MIS 5th Edition by Hossein Bidgoli -Test Bank

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MIS 5th Edition by Hossein Bidgoli -Test Bank

Chapter 2: Computers: The Machines Behind Computing

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. An object code must be translated into source code in order for a computer to be able to read and execute.

 

Answer: False

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.1: Define a computer system, and describe its components.

Topic: Defining a Computer

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 24

Feedback: A source code must be translated into object code—consisting of 0s and 1s, which can be understood by a computer.

 

  1. The hardware components of a computer system consist of programs written in computer languages.

Answer: False

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.1: Define a computer system, and describe its components.

Topic: Defining a Computer

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 24

Feedback: It is the software components of a computer system that consist of programs written in computer languages.

 

  1. Both the arithmetic logic unit (ALU) and the control unit are part of the Basic Input/Output System.

 

Answer: False

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.1: Define a computer system, and describe its components.

Topic: Defining a Computer

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 25

Feedback: The arithmetic logic unit (ALU) and the control unit are part of the central processing unit (CPU). A Basic Input/Output System is located on the motherboard.

 

  1. A bus can be internal or external.

 

Answer: True

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.1: Define a computer system, and describe its components.

Topic: Defining a Computer

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 25

Feedback: A bus is a link between devices connected to the computer. It can be parallel or serial, internal (local) or external.

 

  1. A computer with a 32-bit processor can perform calculations with larger numbers and be more efficient with smaller numbers than a 64-bit system.

 

Answer: False

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.1: Define a computer system, and describe its components.

Topic: Defining a Computer

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 25

Feedback: A computer with a 64-bit processor can perform calculations with larger numbers and be more efficient with smaller numbers; it also has better overall performance than a 32-bit system.

 

  1. A serial port is a communication interface through which information is transferred one bit at a time.

 

Answer: True

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.1: Define a computer system, and describe its components.

Topic: Defining a Computer

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 26

Feedback: A serial port is a communication interface through which information is transferred one bit at a time. It is located on the motherboard of a computer.

 

  1. Very-large-scale integration (VLSI) circuits were introduced in the fifth-generation computers.

Answer: False

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.2: Discuss the history of computer hardware and software.

Topic: The History of Computer Hardware and Software

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 26

Feedback: Very-large-scale integration circuits were introduced in the fourth-generation computers, which continued several trends that further improved speed and ease of use.

 

  1. ENIAC is an example of a first-generation computer.

 

Answer: True

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.2: Discuss the history of computer hardware and software.

Topic: The History of Computer Hardware and Software

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 26

Feedback: ENIAC is a first-generation computer that used vacuum tube technology.

 

  1. A byte is a single value of 0 or 1.

 

Answer: False

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.3: Explain the factors distinguishing the computing power of computers.

Topic: The Power of Computers

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 28

Feedback: 1 bit is a single value of 0 or 1, whereas 1 byte is formed by 8 bits.

 

  1. A petabyte is 230 bytes.

 

Answer: False

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.3: Explain the factors distinguishing the computing power of computers.

Topic: The Power of Computers

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 28

Feedback: A petabyte is 250 bytes, whereas a gigabyte is 230 bytes.

 

 

  1. An Extended ASCII data code allows representation of 1024 characters.

 

Answer: False

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.3: Explain the factors distinguishing the computing power of computers.

Topic: The Power of Computers

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 28

Feedback: Extended ASCII code is an 8-bit code that also allows representation of 256 characters.

 

  1. The split keyboard has been developed for better ergonomics.

 

Answer: True

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.5: Discuss the types of input, output, and memory devices.

Topic: Input, Output, and Memory Devices

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 29

Feedback: Several modifications have been made to improve the ease of using keyboards. Some keyboards, such as the split keyboard, have been developed for better ergonomics.

 

  1. Light pen is an output device.

 

Answer: False

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.5: Discuss the types of input, output, and memory devices.

Topic: Input, Output, and Memory Devices

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 29

Feedback: A light pen is an input device particularly useful for engineers and graphic designers who need to make modifications to technical drawings.

 

  1. Trackballs are ideal for notebook computers because they occupy less space than a mouse.

 

Answer: True

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.5: Discuss the types of input, output, and memory devices.

Topic: Input, Output, and Memory Devices

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 29

Feedback: Trackballs occupy less space than a mouse, so they are ideal for notebook computers.

 

  1. A disadvantage of trackball is that positioning is sometimes less precise than with a mouse.

 

Answer: True

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.5: Discuss the types of input, output, and memory devices.

Topic: Input, Output, and Memory Devices

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 29

Feedback: Trackballs occupy less space than a mouse, so they are ideal for notebook computers.

However, positioning with a trackball is sometimes less precise than with a mouse.

 

  1. Inkjet printers produce characters by projecting electrically charged droplets of ink onto paper that create an image.

Answer: True

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.5: Discuss the types of input, output, and memory devices.

Topic: Input, Output, and Memory Devices

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 30

Feedback: Inkjet printers produce characters by projecting onto paper electrically charged droplets of ink that create an image. Inkjet printers are suitable for home users who have limited text and photo printing needs.

 

  1. Data can be read from and written to random access memory (RAM).

 

Answer: True

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.5: Discuss the types of input, output, and memory devices.

Topic: Input, Output, and Memory Devices

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 31

Feedback: Volatile memory is called random access memory (RAM), although you could think of it as “read-write memory.” In other words, data can be read from and written to RAM.

 

  1. The contents of programmable read-only memory (PROM) can be erased and reprogrammed.

 

Answer: False

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.5: Discuss the types of input, output, and memory devices.

Topic: Input, Output, and Memory Devices

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 31

Feedback: The contents of programmable read-only memory (PROM) cannot be erased, whereas erasable programmable read-only memory, which is similar to PROM, can be erased and reprogrammed.

 

  1. A magnetic disk is a type of secondary memory device.

 

Answer: True

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.5: Discuss the types of input, output, and memory devices.

Topic: Input, Output, and Memory Devices

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 31

Feedback: A magnetic disk is a secondary storage device. It is made of Mylar or metal and is used for random-access processing.

 

  1. A magnetic tape stores data randomly.

 

Answer: False

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.5: Discuss the types of input, output, and memory devices.

Topic: Input, Output, and Memory Devices

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 31

Feedback: Magnetic tape, made of a plastic material, resembles a cassette tape and stores data sequentially.

 

  1. An advantage of a write once, read many (WORM) disc is that it can be easily duplicated.

 

Answer: False

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.5: Discuss the types of input, output, and memory devices.

Topic: Input, Output, and Memory Devices

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 32

Feedback: A major drawback is that a WORM disc cannot be duplicated. It is used mainly to store information that must be kept permanently but not altered.

 

  1. Flash memory is used in memory cards for storing and transferring data between computers and other devices.

 

Answer: True

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.5: Discuss the types of input, output, and memory devices.

Topic: Input, Output, and Memory Devices

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 32

Feedback: Flash memory is nonvolatile memory that can be electronically erased and reprogrammed. It is used mostly in memory cards and USB flash drives for storing and transferring data between computers and other devices.

 

  1. A redundant array of independent disks (RAID) system is a collection of disk drives used for fault tolerance and improved performance.

 

Answer: True

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.5: Discuss the types of input, output, and memory devices.

Topic: Input, Output, and Memory Devices

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 32

Feedback: A redundant array of independent disks (RAID) system is a collection of disk drives used for fault tolerance and improved performance, and is typically found in large network systems.

 

  1. A storage area network (SAN) is essentially a network-connected computer dedicated to providing file-based data storage services to other network devices.

 

Answer: False

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.5: Discuss the types of input, output, and memory devices.

Topic: Input, Output, and Memory Devices

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 33

Feedback: A storage area network (SAN) is a dedicated high-speed network consisting of both hardware and software used to connect and manage shared storage devices, such as disk arrays, tape libraries, and optical storage devices.

 

  1. Network-attached storage (NAS) increases management costs and is fault prone.

 

Answer: False

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.5: Discuss the types of input, output, and memory devices.

Topic: Input, Output, and Memory Devices

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 33

Feedback: NAS is popular for Web servers and e-mail servers because it lowers management costs and helps make these servers more fault tolerant.

 

  1. A network-attached storage (NAS) system offers only storage; a storage area network (SAN) offers both storage and file services.

 

Answer: False

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.5: Discuss the types of input, output, and memory devices.

Topic: Input, Output, and Memory Devices

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 33

Feedback: A SAN offers only storage; a NAS system offers both storage and file services.

 

  1. In a network-attached storage (NAS), as the number of users increase, the performance increases.

 

Answer: False

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.5: Discuss the types of input, output, and memory devices.

Topic: Input, Output, and Memory Devices

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 33

Feedback: The biggest issue with NAS is that, as the number of users increases, its performance deteriorates.

 

  1. A server is a set of programs for controlling and managing computer hardware and software.

 

Answer: False

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.6: Explain how computers are classified.

Topic: Classes of Computers

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 35

Feedback: A server is a computer and all the software for managing network resources and offering services to a network.

 

  1. A personal computer can perform a variety of tasks by using application software, which can be commercial software or software developed in house.

 

Answer: True

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.7: Describe the two major types of software.

Topic: What is Software?

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 36

Feedback: A personal computer can perform a variety of tasks by using application software, which can be commercial software or software developed in house.

 

  1. Sometimes, fourth-generation languages (4GLs) are called procedural languages.

 

Answer: False

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.8: List the generations of computer languages.

Topic: Computer Languages

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 39

Feedback: Sometimes 4GLs are called nonprocedural languages, which means you do not need to follow rigorous command syntax to use them.

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. A(n) _____ is a step-by-step direction for performing a specific task, which is written in a language the computer can understand.
a. array c. cache
b. server d. program

 

 

Answer: D

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.1: Define a computer system, and describe its components.

Topic: Defining a Computer

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 24

Feedback: A program is a step-by-step direction for performing a specific task, written in a language the computer can understand.

 

  1. A _____ is a peripheral device for recording, storing, and retrieving information.
a. disk drive c. control unit
b. motherboard d. multiprocessor

 

 

Answer: A

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.1: Define a computer system, and describe its components.

Topic: Defining a Computer

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 25

Feedback: A disk drive is a peripheral device for recording, storing, and retrieving information.

 

  1. A(n) _____ is an interface between a computer and a printer that enables the computer to transfer multiple bits of information to the printer simultaneously.
a. parallel port c. expansion slot
b. serial port d. control unit

 

 

Answer: A

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.1: Define a computer system, and describe its components.

