuse and measures its effectiveness, as well as mandates that assets be designed for reuse as they are being designed for specific applications.

Answer:  Designed reuse

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 42

 

Match each of the following terms with its corresponding definition.

  1. cloud computing
  2. reuse
  3. enterprise resource planning systems
  4. outsourcing
  5. request for proposal

 

116) A document provided to vendors to ask them to propose hardware and system software that will meet the requirements of your new system.

Answer:  e

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 39

 

117) The practice of turning over responsibility of some to all of an organization’s information systems applications and operations to an outside firm.

Answer:  d

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 30

 

118) A system that integrates individual traditional business functions into a series of modules so that a single transaction occurs seamlessly within a single information system rather than several separate systems.

Answer:  c

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 34

 

119) The provision of computing resources over the Internet so that customers do not need to invest in the infrastructure to run and maintain an application.

Answer:  a

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 36

 

120) The use of previously written software resources, especially objects and components, in new applications.

Answer:  b

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 40

 

 

Match each of the following terms with its corresponding definition.

  1. turnkey system
  2. outsourcing
  3. packaged software producer
  4. vendor support
  5. enterprise resource planning system

 

121) Off-the-shelf software systems that cannot be modified to meet the specific, individual needs of a particular organization.

Answer:  a

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 34

122) The practice of turning over responsibility of some to all of an organization’s information systems applications and operations to an outside firm.

Answer:  b

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 30

 

123) A system that integrates individual traditional business functions into a series of modules so that a single transaction occurs seamlessly within a single information system rather than several separate systems.

Answer:  e

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 34

 

124) Software companies that develop prepackaged or off-the-shelf systems.

Answer:  c

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 33

 

125) This occurs in the form of assistance to install the software, to train user and systems staff on the software, and provide help as problems arise after installation.

Answer:  d

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 39

 

 

Match each of the following sources of software components with its internal staffing requirements.

  1. packaged software producers
  2. IT service firms
  3. in-house developers
  4. hardware manufacturers
  5. enterprise-wide solutions
  6. cloud computing

 

126) Ideally, none.

Answer:  f

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 38

 

127) Some IS and user staff to define requirements and evaluate packages.

Answer:  a

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 38

 

128) Internal staff may be needed, depending on the application.

Answer:  b

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 38

 

129) It varies.

Answer:  c

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 38

 

130) Internal staff is necessary, though staff size may vary.

Answer:  d

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 38

 

131) Some internal staff is necessary, but mostly need consultants.

Answer:  e

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 38

Indicate when software should be acquired from each of the following types of software producers.

  1. packaged software producers
  2. IT services firms
  3. in-house developers
  4. hardware manufacturers
  5. enterprise-wide solutions

 

132) When resources and staff are available and the system must be built from scratch.

Answer:  c

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 38

 

 

133) When the task requires custom support and the system cannot be built internally.

Answer:  b

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 38

 

134) For system software and utilities.

Answer:  d

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 38

 

135) When the supported task is generic.

Answer:  a

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 38

 

136) For complete systems that cross functional boundaries.

Answer:  e

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 38

 

Match each of the following terms with its corresponding description.

  1. reuse
  2. ad hoc reuse
  3. designed reuse
  4. managed reuse
  5. facilitated reuse

 

137) Individuals find assets on their own, sharing with colleagues as they choose.

Answer:  b

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 42

 

138) The use of previously written software resources, especially objects and components, in new applications.

Answer:  a

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 42

 

139) The organization encourages and supports reuse with limited resources, infrastructure, and policies to make reuse easier.

Answer:  e

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 42

140) The organization invests in carefully designing assets for reuse, choosing assets for domain or product line.

Answer:  c

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 42

 

141) The organization enforces reuse practices through policies, resources, tools, and people.

Answer:  d

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 42

 

 

142) Briefly identify six sources of software.

Answer:  Software sources can be categorized as hardware manufacturers, packaged software producers, custom software producers, enterprisewide solution providers, application service providers, and in-house developers. Hardware manufacturers are among the largest producers of software. Although, generally not a source of application software, hardware manufacturers are good choices for system software and utilities. Packaged software producers are potential sources of application software. These companies develop software to run on different computer platforms. Custom software producers help firms develop custom information systems for internal use.  Custom software producers are often selected when the task requires custom support and the system cannot be built internally. Enterprisewide solutions integrate individual traditional business functions into a series of modules so that a single transaction occurs seamlessly within a single information system rather than several separate systems. Enterprisewide solutions are recommended for complete systems that cross functional boundaries. Application service providers are organizations that host and run computer applications for other companies, typically on a per-use or license basis. ASPs are recommended when the supported task is generic, buying and installing the system locally would be too expensive, or for instant access to an application. In-house developers develop the system internally. This method is chosen when resources and staff are available and the system must be built from scratch.

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 30

 

143) Identify the most common criteria for choosing off-the-shelf software. Which two criteria would be among the most important?

Answer:  The most common criteria are cost, functionality, vendor support, vendor viability, flexibility, documentation, response time, and ease of installation. Cost involves comparing the cost of developing the same system in-house to the cost of purchasing or licensing the software package. Functionality refers to the tasks the software can perform and the mandatory, essential, and desired system features. While vendor support identifies the amount of support the vendor can be expected to provide, vendor viability examines the vendor’s marketplace strength. Flexibility refers to the flexibility of customizing the software. The documentation criterion examines issues relating to the user’s manual, technical documentation, and cost of acquiring additional copies of the documentation. Response time questions the length of time it takes the software package to respond to the user’s requests in an interactive session and how long it takes the software to complete running a job. The ease of installation criterion examines the difficulty of loading the software and making it operational. Vendor support and viability will be among the most important.

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 38-39

144) What are enterprise resource planning systems? How do they differ from traditional approaches? Identify three enterprise resource planning system vendors.

Answer:  Enterprise resource planning systems integrate individual traditional business functions into a series of modules so that a single transaction occurs seamlessly within a single information system rather than several separate systems. ERP modules focus on business processes rather than on business functional areas. SAP AG, Oracle, and PeopleSoft, Inc. are three ERP vendors.

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 34-35

 

 

145) What is cloud computing? What are the advantages and disadvantages of using a cloud?

Answer:  Cloud computing provides a means for applications to be hosted and run for other companies by a provider. Advantages include less need for internal information technology staff, gaining access to applications faster than internal development, and achieving lower-cost access to corporate-quality applications. Some concerns are reliability, security and compliance with government regulations.

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 35-36

 

146) What is outsourcing? Identify two outsourcing arrangements. Identify two reasons for outsourcing.

Answer:  Outsourcing is the practice of turning over responsibility of some to all of an organization’s information systems applications and operations to an outside firm. A company may hire a third party to develop and run its applications on the third party’s computers. Another alternative is for the third party to run the applications on-site and on your computers. Reasons for outsourcing include cost-effectiveness and the company’s core mission does not involve managing a management information systems unit.

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 30-31

 

147) What is software reuse? Briefly describe four approaches to software reuse.

Answer:  Reuse is the use of previously written software resources, especially objects and components, in new applications. Ad hoc, facilitated, managed, and designed are four approaches to reusing software. With the ad hoc approach, individuals find and develop reusable assets on their own; few, if any, organizational rewards for reusing assets exist. With the facilitated approach, developers are encouraged to practice reuse, but are not required to do so. The managed approach mandates the development, sharing, and adoption of reusable assets. The designed approach mandates reuse, measures its effectiveness, and requires assets to be designed for reuse.

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 40-42

 

148) Identify six sources of software. Briefly describe the internal staffing requirements.

Answer:  Hardware manufacturers, packaged software providers, custom software providers, enterprise-wide solution vendors, application service providers, and in-house development are sources of software. When software is acquired from hardware manufacturers, the internal staffing requirements vary. When acquiring software from packaged software producers, some IS and user staff are needed to define requirements and evaluate software packages. When choosing custom software, internal staff may be needed, depending on the application. When application service providers are used, ideally internal staff requirements will not be needed. When enterprise-wide solutions are used, some internal staff are necessary, but mostly consultants are needed. If systems are developed in-house, internal staff are necessary, though staff size can vary.

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 38

149) How can a company validate purchased software information?

Answer:  Information about the software can be obtained from the vendor in the form of marketing literature, an RFP, and software documentation. The company can use and test the software on a trial basis; speak with current users of the software, and use independent software testing and abstracting services.

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 39-40

150) For each reuse approach, briefly describe its process and policies.

Answer:  The ad hoc approach does not have a process or policies. The facilitated approach uses incentives, an asset check-in process, and limited review before publication. The managed approach includes a reuse-adapted process, mandated with specific goals; reuse reviews and asset documentation, packaging, and certification guidelines, and specified metrics. The designed approach includes some domain analysis, reuse-oriented architecture, and specific steps to design for and with reuse.

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 42

 

 

Modern Systems Analysis and Design, 6e (Hoffer, et al.)

Chapter 4  Identifying and Selecting Systems Development Projects

 

1) Nonintegrated systems used in the past are being replaced with cooperative, integrated enterprise systems that can easily support information sharing.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 95

 

2) Systems analysis is the first phase of the systems development life cycle.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 96

 

3) During project identification and selection, all possible systems development projects that an organizational unit can undertake are identified and assessed.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 96

 

4) An IS manager, a formal planning group, a user department, and a development group are possible sources for information systems development projects.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 97

 

5) Requirements structuring is the first activity of the project identification and selection phase.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 97

 

6) Projects identified by top management have a cross-functional focus.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 97

 

7) When identifying and selecting projects, the development group is very concerned with cost-benefit analysis.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 98

 

8) When comparing alternative methods for making information systems identification and selection decisions, top management has the smallest project size and a cross-functional focus.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 98

 

9) To maintain consistency, top management or a steering committee should classify and rank projects, not the IS group or individual business units.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 98

 

 

10) The criteria used to evaluate projects will vary by organization.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 99

11) Potential benefits are the process of analyzing an organization’s activities to determine where value is added to products and/or services and the costs incurred for doing so; this process usually also includes a comparison with the activities, added value, and costs of other organizations for the purpose of making improvements in the organization’s operations and performance.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 99

 

12) When classifying and ranking projects, resource availability, potential benefits, and project size/duration are possible evaluation criteria.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 99