Topic: Defining a Computer

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 26

Feedback: A parallel port is an interface between a computer and a printer that enables the computer to transfer multiple bits of information to the printer simultaneously.

 

  1. Beginning in the 1940s, first-generation computers used _____.
a. transistors c. integrated circuits
b. vacuum tube technology d. laser technology

 

 

Answer: B

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.2: Discuss the history of computer hardware and software.

Topic: The History of Computer Hardware and Software

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 26

Feedback: Beginning in the 1940s, first-generation computers used vacuum tube technology. They were bulky and unreliable, generated excessive heat, and were difficult to program.

 

  1. Transistors were the major technology used during the _____ generation of computers.
a. first c. third
b. second d. fourth

 

 

Answer: B

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.2: Discuss the history of computer hardware and software.

Topic: The History of Computer Hardware and Software

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 26

Feedback: Second-generation computers used transistors and were faster, more reliable, and easier to program and maintain.

 

  1. Remote data entry and telecommunications were introduced during the _____ generation of computers.
a. second c. fourth
b. third d. fifth

 

 

Answer: B

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.2: Discuss the history of computer hardware and software.

Topic: The History of Computer Hardware and Software

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 26

Feedback: Remote data entry and telecommunications were introduced during the third generation. Third-generation computers operated on integrated circuits, which enabled computers to be even smaller, faster, more reliable, and more sophisticated.

 

  1. One of the disadvantages of silicon is that:
a. it cannot be used for mass production of silicon devices. c. it is very soft and fragile.
b. it cannot emit light. d. it is very expensive.

 

 

Answer: B

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.2: Discuss the history of computer hardware and software.

Topic: The History of Computer Hardware and Software

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: understand

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Page: 26

Feedback: Because silicon cannot emit light and has speed limitations, computer designers have concentrated on technology using gallium arsenide, in which electrons move almost five times faster than in silicon.

 

  1. An advantage of silicon over gallium arsenide is that:
a. it is less fragile than gallium arsenide. c. it withstands higher temperatures than gallium arsenide.
b. it survives much higher doses of radiation than gallium arsenide. d. it emits light, whereas gallium arsenide does not.

 

 

Answer: A

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.2: Discuss the history of computer hardware and software.

Topic: The History of Computer Hardware and Software

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: understand

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Page: 26

Feedback: Gallium arsenide is softer and more fragile than silicon.

 

  1. _____ is 1/1,000,000,000,000 of a second.
a. Millisecond c. Nanosecond
b. Microsecond d. Picosecond

 

 

Answer: D

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.3: Explain the factors distinguishing the computing power of computers.

Topic: The Power of Computers

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 28

Feedback: Picosecond is 1/1,000,000,000,000 of a second.

 

  1. In the context of the power of computers, _____ means saving data in computer memory.
a. speed c. retrieval
b. accuracy d. storage

 

 

Answer: D

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.3: Explain the factors distinguishing the computing power of computers.

Topic: The Power of Computers

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 28

Feedback: Computers draw their power from three factors that far exceed human capacities: speed, accuracy, and storage and retrieval capabilities. Storage means saving data in computer memory, and retrieval means accessing data from memory.

 

  1. The word “memory” consists of 48 bits, which is equivalent to _____ bytes.
a. 6 c. 64
b. 24 d. 384

 

 

Answer: A

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.3: Explain the factors distinguishing the computing power of computers.

Topic: The Power of Computers

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Apply

Difficulty Level: Challenging

Page: 28

Feedback: The word “memory” has 48 bits. Eight bits constitute 1 byte, so 48 bits are the same as 6 bytes.

 

  1. A _____ is the size of a character.
a. nibble c. byte
b. bit d. word

 

 

Answer: C

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.3: Explain the factors distinguishing the computing power of computers.

Topic: The Power of Computers

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 28

Feedback: A byte is the size of a character. For example, the word “computer” consists of 8 characters or 8 bytes (64 bits).

 

  1. Computers and communication systems use _____ to represent and transfer information between computers and network systems.
a. intranets c. data codes
b. light pens

 

d. prototypes

 

Answer: C

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.3: Explain the factors distinguishing the computing power of computers.

Topic: The Power of Computers

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 28

Feedback: Computers and communication systems use data codes to represent and transfer data between computers and network systems. The most common data code for text files, PC applications, and the Internet is American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII).

 

  1. In a(n) _____ file, each alphabetic, numeric, or special character is represented with a 7-bit binary number.
a. EBCDIC c. ASCII
b. Unicode d. extended ASCII

 

 

Answer: C

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.3: Explain the factors distinguishing the computing power of computers.

Topic: The Power of Computers

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 28

Feedback: In an ASCII file, each alphabetic, numeric, or special character is represented with a 7-bit binary number (a string of 0s or 1s). Up to 128 (27) characters can be defined.

 

  1. Extended ASCII data code allows representation of _____ characters.
a. 1042 c. 256
b. 265 d. 1024

 

 

Answer: C

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.3: Explain the factors distinguishing the computing power of computers.

Topic: The Power of Computers

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 28

Feedback: Extended ASCII is an 8-bit code that also allows representation of 256 characters.

 

  1. ASCII defines up to _____ characters.
a. 8 c. 258
b. 128 d. 1024

 

 

Answer: B

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.3: Explain the factors distinguishing the computing power of computers.

Topic: The Power of Computers

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 28

Feedback: In an ASCII file, each alphabetic, numeric, or special character is represented with a 7-bit binary number (a string of 0s or 1s). Up to 128 (27) characters can be defined.

 

  1. A _____ is a pointing device that moves the cursor on the screen, allowing fast, precise cursor positioning.
a. motherboard c. mouse
b. keyboard d. kernel

 

 

Answer: C

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.5: Discuss the types of input, output, and memory devices.

Topic: Input, Output, and Memory Devices

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 29

Feedback: Mouse is a pointing device that moves the cursor on the screen, allowing fast, precise cursor positioning. With programs that use graphical interfaces, such as Microsoft Windows or Mac OS, the mouse has become the input device of choice.

 

  1. Which of the following is an input device?
a. Touch screen c. Liquid crystal display
b. Cathode ray tube d. Inkjet printer

 

 

Answer: A

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.5: Discuss the types of input, output, and memory devices.

Topic: Input, Output, and Memory Devices

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 29

Feedback: Touch screen is a combination of input devices, usually working with menus.

 

  1. _____ is the most common output device for soft copy.
a. Liquid crystal display c. Laser printer
b. Inkjet printer d. Touch screen

 

 

Answer: A

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.5: Discuss the types of input, output, and memory devices.

Topic: Input, Output, and Memory Devices

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 30

Feedback: The most common output devices for soft copy are cathode ray tube (CRT), plasma display, and liquid crystal display (LCD).

 

  1. _____, which is nonvolatile, holds data when the computer is off or during the course of a program’s operation, and it is also used to store large volumes of data for long periods.
a. Random access memory c. Secondary memory
b. Read-only memory d. Programmable read-only memory

 

 

Answer: C

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.5: Discuss the types of input, output, and memory devices.

Topic: Input, Output, and Memory Devices

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 31

Feedback: Secondary memory devices are nonvolatile and used for storing large volumes of data for long periods. They can also hold data when the computer is off or during the course of a program’s operation.

 

  1. The Clipboard’s contents are typically stored on ____.
a. read-only memory (ROM) c. magnetic disks
b. random access memory (RAM) d. magnetic tapes

 

 

Answer: B

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.5: Discuss the types of input, output, and memory devices.

Topic: Input, Output, and Memory Devices

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 31

Difficulty: Some examples of the type of information stored in RAM include open files, the Clipboard’s contents, running programs, and so forth.

 

  1. Read-only memory (ROM) is different from random access memory (RAM) in that:
a. it is volatile memory. c. it is nonvolatile memory.
b. it is a secondary memory. d. it is a read-write memory.

 

 

Answer: C

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.5: Discuss the types of input, output, and memory devices.

Topic: Input, Output, and Memory Devices

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: understand

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Page: 31

Feedback: Nonvolatile memory is called read-only memory (ROM); data cannot be written to ROM.

 

  1. Which of the following is true about magnetic tapes?
  a. It is made of metal. c. It resembles a compact disc.
b. It stores data sequentially. d. It is a main memory device.  

 

 

Answer: B

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.5: Discuss the types of input, output, and memory devices.

Topic: Input, Output, and Memory Devices

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: understand

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Page: 31

Feedback: Magnetic tape, made of a plastic material, resembles a cassette tape and stores data sequentially.

 

  1. A write once, read many (WORM) disc is a common type of _____.
a. magnetic storage c. random access memory (RAM)
b. optical storage d. read-only memory (ROM)

 

 

Answer: B

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.5: Discuss the types of input, output, and memory devices.

Topic: Input, Output, and Memory Devices

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 32

Feedback: Three common types of optical storage are CD-ROMs, WORM discs, and DVDs. A write once, read many (WORM) disc is also a permanent device.

 

  1. CD-ROMs and DVDs are examples of _____.
a. magnetic tapes c. optical discs
b. magnetic disks d. main memory devices

 

 

Answer: C

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.5: Discuss the types of input, output, and memory devices.

Topic: Input, Output, and Memory Devices

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 32

Feedback: Three common types of optical storage are CD-ROMs, WORM discs, and DVDs.

 

  1. A _____ allows data to be stored in multiple places to improve a system’s reliability.
a. remote access server
b. read-only memory
c. random access memory
d. redundant array of independent disks

 

 

Answer: D

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.5: Discuss the types of input, output, and memory devices.

Topic: Input, Output, and Memory Devices

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 32

Feedback: A redundant array of independent disks (RAID) system is a collection of disk drives used for fault tolerance and improved performance, and is typically found in large network systems. Data can be stored in multiple places to improve the system’s reliability.

 

 

  1. _____ storage, which is used for online storage and backup, involves multiple virtual servers that are usually hosted by third parties.
a. Kernel c. Cache
b. Buffer d. Cloud

 

 

Answer: D

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.5: Discuss the types of input, output, and memory devices.

Topic: Input, Output, and Memory Devices

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 32–33

Feedback: Cloud storage has become a popular option for many organizations and individuals in recent years. Used for online storage and backup, it involves multiple virtual servers that are usually hosted by third parties.

 

  1. _____ allow off-site users to connect to network resources, such as network file storage, printers, and databases.
a. Remote access servers c. Application servers
b. Web servers d. Disk servers

 

 

Answer: A

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.6: Explain how computers are classified.

Topic: Classes of Computers

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 35

Feedback: Remote access servers (RAS) allow off-site users to connect to network resources, such as network file storage, printers, and databases.

 

  1. Which of the following best defines an operating system?
a. It is a set of programs for controlling and managing computer hardware and software. c. It is a collection of disk drives used for fault tolerance, typically in large network systems.
b. It is a computer and all the software for managing network resources and offering services to a network. d. It is the main circuit board containing connectors for attaching additional boards.

 

 

 

Answer: A

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.7: Describe the two major types of software.

Topic: What Is Software?

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 35

Feedback: An operating system (OS) is a set of programs for controlling and managing computer hardware and software.

 

  1. The control programs managing computer hardware and software perform the _____ function to control and prioritize tasks performed by the CPU.
a. application management c. data management
b. resource allocation d. job management

 

 

Answer: D

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.7: Describe the two major types of software.

Topic: What Is Software?

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 35

Feedback: The control programs managing computer hardware and software perform the job management function to control and prioritize tasks performed by the CPU.

 

  1. The supervisor program in an operating system (OS) is called the ____.
a. kernel c. applet
b. metadata d. cache

 

 

Answer: A

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.7: Describe the two major types of software.

Topic: What Is Software?

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 36

Feedback: The supervisor program, also known as the kernel, is responsible for controlling all other programs in the OS, such as compilers, interpreters, assemblers, and utilities for performing special tasks.

 

  1. UNIX is a type of _____.
a. storage area network c. remote access server
b. application software d. operating system

 

 

Answer: D

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.7: Describe the two major types of software.

Topic: What Is Software?

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 36

Feedback: UNIX is a mainframe operating system.

 

  1. _____ computer languages are machine independent and are called high-level languages.
a. First-generation c. Third-generation
b. Second-generation d. Fourth-generation

 

 

Answer: C

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.8: List the generations of computer languages.

Topic: Computer Languages

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 38

Feedback: Third-generation computer languages are machine independent and are called high-level languages. Three of the most widely used languages are C++, Java, and VB.NET.

 

  1. Java and C++ are _____ languages.
a. assembly c. machine
b. high-level d. second-generation computer

 

 

Answer: B

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.8: List the generations of computer languages.

Topic: Computer Languages

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 38

Feedback: Three of the most widely used high-level languages are C++, Java, and VB.NET.

 

  1. Which of the following computer languages is the easiest to use?
a. Assembly language c. Fourth-generation language
b. First-generation language d. Machine language

Answer: C

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.8: List the generations of computer languages.

Topic: Computer Languages

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 38

Feedback: Fourth-generation languages (4GLs) are the easiest computer languages to use. The commands are powerful and easy to learn, even for people with little computer training.

 

COMPLETION

 

 

  1. A(n) _____ is a machine that accepts data as input, processes data without human intervention by using stored instructions, and outputs information.

 

Answer: computer

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.1: Define a computer system, and describe its components.

Topic: Defining a Computer

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 24

Feedback: A computer is a machine that accepts data as input, processes data without human intervention by using stored instructions, and outputs information.

 

  1. The _____ is the heart of a computer.

 

Answer: central processing unit (CPU)

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.1: Define a computer system, and describe its components.

Topic: Defining a Computer

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 25

Feedback: The central processing unit (CPU) is the heart of a computer. It is divided into two components: the arithmetic logic unit (ALU) and the control unit.

 

  1. The _____ tells the computer what to do, such as instructing the computer which device to read or send output to.

 

Answer: control unit

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.1: Define a computer system, and describe its components.

Topic: Defining a Computer

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 25

Feedback: The control unit tells the computer what to do, such as instructing the computer which device to read or send output to.

 

  1. A(n) _____ is the enclosure containing a computer’s main components.

 

Answer: central processing unit (CPU) case

computer chassis

tower

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.1: Define a computer system, and describe its components.

Topic: Defining a Computer

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 25

Feedback: A CPU case (also known as a computer chassis or tower) is the enclosure containing the computer’s main components.

 

  1. The _____ computers include parallel processing, gallium arsenide chips that run at higher speeds and consume less power than silicon chips, and optical technologies.

 

Answer: fifth-generation

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.2: Discuss the history of computer hardware and software.

Topic: The History of Computer Hardware and Software

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 26

Feedback: The current fifth-generation computers include parallel processing (computers containing hundreds or thousands of CPUs for rapid data processing), gallium arsenide chips that run at higher speeds and consume less power than silicon chips, and optical technologies.

 

  1. _____ bits equal 1 byte.

 

Answer: Eight

 

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.3: Explain the factors distinguishing the computing power of computers.

Topic: The Power of Computers

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 28

Feedback: A bit is a single value of 0 or 1, and 8 bits equal 1 byte. A byte is the size of a character.

 

  1. The most common data code for text files, PC applications, and the Internet is _____, developed by the American National Standards Institute.

 

Answer: American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII)

 

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.3: Explain the factors distinguishing the computing power of computers.

Topic: The Power of Computers

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 28

Feedback: The most common data code for text files, PC applications, and the Internet is American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII), developed by the American National Standards Institute.

 

  1. _____ is a light-sensitive stylus connected to the monitor with a cable. When it is placed on an on-screen location, the data in that spot is sent to the computer.

 

Answer: Light pen

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.5: Discuss the types of input, output, and memory devices.

Topic: Input, Output, and Memory Devices

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 29

Feedback: Light pen is a light-sensitive stylus connected to the monitor with a cable. When it is placed on an on-screen location, the data in that spot is sent to the computer. The data can be characters, lines, or blocks.

 

  1. The most common type of main memory is a semiconductor memory chip made of _____.

 

Answer: silicon

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.5: Discuss the types of input, output, and memory devices.

Topic: Input, Output, and Memory Devices

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 31

Feedback: The most common type of main memory is a semiconductor memory chip made of silicon. A semiconductor memory device can be volatile or nonvolatile.

 

  1. A(n) _____, made of Mylar or metal, is used for random-access processing.

 

Answer: magnetic disk

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.5: Discuss the types of input, output, and memory devices.

Topic: Input, Output, and Memory Devices

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 31

Feedback: A magnetic disk, made of Mylar or metal, is used for random-access processing. In other words, data can be accessed in any order, regardless of its order on the surface.

 

  1. _____ use laser beams to access and store data.

 

Answer: Optical discs

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.5: Discuss the types of input, output, and memory devices.

Topic: Input, Output, and Memory Devices

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 32

Feedback: Optical discs use laser beams to access and store data. Optical technology can store vast amounts of data and is durable.

 

  1. _____ computers are usually compatible with the IBM System/360 line introduced in 1965.

 

Answer: Mainframe

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.6: Explain how computers are classified.

Topic: Classes of Computers

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 33

Feedback: Mainframe computers are usually compatible with the IBM System/360 line introduced in 1965.

 

  1. _____ servers store computer software, which users can access from their workstations.

 

Answer: Application

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.6: Explain how computers are classified.

Topic: Classes of Computers

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 35

Feedback: Application servers store computer software, which users can access from their workstations.

 

  1. Microsoft PowerPoint is the most commonly used _____ software.

 

Answer: presentation

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.7: Describe the two major types of software.

Topic: What Is Software?

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 37

Feedback: Microsoft PowerPoint is the most commonly used presentation software; other examples include Adobe Persuasion and Corel Presentations.

 

  1. _____ software, which is extensively used in architecture and engineering firms, is used for drafting and design and has replaced traditional tools, such as T-squares, triangles, paper, and pencils.

 

Answer: Computer-aided design (CAD)

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.7: Describe the two major types of software.

Topic: What Is Software?

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 38

Feedback: Computer-aided design (CAD) software is used for drafting and design and has replaced traditional tools, such as T-squares, triangles, paper, and pencils. It is used extensively in architecture and engineering firms.

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. Provide a general description of how to write a computer program.

 

Answer: To write a computer program, first a user must know what needs to be done, and then he or she must plan a method to achieve this goal, including selecting the right language for the task. Many computer languages are available; the language the user selects depends on the problem being solved and the type of computer he or she is using.

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.1: Define a computer system, and describe its components.

Topic: Defining a Computer

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: understand

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Page: 24

 

  1. What is a bus?

 

Answer: A bus is a link between devices connected to the computer. It can be parallel or serial, internal (local) or external.

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.1: Define a computer system, and describe its components.

Topic: Defining a Computer

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 25

 

 

  1. Write a short note on single processor and multiprocessor systems.

 

Answer: Some computers have a single processor; other computers, called multiprocessors, contain multiple processors. Multiprocessing is the use of two or more CPUs in a single computer system. Generally, a multiprocessor computer has better performance than a single-processor computer in the same way that a team would have better performance than an individual on a large, time-consuming project.

 

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.1: Define a computer system, and describe its components.

Topic: Defining a Computer

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: understand

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Page: 25

 

 

  1. What is a motherboard?

 

Answer: A motherboard is the main circuit board containing connectors for attaching additional boards. In addition, it usually contains the CPU, Basic Input/Output System (BIOS), memory, storage, interfaces, serial and parallel ports, expansion slots, and all the controllers for standard peripheral devices, such as the display monitor, disk drive, and keyboard.

 

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.1: Define a computer system, and describe its components.

Topic: Defining a Computer

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: understand

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 26

 

  1. Describe how computer speed is measured.

 

Answer: Typically, computer speed is measured as the number of instructions performed during the following fractions of a second:

  1. Millisecond: 1/1,000 of a second
  2. Microsecond: 1/1,000,000 of a second
  3. Nanosecond: 1/1,000,000,000 of a second
  4. Picosecond: 1/1,000,000,000,000 of a second

 

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.3: Explain the factors distinguishing the computing power of computers.

Topic: The Power of Computers

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: understand

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Page: 27–28

 

  1. Describe a binary system.

 

Answer: Every character, number, or symbol on the keyboard is represented as a binary number in computer memory. A binary system consists of 0s and 1s, with a 1 representing “on” and a 0 representing “off,” similar to a light switch.

 

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.3: Explain the factors distinguishing the computing power of computers.

Topic: The Power of Computers

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 28

 

  1. Describe touch screens.

Answer: Touch screens, which usually work with menus, are a combination of input devices. Some touch screens rely on light detection to determine which menu item has been selected, and others are pressure sensitive. Touch screens are often easier to use than keyboards, but they might not be as accurate because selections can be misread.

 

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.5: Discuss the types of input, output, and memory devices.

Topic: Input, Output, and Memory Devices

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: understand

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Page: 29

 

  1. What are the most common output devices for soft copy?

 

Answer: The most common output devices for soft copy are cathode ray tube (CRT), plasma display, and liquid crystal display (LCD).