 

13) Project selection is a process of considering both short- and long-term projects and selecting those most likely to achieve business objectives.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 100

 

14) The Baseline Project Plan is the primary deliverable from the project identification and selection phase.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 101

 

15) A schedule of specific IS development projects is the primary deliverable from the project identification and selection phase.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 101

 

16) Due to the principle of incremental commitment, a selected project will result in a working system.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 101

 

17) When determining how to allocate IS resources, organizations have traditionally used a systematic planning process.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 102

 

18) “What information requirements will satisfy our business’s decision-making needs today and well into the future?” is a question that might be asked by a planning-based approach to project identification and selection.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 102

 

19) A major disadvantage to the planning-based approach is that an organization’s informational needs are more likely to change than its business processes.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 102

20) To benefit from a planning-based approach for identifying and selecting projects, an organization must analyze its information needs and plan its projects carefully.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 102

 

21) The rising costs of information systems is one reason why improved information systems project identification and selection is needed.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 103

 

22) Data redundancy and users having little confidence in the quality of data are reasons why improved information systems project identification and selection is needed.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 103

 

23) A disciplined approach, driven by top management commitment, is a prerequisite to most effectively apply information systems in order to reach organizational objectives.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 103

 

24) Requirements determination and requirements structuring are two processes that can significantly improve the quality of project identification and selection decisions.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 103

 

25) Corporate analysis is an ongoing process that defines the mission, objectives, and strategies of an organization.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 103

 

26) During corporate strategic planning, executives typically develop a mission statement, statements of future corporate objectives, and strategies designed to help the organization reach its objectives.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 103

 

27) A business objective statement is a statement that makes it clear what business the company is in.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 103

 

 

28) “We are in the business of selling high-quality men’s shoes” is an example of a mission statement.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 103

 

29) “Baker’s Fitness Center will increase market share and profitability” is an example of a mission statement.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 103

30) Objective statements are a series of statements that express an organization’s qualitative and quantitative goals for reaching a desired future position.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 104

 

31) Mission statements are a series of statements that express an organization’s qualitative and quantitative goals for reaching a desired future position.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 103

 

32) Mission statements are often referred to as critical success factors.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 104

 

33) A company should define its competitive strategy and then define its mission and objectives.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 104

 

34) A competitive strategy is the method by which an organization attempts to achieve its mission and objectives.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 104

 

35) To build the most effective information systems, an organization must clearly understand its mission, objectives, and strategy.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 105

 

36) A low-cost producer competitive strategy reflects competing in an industry on the basis of product or service cost to the consumer.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 105

 

37) The South Korean-produced Hyundai uses a product focus competitive strategy.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 105

 

 

38) Promoting your product as having an ingredient that competing products do not, setting the product apart from the competition, best exemplifies the product differentiation competitive strategy.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 105

 

39) The product focus or niche competitive strategy is similar to both the low-cost and differentiation strategies, but with a much narrower market focus.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 105

40) Systems requirements planning is an orderly means of assessing the information needs of an organization and defining the systems, databases, and technologies that will best satisfy those needs.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 105

 

41) During ISP, the current and future organizational needs are modeled, and strategies and project plans to migrate the current information systems and technologies to their desired future state are developed.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 105-106

 

42) Top-down planning is an ISP methodology which attempts to gain a specific understanding of the information system needs of a part of the organization.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 107

 

43) Bottom-up planning is an ISP methodology that identifies and defines IS development projects based upon solving operational business problems.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 107

 

44) The bottom-up approach always views the informational needs of the entire organization and thus results in the creation of cohesive information systems.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 107

 

45) A location-to-function matrix identifies which organizational units are located in or interact with a specific business function.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 108

 

46) A unit-to-function matrix identifies the relationship between organizational entities and each business function.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 108

 

47) The target situation must be developed in light of technology and business trends, in addition to organizational constraints.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 109

 

48) The systems identification and selection process for an Internet-based electronic commerce application is no different than the process followed for other applications.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 112

 

49) The Internet is a large worldwide network of networks that use a common protocol to communicate with each other.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 112

50) An Intranet refers to the use of the Internet between firms.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 112

 

51) EDI is the use of telecommunications technologies to transfer business documents directly between organizations.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 112

 

52) Organizations that have Intranets dictate what applications will run over the Intranet and the speed and quality of the hardware connected to the Intranet.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 112

 

53) An extranet is Internet-based communication to support business-to-business activities.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 112

 

54) When developing either an intranet or an extranet, developers know who the users are, what applications will be used, the speed of the network connection, and the type of communication devices.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 113

 

55) When developing an Internet EC application, developers must deal with several unknown factors, including the user, connection speed, and access method.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 113

 

 

56) Identification and assessment of all possible systems development projects that an organization unit can undertake is conducted during:

  1. A) project identification and selection
  2. B) project initiation and planning
  3. C) design
  4. D) analysis

Answer:  A

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 96

 

57) Which of the following is one of the three primary activities associated with identifying and selecting IS development projects?