 

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.5: Discuss the types of input, output, and memory devices.

Topic: Input, Output, and Memory Devices

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 30

 

  1. What are the three main types of secondary memory devices?

 

Answer: There are three main types of secondary memory devices: magnetic disks, magnetic tape, and optical discs.

 

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.5: Discuss the types of input, output, and memory devices.

Topic: Input, Output, and Memory Devices

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 31

 

  1. What is the reason for the popularity of memory sticks?

 

Answer: Memory sticks have become popular because of their small size, high storage capacity, and decreasing cost.

 

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.5: Discuss the types of input, output, and memory devices.

Topic: Input, Output, and Memory Devices

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 32

 

  1. Explain how redundant array of independent disks (RAID) provides fault tolerance and improved performance.

 

Answer: With RAID, data can be stored in multiple places to improve the system’s reliability. In other words, if one disk in the array fails, data is not lost. In some RAID configurations, sequences of data can be read from multiple disks simultaneously, which improves performance.

 

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.5: Discuss the types of input, output, and memory devices.

Topic: Input, Output, and Memory Devices

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: understand

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Page: 32

 

  1. What are fax servers?

 

Answer: Fax servers contain software and hardware components that enable users to send and receive faxes.

 

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.6: Explain how computers are classified.

Topic: Classes of Computers

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 35

 

  1. What are print servers?

 

Answer: Print servers enable users to send print jobs to network printers.

 

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.6: Explain how computers are classified.

Topic: Classes of Computers

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 35

 

  1. Describe desktop publishing software.

 

Answer: Desktop publishing software is used to produce professional-quality documents without expensive hardware and software. This software works on a “what-you-see-is-what-you-get” concept, so the high-quality screen display gives a user a good idea of what he or she will see in the printed output.

 

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.7: Describe the two major types of software.

Topic: What Is Software?

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: understand

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Page: 37–38

 

  1. What is assembly language?

 

Answer: Assembly language is the second generation of computer languages. It is a higher-level language than machine language but is also machine dependent. It uses a series of short codes, or mnemonics, to represent data or instructions. For example, ADD and SUBTRACT are typical commands in assembly language. Writing programs in assembly language is easier than in machine language.

 

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.8: List the generations of computer languages.

Topic: Computer Languages

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: understand

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Page: 38

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Describe the use of gallium arsenide as a replacement for silicon.

 

Answer: Because silicon cannot emit light and has speed limitations, computer designers have concentrated on technology using gallium arsenide, in which electrons move almost five times faster than in silicon. Devices made with this synthetic compound can emit light, withstand higher temperatures, and survive much higher doses of radiation than silicon devices. The major problems with gallium arsenide are difficulties in mass production. This material is softer and more fragile than silicon, so it breaks more easily during slicing and polishing. Because of the high costs and difficulty of production, the military is currently the major user of this technology. However, research continues to eliminate some shortcomings of this technology.

 

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.2: Discuss the history of computer hardware and software.

Topic: The History of Computer Hardware and Software

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: understand

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Page: 26

 

  1. Discuss the three basic tasks performed by computers.

 

Answer: Computers can perform three basic tasks: arithmetic operations, logical operations, and storage and retrieval operations.

 

Computers can add, subtract, multiply, divide, and raise numbers to a power (exponentiation), as shown in these examples:

A + B (addition) 5 + 7 = 12

A − B (subtraction) 5 − 2 = 3

A * B (multiplication) 5 * 2 = 10

A / B (division) 5 / 2 = 2.5

A ^ B (exponentiation) 5 ^ 2 = 25

 

Computers can perform comparison operations by comparing two numbers. For example, a computer can compare x to y and determine which number is larger.

 

Computers can store massive amounts of data in very small spaces and locate a particular item quickly. For example, a person can store the text of more than one million books in a memory device about the size of his or her fist.

 

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.4: Summarize computer operations.

Topic: Computer Operations

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: understand

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Page: 28–29

 

  1. What is the most common type of main memory? Describe the purpose of cache RAM.

 

Answer: The most common type of main memory is a semiconductor memory chip made of silicon. A semiconductor memory device can be volatile or nonvolatile. Volatile memory is called random access memory (RAM), although you could think of it as “read-write memory.” In other words, data can be read from and written to RAM. Some examples of the type of information stored in RAM include open files, the Clipboard’s contents, running programs, and so forth.

 

A special type of RAM, called cache RAM, resides on the processor. Because memory access from main RAM storage generally takes several clock cycles (a few nanoseconds), cache RAM stores recently accessed memory so the processor is not waiting for the memory transfer.

 

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.5: Discuss the types of input, output, and memory devices.

Topic: Input, Output, and Memory Devices

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: understand

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Page: 31

 

  1. Describe the data management function of an operating system.

 

Answer: The data management function of an operating system controls data integrity by generating checksums to verify that data has not been corrupted or changed. Briefly, when the OS writes data to storage, it generates a value (the checksum) along with the data. The next time this data is retrieved, the checksum is recalculated and compared with the original checksum. If they match, the integrity is intact. If they do not, the data has been corrupted somehow.

 

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.7: Describe the two major types of software.

Topic: What Is Software?

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: understand

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Page: 36

 

  1. Describe fifth-generation languages (5GLs) and some of their features.

 

Answer: Fifth-generation languages (5GLs) use some of the artificial intelligence technologies, such as knowledge-based systems, natural language processing (NLP), visual programming, and a graphical approach to programming. Codes are automatically generated and designed to make the computer solve a given problem without a programmer or with minimum programming effort. These languages are designed to facilitate natural conversations between a user and the computer. Imagine that the user could ask his or her computer, “What product generated the most sales last year?” The computer, equipped with a voice synthesizer, could respond, “Product X.” Dragon NaturallySpeaking Solutions is an example of NLP. Research continues in this field because of the promising results so far.

 

Chapter Learning Outcome: 2.8: List the generations of computer languages.

Topic: Computer Languages

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: understand

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Page: 39

 

 

Chapter 4: Personal, Legal, Ethical, and Organizational Issues of Information Systems

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

 

  1. Some “information paranoia” is valid, because information about almost every aspect of people’s lives is now stored on various databases.

 

Answer: True

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.1: Discuss information privacy and methods for improving the privacy of information.

Topic: Privacy Issues

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 68

Feedback: Some “information paranoia” is valid, because information about almost every aspect of people’s lives is now stored on various databases, and misuse of extremely sensitive information (such as medical records) could prevent someone from getting employment, health insurance, or housing.

 

  1. Information technologies have decreased the ease of access to information for hackers as well as for legitimate organizations.

 

Answer: False

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.1: Discuss information privacy and methods for improving the privacy of information.

Topic: Privacy Issues

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 68

Feedback: Unfortunately, information technologies have increased the ease of access to information for hackers as well as for legitimate organizations.

 

  1. Information in databases can now be cross-matched to create profiles of people and predict their behavior, based on their transactions with educational, financial, and government institutions.

 

Answer: True

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.1: Discuss information privacy and methods for improving the privacy of information.

Topic: Privacy Issues

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 69

Feedback: Information in databases can now be cross-matched to create profiles of people and predict their behavior, based on their transactions with educational, financial, and government institutions. This information is often used for direct marketing and for credit checks on potential borrowers or renters.

 

  1. Having a clear, specific policy can help prevent legal actions users might take against an organization, as in cases of termination.

 

Answer: True

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.1: Discuss information privacy and methods for improving the privacy of information.

Topic: Privacy Issues

BUSPROG: Analytic

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 69

Feedback: Having a clear, specific policy can help prevent users from taking legal action against an organization, as in cases of termination. Most organizations have new employees sign an acceptable use policy before they can access the network.

 

  1. To minimize the invasion of privacy, users should be able to review their records and correct any inaccuracies.

 

Answer: True

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.1: Discuss information privacy and methods for improving the privacy of information.

Topic: Privacy Issues

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 69–70

Feedback: To minimize the invasion of privacy, users should be able to review their records and correct any inaccuracies.

 

  1. Junk e-mail is also known as a cookie.

 

Answer: False

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.2: Explain the privacy of e-mail, data collection issues, and censorship.

Topic: Privacy Issues

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 70

Feedback: Junk e-mail is also known as spam.

 

  1. Even a small response for a spam is worthwhile return on the investment because sending spam e-mails is very inexpensive.

 

Answer: True

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.2: Explain the privacy of e-mail, data collection issues, and censorship.

Topic: Privacy Issues

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 70

Feedback: Because sending spam e-mails is so inexpensive, even a small response—a fraction of a percent, for example—is a worthwhile return on the investment.

 

  1. Spamming has created decency concerns, because these e-mails often contain explicit language or nudity and can be opened by children.

 

Answer: True

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.2: Explain the privacy of e-mail, data collection issues, and censorship.

Topic: Privacy Issues

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 70

Feedback: Spamming has created decency concerns, because these e-mails often contain explicit language or nudity and can be opened by children.

 

  1. Log files are small text files with unique ID tags that are embedded in a Web browser and saved on the user’s hard drive.

 

Answer: False

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.2: Explain the privacy of e-mail, data collection issues, and censorship.

Topic: Privacy Issues

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 71

Feedback: Log files, which are generated by Web server software, record a user’s actions on a Web site. Cookies are small text files with unique ID tags that are embedded in a Web browser and saved on the user’s hard drive.

 

  1. Log files make it possible for Web sites to customize pages for users.

 

Answer: False

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.2: Explain the privacy of e-mail, data collection issues, and censorship.

Topic: Privacy Issues

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 71

Feedback: Cookies make it possible for Web sites to customize pages for users, such as Amazon.com recommending books based on one’s past purchases.

 

  1. Cookies can be considered an invasion of privacy.

 

Answer: True

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.2: Explain the privacy of e-mail, data collection issues, and censorship.

Topic: Privacy Issues

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 71

Feedback: Sometimes, cookies can be considered an invasion of privacy, and some people believe their information should be collected only with their consent.

 

  1. Private information on the Web—what is posted by a person—is not subject to censorship because of the person’s constitutional freedom of expression.

 

Answer: True

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.2: Explain the privacy of e-mail, data collection issues, and censorship.

Topic: Ethical Issues of Information Technologies

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 74

Feedback: Private information on the Web—what is posted by a person—is not subject to censorship because of the person’s constitutional freedom of expression.

 

  1. As a part of intellectual property, logos are a type of copyrighted material.

 

Answer: False

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.4: Discuss the principles of intellectual property and issues related to the infringement of intellectual property.