  1. A) preliminary investigation of the system problem or opportunity
  2. B) identification of potential development projects
  3. C) requirements determination
  4. D) generating alternative initial designs

Answer:  B

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 97

58) A department head deciding which project requests to submit is an example of:

  1. A) a preliminary investigation of the system problem or opportunity
  2. B) identifying potential development projects
  3. C) requirements determination
  4. D) generating alternative initial designs

Answer:  B

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 97

 

59) Research has found that projects identified by top management more often:

  1. A) have a narrow, tactical focus
  2. B) reflect diversity and have a cross-functional focus
  3. C) have a strategic, organizational focus
  4. D) will integrate easily with existing hardware and systems

Answer:  C

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 97

 

60) Research has found that projects identified by individual departments or business units most often:

  1. A) have a narrow, tactical focus
  2. B) reflect diversity and have a cross-functional focus
  3. C) have a strategic, organizational focus
  4. D) will integrate easily with existing hardware and systems

Answer:  A

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 97

 

 

61) Potential development projects can be identified by:

  1. A) a steering committee
  2. B) top management
  3. C) a senior IS manager
  4. D) all of the above

Answer:  D

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 97

 

62) Which of the following possible project sources most often reflects the broader needs of the organization?

  1. A) user department
  2. B) development group
  3. C) IS manager
  4. D) top management

Answer:  D

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 98

 

63) Which of the following characteristics is associated with the steering committee selection method?

  1. A) greater strategic focus
  2. B) greater organizational change
  3. C) fewer users, management layers, and business functions
  4. D) less concern on cost-benefit analysis

Answer:  B

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 98

64) Which of the following is a way projects can be identified?

  1. A) bottom-up source
  2. B) upper-echelon source
  3. C) top-down source
  4. D) both A and C

Answer:  D

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 98

 

65) The extent to which the project is viewed as improving profits, customer service, etc., and the duration of these benefits best defines which of the following evaluation criteria?

  1. A) potential benefits
  2. B) resource availability
  3. C) technical difficulty or risks
  4. D) strategic alignment

Answer:  A

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 99

 

 

66) The extent to which the project is viewed as helping the organization achieve its strategic objectives and long-term goals describes:

  1. A) potential benefits
  2. B) resource availability
  3. C) technical difficulty or risks
  4. D) strategic alignment

Answer:  D

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 99

 

67) Analyzing an organization’s activities to determine where value is added to products and/or services and the costs incurred best describes:

  1. A) affinity clustering
  2. B) business process reengineering
  3. C) value chain analysis
  4. D) technical difficulty or risks

Answer:  C

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 99

 

68) If the project team and organizational officials reassess the project after each subsequent SDLC phase to determine if the business conditions have changed or if a more detailed understanding of a system’s costs, benefits, and risks suggest that the project is not as worthy as previously thought, they are:

  1. A) adhering to the incremental commitment principle
  2. B) overly cautious
  3. C) using a CASE methodology
  4. D) adhering to a bottom-up commitment principle

Answer:  A

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 101

69) Which of the following is a true statement regarding a planning-based approach?

  1. A) An emphasis is placed on identifying the procedure that is required to solve a particular problem as it exists today.
  2. B) The difficulty with this approach is that the required organizational procedures are likely to change over time as the environment changes.
  3. C) A major advantage of this approach is that an organization’s informational needs are less likely to change (or will change more slowly) than its business processes.
  4. D) One of the benefits of this plan is that an organization does not need to analyze its information needs and plan its projects carefully.

Answer:  C

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 102

 

 

70) Which of the following is a need for improved information systems project identification and selection?

  1. A) The costs of information systems are steadily decreasing.
  2. B) Many systems can handle applications that cross organization boundaries.
  3. C) Data redundancy is often out of control, and users may have little confidence in the quality of the data.
  4. D) Systems maintenance costs are well under control.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 103

 

71) Gaining a clear idea of where an organization is, its vision of where it wants to be in the future, and a plan of how to make the transition to its desired state is:

  1. A) the third activity in the analysis phase
  2. B) a prerequisite to making effective project selection decisions
  3. C) the first step in a bottom-up approach
  4. D) not necessary if one is using a CASE product

Answer:  B

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 103

 

72) An ongoing process that defines the mission, objectives, and strategies of an organization refers to:

  1. A) corporate strategic planning
  2. B) analysis
  3. C) goal setting
  4. D) information systems planning

Answer:  A

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 103

 

73) A statement that makes it clear what business a company is in is called a:

  1. A) business statement
  2. B) corporate policy statement
  3. C) goal statement
  4. D) mission statement

Answer:  D

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 103

74) “We are in the business of designing, fabricating, and selling to retail stores high-quality wood furniture” is what kind of statement?

  1. A) business statement
  2. B) mission statement
  3. C) goal statement
  4. D) corporate policy

Answer:  B

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 103

 

 

75) A series of statements that express an organization’s qualitative and quantitative goals for reaching a desired future position best defines:

  1. A) objective statements
  2. B) information systems plan
  3. C) competitive strategy
  4. D) business policy

Answer:  A

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 104

 

76) Once a company has defined its mission and objectives:

  1. A) goals can be established
  2. B) an information architecture can be developed
  3. C) project analysis can begin
  4. D) a competitive strategy can be formulated

Answer:  D

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 104

 

77) The method by which an organization attempts to achieve its mission and objectives best defines:

  1. A) critical success factors
  2. B) competitive strategy
  3. C) business policy
  4. D) information systems plan

Answer:  B

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 104

 

78) Which of the following is a strategy for a low-cost producer?