Topic: Ethical Issues of Information Technologies

BUSPROG: Analytic

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 75

Feedback: Intellectual property can be divided into two categories: industrial property (inventions, trademarks, logos, industrial designs, and so on) and copyrighted material, which covers literary and artistic works.

 

  1. Copyright laws do not cover online materials.

 

Answer: False

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.4: Discuss the principles of intellectual property and issues related to the infringement of intellectual property.

Topic: Ethical Issues of Information Technologies

BUSPROG: Analytic

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 75

Feedback: Generally, copyright laws protect tangible material, such as books, drawings, and so forth. However, they also cover online materials, including Web pages, HTML code, and computer graphics, as long as the content can be printed or saved on a storage device.

 

  1. A patent protects product names and identifying marks.

 

Answer: False

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.4: Discuss the principles of intellectual property and issues related to the infringement of intellectual property.

Topic: Ethical Issues of Information Technologies

BUSPROG: Analytic

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 75

Feedback: A trademark protects product names and identifying marks (logos, for example). A patent protects new processes.

 

  1. In general, patents last the author’s lifetime plus 70 years.

 

Answer: False

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.4: Discuss the principles of intellectual property and issues related to the infringement of intellectual property.

Topic: Ethical Issues of Information Technologies

BUSPROG: Analytic

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 75

Feedback: In general, copyrights last the author’s lifetime plus 70 years and do not need to be renewed; patents last 20 years (14 years for design patents).

 

  1. An organization can generate revenue by licensing its patent to others.

 

Answer: True

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.4: Discuss the principles of intellectual property and issues related to the infringement of intellectual property.

Topic: Ethical Issues of Information Technologies

BUSPROG: Analytic

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 75

Feedback: An organization can generate revenue by licensing its patent to others.

 

  1. Information technology has eliminated more types of jobs than it has created.

 

Answer: False

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.5: Discuss information system issues that affect organizations, including the digital divide, electronic publishing, and the connection between the workplace and employees’ health.

Topic: The Impact of Information Technology in the Workplace

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 77

Feedback: Although information technology has eliminated some clerical jobs, it has created many new jobs for programmers, systems analysts, database and network administrators, network engineers, Webmasters, Web page developers, e-commerce specialists, chief information officers (CIOs), and technicians.

 

  1. Information technologies have a direct effect on the nature of jobs.

 

Answer: True

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.5: Discuss information system issues that affect organizations, including the digital divide, electronic publishing, and the connection between the workplace and employees’ health.

Topic: The Impact of Information Technology in the Workplace

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 77

Feedback: Information technologies have a direct effect on the nature of jobs. Telecommuting, also known as virtual work, has enabled some people to perform their jobs from home.

 

  1. A potential benefit of telecommuting is that it increases interaction with coworkers.

 

Answer: False

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.5: Discuss information system issues that affect organizations, including the digital divide, electronic publishing, and the connection between the workplace and employees’ health.

Topic: The Impact of Information Technology in the Workplace

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 77

Feedback: A potential drawback of telecommuting is that it reduces interaction with coworkers.

 

  1. Information technologies have led to “job deskilling.”

 

Answer: True

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.5: Discuss information system issues that affect organizations, including the digital divide, electronic publishing, and the connection between the workplace and employees’ health.

Topic: The Impact of Information Technology in the Workplace

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 78

Feedback: Information technologies have led to “job deskilling.” This occurs when skilled labor is eliminated by high technology or when a job is downgraded from a skilled to a semiskilled or unskilled position.

 

  1. Information technologies have created job upgrading.

 

Answer: True

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.5: Discuss information system issues that affect organizations, including the digital divide, electronic publishing, and the connection between the workplace and employees’ health.

Topic: The Impact of Information Technology in the Workplace

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 78

Feedback: Information technologies have created “job upgrading,” as when clerical workers use computers for word-processing tasks.

 

  1. A virtual organization needs central offices and an organizational hierarchy for participants to contribute their expertise.

 

Answer: False

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.5: Discuss information system issues that affect organizations, including the digital divide, electronic publishing, and the connection between the workplace and employees’ health.

Topic: The Impact of Information Technology in the Workplace

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 78

Feedback: A virtual organization does not need central offices or an organizational hierarchy for participants to contribute their expertise.

 

  1. The cost of hiring additional employees is reduced because skills are shared among participating companies of a virtual organization.

 

Answer: True

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.5: Discuss information system issues that affect organizations, including the digital divide, electronic publishing, and the connection between the workplace and employees’ health.

Topic: The Impact of Information Technology in the Workplace

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 78

Feedback: Because skills are shared among participating virtual organizations, the cost of hiring additional employees is reduced.

 

  1. A disadvantage of a virtual organization is that it increases the time needed to develop new products.

 

Answer: False

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.5: Discuss information system issues that affect organizations, including the digital divide, electronic publishing, and the connection between the workplace and employees’ health.

Topic: The Impact of Information Technology in the Workplace

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 78

Feedback: An advantage of a virtual organization is that it reduces the time needed to develop new products.

 

  1. The increasing popularity of touchscreens on smartphones may result in more stress-related injuries of the users’ hands, arms, back, and eyes.

 

Answer: True

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.5: Discuss information system issues that affect organizations, including the digital divide, electronic publishing, and the connection between the workplace and employees’ health.

Topic: The Impact of Information Technology in the Workplace

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 78

Feedback: The increasing popularity of touchscreens on smartphones, tablets, and some PCs may result in more stress-related injuries of the users’ hands, arms, back, and eyes.

 

  1. Ergonomics experts believe that using better-designed furniture can solve many of the health problems arising from information technology.

 

Answer: True

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.5: Discuss information system issues that affect organizations, including the digital divide, electronic publishing, and the connection between the workplace and employees’ health.

Topic: The Impact of Information Technology in the Workplace

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 78

Feedback: Ergonomics experts believe that using better-designed furniture as well as flexible or wireless keyboards, correct lighting, special monitors for workers with vision problems, and so forth can solve many of the health problems arising from information technology.

 

  1. Green computation helps an organization save on energy costs.

 

Answer: True

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.6: Describe green computing and the ways it can improve the quality of the environment.

Topic: Green Computing

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 79

Feedback: Green computing not only helps an organization save on energy costs, it improves the quality of the environment in which one lives and works.

 

  1. Green computing is one of the methods for combating global warming.

 

Answer: True

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.6: Describe green computing and the ways it can improve the quality of the environment.

Topic: Green Computing

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 79

Feedback: Green computing is one of the methods for combating global warming.

 

  1. One of the ways in which green computing can be achieved is by replacing meetings over computer networks with actual face-to-face meetings.

 

Answer: False

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.6: Describe green computing and the ways it can improve the quality of the environment.

Topic: Green Computing

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 80

Feedback: One of the ways in which green computing can be achieved is by replacing actual face-to-face meetings with meetings over computer networks.

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. In the context of Web and network privacy, _____ refers to issues involving both the user’s and the organization’s responsibilities and liabilities.
a. phishing c. spoofing
b. nonrepudiation d. accountability

 

 

Answer: D

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.1: Discuss information privacy and methods for improving the privacy of information.

Topic: Privacy Issues

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 69

Feedback: Accountability refers to issues involving both the user’s and the organization’s responsibilities and liabilities.

 

  1. In the context of Web and network privacy, _____ is a method for binding all the parties to a contract.
a. phishing c. cybersquatting
b. nonrepudiation d. encapsulation

 

 

Answer: B

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.1: Discuss information privacy and methods for improving the privacy of information.

Topic: Privacy Issues

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 69

Feedback: Nonrepudiation is basically a method for binding all the parties to a contract.

 

  1. To minimize the invasion of privacy, any organization creating, maintaining, using, or disseminating records of personal data must ensure the data’s _____.
a. duplicability c. abstractness
b. reliability d. incoherence

 

 

Answer: B

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.1: Explain the privacy of e-mail, data collection issues, and censorship.

Topic: Privacy Issues

BUSPROG: Analytic

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 69

Feedback: To minimize the invasion of privacy, any organization creating, maintaining, using, or disseminating records of personal data must ensure the data’s reliability and take precautions to prevent misuse of the data.

 

  1. Organizations should keep collected information only as long as:
a. it can be reproduced. c. it can be manipulated.
b. it is needed for the stated purpose. d. it is abstract and incoherent.

 

 

Answer: B

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.1: Explain the privacy of e-mail, data collection issues, and censorship.

Topic: Privacy Issues

BUSPROG: Analytic

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 69

Feedback: To minimize the invasion of privacy, any data collection must have a stated purpose. Organizations should keep collected information only as long as it is needed for the stated purpose.

 

  1. To minimize the invasion of privacy, users and organizations should:
a. enable access to one’s personal information to all interested parties. c. use verification procedures to ensure data accuracy.
b. keep collected information even after the stated purpose is over. d. collect both necessary and unnecessary data.

 

 

Answer: C

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.1: Explain the privacy of e-mail, data collection issues, and censorship.

Topic: Privacy Issues

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 69

Feedback: To minimize the invasion of privacy, organizations should monitor data collection and entry and should use verification procedures to ensure data accuracy.

 

  1. To minimize the invasion of privacy, the existence of record-keeping systems storing personal data should not:
a. be kept secret. c. be up-to-date.
b. have a stated purpose. d. be restricted.

 

 

Answer: A

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.1: Discuss information privacy and methods for improving the privacy of information.

Topic: Privacy Issues

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Understand

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Page: 70

Feedback: To minimize the invasion of privacy, the existence of record-keeping systems storing personal data should not be kept secret. In addition, there must be a way for people to find out what information about them has been stored and how it is used.

 

  1. Usually, junk e-mail or spam is:
a. a solicited e-mail sent for business purposes. c. sent in bulk using automated mailing software.
b. quite expensive to send out. d. used to increase the size of user in-boxes.

 

 

Answer: C

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.2: Explain the privacy of e-mail, data collection issues, and censorship.

Topic: Privacy Issues

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 70

Feedback: Usually, spam is sent in bulk using automated mailing software, and many spammers sell their address lists.

 

  1. _____ has created decency concerns, because these e-mails often contain explicit language or nudity.
a. Phishing c. Sniffing
b. Cybersquatting d. Spamming

 

 

Answer: D

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.1: Explain the privacy of e-mail, data collection issues, and censorship.

Topic: Privacy Issues

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 70

Feedback: Spamming has created decency concerns, because these e-mails often contain explicit language or nudity and can be opened by children.

 

  1. Which of the following is a commonly used technology for data collection?
a. Applets c. Cookies
b. Kernels d. Firewalls

 

 

Answer: C

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.2: Explain the privacy of e-mail, data collection issues, and censorship.

Topic: Privacy Issues

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 71

Feedback: Two commonly used technologies for data collection are cookies and log files.

 

  1. _____ provide information about a user’s location and computer equipment, and this information can be used for unauthorized purposes, such as corporate espionage.
a. Cookies c. Applets
b. Kernels d. Firewalls

 

 

Answer: A

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.2: Explain the privacy of e-mail, data collection issues, and censorship.

Topic: Privacy Issues

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 71

Feedback: Cookies provide information about a user’s location and computer equipment, and this information can be used for unauthorized purposes, such as corporate espionage.

 

  1. _____, which are generated by Web server software, record a user’s actions on a Web site.
a. Viruses c. Image maps
b. Spam mails d. Log files

 

 

Answer: D

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.2: Explain the privacy of e-mail, data collection issues, and censorship.

Topic: Privacy Issues

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 71

Feedback: Log files, which are generated by Web server software, record a user’s actions on a Web site.

 

  1. Jared makes two copies of an antivirus software package he just bought and gives one of the copies to Joshua. In this scenario, Jared’s actions are considered _____.
a. ethical but illegal c. illegal and unethical
b. legal but unethical d. legal and ethical

 

 

Answer: C

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.3: Discuss the ethical issues related to information technology.

Topic: Ethical Issues of Information Technologies

BUSPROG: Ethics

Bloom’s: Challenging

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Page: 72

Feedback: If a person makes two copies of a software package he or she just bought and sells one to a friend, the person’s behavior is considered illegal and unethical.

 

  1. Aaron bought a photo-editing software package. He makes two copies of the software and keeps it with himself in case the original software fails and he needs a backup. In this scenario, Aaron’s actions are considered _____.
a. illegal and unethical c. illegal but ethical
b. legal but unethical d. legal and ethical

 

 

Answer: C

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.3: Discuss the ethical issues related to information technology.

Topic: Ethical Issues of Information Technologies

BUSPROG: Ethics

Bloom’s: Challenging

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Page: 72

Feedback: When a person makes two copies of a software package he or she just bought for personal use, in case the original software fails and he or she needs a backup, the person’s action is considered illegal but ethical.

 

  1. Clement applies for home loan at Global Bank Inc. As part of the process, he is required to provide personal details. The banker uses Clements’s personal information to sell him insurance policies. In this scenario, the banker’s action is considered _____.
a. illegal and unethical c. legal but unethical
b. ethical but illegal d. legal and ethical

 

 

Answer: C

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.3: Discuss the ethical issues related to information technology.

Topic: Ethical Issues of Information Technologies

BUSPROG: Ethics

Bloom’s: Challenging

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Page: 73

Feedback: When a banker uses the information a client enters in a loan application to sell other financial products to this client, the banker’s action is considered legal but unethical.

 

  1. A credit card company sells its customers’ mailing addresses to its competitors. In this scenario, the company’s action is considered _____.
a. ethical but illegal c. illegal and unethical
b. legal but unethical d. legal and ethical

 

 

Answer: B

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.3: Discuss the ethical issues related to information technology.

Topic: Ethical Issues of Information Technologies

BUSPROG: Ethics

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 73

Feedback: A credit card company sells its customers’ mailing addresses to its competitors. In this scenario, the company’s action is considered legal but unethical.

 

  1. Alfred, a software programmer at Gamma Inc., develops a program that spreads Trojan viruses to the organization’s network. When Liam, his manager, discovers that Alfred had intentionally spread the virus, he immediately fires Alfred. In this scenario, Liam’s behavior is considered _____.
a. illegal and unethical c. illegal but ethical
b. legal but unethical d. legal and ethical

 

 

Answer: D

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.3: Discuss the ethical issues related to information technology.

Topic: Ethical Issues of Information Technologies

BUSPROG: Ethics

Bloom’s: Challenging

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Page: 73

Feedback: When a supervisor fires a programmer who has intentionally spread viruses to the organization’s network, the supervisor’s behavior is considered both legal and ethical. Liam has a clear legal reason for firing Alfred, and allowing Alfred to continue working there would not be ethical.

 

  1. _____ information can be censored if the content is deemed offensive to a political, religious, or cultural group.
a. Public c. Secretive
b. Private d. Hidden

 

 

Answer: A

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.3: Discuss the ethical issues related to information technology.

Topic: Ethical Issues of Information Technologies

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 74

Feedback: Public information can also be censored if the content is deemed offensive to a political, religious, or cultural group.

 

  1. According to the principle of _____, Internet service providers (ISPs) and government agencies should treat all data on the Internet equally.
a. Internet censorship c. Internet security
b. net neutrality d. cybersquatting

 

 

Answer: B

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.3: Discuss the ethical issues related to information technology.

Topic: Ethical Issues of Information Technologies

BUSPROG: Ethics

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 74

Feedback: Most experts believe that Internet neutrality (also known as “net neutrality”) must be practiced in all cases. According to this principle, Internet service providers (ISPs) and government agencies should treat all data on the Internet equally—that is, they should not block traffic, charge different rates, or discriminate in any way based on user, content, Web site, types of equipment in use, telecommunication provider, platform, or application.

 

  1. According to the principle of Internet neutrality, Internet service providers (ISPs) and government agencies should:
a. not charge different rates on data. c. block data traffic.
b. treat data based on telecommunication providers. d. discriminate data based on user content.

 

 

Answer: A

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.2: Explain the privacy of e-mail, data collection issues, and censorship.

Topic: Ethical Issues of Information Technologies

BUSPROG: Ethics

Bloom’s: Understand

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Page: 74

Feedback: Most experts believe that Internet neutrality (also known as “net neutrality”) must be practiced in all cases. According to this principle, Internet service providers (ISPs) and government agencies should treat all data on the Internet equally—that is, they should not block traffic, charge different rates, or discriminate in any way based on user, content, Web site, types of equipment in use, telecommunication provider, platform, or application.

 

  1. In the context of intellectual property, which of the following is categorized as industrial property?
a. Copyrights c. Literary works
b. Artistic works d. Trademarks

 

 

Answer: D

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.4: Discuss the principles of intellectual property and issues related to the infringement of intellectual property.

Topic: Ethical Issues of Information Technologies

BUSPROG: Analytic

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 75

Feedback: Intellectual property can be divided into two categories: industrial property (inventions, trademarks, logos, industrial designs, and so on) and copyrighted material, which covers literary and artistic works.

 

 

  1. In the context of intellectual property, which of the following is categorized as copyrighted material?
a. Trademarks c. Artistic works
b. Industrial designs d. Inventions

 

 

Answer: C

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.4: Discuss the principles of intellectual property and issues related to the infringement of intellectual property.

Topic: Ethical Issues of Information Technologies

BUSPROG: Analytic

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 75

Feedback: Intellectual property can be divided into two categories: industrial property (inventions, trademarks, logos, industrial designs, and so on) and copyrighted material, which covers literary and artistic works.

 

  1. Generally, _____ protect tangible material, such as books and drawings.
a. copyright laws c. trademarks
b. patents d. trade secrets

 

 

Answer: A

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.4: Discuss the principles of intellectual property and issues related to the infringement of intellectual property.

Topic: Ethical Issues of Information Technologies

BUSPROG: Analytic

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 75

Feedback: Generally, copyright laws protect tangible material, such as books, drawings, and so forth. However, they also cover online materials, including Web pages, HTML code, and computer graphics, as long as the content can be printed or saved on a storage device.

 

  1. _____ laws give only the creator exclusive rights, meaning no one else can reproduce, distribute, or perform the literary and artistic work without permission.
a. Trademark c. Patent
b. Trade secret d. Copyright

 

 

Answer: D

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.4: Discuss the principles of intellectual property and issues related to the infringement of intellectual property.

Topic: Ethical Issues of Information Technologies

BUSPROG: Analytic

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 75

Feedback: Copyright laws give only the creator exclusive rights, meaning no one else can reproduce, distribute, or perform the work without permission.

 

  1. The _____ is an exception to copyright laws that means that a person can use copyrighted material for certain purposes, such as quoting passages of a book in literary reviews.
a. Communications Decency Act c. Digital Millennium Act
b. Fair Use Doctrine d. ACM Code of Ethics

 

 

Answer: B

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.4: Discuss the principles of intellectual property and issues related to the infringement of intellectual property.

Topic: Ethical Issues of Information Technologies

BUSPROG: Analytic

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 75

Feedback: Copyright laws do have some exceptions, however, usually under the Fair Use Doctrine. This exception means a person can use copyrighted material for certain purposes, such as quoting passages of a book in literary reviews.

 

  1. The 1980 revisions to the _____ of 1976 include computer programs, so both people and organizations can be held liable for unauthorized duplication and use of copyrighted programs.
a. Copyright Act c. Copyright Term Extension Act
b. Digital Millennium Copyright Act d. Telecommunications Act

 

 

Answer: A

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.4: Discuss the principles of intellectual property and issues related to the infringement of intellectual property.

Topic: Ethical Issues of Information Technologies

BUSPROG: Analytic

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 75

Feedback: The 1980 revisions to the Copyright Act of 1976 include computer programs, so both people and organizations can be held liable for unauthorized duplication and use of copyrighted programs.

 

  1. The _____ was partially overturned in the 1997 Reno v. ACLU case, in which the U.S. Supreme Court unanimously voted to strike down the act’s anti-obscenity provisions, finding they violated the freedom of speech provisions of the First Amendment.
a. Telecommunications Act c. Copyright Act
b. Communications Decency Act d. Sarbanes-Oxley Act

 

 

Answer: B

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.4: Discuss the principles of intellectual property and issues related to the infringement of intellectual property.

Topic: Ethical Issues of Information Technologies

BUSPROG: Analytic

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 76

Feedback: The Communications Decency Act (CDA) was partially overturned in the 1997 Reno v. ACLU case, in which the U.S. Supreme Court unanimously voted to strike down the CDA’s anti-indecency provisions, finding they violated the freedom of speech provisions of the First Amendment.

 

  1. _____ is registering, selling, or using a domain name to profit from someone else’s trademark.
a. Sniffing c. Cybersquatting
b. Phishing d. Cyberbullying

 

 

Answer: C

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.4: Discuss the principles of intellectual property and issues related to the infringement of intellectual property.

Topic: Ethical Issues of Information Technologies

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 76

Feedback: One aspect of intellectual property that has attracted attention recently is cybersquatting , which is registering, selling, or using a domain name to profit from someone else’s trademark.