  1. A) competing in an industry on the basis of product quality
  2. B) capitalizing on a key product criteria requested by the market
  3. C) competing in an industry on the basis of product or service cost to the consumer
  4. D) competing in an industry on the basis of product quantity

Answer:  C

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 105

 

79) Which of the following describes the product differentiation strategy?

  1. A) competing in an industry on the basis of product quality
  2. B) competing in an industry on the basis of product quantity
  3. C) competing in an industry on the basis of product or service cost to the consumer
  4. D) capitalizing on a key product criteria requested by the market

Answer:  D

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 105

 

80) Which of the following is a competitive strategy?

  1. A) low-cost producer
  2. B) product differentiation
  3. C) product focus
  4. D) all of the above

Answer:  D

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 105

 

81) If Kia Motors is attempting to achieve its mission and objectives by providing a low-priced line of cars, this is referred to as its:

  1. A) competitive strategy
  2. B) business policy
  3. C) information systems plan
  4. D) objective statement

Answer:  A

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 105

 

82) The second planning process that can play a significant role in the quality of project identification and selection decisions is called:

  1. A) strategic alignment
  2. B) cost/benefit analysis
  3. C) information systems planning
  4. D) incremental commitment

Answer:  C

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 105

 

83) Which of the following is a true statement regarding ISP?

  1. A) During ISP, the current and future information needs of an organization are modeled.
  2. B) Strategies and project plans to migrate the current information systems and technologies to their desired future state are developed.
  3. C) ISP is a top-down process that takes into account the outside forces (industry, economic, relative size, geographic region, etc.).
  4. D) All of the above.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 105-106

 

84) An orderly means of assessing the information needs of an organization and defining the systems, databases, and technologies that will best satisfy those needs best defines:

  1. A) information systems planning
  2. B) mission statement
  3. C) objective statement
  4. D) competitive strategy

Answer:  A

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 105

 

85) Which of the following is the first ISP step?

  1. A) Develop target blueprints
  2. B) Assess current IS-related assets
  3. C) Define a series of scheduled projects
  4. D) Assign resources

Answer:  B

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 105

 

86) A generic information systems planning methodology that attempts to gain a broad understanding of the information system needs of the entire organization defines:

  1. A) bottom-up planning
  2. B) top-down planning
  3. C) democratic planning
  4. D) foundation planning

Answer:  B

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 107

 

87) This approach begins by conducting an extensive analysis of the organization’s mission, objectives, and strategy and determining the information requirements needed to meet each objective:

  1. A) foundation planning
  2. B) democratic planning
  3. C) top-down planning
  4. D) bottom-up planning

Answer:  C

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 107

 

88) This approach requires the identification of business problems and opportunities used to define projects:

  1. A) foundation planning
  2. B) democratic planning
  3. C) top-down planning
  4. D) bottom-up planning

Answer:  D

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 107

 

89) A generic information systems planning methodology that identifies and defines IS development projects based on solving operational business problems or taking advantage of some business opportunities defines:

  1. A) democratic planning
  2. B) bottom-up planning
  3. C) top-down planning
  4. D) foundation planning

Answer:  B

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 107

 

90) Which of the following is an advantage to the top-down planning approach over other planning approaches?

  1. A) broader perspective
  2. B) improved integration
  3. C) better understanding
  4. D) all of the above

Answer:  D

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 107

 

91) Which of the following best describes the top-down planning approach advantage, improved integration?

  1. A) If not viewed from the top, totally new management information systems may be implemented rather than planning how to evolve existing systems.
  2. B) If not viewed from the top, planners may lack sufficient management acceptance of the role of information systems in helping them achieve business objectives.
  3. C) If not viewed from the top, planners may lack the understanding necessary to implement information systems across the entire business rather than simply to individual operating units.
  4. D) If not viewed from the top, information systems may be implemented without first understanding the business from general management’s viewpoint.

Answer:  A

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 107

 

92) Which of the following best describes the top-down planning approach advantage, better understanding?

  1. A) If not viewed from the top, totally new management information systems may be implemented rather than planning how to evolve existing systems.
  2. B) If not viewed from the top, planners may lack sufficient management acceptance of the role of information systems in helping them achieve business objectives.
  3. C) If not viewed from the top, planners may lack the understanding necessary to implement information systems across the entire business rather than simply to individual operating units.
  4. D) If not viewed from the top, information systems may be implemented without first understanding the business from general management’s viewpoint.

Answer:  C

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 107

 

93) An advantage of the bottom-up planning approach is:

  1. A) identifying pressing organizational problems
  2. B) broader perspective
  3. C) improved integration
  4. D) better understanding

Answer:  A

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 107

 

94) Which of the following is an advantage of the bottom-up planning approach?

  1. A) By using the bottom-up approach, a broader perspective can be achieved.
  2. B) IS plans can be created faster and are less costly to develop than using the top-down approach.
  3. C) By using the bottom-up approach, planners may gain the understanding necessary to implement information systems across the entire business.
  4. D) By using the bottom-up approach, planners will have sufficient management acceptance of the role of information systems in helping them achieve business objectives.