 

  1. Information technology and the Internet have, in essence, resulted in two societal groups: the information rich and the information poor. This is called the _____.
a. digital dashboard c. digital act
b. cyber squat d. digital divide

 

 

Answer: D

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.5: Discuss information system issues that affect organizations, including the digital divide, electronic publishing, and the connection between the workplace and employees’ health.

Topic: Ethical Issues of Information Technologies

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 76

Feedback: Some believe that information technology and the Internet have created a digital divide between the information rich and the information poor.

 

 

  1. A potential benefit of telecommuting is that:
a. it regulates work routine. c. it increases interaction with coworkers.
b. it reduces employee turnover. d. it separates work and home life.

 

 

Answer: B

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.5: Discuss information system issues that affect organizations, including the digital divide, electronic publishing, and the connection between the workplace and employees’ health.

Topic: The Impact of Information Technology in the Workplace

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 77

Feedback: A potential benefit of telecommuting is that it reduces employee turnover and absenteeism.

 

  1. Which of the following is a potential drawback of telecommuting?
a. Lack of necessary supplies or equipment c. Difficult work environment for employees with disabilities
b. Decreased productivity d. Increased employee turnover and absenteeism

 

 

Answer: A

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.5: Discuss information system issues that affect organizations, including the digital divide, electronic publishing, and the connection between the workplace and employees’ health.

Topic: The Impact of Information Technology in the Workplace

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 77

Feedback: A potential drawback of telecommuting is lack of necessary supplies or equipment.

 

  1. Job _____ occurs when skilled labor is eliminated by high technology or when a job is downgraded from a skilled to a semiskilled or unskilled position.
a. deskilling c. mobility
b. reskilling d. divide

 

 

Answer: A

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.5: Discuss information system issues that affect organizations, including the digital divide, electronic publishing, and the connection between the workplace and employees’ health.

Topic: The Impact of Information Technology in the Workplace

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 78

Feedback: Information technologies have led to “job deskilling.” This occurs when skilled labor is eliminated by high technology or when a job is downgraded from a skilled to a semiskilled or unskilled position.

 

  1. Clerical workers using computers for word-processing tasks is an example of job _____.
a. restraining c. degrading
b. upgrading d. sharing

 

 

Answer: B

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.3: Discuss information system issues that affect organizations, including the digital divide, electronic publishing, and the connection between the workplace and employees’ health.

Topic: The Impact of Information Technology in the Workplace

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 78

Feedback: Information technologies have created “job upgrading,” as when clerical workers use computers for word-processing tasks.

 

  1. An advantage of virtual organizations is that:
a. the time needed to develop new products increases. c. the cost of hiring additional employees increases.
b. products are customized more to respond to customers’ needs. d. an organizational hierarchy exists for participants to contribute their expertise.

 

 

Answer: B

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.5: Discuss information system issues that affect organizations, including the digital divide, electronic publishing, and the connection between the workplace and employees’ health.

Topic: The Impact of Information Technology in the Workplace

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 78

Feedback: An advantage of virtual organizations is that products can be customized more to respond to customers’ needs.

 

34._____ involves the design, manufacture, use, and disposal of computers and servers in such a way that there is minimal impact on the environment.

a. Sniffing c. Green computing
b. Soft computing d. Cybersquatting

 

 

Answer: C

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.6: Describe green computing and the ways it can improve the quality of the environment.

Topic: Green Computing

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 79

Feedback: Green computing involves the design, manufacture, use, and disposal of computers, servers, and computing devices (such as monitors, printers, storage devices, and networking and communications equipment) in such a way that there is minimal impact on the environment.

 

  1. In which of the following ways can green computing be achieved?
a. Using computing devices that are non-biodegradable c. Replacing one large server with several underutilized smaller servers
b. Replacing meetings over computer networks with actual face-to-face meetings d. Using video conferencing, electronic meeting systems, and groupware

 

 

Answer: D

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.6: Describe green computing and the ways it can improve the quality of the environment.

Topic: Green Computing

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Understand

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Page: 80

Feedback: Green computing can be achieved by using video conferencing, electronic meeting systems, and groupware.

 

COMPLETION

 

  1. The most common way to index and link databases is by using _____.

 

Answer: Social Security numbers

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.1: Discuss information privacy and methods for improving the privacy of information.

Topic: Privacy Issues

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 69

Feedback: The most common way to index and link databases is by using Social Security numbers (typically obtained from credit bureaus), although names are sometimes used to track transactions that do not require Social Security numbers, such as credit card purchases, charitable contributions, and movie rentals.

 

  1. To guard against possible legal ramifications and the consequences of using the Web and networks, an organization usually establishes a(n) _____, which is a set of rules specifying the legal and ethical use of a system and the consequences of noncompliance.

 

Answer: acceptable use policy

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.1: Discuss information privacy and methods for improving the privacy of information.

Topic: Privacy Issues

BUSPROG: Ethics

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 69

Feedback: To guard against possible legal ramifications and the consequences of using the Web and networks, an organization usually establishes an acceptable use policy, which is a set of rules specifying the legal and ethical use of a system and the consequences of noncompliance.

 

  1. In the context of Web and network privacy, most organizations have new employees sign a(n) _____ before they can access the network.

 

Answer: acceptable use policy

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.1: Discuss information privacy and methods for improving the privacy of information.

Topic: Privacy Issues

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 69

Feedback: In the context of Web and network privacy, most organizations have new employees sign an acceptable use policy before they can access the network.

 

  1. Unsolicited e-mail sent for advertising purposes is called _____.

 

Answer: spam

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.2: Explain the privacy of e-mail, data collection issues, and censorship.

Topic: Privacy Issues

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 70

Feedback: Although e-mail is widely used, it presents some serious privacy issues. One issue is junk e-mail, also known as spam—unsolicited e-mail sent for advertising purposes.

 

  1. _____ are small text files with a unique ID tag that are embedded in a Web browser and saved on the user’s hard drive.

 

Answer: Cookies

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.2: Explain the privacy of e-mail, data collection issues, and censorship.

Topic: Privacy Issues

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 71

Feedback: Cookies are small text files with unique ID tags that are embedded in a Web browser and saved on the user’s hard drive.

 

  1. Whenever a user accesses a same domain, the browser sends saved information to the _____.

 

Answer: Web server

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.2: Explain the privacy of e-mail, data collection issues, and censorship.

Topic: Privacy Issues

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 71

Feedback: Whenever a user accesses the same domain, the browser sends the saved information to the Web server.

 

  1. _____ are small text files that make it possible for Web sites to customize pages for users.

 

Answer: Cookies

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.2: Explain the privacy of e-mail, data collection issues, and censorship.

Topic: Ethical Issues of Information Technologies

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 71

Feedback: Cookies are small text files that make it possible for Web sites to customize pages for users.

 

8._____ is a legal umbrella covering protections that involve copyrights, trademarks, trade secrets, and patents for “creations of the mind” developed by people or businesses.

 

Answer: Intellectual property

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.4: Discuss the principles of intellectual property and issues related to the infringement of intellectual property.

Topic: Ethical Issues of Information Technologies

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 75

Feedback: Intellectual property is a legal umbrella covering protections that involve copyrights, trademarks, trade secrets, and patents for “creations of the mind” developed by people or businesses.

 

  1. In the context of intellectual properties, inventions are categorized as _____ properties.

 

Answer: industrial

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.4: Discuss the principles of intellectual property and issues related to the infringement of intellectual property.

Topic: Ethical Issues of Information Technologies

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 75

Feedback: Intellectual property can be divided into two categories: industrial property (inventions, trademarks, logos, industrial designs, and so on) and copyrighted material, which covers literary and artistic works.

 

  1. A(n) _____ is an intellectual property that protects product names and identifying marks.

 

Answer: trademark

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.4: Discuss the principles of intellectual property and issues related to the infringement of intellectual property.

Topic: Ethical Issues of Information Technologies

BUSPROG: Analytic

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 75

Feedback: A trademark is an intellectual property that protects product names and identifying marks.

 

  1. A(n) _____ is an intellectual property that protects new processes.

 

Answer: patent

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.4: Discuss the principles of intellectual property and issues related to the infringement of intellectual property.

Topic: Ethical Issues of Information Technologies

BUSPROG: Analytic

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 75

Feedback: A patent is an intellectual property that protects new processes.

 

 

  1. _____ is a technique that relies on typographical errors made by Web users when typing a Web site address into a Web browser.

 

Answer: Typosquatting

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.4: Discuss the principles of intellectual property and issues related to the infringement of intellectual property.

Topic: Ethical Issues of Information Technologies

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 76

Feedback: A variation of cybersquatting is typosquatting, also called URL hijacking. This technique relies on typographical errors made by Web users when typing a Web site address into a Web browser.

 

  1. _____, also known as virtual work, has enabled some people to perform their jobs from home.

 

Answer: Telecommuting

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.5: Discuss information system issues that affect organizations, including the digital divide, electronic publishing, and the connection between the workplace and employees’ health.

Topic: The Impact of Information Technology in the Workplace

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 77

Feedback: Telecommuting, also known as virtual work, has enabled some people to perform their jobs from home.

 

  1. _____ organizations are networks of independent companies, suppliers, customers, and manufacturers connected via information technologies so that they can share skills and costs and have access to each other’s markets.

 

Answer: Virtual

 

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.5: Discuss information system issues that affect organizations, including the digital divide, electronic publishing, and the connection between the workplace and employees’ health.

Topic: The Impact of Information Technology in the Workplace

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 78

Feedback: An impact of information technology is the creation of virtual organizations, which are networks of independent companies, suppliers, customers, and manufacturers connected via information technologies so they can share skills and costs and have access to each other’s markets.

 

  1. _____ is computing that promotes a sustainable environment and consumes the least amount of energy.

 

Answer: Green computing

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.6: Describe green computing and the ways it can improve the quality of the environment.

Topic: Green Computing

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 79

Feedback: Green computing is computing that promotes a sustainable environment and consumes the least amount of energy.

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. Provide an example of how information technology has created concerns about privacy in the workplace.

 

Answer: Information technologies have brought many benefits, but they have also created concerns about privacy in the workplace. For example, employers now search social networking sites, such as Facebook and MySpace, to find background information on applicants, and this information can influence their hiring decisions. In fact, some recruiters and hiring managers use the extracted information to assign the potential employee a numeric rank between 0 and 100.

 

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.1: Discuss information privacy and methods for improving the privacy of information.

Topic: Privacy Issues

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Understand

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Page: 66

 

  1. What is being done to lessen consumers’ reluctance to make online shopping purchases?

 

Answer: To lessen consumers’ concern, many credit card companies reimburse fraudulent charges. In addition, other electronic payment systems are being developed, such as e-wallets and smart cards, that reduce the risk of exposing consumers’ information on the Web.

 

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.2: Explain the privacy of e-mail, data collection issues, and censorship.

Topic: Privacy Issues

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Understand

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Page: 71

 

  1. Some Web sites require a user to enter his or her name, address, and employment information before the user is allowed to use the site. What type of privacy issues does this raise?

 

Answer: Privacy issues include the concern that this personal information will be sold to telemarketing firms, and consumers do not want to be bombarded with spam. Also, some consumers are concerned about their computers’ contents being searched while they are connected to the Web, and personal information could be used without their consent for solicitation and other purposes.

 

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.2: Explain the privacy of e-mail, data collection issues, and censorship.

Topic: Privacy Issues

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Understand

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Page: 71

 

  1. List eight questions or statements a knowledge worker should ask to avoid ethical issues before making a work-related decision.

 

Answer: As a knowledge worker, a person should consider the following questions and statements before making a work-related decision:

 

  1. Does this decision comply with one’s organization’s values?
  2. How will one feel about himself or herself after making this decision?
  3. If one knows this decision is wrong, one must not make it.
  4. If one is not sure about this decision, one must ask his or her supervisor before making it.
  5. Is the decision right?
  6. Is the decision fair? How will one feel if somebody else makes this decision on his or her behalf?
  7. Is the decision legal?
  8. Would one want everyone to know about this decision after one make it?

 

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.3: Discuss the ethical issues related to information technology.

Topic: Ethical Issues of Information Technologies

BUSPROG: Ethics

Bloom’s: Understand

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Page: 73–74

 

  1. When can public information be censored?

 

Answer: Public information, posted by an organization or public agency can be censored for public policy reasons—such as not allowing military secrets to be published, lest the information fall into enemy hands. Public information can also be censored if the content is deemed offensive to a political, religious, or cultural group.

 

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.2: Explain the privacy of e-mail, data collection issues, and censorship.

Topic: Ethical Issues of Information Technologies

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Understand

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Page: 74

 

  1. Define the two categories of intellectual property.

 

Answer: Intellectual property can be divided into two categories: industrial property (inventions, trademarks, logos, industrial designs, and so on) and copyrighted material, which covers literary and artistic works.

 

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.4: Discuss the principles of intellectual property and issues related to the infringement of intellectual property.

Topic: Ethical Issues of Information Technologies

BUSPROG: Analytic

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 75

 

  1. What is the length of copyright and patents in the United States?

 

Answer: The length of copyright varies based on the type of work. In general, copyrights last for the author’s lifetime plus 70 years and do not need to be renewed, and patents last 20 years (14 years for design patents).

 

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.4: Discuss the principles of intellectual property and issues related to the infringement of intellectual property.

Topic: Ethical Issues of Information Technologies

BUSPROG: Analytic

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 75

 

  1. Discuss the concept of typosquatting.

 

Answer: A variation of cybersquatting is typosquatting, also called URL hijacking. This technique relies on typographical errors made by Web users when typing a Web site address into a Web browser. If the user accidentally enters an incorrect Web site address, he or she may be directed to an alternative

Web site owned by a typosquatter. In such a case, the legitimate site does not get the intended traffic.

 

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.4: Discuss the principles of intellectual property and issues related to the infringement of intellectual property.

Topic: Ethical Issues of Information Technologies

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Understand

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Page: 76

 

  1. Describe examples of steps being taken to offset the digital divide.

 

Answer: Increasing funding for computer equipment at schools and adding more computers in public places, such as libraries, can help offset the digital divide. Some schools have even started loaner programs so students can borrow a portable computer for use after school hours.

 

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.5: Discuss information system issues that affect organizations, including the digital divide, electronic publishing, and the connection between the workplace and employees’ health.

Topic: Ethical Issues of Information Technologies

BUSPROG: Ethics

Bloom’s: Understand

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Page: 77

 

  1. Explain telecommuting.

 

Answer: Telecommuting, also known as virtual work, has enabled some people to perform their jobs from home. With telecommunications technology, a worker can send and receive data to and from the main office, and organizations can use the best and most cost-effective human resources in a large geographical region.

 

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.5: Discuss information system issues that affect organizations, including the digital divide, electronic publishing, and the connection between the workplace and employees’ health.

Topic: The Impact of Information Technology in the Workplace

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Understand

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Page: 77

 

  1. Provide an example for job deskilling.

 

Answer: It usually takes place when a job is automated or when a complex job is fragmented into a sequence of easily performed tasks. An example of job deskilling is when a computer-aided design (CAD) program performs the technical tasks that used to be performed by a designer.

 

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.5: Discuss information system issues that affect organizations, including the digital divide, electronic publishing, and the connection between the workplace and employees’ health.

Topic: The Impact of Information Technology in the Workplace

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Understand

Difficulty Level: Easy

Page: 78

 

  1. List five advantages of virtual organizations.

 

Answer: Advantages of virtual organizations include the following:

 

  1. Each participating company can focus on what it does best, thus improving the ability to meet customers’ needs.
  2. Because skills are shared among participating companies, the cost of hiring additional employees is reduced.
  3. Companies can respond to customers faster and more efficiently.
  4. The time needed to develop new products is reduced.
  5. Products can be customized more to respond to customers’ needs.

 

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.5: Discuss information system issues that affect organizations, including the digital divide, electronic publishing, and the connection between the workplace and employees’ health.

Topic: The Impact of Information Technology in the Workplace

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Understand

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Page: 78

 

  1. What are some of the causes of health issues related to information technology?

 

Answer: Work habits can cause some physical problems, however, and so can the work environment in which computers are used— static electricity, inadequate ventilation, poor lighting, dry air, unsuitable furniture, and too few rest breaks. The increasing popularity of touchscreens on smartphones, tablets, and some PCs may result in more stress-related injuries of the users’ hands, arms, back, and eyes.

 

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.5: Discuss information system issues that affect organizations, including the digital divide, electronic publishing, and the connection between the workplace and employees’ health.

Topic: The Impact of Information Technology in the Workplace

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Understand

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Page: 78

 

  1. Describe ways to solve health problems related to computer equipment.

 

Answer: Ergonomics experts believe that using better-designed furniture as well as flexible or wireless keyboards, correct lighting, special monitors for workers with vision problems, and so forth can solve many of the health problems related to computer equipment.

 

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.5: Discuss information system issues that affect organizations, including the digital divide, electronic publishing, and the connection between the workplace and employees’ health.

Topic: The Impact of Information Technology in the Workplace

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Understand

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Page: 78

 

  1. Describe two ways to achieve green computing.

 

Answer: Two ways by which green computing can be achieved are:

  1. Design products that last longer and are modular in design so certain parts can be upgraded without replacing the entire system.
  2. Design search engines and other computing routines that are faster and consume less energy.

 

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.6: Describe green computing and the ways it can improve the quality of the environment.

Topic: Green Computing

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Understand

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Page: 79

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Discuss the three important concepts regarding the Web and network privacy.

 

Answer: There are three important concepts regarding the Web and network privacy: acceptable use policies, accountability, and nonrepudiation. To guard against legal issues and the consequences of using the Internet and networks, organizations usually establish an acceptable use policy, which is a set of rules specifying the legal and ethical use of a system and the consequences of noncompliance. Having a clear, specific policy can help prevent users from taking legal action against an organization, as in cases of termination. Most organizations have all new employees sign the policy before they can access the network. Accountability refers to issues involving both the user’s and the organization’s responsibilities and liabilities. Nonrepudiation is basically a method for binding all involved parties to a contract.

 

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.1: Discuss information privacy and methods for improving the privacy of information.

Topic: Privacy Issues

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Understand

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Page: 69

 

  1. Describe the privacy concern posed by ease of access to e-mail.

 

Answer: Whether an e-mail is distributed through the Internet or through a company network, people should assume that others have access to their messages. In addition, many organizations have policies stating that any e-mails sent on company-owned computers are the property of the organization and that the organization has the right to access them. In other words, employees often have no right to privacy, although there is a lot of controversy over this point, and several lawsuits have resulted.

 

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.2: Explain the privacy of e-mail, data collection issues, and censorship.

Topic: Privacy Issues

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Understand

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Page: 70

 

  1. List eight moral imperatives as put forth by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM).

 

Answer: The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) has a code of ethics and professional conduct that includes the following general moral imperatives:

 

  1. Contribute to society and human well-being.
  2. Avoid harm to others.
  3. Be honest and trustworthy.
  4. Be fair, and take action not to discriminate.
  5. Honor property rights including copyrights and patents.
  6. Give proper credit for intellectual property.
  7. Respect the privacy of others.
  8. Honor confidentiality.

 

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.3: Discuss the ethical issues related to information technology.

Topic: Ethical Issues of Information Technologies

BUSPROG: Ethics

Bloom’s: Understand

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Page: 73

 

  1. Describe in brief the intellectual properties that copyright laws protect and the exceptions to it.

 

Answer: Generally, copyright laws protect tangible material, such as books, drawings, and so forth. However, they also cover online materials, including Web pages, HTML code, and computer graphics, as long as the content can be printed or saved on a storage device. Copyright laws give only the creator exclusive rights, meaning no one else can reproduce, distribute, or perform the work without permission.

Copyright laws do have some exceptions, usually under the Fair Use Doctrine. This exception means one can use copyrighted material for certain purposes, such as quoting passages of a book in literary reviews.

 

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.4: Discuss the principles of intellectual property and issues related to the infringement of intellectual property.

Topic: Ethical Issues of Information Technologies

BUSPROG: Analytic

Bloom’s: Understand

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Page: 75

 

  1. With information technologies, one skilled worker might be capable of doing the job of several workers. Provide some examples of this situation.

 

Answer: With information technologies, one skilled worker might be capable of doing the job of several workers. For example, with mail-merge programs, an office worker can generate thousands of letters, eliminating the need for additional workers. Information technologies can also make workers more efficient, such as being able to send a message throughout an organization by using e-mail instead of interoffice memos. Similarly, mass-marketing efforts for new product announcements have been streamlined, reducing the expense and personnel needed to reach millions of customers.

 

Chapter Learning Outcome: 4.5: Discuss information system issues that affect organizations, including the digital divide, electronic publishing, and the connection between the workplace and employees’ health.

Topic: The Impact of Information Technology in the Workplace

BUSPROG: Technology

Bloom’s: Understand

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Page: 78

 

 

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