Answer:  B

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 107

 

95) The matrix that identifies the relationships between organizational entities and each business function is:

  1. A) unit-to-function
  2. B) location-to-unit
  3. C) function-to-process
  4. D) entity-to-process

Answer:  A

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 108

 

96) The matrix that identifies which data are created, updated, accessed, or deleted in each system is:

  1. A) data entity-to-information system
  2. B) process-to-information system
  3. C) information system-to-objective
  4. D) process-to-data entity

Answer:  A

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 109

 

97) The process of arranging planning matrix information so that clusters of information with some predetermined level or type of affinity are placed next to each other on a matrix report defines:

  1. A) grouping
  2. B) isolating
  3. C) affinity clustering
  4. D) trend analysis

Answer:  C

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 110

 

98) Matrices of the target or “future” situation are sometimes called:

  1. A) forward-looking matrices
  2. B) “to be” matrices
  3. C) candidate matrices
  4. D) proposed matrices

Answer:  B

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 110

 

99) Which of the following is a CASE tool feature that can help you make sense out of matrices?

  1. A) management of information
  2. B) matrix construction
  3. C) matrix analysis
  4. D) all of the above

Answer:  D

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 110

 

100) The second activity in the ISP process is:

  1. A) describe the target situation, trends, and constraints
  2. B) describe the current situation
  3. C) develop a transition strategy and plans
  4. D) develop the logical design

Answer:  A

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 109

 

101) The third activity in the ISP process is:

  1. A) describe the target situation, trends, and constraints
  2. B) describe the current situation
  3. C) developing a transition strategy and plans
  4. D) develop the logical design

Answer:  C

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 110-111

 

102) Which of the following is a true statement regarding the IS plan?

  1. A) The short- and long-term development needs identified in the plan are typically expressed as a series of projects.
  2. B) Projects from the long-term plan tend to build a foundation for later projects.
  3. C) Projects from the short-term plan are specific steps to fill the gap between current and desired systems or respond to dynamic business conditions.
  4. D) All of the above.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 111

 

103) Which of the following is not a component on the typical information systems plan?

  1. A) corporation history
  2. B) constraints on IS development
  3. C) informational inventory
  4. D) the short-term plan

Answer:  A

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 111

 

 

104) The use of telecommunications technologies to directly transfer business documents between organizations best defines:

  1. A) electronic delivery
  2. B) computer conferencing
  3. C) extranet exchange
  4. D) electronic data interchange

Answer:  D

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 112

105) An Internet-based communication that supports business-to-business activities best describes:

  1. A) Internet
  2. B) electronic commerce
  3. C) electronic data interchange
  4. D) Extranet

Answer:  D

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 112

 

106) __________ refers to analyzing an organization’s activities to determine where value is added to products and/or services and the costs incurred for doing so; usually also includes a comparison with the activities, added value, and costs of other organizations for the purpose of making improvements in the organization’s operations and performance.

Answer:  Value chain analysis

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 99

 

107) __________ is the extent to which the project is viewed as helping the organization achieve its strategic objectives and long-term goals.

Answer:  Strategic alignment

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 99

 

108) __________ are the extent to which the project is viewed as improving profits, customer service, and so forth and the duration of these benefits.

Answer:  Potential benefits

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 99

 

109) __________ is the amount and type of resources the project requires and their availability.

Answer:  Resource availability

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 99

 

110) __________ refers to the number of individuals and the length of time needed to complete the project.

Answer:  Project/size duration

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 99

 

111) __________ refers to the level of technical difficulty to successfully complete the project within given time and resource constraints.

Answer:  Technical difficulty/risks

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 99

112) __________ is a strategy in systems analysis and design in which the project is reviewed after each phase and continuation of the project is rejustified.

Answer:  Incremental commitment

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 101

 

113) __________ is an ongoing process that defines the mission, objectives, and strategies of an organization.

Answer:  Corporate strategic planning

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 103

114) A __________ is a statement that makes it clear what business a company is in.

Answer:  mission statement

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 103

 

115) __________ are a series of statements that express an organization’s qualitative and quantitative goals for reaching a desired future position.

Answer:  Objective statements

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 104

 

116) A __________ is the method by which an organization attempts to achieve its mission and objectives.

Answer:  competitive strategy

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 104

 

117) __________ is the competitive strategy that reflects competing in an industry on the basis of product or service cost to the consumer.

Answer:  Low-cost producer

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 105

 

118) __________ is the competitive strategy that reflects capitalizing on a key product criterion requested by the market.

Answer:  Product differentiation

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 105

 

119) __________ is the competitive strategy that is similar to both low-cost and differentiation strategies but with a much narrower market focus.

Answer:  Product focus or niche

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 105

 

120) __________ is an orderly means of assessing the information needs of an organization and defining the systems, databases, and technologies that will best satisfy those needs.

Answer:  Information systems planning

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 105

 

121) __________ is a generic information systems planning methodology that attempts to gain a broad understanding of the information system needs of the entire organization.

Answer:  Top-down planning

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 107

122) __________ is a generic information systems planning methodology that identifies and defines IS development projects based upon solving operational business problems or taking advantage of some business opportunities.

Answer:  Bottom-up planning

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 107

 

123) __________ is a matrix that identifies which data are captured, used, updated, or deleted within each process.

Answer:  Process-to-data entity

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 109

124) __________ is the process of arranging planning matrix information so the clusters of information with some predetermined level or type of affinity are placed next to each other on a matrix report.

Answer:  Affinity clustering

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 110

 

125) The __________ is a large worldwide network of networks that use a common protocol to communicate with each other.

Answer:  Internet

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 112

 

126) __________ refers to Internet-based communication to support day-to-day business activities.

Answer:  Electronic commerce

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 112

 

127) __________, __________, and __________ are the three general classes of Internet EC applications.

Answer:  Internets, extranets, intranets

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 112

 

128) An __________ is Internet-based communication to support business activities within a single organization.

Answer:  Intranet

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 112

 

129) __________ is the use of telecommunications technologies to directly transfer business documents between organizations.

Answer:  Electronic data interchange

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 112

 

130) __________, __________, and __________ are the three unknowns that must be dealt with when designing and building Internet applications.

Answer:  User, connection speed, access method

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 113

 

 

Match each of the following terms with its definition.

  1. mission statement
  2. information systems planning
  3. top-down planning
  4. bottom-up planning
  5. objective statements

 

131) A generic information systems planning methodology that identifies and defines IS development projects based on solving operational business problems or taking advantage of some business opportunities.

Answer:  d

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 107

132) A generic information systems planning methodology that attempts to gain a broad understanding of the information system needs of the entire organization.

Answer:  c

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 107

 

133) An orderly means of assessing the information needs of an organization and defining the systems, databases, and technologies that will best satisfy those needs.

Answer:  b

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 105

 

134) A statement that makes it clear what business a company is in.

Answer:  a

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 103

 

135) A series of statements that express an organization’s qualitative and quantitative goals for reaching a desired future position.

Answer:  e

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 104

 

Match each of the following selection methods with its related characteristic. (Answers may occur more than once.)

  1. top management
  2. steering committee
  3. user department
  4. development group

 

136) Narrow/nonstrategic focus

Answer:  c

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 98

 

137) Integration with existing systems focus

Answer:  d

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 98

 

 

138) Largest project size

Answer:  a

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 98

 

139) Greater organizational change

Answer:  b

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 98

 

140) Less concern with cost-benefit analysis

Answer:  d

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 98

 

141) Fewer users, management layers, and business functions

Answer:  c

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 98

142) Longest project duration

Answer:  a

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 98

 

143) Formal cost-benefit analysis

Answer:  b

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 98

 

Match each of the following types of matrices with its corresponding definition.

  1. function-to-process
  2. function-to-data entity
  3. process-to-data entity
  4. function-to-objective
  5. unit-to-function

 

144) Identifies the relationships between organizational entities and each business function.

Answer:  e

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 108

 

145) Identifies which processes are used to support each business function.

Answer:  a

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 108

 

146) Identifies which data are captured, used, updated, or deleted within each process.

Answer:  c

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 109

 

147) Identifies which functions are essential or desirable in achieving each organizational objective.

Answer:  d

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 108

 

148) Identifies which business functions utilize which data entities.

Answer:  b

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 109

 

Match each of the following types of matrices with its description.

  1. process-to-information system
  2. data entity-to-information system
  3. location-to-function
  4. information system-to-objective
  5. location-to-unit

 

149) Identifies which business functions are being performed at various organizational locations.

Answer:  c

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 109

 

150) Identifies which organizational units are located or interact with a specific business location.

Answer:  e

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 108

151) Identifies which information systems are used to support each process.

Answer:  a

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 109

 

152) Identifies which data are created, updated, accessed, or deleted in each system.

Answer:  b

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 109

 

153) Identifies which information systems support each business objective as identified during organizational planning.

Answer:  d

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 109

 

 

Match the following typical components of an information system plan with its description.

  1. Organizational Mission, Objectives, and Strategy
  2. Informational Inventory
  3. Mission and Objectives of Information Systems
  4. Constraints on IS Development
  5. Overall Systems Needs and Long-Range IS Strategies
  6. The Short-Term Plan
  7. Conclusions

 

154) Description of the primary role IS will play in the organization to transform the enterprise from its current to future state.

Answer:  c

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 111

 

155) This section provides a summary of the various business processes, functions, data entities, and information needs of the enterprise.

Answer:  b

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 111

 

156) Briefly describes the mission, objectives, and strategy of the organization.

Answer:  a

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 111

 

157) Briefly describes limitations imposed by technology and the current level of resources within the company.

Answer:  d

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 111

 

158) Presents a summary of the overall systems needed within the company and the set of long-range (2-5 years) strategies chosen by the IS department to fill the needs.

Answer:  e

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 111

 

159) Contains likely but not-yet-certain events that may affect the plan, an inventory of business change elements as presently known, and a description of their estimated impact on the plan.

Answer:  g

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 111

160) Shows a detailed inventory of present projects and systems and a detailed plan of projects to be developed or advanced during the current year.

Answer:  f

Diff: 1             Page Ref: 111

 

 

161) List and briefly identify the three primary activities of the project identification and selection phase.

Answer:  The first phase of the SDLC is project identification and selection. During this phase, all possible systems development projects are identified and assessed. Project identification and selection consists of three primary activities: identify potential development projects, classifying and ranking projects, and selecting projects for development. During the first activity, projects can be identified by a variety of sources. A key member of top-management, a steering committee, user departments, and the development group are possible sources. Classifying and ranking IS development projects, the second major activity, focuses on assessing the relative merit of potential projects. Various criteria (strategic alignment, potential benefits, resource availability, project size/duration, and technical difficulty/risks) can be used to evaluate the projects. The last activity, selecting IS development projects, is the actual selection of projects for further development. Consideration is given to both short- and long-term projects. Projects most likely to achieve business objectives are selected. Numerous factors (perceived organizational needs, existing systems and ongoing projects, resource availability, evaluation criteria, current business conditions, and decision maker perceptions) impact the selection process. Acceptance, rejection, and conditional acceptance are possible outcomes for this activity.

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 97-101

 

162) Define and briefly discuss corporate strategic planning.

Answer:  To make effective project selection decisions, a corporation must know where it is, where it is going, and the path it will take to get there. Corporate strategic planning is based on this premise. Corporate strategic planning can be viewed as a three step process: (1) current enterprise, (2) future enterprise, and (3) strategic plan. During corporate strategic planning, mission statements, statements of future corporate objectives, and strategies are developed.

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 103-105

 

163) Define and briefly discuss information systems planning.

Answer:  ISP is an orderly means of assessing the information needs of an organization, and defining the systems, databases, and technologies that will best satisfy those needs. During ISP, current and future organization informational needs will be modeled. Also, strategies and project plans to move the current information system and technologies to their desired future state will be developed. ISP looks at information systems and technologies in terms of how they can help the business achieve its objectives defined during corporate planning. ISP includes three key activities. The first activity involves assessing current IS-related assets; the second step involves developing target blueprints of the resources; a series of scheduled projects is defined in the third step.

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 105-112

164) Define top-down planning and bottom-up planning.

Answer:  Top-down planning is a generic information systems planning methodology that attempts to gain a broad understanding of the information system needs of the entire organization. Bottom-up planning is a generic information systems planning methodology that identifies and defines IS development projects based upon solving operational business problems or taking advantage of some business opportunities.

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 107

 

165) What is incremental commitment? Does it always result in a working system? Why or why not?

Answer:  Incremental commitment is a systems analysis and design strategy in which the project is reviewed after each phase and continuation of the project is rejustified in each of these reviews. Incremental commitment does not always result in a working system. Incremental commitment permits management and the project team to reevaluate the system’s costs, benefits, and risks in light of changing business conditions. If business conditions, system costs, system benefits, and/or risks have changed, the project may be cancelled.

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 101

 

166) Identify six reasons why improved information systems project identification and selection is needed.

Answer:  Information systems costs continue to rise, the inability of systems to handle applications that cross organizational boundaries, systems not addressing the critical problems of the business as a whole nor supporting strategic planning applications, data redundancy and lack of user confidence in the quality of data, out-of-control system maintenance costs, and lengthy application backlogs are six reasons why improvements in the information systems project identification and selection process are necessary.

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 103

 

167) Briefly discuss three generic competitive strategies. Provide an example of each.

Answer:  Low-cost producer, product differentiation, and product focus or niche are three generic competitive strategies. A low-cost producer strategy reflects competing in an industry on the basis of product or service cost to the consumer. South Korean-produced Hyundai is the example mentioned in the textbook. The product differentiation strategy reflects capitalizing on a key product criterion requested by the market. An example is an automobile manufacturer suggesting that its line of trucks provides the quietest and most comfortable ride. The product focus or niche strategy is similar to both the low-cost and differentiation strategies but with a much narrower market focus. An example of this strategy is a fitness center that caters exclusively to women.

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 105

 

168) What is a top-down planning approach? Identify four advantages to the top-down planning approach over other planning approaches.

Answer:  A top-down planning approach is a generic information systems planning methodology that attempts to gain a broad understanding of the information system needs of the entire organization. Broader perspective, improved integration, improved management support, and better understanding are four advantages.

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 107

 

169) Using any business as an example, provide one example each for its organizational locations, units, functions, processes, and information systems.

Answer:  A national insurance company is a good example. Organizational locations include the home office and its various branch locations. Most finance and accounting functions are handled at the home office, while the local branches are responsible, to some degree, for marketing and sales. Customer enrollment and billing are processes. Payroll processing, accounts payable, and accounts receivable are information systems. The insurance company would keep information about its customers, branch locations, and insurance plans.

Diff: 3             Page Ref: 107-109

 

170) Briefly describe three of the ten types of matrices that are beneficial during information systems planning.

Answer:  Location-to-function, location-to-unit, and unit-to-function are three of the ten types of matrices. The location-to-function matrix identifies which business functions are being performed at various organizational locations. The location-to-unit matrix identifies which organizational units are located in or interact with a specific function. The unit-to-function matrix identifies the relationships between organizational entities and each business function. Additional matrices are mentioned in the textbook.

Diff: 2             Page Ref: 107-109

 

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